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MENTAL HEALTH OVERVIEW

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					Mental Health Overview

Culture
 Culture is manifested in music, literature, lifestyle, painting and sculpture, theater and film and similar things Although some people identify culture in terms of consumption and consumer goods  Anthropologists understand "culture" to refer not only to consumption goods, but to the general processes which produce such goods and give them meaning, and to the social relationships and practices in which such objects and processes become embedded. For them, culture thus includes art, science, as well as moral systems.

Bias and Stereotypes
 Bias is a term used to describe a tendency or preference towards a particular perspective, ideology or result. All information and points of view can generate some form of bias. A person is generally said to be biased if a reasonable observer would conclude that the person is markedly influenced by ideology and preferences, rendering it unlikely for them to be able to be objective. In careful usage bias refers to a belief that leads to a false judgment.  A stereotype is a simplified and/or standardized conception or image with specific meaning, often held in common by people about another group.  Stereotypes may be positive or negative in tone. They are typically generalizations based on minimal or limited knowledge about a group to which the person doing the stereotyping does not belong. Persons may be grouped based on racial group, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, age or any number of other categories.

What is Mental Health/Illness
 Mental disorders fall along a continuum of severity. Even though mental disorders are widespread in the population, the main burden of illness is concentrated in a much smaller proportion — about 6 percent, or 1 in 17 Americans — who suffer from a serious mental illness. It is estimated that mental illness affects 1 in 5 families in America.  The World Health Organization has reported that four of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. By 2020, Major Depressive illness will be the leading cause of disability in the world for women and children.  Mental illnesses usually strike individuals in the prime of their lives, often during adolescence and young adulthood. All ages are susceptible, but the young and the old are especially vulnerable.

Mental Health Impacts Upon Work
Work is a major determinant of mental health and a socially integrating force. To be excluded from the workforce creates material deprivation, erodes selfconfidence, creates a sense of isolation and marginalization and is a key risk factor for mental disability.

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/542517

Addressing Personal Challenges to Employment
http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/SMA03-3834/Chapter4.asp

Challenge
Poor self-esteem, confidence Undeveloped vocational goals Skills mismatch Functional illiteracy Functional disabilities caused by psychiatric symptoms Substance Dependency

Impact Upon Work
Reluctance or fear of trying employment. Unclear knowledge of personal skills relevant to available jobs. Skills needed for survival on the streets not necessarily those needed for work. Individual cannot meet basic hiring requirements. Individual cannot meet the cognitive demands of work or manage work-related inter-personal relationships, including those with supervisor. Alcohol/drug use violates drug-free workplace rules, increases absences from work. Provides just cause for termination from employment. Criminal record can exclude eligibility for some jobs and questions regarding past criminal involvement in the hiring process are not precluded under the ADA. Decision not to work, or to limit hours worked per week, or reluctance to accept wage increases for fear of losing entitlements.

Criminal Record

Fear of losing entitlements

Mental Health

Definition SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Mental Health
 Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning.  Abnormal functioning is almost always a result of a mental disorder. According to the DSM-IV,
a mental disorder can be defined as 'a pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of daily life, or both.'

Mental Health
 The most common criterion for defining abnormality, however, is maladaptiveness. There are two aspects of maladaptive behavior:

 1. Maladaptive to oneself - inability to reach goals, to adapt to the demands of life and 2. Maladaptive to society - interferes, disrupts social group functioning.

Mental Health
 This type of definition allows much flexibility.

 It provides room for conforming behavior to society's norms including deviant behavior as long as it is not self-damaging.
 It makes abnormal the relative term it needs to be, dependent upon each individual's life and circumstances.  There are certain categories of behavior that suggest the presence of psychological disorders which are, in one way or another, maladaptive in that they threaten the well-being of the individual.

 These categories include long periods of discomfort, impaired functioning, bizarre behavior, and disruptive behavior.

Mental Health

Neurosis vs. Psychosis

Neurosis
A term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but, unlike a psychosis or some personality disorders, does not prevent or affect rational thought. It is particularly associated with the field of psychoanalysis.

