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					        KEY
Content Review Guide
          for the



Georgia High School
 Graduation Test
            in



        Science


 Carrollton High School
                               TABLE OF CONTENTS


Description of Graduation Test & Review Guide………………………………...                        3


Test Taking Tips…………………………………………………………………….                                         4


Characteristics of Science
   Experimental Design………………………………….………………………….                                     6
   Reading & Interpreting Data…………………………..…………………………                                8
   Research Sources…………………………………………………………………                                        12


Domain 1: Cells and Heredity
   Cells……….……………………………………………………………………..                                            14
   Heredity………………………………………………………………………….                                            21
   Kingdoms………………………………………………………………….…….                                            28


Domain 2: Ecology……………………………………………….……………….…                                        30


Domain 3: Structure and Properties of Matter
  Matter……………………………………………………………………………..                                             38
  Acids & Bases…………………………………………………………………….                                          49


Domain 4: Energy Transformations…….……………………….…………………                                51


Domain 5: Forces, Waves, and Electricity
   Forces………………………………………...………………….……………….                                          55
   Waves…………………………………………………………….………………                                              63
   Electricity & Magnetism..……………………………………….…………..…...                              70


Resources
   Science Facts and Formulas………………………………………………………                                  74
   Periodic Table…………………………………………………………………….                                        75
   Practice Test………………………………………………………………………                                         76
   Answer Key……………………………………………………………………….                                           83




                Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                     Carrollton High School
                                          Page 2 of 84
                       The Georgia High School Graduation Test
The Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) is a requirement for all students wishing to receive a
Georgia diploma. It tests two main content areas:

                                                     Ecology                  25% of
                                                     Domain                    test

                             Biology
                                                    Cells and               17% of test
                                                    Heredity
                                                    Domain



                                                                                     26% of test
                                                     Structure and
                                                     Properties of
                                                    Matter Domain




                             Phys ic al                  Energy                      16% of test
                             Scienc e                Transformations
                                                         Domain



                                                                                     16% of test
                                                     Forces , Waves,
                                                     and Electricity
                                                        Domain




Additionally, questions about the characteristics of science are integrated across the five domains.

Two reference sheets accompany the questions on the GHSGT. These reference sheets are given to each
student when testing. The two reference sheets have been included in the back of this Review Guide in
the Resources section.


                                 How to Use this Review Guide
This guide has been set up by domain area. The concept descriptions review the basic concepts that are
likely to be tested on the GHSGT. Read through the concepts and examples and then try to answer the
Practice Questions on your own. Use the reference sheets provided to you in the Resources Section. You
may check your answers to the Practice Questions using the Key in the Resources Section.

Carefully read the Test Taking Tips section of this Guide.              It gives you hints to help you do your best on
the GHSGT.


Good luck!
                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                        Page 3 of 84
                                     Test-Taking Tips
 Before the test

    o Make sure you know the date, time, and location of your test.
    o Set up a flexible study schedule before the test to focus on your weakest areas.
    o Make sure you have two #2 pencils with erasers with you.
    o Have a good breakfast, drink plenty of water, and stop by the restroom before the test
      begins.
    o Stay positive! 


 Reading the Question

    o Read the entire question and all the choices before answering the question.
    o If there is a reading passage associated with the question, it may help to read the question
      first but not the answer choices (you don’t want them to bias you), then the passage, then
      the question again. Finally read all answer choices.
    o If you don’t know a word, cover it up and read the question without the confusing word, or
      use context clues to help you determine the meaning of the word.
    o Use root words that you already know to help you determine words you don’t know.
    o There are no trick questions. Don’t make a question harder than it should be.


 Answering the Question

    o Take your time and read all answer choices before choosing.
    o If you are sure of the answer, pick it.
    o If you are not sure, but can eliminate some wrong answer choices, then make an educated
      guess.
    o Look for words in the answer choices that restrict the realm of the answer or are all
      encompassing such as all, none, never, always. Be aware that these are usually not the
      right choices because they do not leave room for exceptions.
    o If you have absolutely no idea, skip the question. At the end of the test, guess randomly on
      any questions you did not answer.
    o Answer every question and do not leave any blank! There is no penalty for guessing!


 After You Finish

    o If you left any questions blank, go back and see if you can answer them. If you have no
      idea, randomly choose an answer.
    o Check your answers.




                      Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                           Carrollton High School
                                                Page 4 of 84
Practice Questions:

Use the suggestions on the previous page to help you determine the best answer.

   1. An endoscopic surgery requires a camera to ___________.
      A. take a picture of your brain
      B. map the beating of your heart
      C. enter inside your body to view inside
      D. take pictures of the surgeon who is working on the patient

       (Hint: Break the word “endoscopic” into root words in order to help you choose the best answer.)

   2. Which of the following does not describe DNA?
      A. Deoxyribose is the sugar found in DNA.
      B. Proteins are found in DNA.
      C. DNA is a type of nucleic acid.
      D. Phosphate groups make up DNA.

       (Hint: Use the letters in “DNA” to eliminate 2 of the choices.)

   3. Pick the statement that is most correct about global warming.
      A. Global warming will definitely cause the polar ice caps to melt.
      B. Records indicate that global warming has caused the Earth’s temperature to increase by a few
         degrees every single year.
      C. Global warming is a natural process of trapping heat on Earth.
      D. Pollutants like CFC’s and hydrocarbons are the only causes of global warming.

       (Hint: Look for words that restrict the answer such as “always, never, only, every.” Often these
       choices are incorrect.)




                             Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 5 of 84
                                 Characteristics of Science

  Experimental Design

When scientists investigate a problem, they use a logical approach called the scientific method.
There are steps to this method of problem solving:

                   Problem                     question that is being investigated
                   Hypothesis                  educated guess (usually an “if…then” statement)
                   Experiment                  testing of the problem
                   Conclusion                  summary statement that is based on data collected

After the problem is identified and initial observations are made, a hypothesis is stated. It is usually
stated as an “if… then” statement. An experiment is designed to test the hypothesis. The purpose of
an experiment is to collect data that can be used to reach a conclusion. It must be possible to repeat
the experiment over and over, with the same results every time. In order to do this, only one thing is
changed in the experiment (the manipulated or independent variable) and its effect on something
else (the responding or dependent variable) is observed. All other factors must remain the same
throughout the experiment (controlled variables) to be sure the change seen in the responding
variable is a result of the change made in the manipulated variable. Observations and measurements
are made and recorded during the experiment. These are known as data. Many trials are done and a
conclusion is drawn which will either support or not support the hypothesis. The hypothesis may be
revised and the process repeated.

A supported hypothesis may become part of a theory. A theory is the best-known explanation for
what has been observed. Theories can be changed as new information becomes available. A theory
will never be proven since it is not a fact, but rather, an explanation. There are many theories in
science including the Atomic Theory, the Theory of Plate Tectonics, and the Theory of Evolution.

A scientific law is a statement of a relationship that is observed in the natural world without
exception. Among these are Newton’s Laws of Motion, the Law of Conservation of Mass/Energy,
and the Gas Laws. Unlike a theory, a scientific law is not an explanation; rather, it is a statement of
fact.




                          Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                               Carrollton High School
                                                    Page 6 of 84
Practice Questions:
Read the following and answer the questions that follow.

Joe likes sugar in his iced tea; however, he forgot to put sugar in his tea today. Joe tried adding the
sugar to the glass of iced tea. It didn’t dissolve very well, so he decided to try an experiment. He
took 5 glasses each with 200 mL of unsweetened tea. He made each glass of tea a different
temperature and then added 15 grams of sugar to each. He recorded the results after stirring each
glass for 2 minutes.


     1. What statement best represents the problem being investigated?
        A. The effect of tea on the dissolving rate of sugar
        B. The effect of amount of sugar in making an iced tea solution
        C. The effect of temperature on the amount of tea that dissolved
        D. The effect of temperature on the solubility of sugar

     4.Which variable was the responding/ dependent variable?
        A. Temperature of tea
        B. Amount of sugar used
        C. Amount of tea made
        D. Amount of dissolved sugar

     5.In a line graph, the manipulated variable is placed on the x-axis. Which variable would be
         graphed on the x-axis?
         A. Temperature of tea
         B. Amount of sugar dissolved
         C. Amount of sugar used




                             Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 7 of 84
                                     Characteristics of Science

        Reading and Interpreting Data

Concept #1:
   In any experiment, scientists must observe and record data, which are observations and measurements
   made during an experiment. To best record this data, scientists set up tables in order to be organized
   in their observation and measurement collection. Graphs can then be constructed from gathered data
   in order to make a visual comparison of the data and better share information with other scientists,
   especially when scientists suspect a proportional relationship between the variables.

          A scientific graph must have a title. The purpose of a graph is to share information in a
           concise way. A good title must be descriptive of the information being conveyed.
          The graph will have two axes, a horizontal axis (x axis) which represents the independent/
           manipulated variable (the factor the scientist altered) and a vertical axis (y axis) which
           represents the dependent/ responding variable (the factor that changed based on the
           independent variable).
          Each axis must be labeled or titled with the variable (the factor being tested) it represents as
           well as the unit used to measure the variable.
          An appropriate scale must be chosen that will allow all the data to be graphed.
          Each pair of data points must be plotted and a best-fit line or curve (smooth, not dot-to-dot)
           drawn to represent the general tendency of the data points.

           After graphing the data, scientists look for a proportional relationship. Often, the relationship
       will be a direct proportion, in which the two quantities being compared change in the same way.
       In other words, when one variable is doubled, the other variable is doubled as well. This
       relationship, when graphed, will produce a straight line. Another relationship is an inverse
       proportion, in which the two quantities being compared change in an opposite way. In other
       words, when one variable is doubled, the other variable is halved. When graphed, an inverse
       proportion produces a hyperbolic curve.




                          Direct proportion                              Inverse proportion




                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                        Page 8 of 84
Practice Questions:
Use the information and the table to answer the questions                                       Area, A            Pressure, P
that follow.                                                                                     (cm2)              (N/cm2)

Pressure is calculated by dividing an exerted force by the                                          1.0               25.0
area over which the force is exerted. In other words,
                                                                                                    2.0               12.5
        Pressure = force ÷ area
                                                                                                    3.0                8.5
In a particular experiment, a student calculated the pressure
resulting when she changed the surface area over which an                                           4.0                6.4
unchanging force was applied. She recorded her data in
the table to the right.                                                                             5.0                5.0


     1. In this experiment, which variable is the independent/manipulated variable? _Surface area__
         Which variable is the dependent/responding variable? ___Pressure___
     2. Which variable will be placed along the x-axis? ____Surface area____
         Which variable will be placed along the y-axis? ____Pressure____
     3. Graph the data from the table, being sure to follow all of the guidelines for scientific graphing
        listed on the previous page.


                                                          Pressure vs. Area

                                    30.0

                                    25.0
                 Pressure (N/cm2)




                                    20.0

                                    15.0

                                    10.0

                                     5.0

                                     0.0
                                            1                2                 3                4              5
                                                                        Area (cm2)




     4. According to the shape of the best-fit curve, the proportion existing between the two variables is
     (inverse, direct).

                                           Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                                Carrollton High School
                                                                     Page 9 of 84
Concept #2:
   A bar graph is used to show comparisons among data that do not continuously change. Thick bars
   rather than data points are used to show the relationships among data. Follow the steps below to
   construct a bar graph.

              Place the independent/manipulated variable on the x-axis.
              Place the dependent/responding variable on the y-axis.
              Plot the data by drawing thick bars from the x-axis up to an imaginary point where the y axis
               would intersect the bar.
              Make sure to title the graph.

Practice Questions:
Use the graph to answer the questions that follow.


                            Vibrations per Second

  800
  700
  600
  500
                                                              Vibrations per
  400
                                                              Second
  300
  200
  100
    0
                                   ee
                       ly




                                             it o
          le


                     ef
       et




                                 yb



                                           qu
                   us
     Be




                               ne



                                        os
                Ho




                                        M
                            Ho




     1. Which insect has the greatest wing vibration per second?
        A. Honeybee
        B. Housefly
        C. Mosquito

     2. Which insect has the least wing vibration per second?
        A. Honeybee
        B. Housefly
        C. Beetle

     3. Which is the independent variable?
        A. Wing vibrations per second
        B. Insect type




                                        Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                             Carrollton High School
                                                                 Page 10 of 84
Concept #3:
   Pie graphs are a good way to show the relationship between relative amounts of materials or
   percentages of materials. They can also be used to show the actual amount that is represented. The
   relative sizes of the wedges would still give you a good picture of how each subdivision is related to
   the total amount represented. A pie graph clearly shows how the whole is made up of its parts.

         To make a pie graph you must have a compass.
         You will also need a protractor and a ruler.
         Construct the circle with the compass.
         Draw a line from the center of the circle to the edge of the circle at the 12:00 position.
         Use the top center of the circle as your starting point (12:00 position).
         Remember that a circle is made of 360 degrees, and divide each segment appropriately.
         Think of a circle as divided into 100 parts, so each part is 3.6 degrees.
         To determine the angle for each segment simply multiply the percentage by 3.6.
         Complete the graph by labeling the sections and giving the graph a title.

