The development of emotions by pzs15406

VIEWS: 41 PAGES: 86

									The development of emotions
                  Outline
I:     Introduction
II:    Development of emotion responding
III:   Development of emotional appraisal
IV:    Individual differences
I: Introduction
             I: Introduction
• Philosophers view emotions skeptically.
• Plato: emotions are like drugs -- corrupt
  reason
• Stoics: emotions need to be moderated
• Darwin: emotions like fossils -- vestiges of
  prior adaptations that are no longer useful
      Emotions: A modern view




• The case of Phineas Gage.
• Brain injury disrupted his emotions, making a reasoned
  existence impossible.
• Emotions now viewed as central to healthy social and
  cognitive functioning
        What is an emotion?
• An emotions is an:
  Automatic, patterned response to an event
  that includes…
  Behavioural-facial expressions and
  Conscious appraisal of the eliciting event.
DANGER!!
        What is an emotion?
• An emotions is an:
  Automatic, patterned response to an event
  that includes…
  Behavioural-facial expressions and
  Conscious appraisal of the eliciting event.
II: Development of emotional responses

 • Language suggests we experience a variety
   of distinct emotions.
 • Are there distinct patterns associated with
   different emotions?
 • If so, are there some innate patterns?
II: Development of emotional responses
           Ekman & Izard: Differential
 • Language suggests weTheory
                 Emotions experience a variety
   of distinct emotions.
 • Are there distinct patterns associated with
   different emotions? YES
 • If so, are there some innate patterns? YES
II: Development of emotional responses
       Ekman & Izard: Differential
           Emotions Theory
II: Development of emotional responses
          Ekman & Izard: Differential
              Emotions Theory

 • Basic emotions like sadness, surprise,
   disgust, fear, happiness are innate and
   universal.
 • Evidence?
II: Development of emotional responses
        Ekman & Izard: Differential
            Emotions Theory

 • Methods
II: Development of emotional responses
          Ekman & Izard: Differential
              Emotions Theory

 • Methods

  Facial Affect Coding System
II: Development of emotional responses
          Ekman & Izard: Differential
              Emotions Theory

 • Methods

  Facial Affect Coding System
II: Development of emotional responses
         Ekman & Izard: Differential
             Emotions Theory

 • Methods  Cross-cultural studies
II: Development of emotional responses
         Ekman & Izard: Differential
             Emotions Theory

 • Methods  Cross-cultural studies

  Converging judgements about expressed emotion
II: Development of emotional responses
        Ekman & Izard: Differential
            Emotions Theory

 • Methods  Developmental studies
II: Development of emotional responses
        Ekman & Izard: Differential
            Emotions Theory

 • Methods  Developmental studies
 • Disgust & Happiness
II: Development of emotional responses
          Ekman & Izard: Differential
              Emotions Theory

 • Methods  Developmental studies
 • Disgust & Happiness
  Disgust: Steiner & Sour liquid
II: Development of emotional responses
          Ekman & Izard: Differential
              Emotions Theory

 • Methods  Developmental studies
 • Disgust & Happiness
  Disgust: Steiner & Sour liquid

                       YUCK!
                         !
II: Development of emotional responses
         Ekman & Izard: Differential
             Emotions Theory

 • Methods  Developmental studies
 • Disgust & Happiness
  Happiness
II: Development of emotional responses
          Ekman & Izard: Differential
              Emotions Theory

 • Methods  Developmental studies
 • Disgust & Happiness
  Happiness

  • Early organized expression
  • Newborns smile in their sleep
II: Development of emotional responses
         Ekman & Izard: Differential
             Emotions Theory

 • Criticisms: Is emotional expression enough?
 • Saarni & Campos: Need to examine
   whether emotions are expressed
   meaningfully in appropriate contexts.
II: Development of emotional responses
           Saarni & Campos: Social
              Context Approach

 • Emphasis on the functional development of
   emotion  Do infants express emotions in
   functionally appropriate ways?
 • If this more stringent criteria is adopted,
   newborn don’t seem as well-organized.
II: Development of emotional responses
           Saarni & Campos: Social
              Context Approach

 • Hiatt, Campos, and Emde, 1979
 • 10 to 12 month olds placed in contexts
   thought to elicit 3 different basic emotions.
 • Happiness: playing with an attractive toy.
 • Fear: exposure to a stranger.
 • Surprise: object disappearance/appearance.
2 conditions for discrete emotions

(1) The predicted expression must occur more
  often than any non-predicted emotion in
  response to a particular context.

