Civil society, Democracy Development
Shared by: pzs15406
POLI3P43 “breaking down the distance between right and wrong”: Exam Preparation Review There will be a final exam that will examine knowledge of the entire course. Date and venue of the final exam TBA It will be 3 hours in duration. There will be a choice of 4 questions, please answer 3 of them Materials addressed in both lectures, seminars and the course text will be examined in both the midterm and final exams. Term Papers will be returned at the final exam http://spartan.ac.brocku.ca/~cburton p. 3 Common political traits authoritarian rule (military regime or single- party government) severe instability and internal conflict (ethnic/religious cleavages) endemic corruption problem of lack of state capacity p. 3 One of the themes and puzzles that pervade this field is he relationship between the more formal aspects of political processes and institutions that may have been to some degree imposed or modelled on Western prototypes, and their “informal” aspects. For instance to understand how political parties really work we need to consider not only formal organizational characteristics --- rules, authorized decision-making bodies, membership, and so on --- but informal hierarchies of power, such as those between patrons and clients, that operate between them. p. 11 modernization theory/ dependency theory/ globalization theory p. 13 rational choice theory Rational choice theory assumes human behaviour as guided by instrumental reason. Accordingly, individuals always choose what they believe to be the best means to achieve their given ends. Thus, they are normally regarded as maximizing utility, the "currency" for everything they cherish (for example: money, a long life, moral standards). As the modern formulation of much older descriptions of rational behaviour, Rational choice theory belongs to the foundational theory of economics. Over the last decades it has also become increasingly prevalent in other social sciences. discourse theory What is the appropriate role of the state vis- à-vis society and vis-à-vis the economy? Civil society, democracy & Development The Civil society discourse in the 1990s Why the popularity in the 1990s ---the end of the cold war ---Disenchantment with 3rd world governments. ---active and open recognition of civil society by the UN in the 90s ---Rise of information technology --- Globalization ---Privatization and the retreat of the state ---the rise and use of foreign development agencies What really is civil society? Political and social space Group activity Analytical concept Defining the concept “Civil society refers to the arena of uncoerced collective action around shared interest, purposes and values. In theory, its institutional forms are distinct from those of the state, family and market though in practice, the boundaries between state, civil society, family and market are often complex, blurred and negotiated. Civil society commonly embraces a diversity of spaces, actors and institutional forms, varying in their degree of formality, autonomy and power. Civil societies are often populated by organisations such as registered charities, development non- governmental organisations, community groups, women's organisations, faith-based organisations, professional associations, trade unions, self-help groups, social movements, business associations, coalitions and advocacy groups.” Source: London School of Economics Center for Civil society Common denominator Civil society is often used with reference to: State The market The primary units/ Family Mode of engaging the state & the market Collaboration Confrontation Co-operation Partnership Resistance Illustrating the interface . Understanding state, market and civil society relationship State NGOs, PVOs Peoples org. CBOs Civic clubs Trade unions Community foundations Gender, cultural & religious groups Professional associations Policy institutes The media Primary Units Market Consumer groups Business organizations Non-profit org. Etc. Relevance of civil society Connecting & empowering Participation and enabling environment for civic engagement Partnership & collaboration Education/knowledge building and information sharing Promotion of pluralism and a mechanism for holding the market and the state officials accountable Provides Alternative to centralised systems of governance Motivates individuals to act as citizens as opposed to depending on state power Criticisms of civil society Questions of mandate and responsibility Parochialism Accountability Legitimacy issues Three Main Periods of Foreign Impact on “Developing Nations” 1. Colonialism (largely from mid-19th to mid-20th C.) 2. Cold War (1945 to 1989) 3. Globalization (WB, IMF, WTO and spread of information technology) Colonialism Mixed legacy varying depending on factors in colonized nation and policies of the colonizing power Berlin Conference 1884-5 Legacy of economic infrastructure and political institutions Ended in 50s and 60s Legacy of “psychological dependency” Cold War Proxy wars: USA - rightwing military dictatorships; USSR - Marxist regimes; „domino theory”: Vietnam, Cambodia, Afghanistan, Guatemala, Chile, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Namibia, Angola p. 45 By mid-1970s the Soviet Union was getting closer to strategic parity with the USA and was able to project its power with greater confidence Most countries were courted by both sides, with rival offers of financial and economic aid (Pakistan with USA/China; India with Soviet Union