Practice Questions:                                                                      Amount of Time Spent on Daily
                                                                                                   Activities
 Use the table and graph to answer the questions that follow.                                     homework
                                                                                                     8%
                 # of        % of
                                                                                                   meals      school
  Activity       Hours       Day
                                                                                                    8%         25%
  school           6         25%
  sleep            6         25%                                                                 leisure
                                                                                                  17%
  job              4         17%
  leisure          4         17%                                                                              sleep
                                                                                                        job
  meals            2          8%                                                                              25%
                                                                                                       17%
  homework         2          8%



      1. Which two activities together took up half of the day?
          A. Leisure and School
          B. Meals and School
          C. Sleep and School

      2. Which two activities took up the least amount of time?
          A. Meals and Homework
          B. Sleep and Job
          C. Sleep and School

      3. Which activity takes up the same amount of time as meals and leisure together?
          A. Job
          B. School
          C. Homework

      4. Which activity took up one fourth of the day?
          A. Leisure
          B. Sleep
          C. Homework
                                   Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                        Carrollton High School
                                                            Page 11 of 84
                                      Characteristics of Science
          Research Sources

Concept #1:
   There are many different sources you can use to do scientific research. Some sources you might use
   are an Internet search engine (like Google), encyclopedias, books, or journal articles. Many
   encyclopedias, books, and journal articles are now available online.


Match the resource with its description.
1. Card catalog                        A. Magazines or books containing papers from scientists on their
                                       experimental findings
2. Internet
                                       B. Atlas, dictionary, encyclopedia, and other generic sources
3. Reference materials
                                       C. A catalog of books and reference materials available at the
4. Science journals                    library and arranged in order for easy use

                                           D. Electronic network that connects computers across the world
                                           and that is often used to share information
Answers: 1 C, 2 D, 3 B, 4 A



          Using an Internet search engine: Make the search criteria as specific as possible. For example,
           if you are researching how salt added to soil influences rose plant growth, you would not want to
           look up “roses” or “salt” or “soil” but a combination of all 3 words. This will help you avoid
           information that is useless to you like how humans should reduce salt intake from their food.

           Using books: There are many helpful resources in a book.


Match the book resource with its description.
1. Glossary                           A. Lists the order of information found in the book

2. Index                                   B. A collection of terms with their meanings

3. Table of Contents                       C. Lists alphabetically the subjects of the book and the page
                                           numbers where you can find the subject

Answers: 1 B, 2 C, 3 A




                               Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                    Carrollton High School
                                                        Page 12 of 84
Concept #2:
   The sources you use should be valid. This means that the source comes from a reputable location. If
   you are using an Internet source, it is best to use a webpage with the site suffix of .gov (a government
   website), .edu (an educational website), or .org (a non-profit organizational website). Usually a
   website with a site suffix of .com is not considered to be the most reliable.

   Critically look at websites and see if they have an agenda for selling a product. Some .com sites
   might have biased information because they are trying to persuade you to purchase something.
   Remember, anyone can put anything on the Internet - it doesn’t make it factual information!


Concept #3:
   Any sources you use have to be properly documented.
     If you use a source, you need to paraphrase the document (not just copy and paste). You must
        write things in your own words.
     You need to include a works cited/ bibliography of the sources you used. This way the reader
        will know where your information came from.



Practice Questions:

     1. Larry needs to find current information on any SARS outbreaks in China. Which source would
        give him the best information?
        A. Library book
        B. Reference material
        C. Internet

     2. Danielle was assigned to draw a picture of an Amoeba from her textbook and she doesn’t
       remember what page her teacher told her to use as a reference. Where could she look to figure out
       exactly which page the Amoeba information is on?
       A. Reference material
       B. Index
       C. Table of contents

     For questions 3 & 4, describe how the students could better use sources for their research.
     3. George is trying to research the President’s new environmental policy. He has to prepare a debate
       in class to show the pros and cons of the policy. He has decided to use only .gov sites to research,
       mainly using the President’s policy page to gather most of his information.
       .gov sites might be biased since the President is the head of the government. George should use
       other types of sites such as .org that might not be biased.


     4. Katrina is searching for information for her project on bacteria. She searches several .com sites
       and notices that they are all trying to sell anti-bacterial soap. The one .org site she goes to for
       extra information is for an organization that helps fight bacterial meningitis.
        .com sites might exaggerate the harmful effects of bacteria to get you to buy a product. Katrina
        should search .org or other .com sites that are not trying to sell a product.
                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 13 of 84
                                         Domain 1: Cells and Heredity
      Cells

Concept #1:
   All living things are made up of at least one cell. Cells are the basic unit of structure (since they
   make up the parts of living things) and function (since they help living things work properly).

                 Organisms that are made of only one cell are called unicellular organisms; those that are
                  made of two or more cells are called multicellular organisms. Multicellular organisms are
                  believed to have evolved (or changed over time) from unicellular organisms.

Concept #2:
   Cells are made up of many organelles, each with a specific function.

                 Cells that have membranes around their organelles and a true nucleus are called
                  eukaryotic cells. All plants, animals, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. Cells that do not
                  have a true nucleus are called prokaryotic cells. Examples of prokaryotes are bacteria.




                                    www.cod.edu                                                           www.cod.edu

   Match the cell organelle to its function.
   1. nucleus                                                A. contain digestive enzymes to break down parts
                                                                of the cell and dispose of wastes
   2. nucleolus
                                                             B. the brain or control center of the cell
   3. endoplasmic reticulum                                  C. outer structure in plant and fungi cells; used for
                                                                support and protection
   4. golgi apparatus
                                                             D. produce energy for the cell
   5. cell membrane                                          E. where proteins are made
                                                             F. site of photosynthesis in plant and algae cells
   6. ribosome
                                                             G. form the cytoskeleton, or backbone, of the cell
   7. cell wall                                              H. packages proteins
                                                             I. transportation system for moving proteins around the
   8. chloroplast
                                                                cell
   9. mitochondria                                           J. gatekeeper for the cell; allows some materials to enter
                                                                and leave the cell
   10. lysosomes
                                                             K. where ribosomes are produced
   11. microfilaments and microtubules                       L. membrane bound sac that stores nutrients or water
                                                             M. help the entire cell move; projections off the cell’s
   12. cilia and flagella
                                                                surface
   13. vacuole
   Answers: 1 B, 2 K, 3 I, 4 H, 5 J, 6 E, 7 C, 8 F, 9 D, 10 A, 11 G, 12 M, 13 L

                                      Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                           Carrollton High School
                                                               Page 14 of 84
                                                                                                 blogs.ign.com



Concept #3:
   The Cell Theory
             1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells
             2. The cell is the basic unit or structure and function in organisms
             3. All cells are produced from other cells.

Concept #4:
   Homeostasis is a self-adjusting mechanism that helps organisms maintain a stable internal
   environment in the face of a changing external environment. An example includes a body sweating in
   response to an increase in body temperature. Organisms also need to move materials into and out of
   their cells. To do this, cells use passive and active transport. In passive transport, molecules move
   from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. This does not require energy.
   Examples of passive transport are simple diffusion and osmosis (where only water moves through a
   membrane). In active transport, molecules move from an area of lower concentration to an area of
   higher concentration. This does require energy (usually in the form of ATP), and includes examples
   like endocytosis (bringing things into the cell) and exocytosis (making things exit the cell).




             www.uic.edu                              www.uic.edu                                www.uic.edu




                             Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                      Page 15 of 84
Practice Activity:

Label the plant and animal cells and their parts.




                                                                                                       www.ndpteachers.org



Diagram A is a(n) _ plant____ cell.                                    Diagram B is a (n) ____animal___ cell.

1. ____cell wall________________                                       8. ______nucleus_________________
2. ___mitochondria_____________                                        9. ______chromosome_____________
3. ____vacuole_________________                                        10. ____endoplasmic reticulum______
4. ____Golgi apparatus__________                                       11. ______chloroplast_____________
5. _____cytoplasm_____________                                         12. ______centriole_______________
6. _____nuclear membrane_______                                        13. ______lysosome______________
7. _____nucleolus______________

cell wall             centriole                              chloroplast                    chromosome

cytoplasm             endoplasmic reticulum                  Golgi apparatus                lysosome

mitochondria          nucleus                                nucleolus                      nuclear membrane

vacuole
                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 16 of 84
Concept #5:
   Cells need energy to function. To create energy, cells use their mitochondria to do a process called
   cellular respiration. In cellular respiration, glucose is broken down into energy, or ATP. Every
   organism (plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and protists) does cellular respiration, which is displayed in
   the following formula:

                 C6H1206 + 6 O2                    6 H2O + 6 CO2 + ATP
                 glucose  oxygen                    water  carbon dioxide energy


       Where do the cells get the glucose from?

           o Consumers or heterotrophs (organisms that cannot make their own food) eat food which
             is broken down into glucose, a special type of sugar. The glucose is combined with
             oxygen from the atmosphere in order to make energy. Water and carbon dioxide are
             wastes produced from respiration.
           o Producers or autotrophs (organisms that can make their own food) make their own
             glucose in a process known as photosynthesis. This occurs in the chloroplasts of
             producers. During this process, the producer gathers light, water, and carbon dioxide, and
             produces glucose and the waste product oxygen. The producer can then use the glucose
             during respiration to make energy. Photosynthesis is displayed in the following formula:

                       6 H20    + 6 CO2                   C6H1206 +                6 O2
                       water       carbon dioxide    light glucose                 oxygen

                                        Respiration                                    Photosynthesis
 Reaction Type                          Exothermic                                     Endothermic
 Energy Source                          Glucose                                        Light
 Form of Energy produced                ATP                                            Glucose
 Reactants                              O2, glucose (C6H12O6)                          CO2, H2O, energy
 Products                               CO2 , H2O, energy                              O2. glucose (C6H12O6)




                                                                                                     www.cwanswers.com


                               Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                    Carrollton High School
                                                        Page 17 of 84
Concept #6:
   Somatic cells (body cells) divide during a process known as mitosis. Cells may need to divide
   because of damage, injury, or growth. During this process, one cell doubles all of its contents, and
   then splits into two daughter cells. The two daughter cells are identical to each other and to the parent
   cell they came from.


                                        Major Events of Mitosis
    Phase                   Events
    Prophase                Stringy chromatin condenses into chromosomes (x-shaped structures)
                            Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear
                            Spindle begins to form
    Metaphase               Chromosomes line up along the middle (equator) of the cell
    Anaphase                Chromosomes split
    Telophase               Nucleolus and nuclear membrane reform
                            During cytokinesis, the two cells completely split.

   When cells are not actively dividing, they are in a phase known as interphase. During this phase,
   cells grow, get ready for mitosis (by copying their DNA in a process called replication), and do
   normal cell functions. Together, interphase and mitosis are known as the cell cycle.



    Plant Mitosis




               Interphase        Prophase             Metaphase              Anaphase             Telophase

                                                                                                          www.life.illinois.edu




                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 18 of 84
Practice Questions:
    1. Which of the following terms is the most inclusive?
       A. Cells
       B. Organs
       C. Organ systems
       D. Tissues

    2. Which statement is NOT true about cellular transport?
       A. Cell transport may or may not require energy.
       B. Materials can move into and out of cells.
       C. All materials move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
       D. The cell membrane helps to control which items enter and leave the cell.

    3. An old organelle in a cell needs to be broken down before it can be disposed. Which organelle
       would be most likely to perform the function of breaking down the old organelle?
       A. Nucleus
       B. Lysosome
       C. Endoplasmic reticulum
       D. Cell membrane

    4. Which statement is NOT true about cellular respiration?
       A. All organisms undergo cellular respiration.
       B. Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria of cells.
       C. Cellular respiration is responsible for making energy in the form of ATP.
       D. Cellular respiration only occurs in animals.

    5. Mitosis is the process of duplicating cells. Following are steps involved in mitosis, but they are
       out of order.
                    i.     One cell splits into two cells.
                    ii.    Cell contents, including DNA, are duplicated.
                    iii.   The chromosomes, or DNA material, line up at the middle of the cell.

       What is the proper order of the steps?
       A. i.,ii., iii.              B. ii., iii., i.                   C. ii., i., iii.           D. iii., ii., i.

    6. Read the following and answer the question that follows.
       Volvox is a colonial protist that lives in freshwater. It is composed of many individual organisms
       that use the sun’s light to make their own food.

       Based on the reading, which of the following statements must be true about Volvox?
       A. It contains chloroplasts in order to do photosynthesis.
       B. It is a unicellular organism.
       C. Volvox must be really neat to look at.
       D. Since Volvox makes its own food, it must not ever need to do cellular respiration.


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                                                   Carrollton High School
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7. Which of the following processes involves the chloroplast?
   A. cell division
   B. conversion of light energy to chemical energy
   C. formation of reproductive cells
   D. stringing amino acids together

8. What is the basic unit of structure and function of living things?
   A. cell
   B. organ
   C. molecule
   D. organelle

9. Which organelle helps to maintain homeostasis within a multicellular organism through
   exchange of materials with other nearby cells?
   A. cell membrane
   B. mitochondrion
   C. nucleus
   D. vacuole

10. Which statement best describes active transport?
    A. Molecules move very quickly across the membrane.
    B. Energy is expended to move molecules across a membrane.
    C. More molecules move across a membrane than in diffusion.
    D. Water molecules stream across a membrane into a concentrated solution.

11. An animal cell is placed in a solution of distilled water. If left overnight, this cell will
    A. shrivel and die
    B. swell and burst
    C. undergo plasmolysis
    D. remain the same since it has a cell wall to protect it

12. Which is the best example of a multicellular organism maintaining homeostasis?
    A. a dog salivating at the sound of a bell
    B. a moth flashing eye spots on its wings
    C. a wolf remaining with a pack of other wolves
    D. a kangaroo rat producing concentrated urine

13. In order to measure the rate of photosynthesis by a plant, a researcher should measure the
    amount of
    A. oxygen produced
    B. sunlight absorbed
    C. carbon dioxide produced
    D. glucose used




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                                               Carrollton High School
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                                Domain 1: Cells and Heredity
      Heredity

Concept #1:
   Traits are passed from generation to generation. This is called heredity. The study of heredity is
   known as genetics. Traits are passed through genes, which are composed of DNA, or
   deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is found in the nucleus of every cell of every organism and is made up
   of phosphate groups, deoxyribose sugars and nucleotides called adenine, guanine, cytosine, and
   thymine. Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine. The shape of DNA is a double
   helix (twisted ladder). It controls the cell’s activity. DNA is a type of nucleic acid, which is one of
   the 4 major biological, or organic, compounds.