(2) The predicted expression must be
  displayed more often in its’ appropriate
  eliciting circumstance than in non-predicted
  circumstances.
    Design & research questions.
                Emotion expressed

                     Happy          Fear Surprise
C
o        Happy       Happy
n
t        Fear                       Fear
e
x        Surprise                          Surprise
t
                Findings
• For happiness, both conditions were met.
        Findings for happiness.
                Emotion expressed

               Happy     Fear       Surprise
C   Happy      80        45         20
o
n   Fear       10
t
e   Surprise   10
x
t   Totals     100
           Findings for fear
• Stimuli meant to elicit fear elicited
  significantly more non-fear emotions
               Findings for fear.
                    Emotion expressed

               Happy       Fear         Surprise

C   Happy
o
n   Fear       10          25           30
t
e   Surprise
x
t   Totals     100         100          100
         Findings for surprise.
• Stimuli thought to elicit surprise did elicit
  surprise more often than non-predicted
  emotion.
• However, surprise elicited as often by
  fearful and happy contexts.
           Findings for surprise
                Emotion expressed
               Happy     Fear       Surprise

C   Happy                           20
o
n   Fear                            30
t
e   Surprise   10        30         50
x
t   Totals     100       100        100
           Findings summarized.
                    Emotion expressed

               Happy         Fear       Surprise

C   Happy      80            45         20
o
n   Fear       10            25         30
t
e   Surprise   10            30         50
x
t   Totals     100           100        100
              Conclusions
• Infants may be born with the elements of
  emotional expression.
• However, it is only in the course of
  development that the elements become
  functionally organized.
• If the elements of emotion need to be
  organized, what brings about this
  organization?
    1. Understanding intentions
• Izard
• Externality of causation and emotional
  response to inoculation.
• Young infants exhibit sadness and distress.
• Older infants exhibit anger and distress.
• Understand that something unpleasant is
  happening to them rather than just
  happening.
2. Development of the self
             • Self-recognition @
               24 months.
             • Leads to self-
               conscious emotions
               including pride,
               guilt, and
               embarrassment.
       3. Emotion Regulation
• Emerges in infancy e.g., self-distraction
• Predicts compliance @ 3yrs
• Later in development, is associated with
  social competence  Cole, Zahn-Waxler,
  & Smith, 1994
• Induced negative emotion in high, medium,
  and low-risk boys and girls
• Experimenter either present or absent
          Cole, Zahn-Waxler, & Smith, 1994

                   35

                   30                                 High Risk
Negative Emotion




                   25                                 Med Risk
                                                      Low Risk
                   20

                   15

                   10

                   5

                   0
                           Boys         Boys          Girls         Girls
                        Exp Present   Exp Absent   Exp Present    Exp Absent
          Cole, Zahn-Waxler, & Smith, 1994

                   35

                   30                                 High Risk
Negative Emotion




                   25                                 Med Risk
                                                      Low Risk
                   20

                   15

                   10

                   5

                   0
                           Boys         Boys          Girls         Girls
                        Exp Present   Exp Absent   Exp Present    Exp Absent
III: Development of emotional appraisal