p. 46 The superpowers were motivated by a variety of different interests: military security, trade, and ideology p. 44 Theory of 3 Worlds 1. USA and allies (NATO) 2. USSR and allies (Warsaw Pact) 3. Non-allied nations Also: superpowers, middle powers, “developing world” Post Cold War Globalization p, 47 failure of NIEO, 3rd World dissatisfaction with Western media, USA withholding funding from UNESCO p. 45 A number of corrupt régimes which had been supported by one side or the other were replaced by democratic governments p. 48 WB (development loans), IMF (loans to maintain global financial system such as when nations have balance of payments problem), WTO (terms of trade) p. 16 and 17 politics of order: Huntington critique of optimism that economic growth would lead to social pluralism, higher literacy rates and liberal democracy. Says need instead strong ruling party (or military regime) as best means to stability, legitimacy and coherence p. 18 Dependency theory demands revolution by urban poor and peasantry and import substitution p. 19 but NIEs put lie to that idea p. 19 Globalization: TNCs can relocate to best economies of scale, labour costs Info technology: financial transactions, production info, “globalized values” p. 20 can‟t do “Keynesian” economic policies to enhance welfare and protect employment. So state plays less of a role. 1980s Milton Friedman p. 30 A government‟s role in the economy should be reduced to an absolute minimum, and all restrictions on international trade should be removed. In all areas of economic life the market should be left to work its “magic” unsupervised, and, as far as possible, unregulated. Reduce unions, get down tax (so reduce public services) Justice vs. efficiency p. 39 Why, in an era of a global economy and neo- liberal policies, are some countries poorer than they were a decade or even more longer ago? p. 40 world trading system entrenches inequality between the richest parts of the world and the poorest. p. 75 Ethnic identities are constructed when some people self-consciously distinguish themselves from others on the basis of perceived common descent (perhaps mythical) and shared culture (including values, norms, goals, beliefs and language). Citizenship: p. 78 “The only cultural uniformity that is demanded is commitment to the existence of the state and its political institutional norms and values.” p. 93 a desire to change domestic, and in some cases international arrangements, so as to make a certain religion as the central societal and political influence Gregoire Kayibanda Juvenal Habyarimana. In the late 1980s, after fifteen years of relative prosperity, boosted by large amounts of foreign aid, Habyarimana's regime encountered growing difficulty. A sharp drop in world coffee prices cut farmers' income by half. Drought blighted food production. The government's budget in 1989 had to be slashed by 40 per cent. Gross domestic product in 1989 fell by 5.7 per cent. The shortage of land was becoming ever more acute. From 2 million inhabitants in 1940, the population by 1990 had reached 7 million. Whereas in the 1950s a typical peasant hill community consisted of about 110 people per square kilometre, by the 1970s the number occupying the same area had risen to about 280 and by the early 1990s it had reached an average of 420, with one northern commune registering 820. Adding to land pressures, the elite were quick to buy up land sold because of poverty. Paul Kagame At a meeting in Kampala in 1987, leading exiles launched the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF). Its purpose, they said, was not only to promote the return of Tutsis, by force if necessary, but to support the wider cause of political reform in Rwanda. It sought neither to reimpose Tutsi rule in Rwanda nor to reinstate the Tutsi monarchy but to over-throw a bankrupt regime and establish a democratic government. Its political leaders included Hutu but were predominantly Tutsi; its para-military wing consisted almost entirely of Tutsi, many of them well trained, with combat experience. The movement gained impetus as a result of a growing backlash among Ugandans about the prominent role played by Rwandan exiles. Jean-Christophe Mitterand Hassan Ngeze In a memorable article published in December 1990, shortly after the RPF invasion, Hassan Ngeze laid out a doctrine of Hutu purity, listing what he called 'The Hutu Ten Commandments'. The first decreed that any Hutu who married a Tutsi woman, befriended a Tutsi woman or employed a Tutsi 'as a secretary or a concubine' was to be considered a traitor since all Tutsi women worked only for the interest of their own ethnic group. For similar reasons, any Hutu involved in business dealings with Tutsi was also deemed a traitor. Hutu were told to be 'firm and vigilant against their common Tutsi enemy'. Only Hutu should be entrusted to hold strategic positions in government, in the administration and the economy. Only Hutu should be employed in the armed forces. Ngeze's 'Ten Commandments' were widely circulated to popular acclaim. Habyarimana championed their publication. Community leaders read them out at public meetings. The most frequently quoted commandment was the eighth: 'Hutus must stop having mercy on the Tutsis.' Leon Mugesara Theoneste Bagosora Melchior Ndadaye Romeo Dallaire Universal Aspirations of all States people as citizens independence and security of persons self-determination education democratic health care selection of leaders honest governance protection of minorities fair distribution of wealth fair justice system non-political military Multi-Media • Gambian Justice •Child Soldiers in Uganda •Fujimori •1-800-India •AIDS grandmothers •BBC audio on Special Rapporteurs Since the late 1980s Uganda has rebounded from the abyss of civil war and economic catastrophe to become relatively peaceful, stable and prosperous. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1069166. stm •Full name: Republic of Uganda •Population: 27.6 million (UN, 2005) •Capital: Kampala •Area: 241,038 sq km (93,072 sq miles) •Major languages: English (official), Swahili, Ganda, various Bantu languages •Major religions: Christianity, Islam •Life expectancy: 46 years (men), 47 years (women) (UN) •Main exports: Coffee, fish and fish products, tea; tobacco, cotton, corn, beans, sesame •GNI per capita: US $280 (World Bank, 2006) Christians of all denominations made up 85.1% of Uganda's population. The Catholic Church has the largest number of adherents (41.9%), followed by the Anglican Church of Uganda—a part of the worldwide Anglican communion—(35.9%). Minor Christian groups include Pentecostals (4.6%) and Seventh-Day Adventists (1.5%), while 1.0% were grouped under the category 'Other Christians'. The second most popular religion of Uganda is Islam, with Muslims representing 12.1% of the population.While Muslims today appear to be experiencing some degree of discrimination, they were in the seventies the most favoured group under the rule of President Idi Amin, himself a Muslim, under whose government the number of Muslims had significantly grown. Only 1% of Uganda's population follow Traditional Religions. 1500 - Bito dynasties of Buganda, Bunyoro and Ankole founded by Nilotic-speaking immigrants from present-day southeastern Sudan. 1700 - Buganda begins to expand at the expense of Bunyoro. 1800 - Buganda controls territory bordering Lake Victoria from the Victoria Nile to the Kagera river. 1840s - Muslim traders from the Indian Ocean coast exchange firearms, cloth and beads for the ivory and slaves of Buganda. 1862 - British explorer John Hanning Speke becomes the first European to visit Buganda. 1875 - Bugandan King Mutesa I allows Christian missionaries to enter his realm. 1877 - Members of the British Missionary Society arrive in Buganda. 1879 - Members of the French Roman Catholic White Fathers arrive. 1890 - Britain and Germany sign treaty giving Britain rights to what was to become Uganda. 1892 - British East India Company agent Frederick Lugard extends the company's control to southern Uganda and helps the Protestant missionaries defeat their Catholic counterparts, who had been competing with them, in Buganda. 1894 - Uganda becomes a British protectorate. 1900 - Britain signs agreement with Buganda giving it autonomy and turning it into a constitutional monarchy controlled mainly by Protestant chiefs. 1902 - The Eastern province of Uganda transferred to the Kenya. 1904 - Commercial cultivation of cotton begins. 1921 - Uganda given a legislative council, but its first African member not admitted till 1945. 1958 - Uganda given internal self-government. 1962 - Uganda becomes independent with Milton Obote as prime minister 1967 - New constitution vests considerable power in the president and divides Buganda into four districts. 1971 - Milton Obote toppled in coup led by Idi Amin. 1972 - Amin orders Asians who were not Ugandan citizens - around 60,000 people - to leave the country. 1972-73 - Uganda engages in border clashes with Tanzania. 1976 - Idi Amin declares himself president for life and claims parts of Kenya. 1978 - Uganda invades Tanzania with a view to annexing Kagera region. 1979 - Tanzania invades Uganda, unifying the various anti- Amin forces under the Uganda National Liberation Front and forcing Amin to flee the country; Yusufu Lule installed as president, but is quickly replaced by Godfrey Binaisa. 1980 - Binaisa overthrown by the army. Milton Obote becomes president after elections. 1985 - Obote deposed in military coup and is replaced by Tito Okello. 1986 - National Resistance Army rebels take Kampala and install Yoweri Museveni as president. Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings During 1990-2001, the economy turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Public debt: 64.3% of GDP (2005 est.) Uganda qualified for enhanced Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145 million. These amounts combined with the original HIPC debt relief added up to about $2 billion. Growth for 2001-02 was solid despite continued decline in the price of coffee, Uganda's principal export. Growth in 2003-05 reflected an upturn in Uganda's export markets. refugees (country of origin): 214,673 (Sudan) 18,902 (Rwanda) 14,982 (Democratic Republic of Congo) IDPs: 1,330,000-2,000,000 note - ongoing Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebellion, mainly in the north; LRA frequently attacks IDP camps (2005) Uganda has been hailed as a rare success story in the fight against HIV and AIDS, widely being viewed as the most effective national response to the pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. President Museveni established the AIDS Control Program (ACP) within the Ministry of Health (MOH) to create policy guidelines for Uganda‟s fight against HIV/AIDS. Uganda quickly realized that HIV/AIDS was more than a „health‟ issue and in 1992 created a “Multi- sectoral AIDS Control Approach.” In addition, the Uganda AIDS Commission, also founded in 1992, has been instrumental in developing a national HIV/AIDS policy. A variety of approaches to AIDS education have been employed, ranging from the promotion of condom use to 'abstinence only' programmes The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. During the 1990s, the government promulgated non-party presidential and legislative elections. https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ug.html Kim Il Sung Kim Jong Il constitutionalism the rule of law democracy (as we understand it) equality liberty free markets the separation of church and state, honest and transparent government freedom of expression and freedom of association and assembly with the later implying a right to freely form non- governmental organizations including trade unions and political parties. 