                                           cnx.org                                               www.cs.bham.ac.uk



   The four biological compounds all contain carbon and hydrogen. They make up all living things.
    Name               Examples               Made up of         Function
    Carbohydrates      Sugars & Starches      Monosaccharides Energy
    Lipids             Fats, Oils, & Waxes    Glycerols and      Stored energy
                                              fatty acids        Cell membrane formation
                                                                 Insulation and protection
    Proteins           Enzymes                Amino acids        Build structures of body
                       Muscles                                   Help parts function
                                                                 Speed up reactions
    Nucleic Acids      DNA & RNA              Nucleotides        Transmit heredity information
                                                                 Make proteins

Concept #2:
   DNA controls the cell’s activities by helping to manufacture proteins. Proteins are important because
   they make up the body’s structure and help it to function. For example, all muscles are made of
   protein. DNA contains the recipe for making proteins, but since it never leaves the nucleus, another
   nucleic acid known as RNA, or ribonucleic acid, actually makes the proteins. This is how proteins are
   made:


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                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                      Page 21 of 84
      1. DNA is the recipe for proteins and it is always found in a cell’s nucleus.
      2. DNA’s protein recipe is copied into messenger RNA (mRNA) during a process called
         transcription. This also occurs in the nucleus.
      3. mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome, where all proteins are assembled.
      4. Transfer RNA (tRNA) comes to the ribosome with amino acids (what proteins are made of)
         where it reads the recipe and assembles the proteins in a process called translation.
      5. The amino acids are bonded together to make a protein.
      6. A mutation is a sudden change in the code.




                                                                                         www.mysciencebox.org




How are DNA and RNA alike and different?


         Double-stranded                                                            Single-stranded
         Found in nucleus                                                           Moves around the cell
         Contain heredity information                                               Uracil pairs with adenine
         Thymine pairs with adenine             Help to make proteins
             DNA                                   Nucleic acids                                   RNA




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                                                Carrollton High School
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Concept #3:
   In order to pass genes from parent to offspring, sex cells (or gametes) containing the DNA must be
   made. Male gametes are known as sperm and are produced in the testes. Female gametes are
   known as eggs (or ova) and are made in the ovaries. The process of producing gametes is known as
   meiosis. During meiosis, the number of chromosomes is halved. In humans, the number of
   chromosomes in a sperm is 23 and the number of chromosomes in an egg is 23. When the two
   gametes fuse, they make a zygote (the beginning stage of a baby) with 46 chromosomes. Since the
   zygote has two sets of DNA (one from mom and one from dad), it is known as diploid. If it only had
   ½ that amount of DNA, it would be called haploid. Sperm and egg are haploid.

   Phases of Meiosis:
          o Meiosis I- Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I
          o Meiosis II- Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II

   Events of Meiosis:
          o Prophase I- homologous (or matching) chromosomes join to form a tetrad.
          o Metaphase I- Homologous chromosomes line up at the middle of the cell.
          o Anaphase I- Homologous chromosomes split.
          o Telophase I/ Cytokinesis- The one cell splits into two cells. Each cell is different.
          o Metaphase II- The individual chromosomes line up at the middle of each of the two cells.
          o Anaphase II- The chromosomes split.
          o Telophase II/ Cytokinesis- The two cells each split, forming a total of four cells.

   Results of Meiosis:
          o Males- 4 haploid sperm are produced.
          o Females- 1 large haploid egg and 3 small polar bodies (which are not used) are produced.




                                                                                            www.reviewsheetscentral.com


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                                                 Carrollton High School
                                                     Page 23 of 84
Practice Activity:

Determine if the following statements describe the processes of mitosis and/or meiosis. Place a check
mark in the correct column.

                                                                                        Mitosis   Meiosis
        1. produces two identical daughter cells                                          √
        2. produces four cells                                                                      √
        3. chromosome number is halved                                                              √
        4. chromosome number is maintained                                                  √
        5. one division is involved                                                         √
        6. two divisions are involved                                                               √
        7. associated with sexual reproduction                                                      √
        8. associated with asexual reproduction                                             √
        9. genetic variation is more likely                                                         √
        10. daughter cells are identical to parent                                          √
        11. takes place in somatic cells                                                    √
        12. duplication of chromosomes occurs                                               √       √
        13. necessary for growth and maintenance                                            √
        14. produces gametes                                                                        √


Concept #4:
   Gregor Mendel is known as the father of genetics. He studied heredity in pea plants and determined
   many of the genetic principles we still use today. Before we look at Mendel’s Laws of Genetics, let’s
   review some of the basic genetic terms.
    Terms                 Definitions
    Allele                the different forms of a gene; one allele for each trait comes from each parent

    Dominant               the allele that masks a recessive allele; represented by a capital letter

    Recessive              the allele that is masked by a dominant allele; represented by a lowercase letter

    Homozygous             when the two alleles in a gene pair are the same; can be homozygous dominant
                           (like AA) or homozygous recessive (like aa)

    Heterozygous           when the two alleles in a gene pair are different (like Aa); also known as hybrid

    Gene                   a segment of DNA that codes for a particular trait

    Genotype               the gene combination of an organism (like Tt)

    Phenotype              the physical appearance of an organism (like tall or short)

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                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                      Page 24 of 84
    Mendel’s Laws tell us about genetics:

                His first law states that each gene has two alleles. One allele came from the offspring’s
           mom and one came from dad. During meiosis, the two alleles separate (or segregate) from each
           other. Because of this, an offspring will only get one allele from each parent. This law is
           known as the Law of Segregation.

               Mendel’s second law is known as the Law of Independent Assortment. This tells us that
           during meiosis, genes for different traits assort independently from each other. This means, for
           example, that the gene for a big nose is completely separate from the genes for tallness. We
           know this makes sense because not everyone who has a big nose is incredibly tall.

    We can use what we know about genetics to predict the offspring of two parents reproducing. The
    way we do this is with a Punnett square.

    Example:
    Martians have 2 different skin tones- green (which is dominant) and gray (which is recessive). Let’s say a
    mom Martian has homozygous gray skin (so she is gg) and dad Martian has heterozygous green skin (so he is
    Gg). If these two were to produce offspring, what is the likelihood that the baby will be gray like its mom?

     Dad             Mom    g           g

     G                      Gg          Gg
     g                      gg          gg
                      Potential offspring
According to this Punnett square, there is a 2/4, or 50%, chance the baby will be gray (gg) like its mom.

Practice Activity:
In a certain plant species, rough seeds (R) are dominant over smooth seeds (r). Using the following
Punnett square, predict the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring whose parents are both
heterozygous (Rr).
            R          r             Genotypes:
                                       _25_% homozygous rough seeds (RR)
                                       _50_% heterozygous rough seeds (Rr)
R               RR         Rr          _25_% homozygous smooth seeds (rr)
                                     Phenotypes
                                       _75_% rough seeds
r               Rr         rr          _25_% smooth seeds




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                                                      Carrollton High School
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Practice Questions:
    1. Where in the cell and during what process are amino acids linked to make a protein?
       A. Ribosome; transcription
       B. Ribosome; translation
       C. Nucleus; transcription
       D. Nucleus; translation

    2. Which of the following displays a homozygous dominant genotype?
       A. BB
       B. Bb
       C. bb
       D. Brown

    3. One of Joe and Sue’s kids has blond hair and blue eyes but the other has blond hair and brown
       eyes. Which of Mendel’s laws best explains this?
        A. Law of Segregation
        B. Law of Independent Assortment
        C. Neither since that should never happen.

    4. You performed a test where you added food samples to water, shook them up, and determined
       whether they mixed. Which of the following biological compounds were you most likely testing
       for?
        A. Carbohydrates since they always mix with water, and with no other liquids.
        B. Lipids since they do not mix with water.
        C. Nucleic acids because DNA is found in food samples.

    5. A Martian with horns (HH) marries a Martian with no horns (hh). What is the likelihood that
       their firstborn child will not have horns?
        A. 100% since all their offspring will be hh.
        B. 0% since all of their offspring will be HH.
        C. 0% since all of their offspring will be Hh.
        D. Cannot be determined from the information given.

    6. Which of the following is NOT a reason why meiosis is important?
       A. It reduces the number of chromosome by half.
       B. It makes gametes or sex cells.
       C. It makes identical copies of cells in order to replace damaged cells.
       D. It produces genetically different daughter cells.

    7. Which word describes a gamete?
       A. diploid
       B. haploid
       C. somatic
       D. body


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                                                 Carrollton High School
                                                     Page 26 of 84
 8. If a cell has 12 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will each daughter cell have after the
    cell undergoes mitosis?
    A. 4
    B. 6
    C. 12
    D. 24

9.   The daughter cells produced in mitosis
     A. become gametes
     B. have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
     C. are the result of 2 processes of division
     D. have the same DNA as the parent cell

10. The process of copying DNA to make new identical DNA molecules is called
    A. replication
    B. transcription
    C. transformation
    D. translation

 11. Using a strand of DNA to synthesize a molecule of mRNA is called
     A. replication
     B. transcription
     C. transformation
     D. translation

12. Which of the following is NOT found in DNA?
    A. adenine
    B. guanine
    C. thymine
    D. uracil

13. When tRNA molecules carry amino acids to mRNA codons in the ribosome of a cell, the tRNA
    and mRNA work together to create an amino acid chain. This process is called
    A. replication
    B. transcription
    C. transformation
    D. translation

14. DNA differs from RNA because:
   A. DNA is always single-stranded whereas RNA is always double-stranded
   B. DNA contains deoxyribose, whereas RNA contains ribose.
   C. DNA contains uracil, whereas RNA contains thymine
   D. DNA contains information whereas RNA doesn't




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                                               Carrollton High School
                                                   Page 27 of 84
                                    Domain 1: Cells and Heredity
      Kingdoms

   The 6 kingdoms have differences and similarities. All living things need to obtain energy, grow,
   reproduce, respond to their environment, and have some organization within their bodies or cells.

                Archaebacteria Eubacteria                  Protists             Fungi              Plants            Animals
                “ancient       “new                                                                                  (invertebrates
                bacteria”      bacteria”                                                                             and
                                                                                                                     vertebrates)
Examples        Thermophiles,         E. coli,     Green algae,                 Molds,             Grasses, pine     Insects,
                halophiles,          Streptococcus diatoms,                     mushrooms,         trees, rose       sponges,
                methanogens                                Amoeba,              yeasts             bushes, mosses    mammals,
                                                           Paramecium                                                worms
Cell Level      Prokaryote           Prokaryote            Eukaryote            Eukaryote          Eukaryote         Eukaryote
Cell Type       Unicellular          Unicellular           Unicellular          Multicellular      Multicellular     Multicellular
                                                           (some algae          (yeasts are
                                                           are                  unicellular)
                                                           multicellular)
Movement        Flagella or cilia    Flagella or           Flagella,            Stationary         Stationary        Most move at
                                     cilia                 cilia, or                                                 some point in
                                                           pseudopodia                                               life
Habitat         Extreme              Anywhere that         Water and            Soil, in dead      Mainly soil but   Varies
                environments         is warm, dark,        soil                 organisms,         some live in
                                     and moist                                  and in foods       water, air, or
                                                                                like bread         on other plants
                                                                                and wine
Nutrition       Autotrophs           Heterotrophs,         Heterotrophs         Heterotrophs,      Autotrophs        Heterotrophs
                                     decomposers,          (algae are           decomposers
                                     autotrophs            autotrophs)
Transport       Simple               Simple                Diffusion            Connected          Most have         Vascular
                diffusion            diffusion             (specialized         cells called       vascular          systems
                                                           organelles           hyphae move        system (xylem     (vertebrates)
                                                           move                 materials          moves water
                                                           materials)                              and phloem
                                                                                                   moves food)
Reproduction Binary fission          Binary fission        Mitosis              Asexual and        Asexual:          Asexual:
                                                                                sexual spores      spores (ferns     budding
                                                                                                   and mosses),      Sexual:
                                                                                                   runners, and      laying eggs or
                                                                                                   tubers            giving birth
                                                                                                   Sexual:
                                                                                                   Flowers
                                                                                                   (angiosperms),
                                                                                                   fruits, seeds,
                                                                                                   and cones
                                                                                                   (gymnosperms)
   Divisions of Classification (from most general to most specific)
   Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species
   “King Phillip Came Over For Great Spaghetti”
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                                                    Carrollton High School
                                                        Page 28 of 84
         Kingdom Terms:

         o Binary fission- some simple organisms go through this process to divide one organism
           into two
         o Prokaryote- cell without a nucleus nor other membrane-bound organelles
         o Eukaryote- cell with a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
         o Thermophiles, Halophiles, Methanogens- bacteria that live in extreme conditions such as
           no oxygen, high temperatures, and extreme salt
         o Organelles- tiny organ-like parts that perform functions inside cells
         o Unicellular - whole organism is made up of only one cell
         o Multicellular- organism is made of many cells that are usually organized into tissues,
           organs, or organ systems
         o Reproduction- how an organism produces offspring
         o Chemosynthesis- using chemicals to produce food
         o Photosynthesis- using light to produce food
         o Decomposers- using enzymes to digest food outside the body and taking in the nutrients

Practice Questions:
    1. The main difference between bacteria and protists is _____________.
        A. bacteria are unicellular and protists are multicellular
        B. bacteria are consumers and protists make their own food
        C. bacteria are found in water and protists are not
        D. bacteria do not have a nucleus and protists do have a nucleus