 • Infants born capable of some basic appraisal
 • However, much about the emotional
   significance of things needs to be learned
 • Ambiguity
 • Inborn “affective map” needs elaboration
 • How does this happen?
Social Referencing
       • Sorce, Emde, Campos,
         Klinnert, 1981.
       • Visual-cliff
       • If mothers express fear,
         infants do not cross
       • When mothers smile, most
         infants cross
       • Infants internalize caregivers’
         affective map
     IV: Individual differences
• Temperament
• Refers to a variety of infant attributes
  including:
   – Fearfulness
   – Irritability
   – Activity level
• Concerns the "how" as opposed to the
  "what" of behaviour.
A biological basis for temperament?
 •   Many argue yes.
 •   Evidence?
 •   Heritability studies.
 •   Cross-temporal stability.
        1. Heritability studies
• MZ vs. DZ twins.
• Higher concordance amongst MZ vs. DZ
  twins for social smiling and fearfulness.
• Moderate heritability.
        2. Temporal stability
• Kagan
• Behavioural inhibition:
• Fear responses to novel situations and
  people
• Children studied longitudinally
• Measured at 21 months, 4, 6, & 8 years.
• Evidence of stability
          3. Correlated traits
• Behavioural and emotional characteristics
  seem to co-occur
• Over-active children are often low in
  fearfulness.
• Under-active children often moody,
  resistant to change.
3 categories of child temperament
• Thomas & Chess, 1991
• Easy temperament (good mood, flexible,
  regular): 60% of infants.
• Difficult temperament (active, inflexible,
  and irritable): 15% of infants
• Slow-to-warm-up (quiet, moody, passive
  resistance to change): 23% of infants
    Summarizing temperament
• Temperament concerns the “how” rather
  than the “what” of behaviour.
• Biologically derived.
• Described in terms of both attributes and
  broader profiles.
      Summarizing emotional
          development
• Emotions are complex and multifaceted.
• Structural and functional considerations.
• Infants born with some basic emotions.
• Cognitive, social and language development
  transforms our emotional nature.
• Emotions become more differentiated and
  controlled.
The Development of Social
      Attachments
                  Outline
•   I: Stages of attachment
•   II: Formation of Attachments
•   III: Attachment Theory
•   IV: Attachment and Temperament
    I: Stages of attachment (p. 402)
•   Pre-attachment (0-2 months)
•   Attachment in the making (2-7 months)
•   Clear-cut attachments (7-36 months)
•   Reciprocal partnership (36 months onward)
II: The formation of attachments
         I: Formation of Attachment
     Psychoanalytic theory: Freud
•   Psychosexual personality theory
•   For infants, libidinal pleasure orally derived
•   Feeding provides oral stimulation
•   Leads to attachment
       I: Formation of Attachment
      Social-Learning Theory
• Primary and secondary drives
• Mother associated w. positive reinforcement
• Satisfaction of primary drives.
• Eventually, simply the presence of the
  mother becomes reinforcing
• Development of a secondary drive.
I: Formation of Attachment
Is feeding important?
              • Harry Harlow
              • Too much emphasis
                on feeding.
              • Research on rhesus
                monkeys.
              • Orphans prefer terry-
                cloth not feeding
                mother.
       III: Attachment Theory
• John Bowlby
• Critical of psychoanalytic and S-L theory
• Proposed an “Ethological Theory”
• Attachment is a "behavioural system” that
  has evolved over millions of years
• What is a behavioural system?
       III: Attachment Theory
• A behavioural system is an organized set of
  behaviours that is goal-directed, activated
  by particular eliciting circumstances, and
  turned off when goal attained.
• Example: Feeding
• And (according to Bowlby) attachment 
  How?
      III: Attachment Theory
 Attachment is…
• Comprised of a set of behaviours (e.g., crying,
  distress, following, clinging, calling, etc.)
• Goal-directed (i.e., maintain proximity with
  caregiver).
• Turned on by eliciting circumstances (i.e.,
  separation, danger)
• Turned off when goal attained (i.e., proximity with
  mother)
    The internal working model
• Around 12 months, infants begins to form a model
  of the relationship they have with their care-giver.
• Timing coincides with developing understanding
  of object permanence.
• Includes a concept of the self, the caregiver, and
  the relationship.
• Forms a template that guides the establishment of
  future attachment relationships.
       Measuring attachment
• Ainsworth: The Strange Situation (p. 405).
• Assessed the extent to which infants use
  mother as a secure base.
• Focus on reunion episodes.
• How does the infant utilize mother to re-
  establish a feeling of security?
    Four attachment classifications
•   Secure; 65%
•   Settle quickly upon reunion.
•   Avoidant; 20%
•   Avoids contact with mother upon reunion.
•   Resistant; 10%
•   Fails to settle after reunion.
•   Disorganized; 5%
•   No clear reunion strategy.
          These categories describe 2
                 dimensions