1. Elite level includes: i. Demarches in Beijing and engagement of Chinese senior leaders in Canada (Rel Freedom Del) ii. Bilateral and Plurilateral Human Rights Dialogue iii. UNHRC March iv. Parliamentary Exchange Program 2. Middle level includes engagement of intellectuals via educational exchanges Senior Judges Training Program police training human rights workshops and human rights training summer programs Public Policy Options Program and Public Service Reform Program Mass level: i. Legal Aid programs ii. Civil Society Program: assisting emerging NGO sector and community development iii. Public diplomacy Bodies found at Dachau Gas Chambers Railway Car Nearby First Security UN Council meeting. London, 17/1/46 In 1945 just after the War, the United Nations was established. As set out in the Charter, the purposes of the United Nations are: - to maintain international peace and security; - to develop friendly relations among nations; and, - to co-operate internationally in solving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems and in promoting better standards of living and respect for human rights. The Preamble of the Charter of the United Nations includes a determination "to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights" and Article 1 of the Charter of the UN lists "encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all" as one of the organization's principal purposes. In December 9, 1948 the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was promulgated, the next day the General Assembly unanimously adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights --- the most authoritative statement of international human rights norms http://www.gnb.ca/hrc-cdp/e/humphre1.htm Human rights are intended to guarantee freedoms to secure well-being and dignity for all people everywhere To secure: Freedom from discrimination --- by gender, race ethnicity, national origin or religion Freedom from want --- to enjoy a decent standard of living Freedom to develop and realize one’s human potential Freedom from fear --- of threats to personal security, from torture, arbitrary arrest and other violent acts Freedom from injustice and violations of the rule of law Freedom of thought and speech and to participate in decision-making and form associations Freedom to obtain decent work --- without exploitation The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the indivisibility of human rights. Nevertheless, separate covenants evolved on civil and political rights and economic,social and cultural rights, due to the Cold War. Universal Declaration of Human Rights Building on the principles of the UN Charter, it was adopted on 10 December, 1948. It is the primary document proclaiming human rights standards and norms. The declaration recognizes the universality, indivisibility and inalienability of the rights of all people as the foundation of equality, freedom, justice and peace in the world http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html 6 Primary UN HR Covenants ICCPR ICESCR ICERD CEDAW CRC ICT International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Adopted in 1966 and entered into force in 1976, the ICCPR defines a broad range of civil and political rights for all people. It has been ratified by 144 states. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_ccpr.htm International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Right Also introduced in 1966 and entered into force in 1976, IESCR defines the economic, social and cultural rights of people. It introduced a new way of looking at development --- a rights-based perspective. This one has been ratified by 142 states. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_cescr.htm International Covenant on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination The ICERD was adopted in 1965 and entered into forcein 1969 in the aftermath of decolonization, a period characterized by apartheid and racial and ethnic conflicts. It deals with a particular form of discrimination --- that based on race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin. The Convention has been ratified by 155 countries http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/d_icerd.htm Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Adopted in 1979 and entered into force in 1981, CEDAW is the first comprehensive, legally binding international instrument obligating governments to take affirmative action to advance gender equity. It has been ratified by 165 countries. It is often referred to as the International Bill of Rights for Women http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/e1cedaw.htm Convention on the Rights of the Child Adopted in 1989 and entered into force in 1990, “the CRC recognizes the need for specific attention to promoting the rights of children to support their growth, development and becoming worthy citizens of the world. It has been ratified by 191 countries making it almost universal. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/k2crc.htm Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment The CAT was adopted in 1984 and entered into force in 1989. It elaborated on how to ensure the freedom not to be subjected to torture or degrading treatment., by laying out the steps to be taken by states to prevent torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. It has been ratified by 119 countries. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/h_cat39.htm http://www.nepad.org/ The NEPAD Action Plan on the other hand includes the declaration: At the beginning of the new century and millennium, we reaffirm our commitment to the promotion of democracy and its core values in our respective countries. In particular, we undertake to work with renewed determination to enforce - The rule of law; - The equality of all citizens before the law and liberty of the individual - Individual and collective freedoms, including the right to form and join political parties and trade unions, in conformity with the constitution; - Equality of opportunity for all; - The inalienable right of the individual to participate by means of free, credible and democratic political processes in periodically electing their leaders for a fixed term of office; and - Adherence to the separation of powers, including the protection of the independence of the judiciary and of effective parliaments. The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998 "for his contributions to welfare economics" Sen is one of the few modern academics that has commanded much respect and recognition from all corners of the intellectual spectrum. Amartya Sen Human Development and Human Rights share the motivation to promote freedom, well-being and dignity of individuals in all societies Development is about enhancing capabilities to increase the range of things a person can do and be in leading a life. Capabilities enhance the freedom to have the opportunity to choose our own fate and the freedom to live as we prefer to live. Capabilities: freedom to meet bodily requirements: avoid undernourishment or starvation and to have the means to keep healthy and avoid pre-mature disability or death Enabling opportunities: freedom to gain education and the freedom to move freely and choose where one lives and works Social freedoms: capability to join in public debate and participate in political decision- making processs Human Development Index: •Living long and healthy life •Being knowledgeable •Enjoying decent standard of living http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index Fulfillment of human rights depends on appropriate social conditions. If human development index is low then rights are being violated so accountability must be sought and remedies pursued •The capacity too achieve this accountability is dependent on compliance with human rights norms •The enforcement of the remedy is also only possible in there is compliance with human rights Example of right to free elementary education for little girls illustrates this interdependence of rights and development: •May be denied because the parents do not believe in education for girls so they don‟t send her (responsibility lies with parents) •May be denied because the Government refuses to admit girls to schools (responsibility lies with the government) •May be denied because the parents cannot afford school fees and other expenses •May be denied because there are no schools or the facilities are inadequate (the teacher may not be regularly present, so the parents would deem it an unsafe environment for young girls) •The parents can afford the school expenses but at the cost of sacrificing something else that it important (such as continuing medical treatment of other children) The above is to refute the ideas: 1. That civil and political rights are not interdependent with economic social and cultural rights 2. That development must precede compliance with human rights http://docs.google.com/View?docid=dcfd6fxz_68f4q4z5 http://www.nepad.org/ The NEPAD Action Plan on the other hand includes the declaration: At the beginning of the new century and millennium, we reaffirm our commitment to the promotion of democracy and its core values in our respective countries. In particular, we undertake to work with renewed determination to enforce - The rule of law; - The equality of all citizens before the law and liberty of the individual - Individual and collective freedoms, including the right to form and join political parties and trade unions, in conformity with the constitution; - Equality of opportunity for all; - The inalienable right of the individual to participate by means of free, credible and democratic political processes in periodically electing their leaders for a fixed term of office; and - Adherence to the separation of powers, including the protection of the independence of the judiciary and of effective parliaments. http://www.nepad.org/2005/files/inbrief.php http://docs.google.com/View?docid=dcfd6fxz_72cmn3fq http://docs.google.com/View?docid=dcfd6fxz_71f6bgp5 Any Chinese worker, farmer, member of the armed forces, intellectual or any advanced element of other social strata who has reached the age of eighteen and who accepts the Party's Program and Constitution and is willing to join and work actively in one of the Party