    2. An organism in the Kingdom Archaebacteria would probably live everywhere except ______________.
       A. the Great Salt Lakes
       B. Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park
       C. on a kitchen counter top

    3. The process of chemosynthesis creates food from ___________.
        A. chemicals
        B. sunlight
        C. decomposition

    4. Which organism is NOT a heterotroph?
       A. Mushroom
       B. Algae
       C. E. coli bacteria
       D. Spider

    5. All kingdoms have some form of asexual reproduction.
       A. True
       B. False

    6. Most plants and animals have _____________ to move nutrients around their bodies.
       A. Xylem
       B. Vascular tissue
       C. Organs called hearts
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                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                      Page 29 of 84
         D. Phloem
                                           Domain 2: Ecology

Concept #1:

    Levels of Ecological Organization:

                                        BIOSPHERE/BIOME
                       (Parts of the earth and atmosphere that can support life)

                                       ECOSYSTEMS
                       (Biotic [living] and Abiotic [nonliving] sections)

                                      COMMUNITIES
                     (Different populations of living organisms interacting)

                                         POPULATON
                             (A group of organisms of the same species
                             that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring)

                                          INDIVIDUAL
                                           ORGANISM




Biomes: areas with similar abiotic factors (temperature, rain, soil), plant, and animal species

Terrestrial Biomes:
1. Grassland- grass is the main producer; long periods of drought; zebra, lions, and prairie dogs; prairies
    or steppes
2. Tundra- permafrost soil; dry, short growing season; few animals; main producers are moss and
    lichens; located at the northernmost part of Northern Hemisphere
3. Tropical Rain Forest- most biodiversity; lots of rainfall; constant warm temperature year round;
    orchids, sloths, and birds
4. Taiga- coniferous forest (pine, spruce, fir trees); snow; consumers like caribou, oxen, and snowy owls
5. Desert: hot days, cold nights; very little rainfall; reptiles, nocturnal mammals, and cacti; sandy soil
6. Temperate (Deciduous) Forest: 4 distinct seasons; deciduous trees (oak and maple); moderate rain;
    squirrels and deer; covers much of the U.S. and Europe

Aquatic Biomes:
1. Marine-salt water environment and the organisms found there
2. Freshwater-lakes, rivers, or stream environments and the organisms found there




                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 30 of 84
Practice Questions:

    1. Individual organisms of the same species make up a _________.
        A. community
        B. biosphere
        C. population
        D. ecosystem

    2. What main factor makes Death Valley a desert?
       A. It is always hot.
       B. It is dry.
       C. It doesn’t have many plants.
       D. It is in the Midwest.

    3. Which biome is dry, has few plants, and frozen soil?
       A. Tundra
       B. Taiga
       C. Temperate forest
       D. Desert

    4. Which term refers to all the living and nonliving things in an area?
       A. Community
       B. Ecosystem
       C. Population
       D. Species

    5. Which biome is found in the southeast United States?
       A. Grassland
       B. Taiga
       C. Temperate forest
       D. Desert

    6. Which is NOT an abiotic factor?
       A. Predators
       B. Sunlight
       C. Water
       D. Temperature




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                                             Carrollton High School
                                                 Page 31 of 84
Concept #2:
   Organisms have different needs within their ecosystem.

         Habitat- where an organism lives
           o Example- The habitat of a bird is a nest in a tree.

         Niche- role or job an organism has in the ecosystem
           o Example- The niche of a tree is a habitat for birds and food for beetles.

         Abiotic factors- nonliving parts of the ecosystem
           o Examples- temperature, water, sunlight, soil, altitude
           o Nonliving things determine what plant life can live in an area and therefore what animal
               life will be there too (since all animals depend on plants at some level).

         All living things are connected by their need for energy.
           o A food chain shows a single set of feeding relationships from producer to consumer to
                decomposer.

               Seeds           Squirrel               Snake                Vulture                Mushrooms

            o A food web shows all the feeding relationships in an ecosystem.

               Seeds           Squirrel               Snake                Vulture                Mushrooms


               Mouse


            o Energy originally comes from the sun and is transformed into chemical energy by plants
              (during photosynthesis) and transferred from producer to consumers through the food
              web.

         Autotrophs (Producers)         Heterotrophs (Consumers)                   Decomposers (Nutrient Recyclers)


Plants and algae        Herbivores/Primary Consumer (such as insects) eat plants                         Fungi and bacteria
                        Carnivores/Secondary Consumer (such as tigers) eat animals
                        Omnivores (such as birds) eat plants and animals
                        Scavengers (such as vultures) eat dead organisms


            o Energy flows through an ecosystem, but nutrients and materials must be recycled.
                  Decomposers help with the recycling of materials.
                  Some materials that are recycled are nitrogen, carbon, water, and phosphorus.




                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 32 of 84
 Relationships that some living things might have with other living things:

 1. Mutualism: Both organisms benefit.
       Example: Ants living in trees (ants get home and tree gets protection)

 2. Parasitism: One benefits and the other is harmed.
        Example: Tapeworm living inside a human host (human is harmed)

 3. Commensalism: One benefits and the other is unaffected.
       Example: An epiphyte (orchid) living on a tree branch to reach sunlight (tree is not harmed)

Pyramids
   An energy pyramid shows the flow of energy through the ecosystem as producers are eaten by primary
   consumers which are then eaten by secondary consumers. Each time an organism eats another only
   about 10% of the energy of a producer is transferred to the consumer that eats it. Therefore, there is a
   loss of energy available for transfer at each level of a food chain because the organisms at that level
   use some of the energy for their life processes. We can represent the amount of energy at each level as
   a part of a pyramid.




                                                                                                  www.learner.org

  A biomass pyramid shows that the mass of producers is greater than the mass of the consumers.




                                                                                                  www.learner.org

  A number pyramid shows the decrease in the number of organisms from producers to consumers. This
  decrease in number occurs because of the energy losses when one organism feeds on another.




                                                                                                 www.learner.org



                             Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                      Page 33 of 84
Practice Questions:

    1. An organism that feeds only on other consumers is a(n) ______________.
       A. herbivore
       B. omnivore
       C. carnivore
       D. decomposer

    2. Organisms that can make their own food from sunlight are called _____________.
       A. heterotrophs
       B. omnivores
       C. herbivores
       D. autotrophs

    3. Which organisms are essential for the recycling of nutrients?
       A. Consumers
       B. Producers
       C. Decomposers
       D. Scavengers

    4. In the food chain below, which is an herbivore?
               Grass  Grasshopper  Frog  Mushroom

       A.   Grass
       B.   Grasshopper
       C.   Frog
       D.   Mushroom

    5. Which level of this food pyramid represents the largest biomass?




       A. Bass
       B. Minnows
       C. Copepods
       D. Algae




                             Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                      Page 34 of 84
6. Fleas living on a dog are an example of
   A. parasitism
   B. mutualism
   C. commensalism
   D. predator-prey relationship

7. Base your answer on the diagram below and on your knowledge of ecology. The diagram
   illustrates the relationships between the organisms in a certain pond. In this pond community,
   which organisms are secondary consumers?




   A.   aquatic crustaceans and raccoons
   B.   carnivorous fish and aquatic crustaceans
   C.   ducks and minnows
   D.   ducks and carnivorous fish

8. Food webs are models used to show energy flow in ecosystems. In the food web shown below,
   what is the main source of energy for the copepods?




   A. Parrotfish
   B. Corals
   C. Algae
   D. Shrimp

9. In the food relationship where the lion eats the giraffe, and the giraffe eats plants ...
           1. The lion is the prey and the giraffe is the predator.
           2. The lion is the predator and the giraffe is the prey.
           3. The lion is the primary consumer and the giraffe is the secondary consumer.
           4. The lion is the secondary consumer and the giraffe is the primary consumer.
   A. 1 and 3 only
   B. 1 and 4 only
   C. 2 and 3 only
   D. 2 and 4 only


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                                               Carrollton High School
                                                   Page 35 of 84
Concept #3:
   Succession is the change in a community over time to establish a “final” climax community of
   organisms. For example, the climax community in a temperate forest biome would be a deciduous
   forest with oak and maple trees, other plants, consumers, and decomposers.

          There are two different types of succession:

              o Primary succession occurs in an area where there has been no living things before.
                This takes time since the pioneer species (such as lichens and mosses) must create
                soil from rock before the plants can start to grow.

              o Secondary succession occurs after an established community has been destroyed
                (clear cutting an area or a natural disaster) and starts to regrow. This happens more
                quickly than primary succession because the soil is already there, as are seeds, from
                the previous community. In any case, the plants in the area dictate which animals will
                be there. Example: Small plants bring small herbivores and then carnivores come to
                the area to eat the herbivores.




Concept #4:
   Humans cause the greatest amount of change to the planet.

   Most changes we make in nature have a negative effect. Habitat destruction (or degradation) is the
   biggest threat to nature and living organisms. It can be caused by clear-cutting forests; polluting the
   land, water and air; spraying insecticides/herbicides; or introducing non-native species into
   ecosystems. The effects are also extensive, such as extinction or endangerment of organisms,
   erosion of soil, killing areas of land/water, acid precipitation, and altering the natural food webs.

   Humans also try to have positive effects on the ecosystem. Zoos and conservation programs help
   educate people about nature, reintroduction programs try to help save endangered species, recycling
   helps reduce waste in landfills, and national parks protect land and animals.




                           Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                Carrollton High School
                                                    Page 36 of 84
Concept #5:
   Populations increase in number over time until factors limit the population size. Examples of these
   limiting factors are a lack of sunlight, competition for food or resources, predators, lack of space, or
   disease. Limiting factors create a carrying capacity for populations so that the population does not
   grow bigger than the environment can support. Presently, humans have overcome all factors and due
   to decreased death rates and increased life expectancy, our population is growing exponentially.

   Population growth curves either look J-shaped if they grow exponentially or S-shaped if they have a
   carrying capacity.


       Population                                            Population




                             Time                                                      Time
                      J-shaped growth curve                                    S-shaped growth curve

Practice Questions:
     1. In which situation would succession occur most slowly?
         A. A forest growing back after being clear-cut for a neighborhood development
         B. A mountain rock eroding into soil and a forest growing on top
         C. A flood washing away all the plants and animals of a grassland
         D. A forest fire destroying the ecosystem

     2. Which are limiting factors to human population growth?
        A. Amount of resources
        B. Food
        C. Predators
        D. We currently don’t have any limiting factors.

     3. The number of organisms of a population that the ecosystem can comfortably sustain is called
       __________.
         A. the limiting factor
         B. carrying capacity
         C. an abiotic factor
         D. density-dependent capacity

     4. Which is a positive effect of human population growth?
        A. Conservation programs
        B. Habitat destruction
        C. Pollution
        D. Extinction

                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 37 of 84
                    Domain 3: Structure and Properties of Matter
      Matter

Concept #1: States of Matter

   There are 3 states of matter present in everyday life:

          Solids – fixed volume and shape
            o Lowest energy phase
            o Usually the most dense state of matter (H2O is the exception)
            o Atoms in a solid are in fixed positions.

           Liquids – fixed volume but take the shape of their container

           Gases – take the shape and volume of their container
            o Highest energy phase
            o Least dense state of matter
            o Atoms in the gaseous state have freedom of movement and fill their container.


Practice Questions:
     1. Which of these samples could be compressed into a smaller space?
        A. 10 cm3 oil
        B. 10 cm3 helium
        C. 10 cm3 mercury
        D. All of the above

     2. Which would have the greatest mass?
        A. 5 cm3 solid oxygen
        B. 5 cm3 liquid oxygen
        C. 5 cm3 gaseous oxygen
        D. All would have the same mass.

    3. Which phase of matter has the most kinetic energy?
       A. solid
       B. liquid
       C. gas
       D. telophase




                             Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                      Page 38 of 84
Concept #2: Classification of Matter

     Elements are composed of all the same atoms and are represented by a symbol.
         o Examples: Sodium (Na), Iron (Fe), Helium (He), Hydrogen (H)

     Compounds are composed of two or more atoms chemically combined to form a molecule or
      formula unit.
         o Properties of a compound are different from those of the elements it contains.
         o Compounds have chemical formulas.
         o Examples: NaOH, H2O, MgCl2
         o Compounds can be separated only by a chemical reaction.
         o There are two types of compounds
              Ionic-formed by the attraction between two or more elements that transfer electrons (ions)
                Example: NaCl (one metal ion and one nonmetal ion)
              Covalent-formed when two or more elements share electrons
                Example: H2O (two nonmetals)

     Elements and compounds together are known as substances.

     Mixtures are composed of two or more elements and/or compounds that are mixed but not
      chemically combined. The properties of a mixture are the same as the properties of the substances
      it contains. Mixtures can be separated by physical means such as filtration, distillation, and
      chromatography.

          o   In a homogeneous mixture, the components are mixed so thoroughly that they
              cannot be individually observed and the mixture appears to be one material.
              These are also called solutions.
                  Solutions can be in any state. Metal alloys that are mixtures of metals are examples
                   of solid solutions.
                  In a solution the solvent will dissolve the solute. (Example: in a saltwater solution,
                   water (the solvent) dissolves salt (the solute).
                  Water is called the universal solvent since it is able to dissolve so many different
                   things.
                  A solvent is able to dissolve different amounts of solute depending on the amount
                   of solvent present and the type of solute. The following terms are used to describe
                   solutions:
                             Saturated solutions contain the maximum amount of solute in a given
                             amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure.
                             Unsaturated solutions contain less than the maximum amount of solute
                             in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure.
                             Supersaturated solutions contain more than the maximum amount of
                             solute in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure.

                   Increasing the temperature will generally increase the amount of solid solute that
                   will dissolve in a given amount of solvent. Decreasing the temperature will generally
                   increase the amount of gaseous solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent.