Neurosis
 There are many different specific forms of neurosis: pyromania, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety neurosis, hysteria (in which anxiety may be discharged through a physical symptom), and an endless variety of phobias. According to Dr. George Boeree, effects of neurosis can involve:  ...anxiety, sadness or depression, anger, irritability, mental confusion, low sense of self-worth, etc.,  behavioral symptoms such as phobic avoidance, vigilance, impulsive and compulsive acts, lethargy, etc.,  cognitive problems such as unpleasant or disturbing thoughts, repetition of thoughts and obsession, habitual fantasizing, negativity and cynicism, etc.  Interpersonally, neurosis involves dependency, aggressiveness, perfectionism, schizoid isolation, socio-culturally inappropriate behaviors, etc.

Symptoms of Neurosis
 While neuroses are not rooted in physical causes, they can most certainly have physical effects. As a mental illness, the term "neurosis" represents a variety of psychiatric conditions in which emotional distress or unconscious conflict is expressed through various physical, physiological, and mental disturbances, and which may include physical symptoms. One of the most common and definitive symptoms of neurosis is anxiety.

 Additional symptoms of neurosis can include:
 ...anxiety, sadness or depression, anger, irritability, mental confusion, low sense of self-worth, etc., behavioral symptoms such as phobic avoidance, vigilance, impulsive and compulsive acts, lethargy, etc., cognitive problems such as unpleasant or disturbing thoughts, repetition of thoughts and obsession, habitual fantasizing, negativity and cynicism, etc. Interpersonally, neurosis involves dependency, aggressiveness, perfectionism, schizoid isolation, socio-culturally inappropriate behaviors, etc.  Neurosis has perhaps been most simply defined as a "poor ability to adapt to one's environment, an inability to change one's life patterns, and the inability to develop a richer, more complex, more satisfying personality."

Types of Neuroses
 The list of types of Neurosis mentioned in various sources includes:  Anxiety  Anxiety disorders - not all cases would be classed as a "neurosis"  Depression - only really a "neurosis" if mild depression  Obsessive-compulsive disorder  Post-traumatic stress disorder  Dissociative disorder

Diagnosis/Treatment for Neurosis
The list of treatments mentioned in various sources for Neurosis includes the following list. Always seek professional medical advice about any treatment or change in treatment plans. Treatment depend on the type of neurosis Psychotherapy Medications Counselling

Psychosis
 Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality." People suffering from it are said to be psychotic.  People experiencing psychosis may report hallucinations or delusional beliefs, and may exhibit personality changes and disorganized thinking. This may be accompanied by unusual or bizarre behavior, as well as difficulty with social interaction and impairment in carrying out the activities of daily living.  A wide variety of nervous system stressors, both organic and functional, can cause a psychotic reaction. This has led to the belief that psychosis is the 'fever' of mental illness—a serious but nonspecific indicator.  However, many people have unusual and reality-distorting experiences at some point in their lives, without being impaired or even distressed by these experiences. For example, many people have experienced visions of some kind, and some have even found inspiration or religious revelation in them. As a result, it has been argued that psychosis is not fundamentally separate from normal consciousness, but rather, is on a continuum with normal consciousness. In this view, people who are clinically found to be psychotic may simply be having particularly intense or distressing experiences

Symptoms of Psychosis
 The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Psychosis includes the 9 symptoms listed below:  Hallucinations  Delusions  Paranoia  Mania  Depression  Emotional changes  Personality changes  Behavior changes  Lack of awareness of mental changes

Causes of Psychosis
 Following is a list of causes or underlying conditions (see also Misdiagnosis of underlying causes of Psychosis) that could possibly cause Psychosis includes:  Dementia  Delirium  Brain injury  Brain infection  Schizophrenia  Bipolar disorder  Syphilis  Alcoholism  Marijuana - marijuana or cannabis use can trigger a psychotic episode (or uncover pre-existing schizophrenia).  Korsakoff's syndrome - from chronic alcoholism  Certain drugs and substances

Treatment of Psychosis
 The list of treatments mentioned in various sources for Psychosis includes the following list. Always seek professional medical advice about any treatment or change in treatment plans.  Psychotherapy  Medications - depends on the cause of psychosis  Antipsychotic drugs  Treatment of the underlying cause  Vitamin B12 - possibly used for related vitamin B12 deficiency

