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DNA RNA Protein Synthesis Review Amino Acid

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DNA RNA Protein Synthesis Review Amino Acid

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									                    Chapter 12 Review Sheet
DNA
1. What is the function of DNA?
Material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics (instructions to make
proteins)


2. What is the shape of DNA?
Double Helix

3. What two people came up with the model of DNA?
Watson and Crick

4. What are the “side rails” of DNA made up of?
Sugar (deoxyribose) and Phosphate alternating

5. What are the “rungs” of DNA made up of?
Nitrogen bases held together by hydrogen bonds

6. What are the “building blocks” of nucleic acids?
nucleotides

7. What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?
Phosphate, 5-carbon sugar, Nitrogen base


8. What are the four different kinds of nucleotides in a DNA molecule?
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine


9. What does the nitrogen base pairing rule state?
Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T)
Guanine (G) pairs with Cytosine (C)


10. What is the process of copying DNA?
Replication

11. The sequence of nucleotides on one strand of DNA is
A-T-A-C-C-G-T-C-A-T-G-A-T. What is the complementary strand?

DNA Strand A-T-A-C-C-G-T-C-A-T-G-A-T
           T-A-T-G-G-C-A-G-T-A-C-T-A
Complementary
Strand
RNA/Transcription/Translation
12. What is RNA responsible for?
“Working Copy” of DNA’s instructions to make proteins


13. What is the structure of RNA?
Single stranded made of nucleotides (A,U,C,G)


14. What nitrogen-base does RNA have that DNA does not?
Uracil


15. List and describe each type of RNA:

      tRNA (Transfer RNA)- transfers amino acids to the ribosome, matches amino acids to mRNA


      rRNA (ribosomal RNA)- makes up the structure of a ribosome


      mRNA (messenger RNA)- carries information from DNA to ribosomes

16. What is the process of transcription?
DNA codes for RNA takes place at the nucleus


17. If our strand of DNA looked like this:

TACTTCGAGTACC AT ATT
What would our corresponding RNA strand look like?

AU GAAGCUCAUGGUAU AA

18. What is a codon?
   Three nitrogen bases of a RNA that codes for a particular amino acid

   Example: The codon GGA codes for the particular amino acid Glycine


19. What is the process of translation?
RNA codes for Proteins takes place at the ribosome


20. What structure in the cell are proteins made at (Hint: rRNA makes this structure)?
Ribosomes


21. What is an anticodon?
The anticodon region of a transfer RNA is a sequence of three bases that are complementary to a codon
in the messenger RNA. During translation, the bases of the anticodon form complementary base pairs
with the bases of the codon.




22.

a. Using the DNA sequence, make a complimentary RNA strand from both the human and the
cow. Write the RNA directly below the DNA strand (remember to substitute U’s for T’s in
RNA)

b. Use the codon wheel found in your notes to determine what amino acids are assembled to
make this specific protein that is found both in a cow and a human. Write your amino acids
chain directly below the RNA sequence.
 Sequence 1 - Human


        C C A T A G C A C G T T A C A A C G T G A A G G T A A

RNA : G G U A U C G U G C A A U G U U G C A C U U C C A U U

Amino Acids: Glycine – Isoleucine – Valine – Glutamine – Cysteine –
Cysteine – Threonine – Serine - Isoleucine

Sequence 2 - Cow


        C C G T A G C A T G T T A C A A C G C G A A G G C A C

RNA:     G G C A U C G U A C A A U G U U G C G C U U C C G U G

Amino Acids: Glycine – Isoleucine – Valine – Glutamine – Cysteine –
Cysteine – Alanine – Serine - Valine
Mutations

What are the two types of gene mutations?
Point Mutations or Frameshift (deletion or insertion)


Explain the different types of chromosomal mutations:
                   1. DELETIONS  the loss of all or part of a chromosome

                 2. DUPLICATIONS  produce extra copies of parts of chromosomes

                 3. INVERSIONS  reverse the direction of parts of chromosomes

                 4. TRANSLOCATIONS  part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another
              chromosome

								
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