                            Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                 Carrollton High School
                                                     Page 39 of 84
       o In a heterogeneous mixture, the different components of the mixture can be
         observed. Examples are colloids such as milk and suspensions such as muddy water.

Practice Questions:
    1. Which of these samples of matter is NOT a pure substance?
       A. Water
       B. Brass
       C. Nickel
       D. Baking soda (NaHCO3)

    2. Which of these samples of matter is heterogeneous?
       A. Magnesium
       B. Soil
       C. Steel
       D. Air

    3. Identify the solution among the following.
       A. Copper
       B. Bronze
       C. Glucose (C6H12O6)
       D. Blood

    4. Sugar, flavoring, and water are mixed together to make a child’s drink. Sugar is a
       A. Solute
       B. Solvent
       C. Heterogeneous mixture
       D. Element

    5. Which of the following is always produced with the exact same proportions?
       A. Compound
       B. Solution
       C. Suspension
       D. Colloid

                          Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                               Carrollton High School
                                                   Page 40 of 84
Concept #3: Atomic Structure

      Atoms are composed of protons (positive charge) and neutrons (neutral charge). Protons and
       neutrons compose the nucleus of an atom. Surrounding the nucleus are electrons (negative
       charge).

      Electrons are in clouds at different energy levels. Each energy level can accommodate up to a
       given number of electrons. Some periodic charts will give the number of electrons in each energy
       level of that atom. (1st level holds 2 electrons and 2nd level holds 8 electrons)

      The atomic number is the number of protons in the atom (and the number of electrons if the atom
       is neutral). This is the whole number on the periodic chart that identifies the element.
           o Atoms with fewer electrons than protons are positive ions (example: Na+1). Metallic atoms
               lose electrons to form positive ions.
           o Atoms with more electrons than protons are negative ions (example: O-2). Nonmetallic
               atoms gain electrons to form negative ions.

      The atomic mass is the number of protons plus the average number of neutrons in atoms of a
       given type. It is represented by the decimal number on the chart. To determine the number of
       neutrons in an atom, simply subtract the atom’s atomic number from its atomic mass.

      Atoms of a given element can have different numbers of neutrons and, therefore, different masses.
       These are called isotopes.

      The mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in a single atom. It is a
       whole number. Rounding the atomic mass to a whole number gives the mass number for the most
       common isotope of an element.




                                                                     Which element is this?
                                                                     Oxygen




      Comparison of Subatomic Particles
     Subatomic Particle    Charge          Location                   Mass (amu)                  Number in atom
    Proton, p+          positive        Nucleus                           1                 Same as atomic number
    Neutron, no         neutral         Nucleus                           1                 Mass number – atomic number
    Electron, e-        negative        Electron cloud                 1/1840               Same as number of protons




                            Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                 Carrollton High School
                                                     Page 41 of 84
Practice Activity:
Complete the table below using the information provided and a periodic table.

        Element                Symbol         Atomic         Atomic         Number of         Number of   Number of
                                              Number          mass           protons           neutrons    electrons
   1    Uranium-238                  238         92           238               92              146          92
                                     92U
   2    Oxygen-16                    16          8             16                8               8            8
                                     8O
   3    Zinc-66                      66          30            66               30               36          30
                                     30Zn
   4    Silicon-27                   27          14            27               14               13          14
                                     14Si
   5    Iodine-126            126                53           126               53               73          53
                                53        I
   6    Gold-197              197                79          197                79              118          79
                                79    Au

Practice Questions:
    Hint: Use the Periodic Chart in the Resources section to help you answer these questions.
    1. An atom of radium (Ra) with mass number 222 has ______ neutrons.
       A. 222
       B. 88
       C. 134
       D. 310

    2. A neutral atom of iron will have _________ electrons.
       A. 26
       B. 56
       C. 30
       D. 55.847

    3. A carbon atom with mass 14 (C-14) and carbon with mass 12 (C-12) are called ____ of carbon.
        A. ions
        B. allotropes
        C. isotopes
        D. compounds

   4. How is an ion formed?
      A. An atom gains protons
      B. An atom gains electrons
      C. A compound loses electrons
      D. An atom loses neutrons




                          Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                               Carrollton High School
                                                   Page 42 of 84
Concept #4: Periodic Chart

      Elements on the periodic chart are arranged in periods (rows) and families or groups (columns).
       Elements in the same group share many chemical and physical properties.

      Metals appear on the left and center of the chart and nonmetals appear on the far right.

      The most reactive metals are in group 1 (or IA) and are called the alkali metals. The most
       reactive nonmetals are in group 17 (or VIIA) and are called the halogens. The elements in group
       18 (or VIIIA), the noble gases, are the least reactive since they have eight electrons in their
       valence level (highest energy level).

      Metals lose electrons during chemical reactions to form positive ions called cations. They often
       lose all of their valence electrons.

      Nonmetals gain electrons during chemical reactions to form negative ions called anions. They
       will gain enough electrons to complete the octet (8 electrons) in their valence (outer) level.

      The periodic law states that there is a periodic repetition of properties when elements are placed
       in order of increasing atomic number. This means that there are trends in periods and families on
       the periodic table.

          o The atomic radius is the radius of atoms.

                     Atomic radius increases as you move down a family due to the addition of an
                      energy level with each element.

                     Atomic radius decreases across a period due to increased nuclear charge attracting
                      the same valence level.

          o Ionization energy is the energy needed to remove an electron from an atom.

                     Ionization energy decreases as you move down a family. Valence electrons are not
                      held as tightly in large atoms and take less energy to remove.

                     Ionization energy increases across a period due to increased nuclear charge
                      exerting a greater pull on valence electrons. Valence electrons are held more
                      tightly and take more energy to remove.




                             Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                      Page 43 of 84
Practice Activity:
Get to know the arrangement. Identify each of the numbered regions on the periodic table shown
below.

                               1       2       3
               4                                                                   8
                   5                                                           7
                                   6




   1. Metals                                           5. Alkaline Earth Metals

   2. Nonmetals                                        6. Transition Metals

   3. Metalloids                                       7. Halogens

   4. Alkali Metals                                    8. Noble Gases


Practice Questions:
       Hint: Use the Periodic Chart in the Resources section to help you answer these questions.

       1. Which of these elements will form a positive ion after a chemical reaction takes place?
          A. Mg
          B. He
          C. F
          D. Kr

       2. Which element would be most similar to sodium (Na) in properties?
          A. Mg
          B. K
          C. Ne
          D. H

       3. Potassium (K) would likely react with which of the following elements?
          A. Kr
          B. Ca
          C. U
          D. Cl

                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 44 of 84
4. Which element is in the same period as Tin (Sn)?
   A.Y
   B. Pb
   C. W
   D. C

5. Which atom has the greatest radius?
   A. Na
   B. Mg
   C. Al
   D. S

6. Which atom has the greatest radius?
   A. Li
   B. Na
   C. K
   D. Rb

7. Which element has the greatest ionization energy?
   A. Ca
   B. Mg
   C. Sr
   D. Ba

8. Referring to the periodic chart, how many electrons are in the 2nd energy level in a phosphorus atom?
   A. 2
   B. 5
   C. 8
   D. 15




                       Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                            Carrollton High School
                                                Page 45 of 84
Concept #5: Matter has two types of properties:

      A physical property is observed with the five senses without destroying the object. Examples of
       physical properties are color, shape, mass, density, malleability, solubility, taste, odor, and
       ductility. Most measurements such as mass, length, temperature, and volume are also physical
       properties.

      A chemical property is how a substance reacts with another substance. In order to observe a
       chemical property, a chemical change must have occurred and produced a new substance. There
       are many signals that a chemical change has occurred such as a change of color, production of gas,
       exchange of energy, and the formation of a precipitate.



 Practice Questions:
       1. Joe makes observations about an unknown solid. He observes that it is a white crystal that
          dissolves in water and changes to a brown color when it reacts with an acid. The observation
          that it reacts with an acid is an example of a ________________.
          A. physical change
          B. chemical property
          C. physical property

       2. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3. This can be determined using a balance to measure mass
          and a graduated cylinder to measure volume. Density is an example of a(n) ____________.
          A. physical property
          B. chemical property
          C. energy change
          D. qualitative data




                             Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                      Page 46 of 84
Concept #6: There are two types of ways you can change matter.

      In a physical change, the original substance still exists (it has only changed in form). For
       example, you can tear a piece of paper into small pieces. The remains are still paper. You
       have changed the way it appears, but you have not made a new substance. A physical change
       does not change the way the atoms are linked. Energy changes usually do not accompany
       physical changes. No energy is taken in or given off unless there is a change of state. For
       example, if you heat a beaker of water until it boils to form steam, an energy change is
       required to change the water from a liquid to a gas but it is still water (just in a different state).
      There are six phase changes:
            Phase change                      What happens                                   Energy change
    Melting                            Solid becomes liquid                     Absorbs heat         Endothermic
    Vaporization (boiling or           Liquid becomes gas                       Absorbs heat         Endothermic
    evaporation)
    Sublimation                        Solid become gas                         Absorbs heat        Endothermic
    Freezing                           Liquid becomes solid                     Releases heat       Exothermic
    Condensation                       Gas becomes liquid                       Releases heat       Exothermic
    Deposition                         Gas becomes a solid                      Releases heat       Exothermic




      In a chemical change, a new substance is produced. This new substance has different
       properties from the old substance. When atoms change the way they link up, we say a
       chemical reaction has taken place. Energy changes always take place during a chemical
       reaction. Energy is either given off or taken in. A reaction in which energy is absorbed is
       called an endothermic reaction. A reaction in which energy is given off is called an
       exothermic reaction.

   Some example of changes:

         Physical changes                                          Chemical changes
   Melting          Dissolving                                    Rusting       Tarnishing
   Evaporating      Condensing                                    Decomposing   Reacting
   Cutting          Boiling                                       Burning       Fermenting
   Sublimating      Tearing                                       Oxidizing     Spoiling
   Stretching       Freezing                                      Cooking       Electrolyzing
                           Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                Carrollton High School
                                                    Page 47 of 84
Practice Questions:
     1. Boiling can be defined as a_____________.
        A. chemical change
        B. phase change of liquid to gas
        C. substance undergoing sublimation
        D. change from gas to a liquid that requires absorption of energy

     2. A container of sugar water is heated. The solution boils and produces steam. As the liquid
        evaporates, a black substance begins to form. What reason would explain why this is a
        chemical change?
        A. A phase change of liquid to gas occurs.
        B. An energy change occurs.
        C. A color change indicates a new substance is produced.
        D. Evaporation causes the liquid to disappear.

     3. A solid, white crystal is added to a liquid. As the solid dissolves, the solution turns cloudy and
        the container feels hot to the touch. This would be an example of a(n) ________________.
        A. physical change
        B. endothermic reaction
        C. exothermic reaction

     4. Which of the following is a chemical change?
        A. sugar dissolving in water
        B. paper burning
        C. ice melting
        D. water boiling

     5. Which of the following phase changes requires a loss of energy?
        A. melting
        B. condensation
        C. sublimation
        D. boiling




                           Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                Carrollton High School
                                                    Page 48 of 84
                   Domain 3: Structure and Properties of Matter
 Acids and Bases

  Acids are substances that dissociate to produce H+1 ions in solution. Examples of common acids are
  HCl, HBr, HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4, citric acid, and vinegar.

  Bases are substances that dissociate to produce OH-1 ions in solution. Examples of common bases are
  NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, antacids, and lime.

   Substances that produce neither H+1 ions nor OH-1 ions are called salts or neutral substances.

                          Acids                                                     Bases
   Ions Produced          H+1 ions                                                  OH-1 ions
   Taste                  Sour                                                      Bitter
   Litmus Reaction        Turn blue litmus red                                      Turn red litmus blue
   Reactions              React with metals to produce hydrogen;                    React with grease and dirt; denature
                          react with bases in neutralization                        proteins (feels slippery on skin);
                                                                                    react with acids in neutralization


  The scale that measures the concentration of hydrogen ions (also known as hydronium ions) is called
  the pH scale. A pH less than 7 indicates an acidic solution, a pH of 7 is neutral, and a pH greater than
  7 (up to 14) is basic/ alkaline. The lower the pH, the greater the acidity and the higher the pH, the
  greater the alkalinity.

  Indicators are substances that change color in the presence of an acid or a base. Common indicators
  are phenolphthalein and litmus. Phenolphthalein is colorless in acids and neutral substances, but
  turns pink in bases. Red litmus remains red in acids and neutral substances, but turns blue in bases.
  Blue litmus remains blue in bases and neutral substances, but turns red in acids.

  When an acid and a base are combined together, they undergo neutralization. They produce water
  and a salt. Salts are formed from the cation (positive ion) of the base and the anion (negative ion) of
  the acid. The water is formed from the OH-1 of the base and the H+1 of the acid.

  Example:
             HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H2O
             acid  base    salt  water




                            Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                 Carrollton High School
                                                     Page 49 of 84
Practice Questions:
    1. Lemons taste sour. They are probably a(n) ___________.
       A. acid
       B. base
       C. salt
       D. indicator

    2. Which of the following would be an acid?
       A. NaOH
       B. NaCl
       C. HCl
       D. Mg(OH)2

    3. Beth performs several tests on a clear liquid. She finds that the liquid turns blue litmus red, but
       does not cause red litmus to change color. Beth most likely has a liquid that would have a pH of
       __________.
       A. 2
       B. 7
       C. 8
       D. 12

    4. Which of the following is a product formed during a neutralization reaction?
       A. acid
       B. base
       C. indicator
       D. salt




                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 50 of 84
                        Domain 4: Energy Transformations
Concept #1:
   Energy is not created or destroyed but is conserved. This is the Law of Conservation of Energy.
   Energy can change from one form of energy to another. For example, when you use a hairdryer,
   electrical energy is changed into heat energy.