Overview of the DSM-IV-TR

DSM and Multiaxis Assessment
When we receive a psychiatric or psychological diagnosis, we often hear "You have Depression" or a similar statement. What we don't hear is the rest of the diagnosis. The diagnosis that is made is standardized according the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR, 2000). With this manual, there is a 5 Axis system of diagnosis that is used. The five axes are as follows:

Axis I: Clinical Disorders
 This includes:  Disorders usually diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence (Autism, ADHD, Etc.)  Delirium, dementia and other cognitive disorders (Dementias, Alzheimer's disease, etc.)  Mental disorders due to a general medical condition  Substance-related disorders (such as alcohol or drugs)  Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders  Mood disorders (Depression, Bipolar)  Anxiety disorders  Somatoform disorders (Conversion Disorder, Hypochondriasis, etc.)  Factitious disorders  Dissociative disorders (Dissociative Identity Disorder, etc.)  Sexual and gender identity disorders  Eating disorders (Anorexia, Bulimia, etc.)  Sleep disorders (Insomnia, Sleep Terrors, etc.)  Impulse-control disorders (Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Kleptomania, etc.)  Adjustment disorders

Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation

Examples:
Paranoid personality disorder Borderline personality disorder Antisocial personality disorder Dependent personality disorder Mental retardation

Axis III: General Medical Condition

Listed here are general medical (physical) concerns that may have a bearing on understanding the client's mental disorder, or in the management of the client's mental disorder

Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
 Problems with the primary support group (divorce, abuse, deaths, births, etc.)  Problems related to social environment (retirement, living alone/friendships, etc.)  Educational problems (illiteracy, academic problems, conflict with teachers, etc.)  Occupational problems (unemployment, difficult work conditions, job dissatisfaction, etc.)  Housing problems (homelessness, unsafe neighborhood, problems with neighbors, etc.)  Economic problems (poverty, insufficient finances, etc.)  Problems with access to health care services (inadequate health care, transportation to health care, health insurance, etc.)  Problems related to interaction with the legal system/crime (arrest, incarceration, or victim of crime, etc.) Other psychosocial and environmental problems (Disasters, problems with health care providers, etc.)

Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning
 The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is a numeric scale (0 through 100) used by mental health clinicians and doctors to rate the social, occupational and psychological functioning of adults. The scale is presented and described in the DSM-IV-TR on page 32. Children and adolescents under the age of 18 are evaluated on the Children’s Global Assessment Scale, or C-GAS.

Signs & Symptoms

Diagnostic Criteria

Anxiety Disorders
 Generalized Anxiety
 Generalized anxiety disorder is a relatively common anxiety problem, affecting 3-4% of the population, that turns daily life into a state of worry, anxiety, and fear. Excessive thinking and dwelling on the "what ifs" characterizes this anxiety disorder. As a result, the person feels there’s no way out of the vicious cycle of anxiety and worry, and then becomes depressed about life and the state of anxiety they find themselves in.

 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
 A psychological disorder affecting individuals who have experienced or witnessed profoundly traumatic events, such as torture, murder, rape, or wartime combat, characterized by recurrent flashbacks of the traumatic event, nightmares, irritability, anxiety, fatigue, forgetfulness, and social withdrawal.

Affective Disorder
 An Affective Disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances.  The two major types of mood disorders are depression (or unipolar depression) and bipolar disorder.  Depression (or unipolar depression), including subtypes:
    Major depression Major depression (recurrent) Major depression with psychotic symptoms (psychotic depression) Postpartum depression

 Bipolar disorder, a mood disorder formerly known as "manic depression" and described by alternating periods of mania and depression (and in some cases rapid cycling, mixed states, and psychotic symptoms). Subtypes include:

Major depressive disorder
 . . . also known as major depression, unipolar depression, clinical depression, or simply depression, is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive low mood, loss of interest in a person's usual activities and diminished ability to experience pleasure. The diagnosis is made if a person has suffered one or more major depressive episodes. The onset is usually in early- to mid-adulthood. Diagnosis is based on the patient's self-reported experiences and observed behavior. There is no laboratory test for major depression, although physicians often test for physical conditions that may cause similar symptoms before arriving at a diagnosis. The course varies widely: it can be a once-in-a-lifetime event or have multiple recurrences; it can appear either gradually or suddenly; and can either last for a few months or be a life-long disorder.