                  Expressed emotion
 Little                                 A lot
Avoidant                              Resistant
          These categories describe 2
                 dimensions

                  Expressed emotion
 Little                                         A lot
Avoidant                                      Resistant


                               Organized/disorganized



                Disorganized
  Factors affecting the quality of
            attachment
• Behaviour of principle care-giver (Nurture)
• Ainsworth’s care-giving hypothesis.
• Evidence?
Ainsworth’s Baltimore study
     Ainsworth’s Baltimore study
•   (A) sensitive.
•   (B) accepting of their role as mother
•   (C) co-operative
•   (D) emotionally accessible


             Mothers of secure infants
   Ainsworth’s Baltimore study
• (A) misinterpret infant signals
• (B) inconsistent




          Mothers of resistant infants
     Ainsworth’s Baltimore study
•   (A) impatient with their babies
•   (B) unresponsive
•   (C) do not enjoy close contact
•   (D) express negative feeling about their
    infants.

           Mothers of avoidant infants
Sensitivity hypothesis: Further evidence
• Meta-analysis: De Wolff & van IJzendoorn, 1997
• Question: Is maternal sensitivity associated with
  infant attachment status?
• 66 studies reviewed
• All had examined parental antecedents of security.
• Association confirmed but weak relationship.
                  Criticisms
•   Thompson (1997)
•   Hypothesis not very precise.
•   Parents play many roles in relationships.
•   Sensitivity to what?
•   Why does sensitivity promote secure
    attachment?
     Other maternal predictors
• Being affectionate, non-intrusive (Bates et al.)
• Negativity, tension (Moss et al.)
• Interactive synchrony (Isabella et al.)

        Criticism: Unclear how these
        predictors relate to Bowlby’s
         conception of attachment.
        Need for greater specificity.
 IV: Attachment and temperament.

• Attachment theory maintains that strange
  situation behaviour reflects the quality of
  the infant’s caregiving
• But, might strange situation behaviour
  simply reflect differences in temperament?
• Some argue yes.
• Evidence?
       Ainsworth’s Attachment Classifications
                        Vs.
       Thomas & Chess’s Temperament Profiles
Temperament Percent of    Attachment     Percent of 1-
profile     infants       classification year-olds

Easy          60          Secure         65


Difficult     15          Resistant      10


Slow to warm 23           Avoidant       20
up
       Ainsworth’s Attachment Classifications
                        Vs.
       Thomas & Chess’s Temperament Profiles
Temperament Percent of    Attachment     Percent of 1-
profile     infants       classification year-olds

Easy          60          Secure         63


Difficult     15          Resistant      8


Slow to warm 23           Avoidant       29
up
              Conclusions
• Suggests that strange-situation behaviour
  indexes biologically-based differences in
  emotionality, not care-giving.
               Criticisms
• Temperament is dispositional
• Cross-situationally and cross-temporally
  stable.
• Higher concordance for MZ than DZ twins
• True of attachment?
               Criticisms
• Temperament is dispositional
• Cross-situationally and cross-temporally
  stable.
• Higher concordance for MZ than DZ twins
• True of attachment?
         Not cross-situationally stable:
        Father-infant and mother-infant
          attachments can be different
               Criticisms
• Temperament is dispositional
• Cross-situationally and cross-temporally
  stable.
• Higher concordance for MZ than DZ twins
• True of attachment?
         Not cross-situationally stable:
     Not cross-temporally stable: Mother-
        Father-infant and mother-infant
      infant attachment can change over
          attachments can be different
                      time
               Criticisms
• Temperament is dispositional
• Cross-situationally and cross-temporally
  stable.
• Higher concordance for MZ than DZ twins
• True of attachment?for attachment
         Concordance
         Not cross-situationally stable:
     Not cross-temporally than DZ twins
     not higher among MZ stable: Mother-
        Father-infant and mother-infant
      infant attachment can change over
          attachments can be different
                      time
               Conclusions
• Biological and care-giving factors contribute to
  the establishment of attachment.
                Summary
• In the course of the 1st year, infant form
  their first relationships.
• Emotions are an important foundation for
  the formation of attachment.

								
To top