Concept #2: Heat exchange always takes place from regions of high temperature to regions of lower
temperature and can occur in three ways:

      Radiation is when heat is transferred by electromagnetic waves (such as being warmed by the
       sunlight).

      Conduction is when heat is transferred by the collision of particles (such as when a stove
       heats a pan to cook food). Metals are good conductors and transfer heat easily. Insulators do
       not transfer heat easily. Glass, rubber, and plastic are good insulators.

      Convection is when heat is spread by gas or liquid particle movement (such as when the
       heating system in your house warms the air).




                                                                                              www.g9toengineering.com



Concept #3: There are two main types of energy:

      Potential energy is stored energy. Gravitational potential energy is dependent upon the
       position of an object. A rock at the top of a hill has more stored energy due to its position than
       the same rock at the bottom of the hill. Other examples of potential energy include chemical
       and nuclear energy.

      Kinetic energy is energy of motion. A motionless rock at the top of the hill has its greatest
       amount of potential energy and its least kinetic energy. As the rock begins to roll down the
       hill, its potential energy changes into kinetic energy. At the point when the rock is rolling the
       fastest, it has its greatest kinetic energy and its least amount of potential energy. Examples of
       kinetic energy include electricity, light, mechanical, and sound.

                          Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                               Carrollton High School
                                                   Page 51 of 84
Practice Questions:
    1. An example of an energy transfer in which chemical energy is transferred into light energy
       would be a ______________.
       A. microwave
       B. flashlight
       C. solar calculator
       D. hairdryer

    2. Which of the following best defines radiation?
       A. Marshmallows roasting over a fire
       B. A hot air balloon
       C. A lizard warming in the sun
       D. Burning your finger on a hot pan

    3. Why does a skier travel to the highest point on the ski slope?
       A. He is attempting to increase his potential energy in order to increase his speed.
       B. He is increasing his kinetic energy in order to decrease his potential energy.
       C. He decreases his kinetic energy in order to increase his potential energy.

    4. An icepack contains ammonium nitrate. When this is dissolved in water it gets considerably
       cold. This is an example of heat energy being converted into _____ energy.
       A. light
       B. mechanical
       C. chemical
       D. nuclear

    5. Energy is added in the form of heat to a pot of water on the stove. This causes the water to
       _________.
       A. decrease kinetic energy
       B. increase kinetic energy
       C. decrease potential energy
       D. increase potential energy




                          Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                               Carrollton High School
                                                   Page 52 of 84
Concept #4 : Nuclear Energy

      Radioactive decay is a spontaneous process where unstable nuclei lose energy by emitting
      radiation. Nuclear stability depends on the ratio of protons to neutrons in the nucleus. There are 3
      basic types of radiation involved in radioactive decay: alpha, beta, and gamma rays. When a
      nucleus emits alpha or beta particles, a different element is formed.




                                                                                                www.who.int



                   Alpha                                    Beta                                  Gamma
       Charge      +2                                       -1                                    0
       Nature      Made of 2 protons and                    A very fast moving electron           Electromagnetic waves
                   2 neutrons (same as the                                                        of high frequency and
                   nucleus of a helium atom)                                                      energy
       Penetration Absorbed by paper or 5                   Absorbed by 3 mm of                   Needs > 10 cm of lead
                   cm of air                                aluminum                              to stop

      Half-life is the time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay into another
      element. During each half-life that occurs, half the sample has decayed into another element.
          Example: If an element Z has a half-life of 5 minutes and you have a sample of 40 grams
              of Z, then after 5 minutes (one half-life) the sample of Z remaining would be 20 grams
              (1/2) with the other half having been converted into another element. After another 5
              minutes (a second half-life), the sample of Z remaining would be 10 grams (1/4). The other
              half would have been converted into another element.




                                                                                                     www.coolschool.ca



                            Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                 Carrollton High School
                                                     Page 53 of 84
    Nuclear Fission is the splitting of large atoms. This releases large amounts of energy. These
    types of reactions occur in nuclear reactors.

    Nuclear Fusion combines small nuclei into larger nuclei. This also releases large amounts of
    energy. These types of reactions occur in the sun.




Practice Questions:
    1. A sample of radioactive radium decays to form radon and emits 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
       Which of the following should be used to absorb the radiation?
       A. Paper
       B. Aluminum foil
       C. Lead sheet
       D. All of the choices above will absorb the radiation.

    2. A 50 gram sample of a radioactive element has a half-life of 2 years. If 6.25 grams remain
       how many years have passed?
       A. 2 years
       B. 4 years
       C. 6 years

    3. The nucleus of a large atom splits and two smaller atoms are formed. What is the name of the
       process?
       A. friction
       B. fusion
       C. fission
       D. binary multiplication

    4. 750 million years ago, there was enough Uranium-235 in Oklo, Gabon to have a natural fission
       reaction occur and generate a chain reaction. If these is currently 50 kg of U-235 present in
       Oklo, how much must have been present 750 million years ago when the reaction took place?
       A. 200 kg
       B. 100 kg
       C. 50 kg
       D. 25 kg




                         Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                              Carrollton High School
                                                  Page 54 of 84
                       Domain 5: Forces, Waves, and Electricity
      Forces

Concept #1:
   A force is simply a push or a pull; it is anything that changes the velocity of an object by causing the
   object to start moving, stop moving, or change its motion in any way. This change in motion is called
   acceleration. Forces are measured in the metric unit called the Newton.

        Some types of forces include:

           o Friction is an example of a force that exists between surfaces that move past each other.
             Air resistance is one type of frictional force.

           o Gravity is the force that exists between all objects, and is determined by the objects’
             masses and the distance between them.

           o Magnetism is the force that includes the attraction of iron for a magnet, and is associated
             with the motion of electric charge.


        The force that results from combining all forces acting on an object is the net force. If the
         combined forces result in a net force of zero, the object is said to be in equilibrium.

           o Newton’s 1st Law of Motion (The Law of Inertia) is stated as follows: An object at rest
             will stay at rest and object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by some outside
             net force. Newton referred to this tendency of objects to remain in motion or stay at rest as
             inertia, which is measured by an object’s mass. The greater the mass of an object, the
             greater its inertia and its tendency to maintain its current state.

               So, an object in equilibrium, with a net force of zero, will not accelerate.

           o If the combined forces acting on an object result in a value that is not zero, the object will
             accelerate according to Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion (The Law of Acceleration):
             F = ma (force = mass x acceleration). The greater the applied force, the greater the
             acceleration of the object. The larger the mass of an object, the smaller the acceleration.

           o Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion states that for every action there is an equal but opposite
             reaction. If object A exerts a force on object B, then object B exerts an equal force on
             object A but in the opposite direction.




                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 55 of 84
Practice Questions:
   1. Two forces, 25 N and 14 N, both act in the same direction on an object. What is the net force
      acting on the object?
      A. 25 N
      B. 39 N
      C. 11 N
      D. 14 N


   2. If the forces in #1 above are acting in opposite directions on an object, what is the net force
      acting on the object?
      A. 25 N
      B. 39 N
      C. 11 N
      D. 14 N


   3. What will be the acceleration of an object with a mass of 12 kg when it is acted upon by a net
      force of 5 Newtons?
      A. 0.4 m/s2
      B. 60 m/s2
      C. 2.4 m/s2




                           Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                Carrollton High School
                                                    Page 56 of 84
Concept #2:
   Speed is the rate at which distance is covered; velocity is speed with direction. When an object
   accelerates, its velocity changes. Consequently, acceleration can include a change in speed (either
   increasing or decreasing) and/or a change in direction.


         To calculate the velocity of an object, the following equation will be used:
          d
       v            (Velocity is displacement divided by time.)
           t


         To calculate the acceleration of an object, the following equation will be used:
          v f  vi
       a            (Acceleration is the change in velocity divided by time.)
              t


   When an object is in free fall, the only force acting on the object is the force of gravity (air resistance
   is not considered). The acceleration due to gravity, g, is -9.8 m/s2.




Practice Questions:
     1. In 35 seconds, a cyclist rides 0.10 km. What is the velocity of the cyclist in km/s?
        A. 3.5 km/s
        B. 0.0029 km/s
        C. 350 km/s
        D. 0.29 km/s

     2. What is the acceleration of a plane that changes velocity from 75 m/s to 140 m/s in 15s?
        A. 4.3 m/s2
        B. 14 m/s2
        C. 5 m/s2
        D. 135 m/s2

     3. A stone falls from rest until its velocity is -4.5 m/s. Not considering air resistance, how long did
        the stone fall?
         A. 44 s
         B. 0.46 s
         C. 0.22 s




                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 57 of 84
 Concept #3:
    Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Weight is the response of mass to gravity.

           Mass is measured in kilograms and mass does not change due to location. Mass is measured
            by using a balance that compares a known amount of matter to an unknown amount of matter.

                                                                weight
                                           mass 
                                                      acceleration due to gravity

                                 (acceleration due to gravity on earth = -9.8 m/s2 )


           Weight is a force measured in Newtons and weight is affected by location. Weight is measured
            on a scale.

                                     weight  mass x acceleration due to gravity




Practice Questions:
    1. A certain cube has a mass of 95 kg and weight of 931 N on Earth. What will be its mass and
       weight on another planet that has an acceleration due to gravity of 4.5 m/s2 ?
       A. Mass of 95 kg and weight of 931 N
       B. Mass of 931 kg and weight of 95 N
       C. Mass of 95 kg and weight of 428 N
       D. Mass of 428 kg and weight of 95 N

    2. A cube of 11 kg is moved to Venus. What will be its new mass on Venus if Venus has an
       acceleration due to gravity of 8.6 m/s2?
       A. 11 kg
       B. 94.6 kg
       C. 8.6 kg
       D. 108 kg

    3. A cube of 11 kg is moved to Venus. What will be its new weight on Venus if Venus has an
       acceleration due to gravity of 8.6 m/s2?
       A. 11 N
       B. 94.6 N
       C. 8.6 N
       D. 108 N




                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 58 of 84
Concept #4:

   There are two major formulas that govern gravity:

         Universal Gravitation tells us that each particle of matter attracts every other particle of
          matter with a force equal to the product of the masses of the two particles of matter divided by
          the square of the distance between the centers of mass of the particles. In other words, the
          force of gravity between two objects increases as the mass of either object increases and
          decreases as the distance between the objects increases.

                                                                              m1 m2
                                          Gravitational Force  G
                                                                               d2


         On earth the force of gravity is called the weight of the object. All objects on the earth
          experience a force directed toward the center of the earth. The formula for weight equals the
          mass of the object multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity. The accepted value for the
          acceleration due to gravity, g, here on earth is -9.8 m/s2.

                                            Force of Weight  mg




                            Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                 Carrollton High School
                                                     Page 59 of 84
Practice Questions:
    1. You weigh 526 N on Earth. Planet Y has twice the mass of Earth and twice the radius of Earth.
       What is your weight in Newtons on planet Y?
       A. 53 N
       B. 263 N
       C. 526 N
       D. 1040 N

    2. An imaginary dense Star X has ½ the earth’s radius but 1000 times the earth’s mass. What would
       a mass weighing 1.0 N on Earth weigh on Star X?
       A. 2000 N
       B. 4000 N
       C. 500 N
       D. 1000 N

    3. An object weighing 40 N on the earth’s surface would weigh only 10 N when its distance from the
       center of the earth is ______________.
       A. doubled
       B. halved
       C. tripled
       D. quadrupled

    4. What is the weight on the surface of the earth of an object with a mass of 10 kg?
       A. 10 N
       B. 9.8 N
       C. 98 N
       D. 980 N

    5. An object with a weight of 19.6 N would have a mass of what value on the surface of the earth?
       A. 1 kg
       B. 2 kg
       C. 10 kg
       D. 9.8 kg




                             Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                  Carrollton High School
                                                      Page 60 of 84
Concept #5:
   Work is accomplished when an applied force causes an object to move in the direction of the
   force. Work can be made easier by using simple machines. When a machine puts out more force
   than is put in, the machine is said to have mechanical advantage.

                                                                w f xd

                                      The unit for work is the newton meter = joule.

               No work is done if the object does not move in the direction of the applied force.

               Simple machines are devices that only require the application of a single force to do
                work. A simple machine does not multiply the work done but instead it multiplies the
                force. A traditional list of simple machines includes:

                     1) Inclined plane- examples: ramp, staircase

                     2) Lever- examples: seesaw, hammer, bottle opener, door on hinges

                     3) Screw- examples: bolt, spiral staircase

                     4) Pulley- examples: flag pole, crane, mini-blinds

                     5) Wheel and axle- examples: door knob, wagon, toy car

                     6) Wedge- examples: axe, zipper, knife



                Mechanical Advantage (MA) is the factor by which a mechanism multiplies the force
                 put into it.

                     o There are two types of mechanical advantage:
                           Ideal mechanical advantage (IMA) does not consider frictional loss.

                                                                    Effort Length 
                                                            IMA 
                                                                                   
                                                                  ResistanceLength 
                                                                                    


                                Actual mechanical advantage (AMA) takes into account frictional
                                 loss.