Signs and symptoms of depression (or a depressive episode) include:
A depressive episode is diagnosed if five or more of these symptoms last most of the day, nearly every day, for a period of 2 weeks or longer.

 Difficulty concentrating, remembering, making decisions
 Restlessness or irritability  Sleeping too much, or can't sleep

 Change in appetite and/or unintended weight loss or gain
 Chronic pain or other persistent bodily symptoms that are not caused by physical illness or injury  Thoughts of death or suicide, or suicide attempts

Signs and symptoms of depression (or a depressive episode) include:
 Lasting sad, anxious, or empty mood  Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism

 Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness  Loss of interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed, including sex
 Decreased energy, a feeling of fatigue or of being "slowed down"

Bi-Polar Disorder
 Bipolar disorder is not a single disorder, but a category of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood, clinically referred to as mania. Individuals who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes or symptoms, or mixed episodes in which features of both mania and depression are present at the same time. These episodes are normally separated by periods of normal mood, but in some patients, depression and mania may rapidly alternate, known as rapid cycling. Extreme manic episodes can sometimes lead to psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations.

What are the symptoms of bipolar disorder?
Bipolar disorder causes dramatic mood swings—from overly "high" and/or irritable to sad and hopeless, and then back again, often with periods of normal mood in between. Severe changes in energy and behavior go along with these changes in mood. The periods of highs and lows are called episodes of mania and depression.

Mania
 Mania is a severe medical condition characterized by extremely elevated mood, energy, unusual thought patterns and sometimes psychosis. There are several possible causes for mania, but it is most often associated with bipolar disorder, where episodes of mania may cyclically alternate with episodes of clinical depression. These cycles may relate to and . Mania varies in intensity, from mild mania (known as hypomania) to full-blown mania with psychotic features (hallucinations and delusions).

Signs and symptoms of mania (or a manic episode) include:
 Increased energy, activity, and restlessness
 Excessively "high," overly good, euphoric mood  Extreme irritability

 Racing thoughts and talking very fast, jumping from one idea to another
 Distractibility, can't concentrate well

 Little sleep needed
 Unrealistic beliefs in one's abilities and powers

Signs and symptoms of mania (or a manic episode) include:
 Poor judgment  Spending sprees

 A lasting period of behavior that is different from usual
 Increased sexual drive

 Abuse of drugs, particularly cocaine, alcohol, and sleeping medications
 Provocative, intrusive, or aggressive behavior

 Denial that anything is wrong

Schizophrenia
 The disorder is primarily thought to affect cognition, but it also usually contributes to chronic problems with behavior and emotion. People diagnosed with schizophrenia are likely to be diagnosed with comorbid conditions, including clinical depression and anxiety disorders;[6] the lifetime prevalence of substance abuse is typically around 40%. Social problems, such as longterm unemployment, poverty and homelessness, are common and life expectancy is decreased; the average life expectancy of people with the disorder is 10 to 12 years less than those without, owing to increased physical health problems and a high suicide rate.[7]

Affective Disorder
 An Affective Disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances.  The two major types of mood disorders are depression (or unipolar depression) and bipolar disorder.  Depression (or unipolar depression), including subtypes:
    Major depression Major depression (recurrent) Major depression with psychotic symptoms (psychotic depression) Postpartum depression

 Bipolar disorder, a mood disorder formerly known as "manic depression" and described by alternating periods of mania and depression (and in some cases rapid cycling, mixed states, and psychotic symptoms). Subtypes include:

Major depressive disorder
 . . . also known as major depression, unipolar depression, clinical depression, or simply depression, is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive low mood, loss of interest in a person's usual activities and diminished ability to experience pleasure. The diagnosis is made if a person has suffered one or more major depressive episodes. The onset is usually in early- to mid-adulthood. Diagnosis is based on the patient's self-reported experiences and observed behavior. There is no laboratory test for major depression, although physicians often test for physical conditions that may cause similar symptoms before arriving at a diagnosis. The course varies widely: it can be a once-in-a-lifetime event or have multiple recurrences; it can appear either gradually or suddenly; and can either last for a few months or be a life-long disorder.