organizations, carry out the Party's decisions and pay membership dues regularly may apply for membership in the Communist Party of China. The Communist Party of China is the vanguard both of the Chinese working class and of the Chinese people and the Chinese nation. It is the core of leadership for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics and represents the development trend of China's advanced productive forces, the orientation of China's advanced culture and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people. The realization of communism is the highest ideal and ultimate goal of the Party. China is at the primary stage of socialism and will remain so for a long period of time. This is a historical stage which cannot be skipped in socialist modernization in China that is backward economically and culturally. It will last for over a hundred years. In socialist construction we must proceed from our specific conditions and take the path to socialism with Chinese characteristics. At the present stage, the principal contradiction in Chinese society is one between the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people and the low level of production. Owing to both domestic circumstances and foreign influences, class struggle will continue to exist within a certain scope for a long time and may possibly grow acute under certain conditions, but it is no longer the principal contradiction. In building socialism, our basic task is to further release and develop the productive forces and achieve socialist modernization step by step by carrying out reform in those aspects and links of the production relations and the superstructure that do not conform to the development of the productive forces. The Four Cardinal Principles - to keep to the socialist road and to uphold the people's democratic dictatorship, leadership by the Communist Party of China, and Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought - are the foundation on which to build our country. Throughout the course of socialist modernization we must adhere to the Four Cardinal Principles and combat bourgeois liberalization. NEPAD: At the beginning of the new century and millennium, we reaffirm our commitment to the promotion of democracy and its core values in our respective countries. In particular, we undertake to work with renewed determination to enforce - The rule of law; - The equality of all citizens before the law and liberty of the individual - Individual and collective freedoms, including the right to form and join political parties and trade unions, in conformity with the constitution; - Equality of opportunity for all; - The inalienable right of the individual to participate by means of free, credible and democratic political processes in periodically electing their leaders for a fixed term of office; and - Adherence to the separation of powers, including the protection of the independence of the judiciary and of effective parliaments. Members of the Communist Party of China must serve the people wholeheartedly, dedicate their whole lives to the realization of communism, and be ready to make any personal sacrifices. (Communist Party members) adhere to the principle that the interests of the Party and the people stand above everything else, subordinating their personal interests to the interests of the Party and the people, being the first to bear hardships and the last to enjoy comforts, working selflessly for the public interests and working to contribute more. The Communist Party of China upholds and promotes relations of equality, unity and mutual assistance among all ethnic groups in the country, upholds and constantly improves the system of regional ethnic autonomy, actively trains and promotes cadres from among ethnic minorities, and helps them with economic and cultural development in the areas inhabited by ethnic minorities so as to achieve common prosperity and all-round progress for all ethnic groups. The Communist Party of China unites with all workers, farmers and intellectuals, and with all the democratic parties, personages without party affiliation and the patriotic forces of all ethnic groups in China in further expanding and fortifying the broadest possible patriotic united front. POLI3P43 Lecture 10: Alberto Fujimori and Contemporary Peru Fujimori travelled to Chile in November 2005 hoping to launch a new bid for the Peruvian presidency in 2006 elections only to be arrested on request of the Peruvian authorities. Peru has compiled 12 cases against Mr Fujimori, including the death squad killing of 25 people in two incidents known as La Cantuta and Barrios Altos, illegal phone tapping, siphoning of state funds to the intelligence service, bribing of politicians and the transfer of $15m to his spy chief, Vladimiro Montesinos. Tokyo refused repeated requests to extradite Mr Fujimori but the matter is now in the hands of Chilean judicial authorities. Mr Fujimori denies all the allegations, saying they are politically motivated. He had vowed to return to Peru to stand in the 2006 presidential elections - despite being banned from office until 2011. He set up a political party, Si Cumple, and his supporters launched a soft drink called Fuji-Cola, to help finance his re-election campaign. Mr Fujimori still enjoys a measure of support in Peru. An opinion poll conducted in Lima in December 2005 suggested 24% of respondents disagreed with the decision to bar Mr Fujimori from standing in 2006. Please fill out evaluation form Good luck with your final exam!!