                                                                             F 
                                                                        AMA  R 
                                                                       
                                                                             FE 
                                                                                 

                                      Where FR is Force due to resistance and FE is Force due to effort.
                            Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                 Carrollton High School
                                                     Page 61 of 84
Practice Questions:
   1.   Work is done when a(n) _____________.
        A. object is at rest
        B. force is applied to an object
        C. force causes an object to move

   2.   Which of the following is a unit for work?
        A. Newton
        B. Joule
        C. Watt
        D. Joule/Second

   3.   A person prevents an 8000 N car from rolling down a hill by pushing with a force of 280 N.
        How much work has the person done?
        A. 0 J
        B. 5000 J
        C. 150000 J
        D. 2240000 J

     4. A crate rests on a hill that is 12 m long and 3 m high. The crate weighs 80 N and it takes 25 N
        to push it up the 12 m hill. What is the IMA of the hill?
        A. 1.25
        B. 3
        C. 3.2
        D. 4

     5. What is the AMA of the hill?
        A. 1.25
        B. 3
        C. 3.2
        D. 4

     6. Which of the following is NOT an example of a lever?
        A. a broom
        B. a crowbar
        C. a knife blade
        D. a bottle opener




                           Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                Carrollton High School
                                                    Page 62 of 84
                        Domain 5: Forces, Waves, and Electricity
    Waves

Concept #1:
   Waves are a way to transfer energy without transferring the matter.

      There are two major types of waves:

               o Electromagnetic waves can travel in a vacuum (they do not require a medium).
                 Example: light

               o Mechanical waves can only travel in a material medium.
                 Example: sound

      Waves can disturb the particles of a medium parallel to the direction of the energy. Such a wave is
       called longitudinal. Example: sound




                                                                                                     www.ddart.net

      Waves can disturb the particles of a medium perpendicular to the direction of the energy. Such a
       wave is called transverse. Example: water waves and waves on a string.




                                                                                                  www.ddart.net

      Waves have different properties:

           o    Frequency is the number of disturbances per unit of time.
           o    Period is the time for one wave to pass by a given point.
           o    Wavelength is the distance between successive in-phase particles.
           o    Amplitude is the maximum displacement from equilibrium and is related to the energy of
                the wave.


                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 63 of 84
       Label the indicated parts of the wave pictured below.

                                                             wavelength
                  amplitude             crest




                                                              equilibrium


                    amplitude



   Waves have characteristic behaviors:                   trough

       o Reflection is the bouncing back of a wave from the edge of a boundary. The angle of
         incidence formed between the boundary and the incoming wave is equal to the angle of
         reflection between the boundary and the outgoing wave.




                                                                                             www.dosits.org



       o Refraction is the bending of a wave as it enters a new medium obliquely. The refraction
         occurs because the wave has a different speed in the new medium. Refraction is why a
         pencil looks broken when it is placed in a glass of water.

                                                          Incident ray




                                                                         Air

                                                                         Water




                                                                                             reefkeeping.com

       o Diffraction is the spreading of a wave as it moves around the edge of a boundary.
         Diffraction explains how sound can be heard around corners.

                         Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                              Carrollton High School
                                                  Page 64 of 84
                        Diffraction of waves through a slit




       o Interference occurs when two or more waves occupy the same space at the same time and
         they add together as vectors. Interference can be constructive or destructive because of the
         direction of the waves.




                                                                             library.thinkquest.org

Practice Questions:
1. Waves provide a means of transferring ______________.
   A. matter
   B. particles
   C. liquids
   D. energy

2. Waves that do not require a material medium to travel are called ______________.
   A. electromagnetic
   B. mechanical
   C. diffraction
   D. reflection

3. The bouncing back of a particle or wave that strikes a boundary is called ______________.
   A. reflection
   B. refraction
   C. diffraction
   D. interference




                         Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                              Carrollton High School
                                                  Page 65 of 84
Concept #2:
   Wave energy is dependent on the frequency and wavelength of an electromagnetic wave.
   Frequency (f) and wavelength () are inversely proportional, so the higher the frequency, the
   shorter the wavelength. Higher frequency waves are more energetic and therefore potentially
   more damaging.

   The electromagnetic spectrum is divided into regions based on frequency and wavelength.
   The spectrum ranges from radio, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma
   rays.

          Radio waves have the longest wavelength and the lowest frequency, so they are the least
           dangerous because of their low energy.

          Gamma rays have the shortest wavelength and the highest frequency, so they are the most
           dangerous because of their high energy.




                                                                                             www.centennialofflight.gov

Practice Questions:
1. Which wave has the longest wavelength?
   A. Microwaves
   B. X rays
   C. Visible waves

2. Which wave would be most energetic?
   A. Gamma rays
   B. X rays
   C. Visible

3. As frequency of a wave gets larger, what else happens?
   A. Wavelength gets larger.
   B. Energy gets lower.
   C. Wavelength gets smaller.


                         Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                              Carrollton High School
                                                  Page 66 of 84
 Concept #3:
    Sound waves require a material medium to travel. This type of wave is known as a mechanical
    wave.

    Sound waves follow characteristic patterns:

         Sound travels faster in denser mediums (such as steel) than they do in less dense mediums
          (such as air).

         Sound travels faster in warmer mediums (such as hot air) than they do in cooler temperatures
          (such as cold air).

         Different sound waves appear different because they have different pitch or frequency. The
          higher the frequency, the higher the pitch.

         The volume of a sound wave is determined by the amplitude and is measured in decibels.

         The Doppler effect occurs when the sound wave produced by a moving object seems to have
          a higher pitch as the object approaches the observer and a lower pitch as they move away.
          This phenomenon is due to the compression and spreading out of sound waves created by the
          movement of the source of the sound. Sonic booms are created when the source of the sound
          wave catches up to and passes the front of the sound wave.


Practice Questions:
    1. A person puts an ear to a railroad track while another person standing close by listens for the
       train through the air. Which person will hear the sound of the train first?
       A. The person standing beside the track listening through the air
       B. The person with an ear to the steel track
       C. Both will hear the train at the same time

    2. A sound wave is sent through warm air while another sound wave is sent through very cold
       air. Which sound wave will travel faster?
       A. The wave in warm air
       B. The wave in the cool air
       C. Neither since temperature doesn’t affect speed of sound.

    3. The pitch of the siren on an ambulance appears to be getting higher. The ambulance is
       A. moving toward the observer.
       B. moving away from the observer.
       C. at rest.




                          Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                               Carrollton High School
                                                   Page 67 of 84
Concept #4:
   Light waves can be reflected from mirrors and can be refracted through lenses.

   Light waves have certain properties:

          When light reflects from mirrors it does so in a predictable manner. The angle of incidence
           formed between the incoming wave and the perpendicular to the mirror is equal to the angle of
           reflection formed between the outgoing wave and the perpendicular to the mirror.

          When light passes from air into a glass lens, the light will bend or refract as a result of the
           change in speed it experiences. Light does not require a medium to travel, so the glass actually
           slows down the light as compared to its speed in air. Light bends towards the normal
           (perpendicular) when traveling from less dense air into glass, which is denser than air.

          When light passes from the glass lens back into the air, it will refract or bend again as it
           changes speed. As the light speeds up returning to the medium of the air, it will bend away
           from the normal.

          The speed of light in a vacuum is 3.0 x 108 m/s. (All electromagnetic waves travel at this
           speed).

          Visible light consists of seven colors, each having a different wavelength. From longest
           wavelength to shortest, the colors are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
           (ROYGBIV)




                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 68 of 84
Practice Questions:
  1. The speed of light is greatest in _______________.
     A. air
     B. water
     C. steel
     D. a vacuum

  2. When light passes into a lens from air, the light ________________.
     A. bends towards the normal
     B. bends away from the normal
     C. does not bend as it does not change speed

  3. Rear view mirrors can be adjusted to reflect light to a predictable spot because ______________.
     A. the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection
     B. the angle of incidence does not equal the angle of reflection




                           Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                Carrollton High School
                                                    Page 69 of 84
                        Domain 5: Forces, Waves, and Electricity
      Electricity and Magnetism

Concept #1:
   Magnetism is a result of moving charged particles. Magnets exert forces on objects made of iron and
   a few other elements because a magnetic field exists around a magnet. This magnetic field is
   represented by magnetic field lines that show the direction and magnitude of this force field. The
   magnetic field is strongest at the magnet’s poles, which are usually at the ends of a magnet. Some
   important concepts to remember are:

          Magnets have a north pole and a south pole.
             o A single pole has never been found; magnetic poles always come in pairs.
             o Even if you cut a magnet in half, each half will have two poles.

          Like poles repel and unlike poles attract.

   A magnetic field surrounds the earth. A compass, which is used to locate the earth’s North Pole, is
   actually a magnet that is freely suspended and able to move.


Concept #2:
      A magnetic field also exists around a wire carrying a current. If a wire is looped to form a coil, and
      current flows through the coil, an electromagnet has been formed. The coil of current carrying
      wire has a north pole and a south pole just like a bar magnet. When the current is stopped, the coil
      no longer behaves as a magnet. Electromagnets are very beneficial. For one thing,
      electromagnets can be very strong; additionally, they are beneficial because their magnetism can
      be turned off and on. Electromagnets are used in lots of everyday devices such as radios,
      doorbells, and stereo speakers.

       The strength of an electromagnet can be increased by:
           increasing the number of loops of wire.
           increasing the current through the wire.
           inserting an iron core into the center of the loops of wire.

       Interestingly, if wire is looped to form a coil, and a magnet is moved back and forth in the coil,
       current is produced in the wire. The process of generating a current in this way is called
       electromagnetic induction. Moving the magnet faster increases the current, as does increasing
       the number of coils.

       Motors and generators use the concept of electromagnetic induction but perform opposite tasks:
          Motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
          Generators convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.




                              Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                   Carrollton High School
                                                       Page 70 of 84
Practice Questions:
    1. All magnets ________________.
       A. are shaped like a horseshoe
       B. have two north poles
       C. have two south poles
       D. are surrounded by a magnetic field

    2. An electromagnet ________________.
       A. can be formed when a magnet moves in and out of a coil of wire
       B. can be turned on and off
       C. can be strengthened by increasing the number of loops in the coil of wire
       D. All of the above are correct.

    3. A magnetic field _________________.
       A. exists around a current carrying wire
       B. can be detected by a compass
       C. surrounds the earth
       D. All of the above are correct.

    4. A ceiling fan uses a motor that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
       A. True
       B. False

    5. In most electric power plants, magnets are moved through a coil of wire. This motion causes
       current to flow through the wire. The equipment that does this is called a _________.
       A. motor
       B. generator
       C. circuit
       D. amplifier




                        Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                             Carrollton High School
                                                 Page 71 of 84
Concept #3:
   Charge (measured in coulombs) flows when there is a potential difference, or voltage, across the
   ends of a conductor.

           To sustain a potential difference, a voltage source is required. Examples of voltage sources
            include batteries and generators. The alternator in a car is an example of a generator.

           Electric current is the rate of flow of charge and is measured in amperes, which is defined as
            the flow of 1 coulomb of charge per second.

           Electric resistance is the resistance of a substance to the flow of electric charge.


   Ohm’s Law describes the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance and is stated
   mathematically as follows:

                                                          V = IR

          V = voltage, measured in volts
          I = current, measured in amperes
          R = resistance, measured in ohms (Ω)


Concept #4:
   An electrical circuit is any pathway along which charge may flow. There are two types of circuits
   that we will review:

           Series circuits form a single path for the flow of charge.
                   o Because there is a single path, if one device fails, charge is no longer able to flow,
                       and none of the devices will work. Some older (or less expensive) holiday lights
                       are like this. If one bulb quits working, the entire string goes out!
                   o The diagram below is an example of a series circuit. Note that the circuit forms a
                       single pathway for the flow of electric charge.
                   o In a series circuit, the overall resistance of the circuit increases as more resistors are
                       added. In this example, the total resistance of the circuit is 34 ohms, which is the
                       sum of the individual resistors. (Rtotal = 6 + 14 + 14 = 34 ohms)
                   o If lights are added in series, the bulbs become dimmer with each addition.


                                                          R1 = 6


                                                                                R2 = 14
                               60v

                                                               R3 = 14


                               Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                    Carrollton High School
                                                        Page 72 of 84
       Parallel circuits form branches which provide separate paths for the flow of charge.
               o Because there are separate paths for the flow of charge, if one device fails, devices
                   in other paths will still work. Good for us that our homes are wired in parallel!
               o The diagram below is an example of a parallel circuit. Note the two branches in
                   which the 20 ohm resistors are placed. If one device goes out, the other will still
                   work because it is in a separate branch.
               o In a parallel circuit, the overall resistance of the circuit decreases as more branches
                   are added. The equivalent resistance for the diagram below is
                   10 ohms, which is less than either resistor alone based on the formula:

                     1     1    1    1
                         =    +       …
                    R eq   R1   R 2 R3


                   1 = 1 + 1 = 1
                   Req 20  20  10

                   If the voltage remains unchanged, the brightness of each individual bulb remains
                   the same despite the addition of each additional bulb.

               o If too many devices are being used, the overall resistance of the circuit decreases.
                 According to Ohm’s Law, decreasing the resistance increases the current. This
                 can create a dangerous condition called overloading which could possibly cause a
                 fire to start if the insulation on the wires were to melt. As a safety feature, fuses or
                 circuit breakers open the circuit when too much current causes overloading.



                                                   4a




                                                         R1 = 20          R2 = 20



Practice Questions:
    1. Calculate the current in a 12 volt battery that powers a 10 ohm resistor.
       A. 1.2 amps
       B. 120 amps
       C. 8.3 amps

    2. In the diagram of the parallel circuit above, what will happen to R1 if R2 “goes out”?
       A. R1 will go out as well.
       B. R1 will continue to work since it is in a separate pathway than R2.

                          Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                               Carrollton High School
                                                   Page 73 of 84
                                                 Resources
The following 2 pages will be provided for you on the day of the GHSGT. Use them!

                                 SCIENCE FACTS AND FORMULAS

   Some of the questions in this test require you to solve problems. This page contains all the basic
   facts and formulas you will need to solve those problems. You may refer to this page as often as
   you wish while you take the test. Some questions may require information from the Periodic
   Table. This table can be found at the end of the test booklet.