Bi-Polar Disorder
 Bipolar disorder is not a single disorder, but a category of mood disorders defined by the presence of one or more episodes of abnormally elevated mood, clinically referred to as mania. Individuals who experience manic episodes also commonly experience depressive episodes or symptoms, or mixed episodes in which features of both mania and depression are present at the same time. These episodes are normally separated by periods of normal mood, but in some patients, depression and mania may rapidly alternate, known as rapid cycling. Extreme manic episodes can sometimes lead to psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations.

What are the symptoms of bipolar disorder?

Bipolar disorder causes dramatic mood swings—from overly "high" and/or irritable to sad and hopeless, and then back again, often with periods of normal mood in between. Severe changes in energy and behavior go along with these changes in mood. The periods of highs and lows are called episodes of mania and depression.

Mania
 Mania is a severe medical condition characterized by extremely elevated mood, energy, unusual thought patterns and sometimes psychosis. There are several possible causes for mania, but it is most often associated with bipolar disorder, where episodes of mania may cyclically alternate with episodes of clinical depression. These cycles may relate to and . Mania varies in intensity, from mild mania (known as hypomania) to full-blown mania with psychotic features (hallucinations and delusions).

Signs and symptoms of mania (or a manic episode) include:
 Increased energy, activity, and restlessness
 Excessively "high," overly good, euphoric mood  Extreme irritability

 Racing thoughts and talking very fast, jumping from one idea to another
 Distractibility, can't concentrate well

 Little sleep needed
 Unrealistic beliefs in one's abilities and powers

Signs and symptoms of mania (or a manic episode) include:
 Poor judgment  Spending sprees

 A lasting period of behavior that is different from usual
 Increased sexual drive

 Abuse of drugs, particularly cocaine, alcohol, and sleeping medications
 Provocative, intrusive, or aggressive behavior

 Denial that anything is wrong

Bipolar Disorder

Schizophrenia
 The disorder is primarily thought to affect cognition, but it also usually contributes to chronic problems with behavior and emotion.  People diagnosed with schizophrenia are likely to be diagnosed with comorbid conditions, including clinical depression and anxiety disorders;[6] the lifetime prevalence of substance abuse is typically around 40%.

Schizophrenia signs and Symptoms
 A person experiencing schizophrenia may demonstrate symptoms such as  disorganized thinking,  auditory hallucinations, and delusions.  In severe cases, the person may be largely  mute, remain motionless in bizarre postures,  or exhibit purposeless agitation; these are signs of catatonia.

Schizophrenia
 Social isolation commonly occurs and may be due to a number of factors. Impairment in social cognition is associated with schizophrenia, as are the active symptoms of paranoia from delusions and hallucinations, and the negative symptoms of apathy and avolition. Many people diagnosed with schizophrenia avoid potentially stressful social situations that may exacerbate mental distress.[8]

Schizophrenia Onset
 Late adolescence and early adulthood are peak years for the onset of schizophrenia. These are critical periods in a young adult's social and vocational development, and they can be severely disrupted by disease onset. To minimize the effect of schizophrenia, much work has recently been done to identify and treat the “pre-onset” phase of the illness, which has been detected up to 30 months before the onset of symptoms, but may be present longer

Psychiatric Medications- Types
 There are six main groups of psychiatric medications.

 Antidepressants, which are used to treat disparate disorders such as clinical depression, dysthymia, anxiety, eating disorders and borderline personality disorder.  Stimulants, which are used to treat disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy and to suppress the appetite.  Antipsychotics, which are used to treat psychoses such as schizophrenia and mania.  Mood stabilizers, which are used to treat bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder.  Anxiolytics, which are used to treat anxiety disorders.  Depressants, which are used as hypnotics, sedatives, and anesthetics.

Types of Therapy
treatment of emotional, behavioral, personality, and psychiatric disorders based primarily upon verbal or nonverbal communication and interventions with the patient.