                                          Basic Facts
   Acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 meters/second/second (9.8 m/s2)
   Weight = Mass (m)  Acceleration due to gravity (g)        (W = mg)
   Density = Mass/Volume
   Volume of a Rectangular Solid = Length  Width  Height
   1 newton = 1 kilogrammeter/second/second
   1 joule = 1 newtonmeter
   1 watt = 1 newtonmeter/second = 1 joule/second

                                                   Motion
                                    d
   Velocity = distance/time    v
                                    t
                                                                       v f  vi
   Acceleration = Change in Velocity/Time Elapsed                 a
                                                       t
                       Force, Mechanical Advantage, Power, Work
   Force = Mass  Acceleration      (F = ma)

   Mechanical Advantage
                                                        F 
          Actual Mechanical Advantage:           AMA  R  ,
                                                
                                                        FE 
                                                            
          where FR is Force due to resistance and FE is Force due to effort.

                                               Effort Length 
          Ideal Mechanical Advantage:  IMA 
                                                              
                                             ResistanceLength 
                                                               

                                                          w
          Power = Work/Time                            P  
                                                          t 

   Work = Force  Distance                             (W = Fd)

                                                Electricity
   Voltage = Current  Resistance                      (V = IR)

                        Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                             Carrollton High School
                                                 Page 74 of 84
Practice Test
1. A car starts from rest at a stop light and reaches 20 m/s in 3.5 seconds. Determine the acceleration of the
   car.
        a. 3.5 m/s2
        b. 5.7 m/s2
        c. 20 m/s2
        d. 70 m/s2

2. The atomic number of magnesium is 12. Its nucleus must contain
      a. 6 protons and 6 neutrons
      b. 6 neutrons and 6 electrons
      c. 12 protons and 0 electrons
      d. 12 neutrons and 0 protons

3. An icepack contains ammonium nitrate. When this is dissolved in water, it gets cold. This is an example
   of heat energy being converted into
       a. light
       b. mechanical
       c. chemical
       d. nuclear

4. Malaria is caused by ___.
      a. bacteria
      b. mutations
      c. Giardia
      d. a protist

5. Fleas living on a dog are an example of ___.
       a. parasitism
       b. mutualism
       c. commensalism
       d. predator-prey

6. The acceleration of gravity is about -10 m/s2. This means that…
      a. the velocity of a falling body increases by 10 m/s every second
      b. the velocity of a falling body increases by 1 m/s every 10 seconds
      c. the distance of a falling body increases by 10 m every second
      d. the time of a falling body increases by 1 second every 10 meters

7. Which of the following is an example of something that would be separated by a filter and a funnel?
     a. a mixture of sand and water
     b. salt water
     c. Kool-aid
     d. Coca-cola



                               Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                      Buford High School
                                                        Page 76 of 84
8. Which of the following is not a form of electromagnetic radiation?
          a. AM radio waves
          b. Beta particles
          c. Ultraviolet light
          d. Gamma rays

9. If each normal body cell of a human contains 46 chromosomes, then the number of chromosomes in a
   human egg will be ___.
           a. 46
           b. 24
           c. 23
           d. 36

10. If a population grows larger than its environmental carrying capacity, then…
           a. birth rate may rise significantly
           b. death rate may rise
           c. death rate may fall significantly
           d. immigration rate may increase

11. Mike traveled for 4 hours at a rate of 55 mph. How far did he travel?
          a. 110 miles
          b. 11 miles
          c. 220 miles
          d. 55 miles

12. In an electrically stable atom of any element, there are equal numbers of ___.
           a. protons and neutrons
           b. electrons and neutrons
           c. electrons and protons
           d. atomic number and atomic mass

13. Which phase of matter has the most kinetic energy?
         a. solid
         b. liquid
         c. gas
         d. telophase

14. A farmer cut a branch from his favorite tree and planted it in a bucket of soil which grew to be a new
    tree. The farmer’s method of growing a new plant is a type of:
           a. Meiosis
           b. Asexual reproduction
           c. Succession
           d. Sexual reproduction




                               Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                      Buford High School
                                                        Page 77 of 84
15. In marine food chains, the ___ are microscopic organisms called phytoplankton.
          a. consumers
          b. producers
          c. heterotrophs
          d. herbivores

16. In most electric power plants, magnets are moved through a coil of wire. This causes current to flow
    through the wire. The equipment that does this is called a ___.
          a. motor
          b. generator
          c. circuit
          d. amplifier

17. Stranded at sea in a life raft with no drinkable water, which of the following items would be useful?
           a. funnel and filter
           b. chromatography paper
           c. distillation apparatus
           d. $3,000,000

18. Americium 241 is a radioactive substance used in smoke detectors. The half life of Americium 241 is
    432 years. If a smoke detector initially contains 1 gram of Americium 241, how much will remain in
    432 years?
          a. 2.0 g
          b. 1.5 g
          c. 1.0 g
          d. 0.5 g

19. The products of photosynthesis that begin cellular respiration are ___.
          a. organic compounds and oxygen
          b. carbon dioxide and water
          c. NADPH and hydrogen
          d. AARP and water

20. What is a group of organisms of different species living together in a particular place called?
          a. community
          b. population
          c. biome
          d. habitat

21. When light enters a pair of glasses, it ___ when it hits the glass.
         a. speeds up
         b. refracts
         c. diffracts
         d. reflects




                                Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                       Buford High School
                                                         Page 78 of 84
22. Where is over 99% of the mass of an atom located?
         a. the nucleus
         b. the electron cloud
         c. the protons
         d. the neutrons

23. The nucleus of a large atoms splits and two smaller atoms are formed. What is the name of the process?
          a. friction
          b. fusion
          c. fission
          d. binary multiplication

24. What is the function of the cell organelle known as the Golgi apparatus?
      a. houses the cell’s DNA
      b. movement
      c. houses the digestive enzymes
      d. packages proteins for transport out of the cell

25. A relationship between a producer and a consumer is best illustrated by a ___.
           a. snake eating a rodent
           b. bird eating an insect
           c. barnacle attached to whale
           d. zebra eating grass

26. The need for seatbelts in automobiles is due to what law?
          a. Law of Conservation of Energy
          b. Newton’s First Law of Motion
          c. Newton’s Second Law of Motion
          d. Newton’s Third Law of Motion

27. Sugar, flavoring, and water are mixed together to make a child’s drink. What is the sugar?
           a. Solute
           b. Solvent
           c. Mixture
           d. Element

28. As a roller coaster goes downhill ___ is converted into ___.
           a. electrical energy, potential energy
           b. kinetic energy, potential energy
           c. potential energy, kinetic energy
           d. potential energy, electrical energy

29. What name is given a large and varied group of molecules that are usually not soluble in water?
          a. Lipids
          b. Carbohydrates
          c. Proteins
          d. Amino acids

                               Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                      Buford High School
                                                        Page 79 of 84
30. What characteristic does the tundra and a desert share?
          a. warm temperatures
          b. estivation by animals
          c. low annual precipitation
          d. large numbers of reptiles

31. Through what medium do sound waves travel fastest?
          a. solid
          b. liquid
          c. gas
          d. plasma

32. Uranium-235 has an atomic number of 92. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does an atom of
    U-235 have?
          a. 92 protons, 235 neutrons, 143 electrons
          b. 92 protons, 235 neutrons, 92 electrons
          c. 92 protons, 143 neutrons, 143 electrons
          d. 92 protons, 143 neutrons, 92 electrons

33. The heat from the sun reaches the Earth by ___.
          a. conduction
          b. convection
          c. radiation
          d. all of the above

34. The process of copying DNA to make new identical DNA molecules is called ___.
          a. replication
          b. transcription
          c. transformation
          d. translation

35. What is an organism called that feeds only on producers?
          a. herbivore
          b. carnivore
          c. omnivore
          d. saprophyte

36. A broom is an example of what type of simple machine?
          a. lever
          b. pulley
          c. wheel and axle
          d. inclined plane

37. Oxygen has an atomic number of 8. How many electrons does the ion O2- contain?
         a. 2
         b. 6
         c. 8
         d. 10
                               Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                      Buford High School
                                                        Page 80 of 84
38. A ceiling fan converts ___ energy into ___ energy.
           a. mechanical, wind
           b. chemical, electrical
           c. electrical, mechanical
           d. light, mechanical

39. Which of the following is not found in DNA?
         a. adenine
         b. guanine
         c. thymine
         d. uracil

40. Most autotrophs store energy in the form of ___.
          a. starches
          b. carbon dioxide
          c. water
          d. nucleic acids

41. A simple machine has an input force of 5 N and an output force of 100 N. What is the mechanical
    advantage of the machine?
          a. 0.05
          b. 2
          c. 20
          d. 95

42. Which statement best describes a chemical property?
         a. The crystals are a metallic gray.
         b. It dissolves in alcohol.
         c. It forms a violet-colored gas.
         d. It reacts with hydrogen to form a gas.

43. The half-life of carbon-14 is 5730 years. How much carbon-14 would remain after 11,460 years?
           a. none
           b. one-eighth
           c. one-fourth
           d. one-half

44. An animal cell is placed in a solution of distilled water. If left overnight, this cell will ___.
          a. shrivel and die
          b. swell and burst
          c. undergo plasmolysis
          d. remain the same




                                 Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                        Buford High School
                                                          Page 81 of 84
45. Which food chain correctly lists the steps according to energy flow?
          a. Sun grass  deer  mountain lion
          b. Mountain lion  deer  grass  sun
          c. Grass  sun mountain lion  deer
          d. Deer  mountain lion grass  sun

46. In which of the following cases is work being done?
          a. Joe carries a box across the room.
          b. Sally pushes on a wall.
          c. Mike lifts a box off the floor.
          d. All of the above.

47. Which substance cannot be decomposed into simpler substances?
         a. ammonia
         b. aluminum
         c. methane
         d. methanol

48. The greater the mass of the object,
          a. the less force it can exert.
          b. the more space it takes up.
          c. the more balanced it is.
          d. the greater the inertia.

49. In squirrels, the gene for gray fur (G) is dominant over the gene for black fur (g). If 50% of a large litter
    of squirrels are gray, what is the most likely parental cross that produced this litter?
           a. GG x Gg
           b. GG x GG
           c. Gg x gg
           d. gg x gg

50. In a terrestrial ecosystem, the trophic level that would contain the largest biomass would be the ___.
            a. producers
            b. primary consumers
            c. secondary consumers
            d. decomposers




                                Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                       Buford High School
                                                         Page 82 of 84
                                                      Answer Key


Following is a key of the answers to the Practice Questions. Please attempt to answer the
questions on your own before you use the key. This will help you better prepare for the
GHSGT!

p. 5                  p. 7             p. 9                                      p. 10             p. 11           p. 13
1. D                  1. D             1. surface area, pressure                 1. C              1. C            1. C
2. D                  2. D             2. surface are, pressure                  2. C              2. A            2. B
3. A                  3. A             4. inverse                                3. B              3. B
                                                                                                   4. B

p. 16                                                       p. 19                                  p. 24
1. cell wall          8. nucleus                            1. C                 7. B              1. Mitosis      8. Mitosis
2. mitochondria       9. chromosome                         2. C                 8. A              2. Meiosis      9. Meiosis
3. vacuole            10. endoplasmic reticulum             3. B                 9. A              3. Meiosis      10. Mitosis
4. Golgi appartus     11. chloroplast                       4. D                 10. B             4. Mitosis      11. Mitosis
5. cytoplasm          12. centriole                         5. B                 11. B             5. Mitosis      12. Both
6. nuclear membrane   13. lysosome                          6. A                 12. D             6. Meiosis      13. Mitosis
7. nucleolus                                                                     13. A             7. Meiosis      14. Meiosis


p. 25                 p.26                          p. 29             p. 31                p. 34           p. 37   p. 38
25% RR                1. B    6. C     11. B        1. D              1. C                 1. C    7. D    1. B    1. B
50% Rr                2. A    7. B     12. D        2. C              2. B                 2. D    8. C    2. D    2. A
25% rr                3. B    8. C     13. D        3. A              3. A                 3. C    9. D    3. B    3. A
75% rough             4. B    9. D     14. C        4. B              4. B                 4. B            4. A
25% smooth            5. C    10. A                 5. A              5. C                 5. D
                                                    6. B              6. A                 6. A

p. 40                 p. 42            p. 44                p. 44              p. 46               p. 48           p. 50
1. B                  1. C             1. A        5. A     1. metals          1. B                1. B            1. A
2. B                  2. A             2. B        6. D     2. nonmetals       2. A                2. C            2. C
3. B                  3. C             3. D        7. B     3. metalloids                          3. C            3. A
4. A                  4. B             4. A        8. C     4. alkali metals                       4. B            4. D
5. A                                                        5. alkaline earth metals                               5. B
                                                            6. transition metals
                                                            7. halogens
                                                            8. noble gases

p. 52        p. 54            p. 56               p. 57               p. 58                p. 60           p. 62           p. 65
1. B         1. D             1. B                1. B                1. C                 1. B            1. C            1. D
2. C         2. C             2. C                2. A                2. A                 2. B            2. B            2. A
3. A         3. C             3. A                3. B                3. B                 3. A            3. A            3. A
4. C         4. B                                                                          4. C            4. D
5. B                                                                                       5. B            5. A

p. 66        p. 67            p. 69               p. 71               p. 73
1. A         1. B             1. D                1. D                1. A
2. A         2. A             2. A                2. D                2. B
3. C         3. A             3. A                3. D
                                                  4. A
                                                  5. B
                               Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                                                      Buford High School
                                                        Page 83 of 84
Georgia High School Graduation Test Content Review Guide: Science
                       Buford High School
                         Page 84 of 84

				
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