Types of Therapy Broad Systems of Psychotherapy
 Psychoanalysis - the first practice to be called a psychotherapy. It encourages the verbalization of all the patient's thoughts, including free associations, fantasies, and dreams, from which the analyst formulates the nature of the unconscious conflicts which are causing the patient's symptoms and character problems.  Cognitive Behavioral - generally seeks by different methodologies to identify and transcend maladaptive cognitions, appraisal, beliefs and reactions with the aim of influencing destructive negative emotions and problematic dysfunctional behaviors.  Psychodynamic - is a form of depth psychology, the primary focus of which is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension. Although it has its roots in psychoanalysis, psychodynamic therapy tends to be briefer and less intensive than traditional psychoanalysis.  Existential - is based on the existential belief that human beings are alone in the world. This aloneness leads to feelings of meaninglessness which can be overcome only by creating one's own values and meanings.  Humanistic - emerged in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis and is therefore known as the Third Force in the development of psychology. It is explicitly concerned with the human context of the development of the individual with an emphasis on subjective meaning, a rejection of determinism, and a concern for positive growth rather than pathology. It posits an inherent human capacity to maximise potential, 'the self-actualing tendency'. The task of Humanistic therapy is to create a relational environment where this tendency might flourish.

Types of Therapy Broad Systems of Psychotherapy
 Brief therapy - is an umbrella term for a variety of approaches to psychotherapy. It differs from other schools of therapy in that it emphasizes (1) a focus on a specific problem and (2) direct intervention. It is solutionbased rather than problem-oriented. It is less concerned with how a problem arose than with the current factors sustaining it and preventing change.  Systemic Therapy - seeks to address people not at an individual level, as is often the focus of other forms of therapy, but as people in relationship, dealing with the interactions of groups, their patterns and dynamics (includes family therapy & marriage counseling).  Transpersonal Therapy - Addresses the client in the context of a spiritual understanding of consciousness.  Body Psychotherapy or Body-oriented Psychotherapy (also known as Somatic Psychology in USA & Australia) - addresses the whole of the person, including their body, manifestations of symptoms in the body of the client, body language, proprioception, emotional expression, proxemics, psychosomatics etc.  There are dozens of approaches, which continue to be developed around the wide variety of theoretical backgrounds. Many practitioners use several approaches in their work and alter their approach based on client need.

Causes of Mental Illness
 A complex interplay of many factors cause mental illness. Contributing factors include:

 genetics;  biology;  personality;  socio-economic status; and  life events

Symptoms of Mental Illness
Mental illnesses take the form of changes in thinking, mood or behaviour or some combination of all three. The person affected shows symptoms of significant distress and the inability to function as needed over an extended period of time. These symptoms can vary from mild to severe, depending on the type of mental illness, the individual, the family and the patient's environment.

Health Effects of Mental Illness
 Mental health is as important as physical health. In fact, the two are intertwined. Our mental health directly affects our physical health and vice versa. People with physical health problems often experience anxiety or depression that affects their recovery. Likewise, mental health factors can increase the risk of developing physical problems such as:        diabetes; heart disease; weight gain or loss; gastrointestinal problems; reductions in immune system efficiency; and blood biochemical imbalances. In the case of eating disorders, those affected may die from lack of nourishment

Treatment of Mental Disorders
 Most mental illnesses can be effectively treated. Treatment methods may include one or more of the following:  medication;  scientifically based psycho-therapies - such as cognitive therapy - which help patients learn to effectively change their thinking, feelings and behavior;  counseling;  community support services; and  education.  However, because of the stigma of mental illness, many people avoid or delay treatment.

Mental Illness in Adults
 Most people feel great sadness at some time in their lives, but if sadness or a depressed mood continues for a long time, it may be a sign of clinical depression. Clinical depression is more than feeling sad or “blue.” It can make people feel worthless, hopeless or even like giving up.  There are three main types of depression:  Clinical or Major Depression- a common, but severe type of depression  Dysthymia- a milder form of depression that is long lasting  Bipolar Disorder- a disorder that includes periods of depression and periods of excessively “high” feelings

Who gets Clinical Depression?
     Depression can happen to anyone at any age. Many factors may contribute to clinical depression, including: Sex- Women get depression twice as often as men. Family history- When other people in your family have major depression, you have a higher chance of also getting depression Certain medications-Some prescriptions or over the counter mediations can make you depressed. Difficult life events- such as divorce, retirement or the death of a loved one. Presence of other illnesses- such as Alzheimer’s, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, hormone disorder, Parkinson’s or a stroke. Also, other mental disorders such as an eating disorder or anxiety disorder. Abuse of alcohol and drugs- People who have a drug or alcohol problem are more likely to develop major depression.

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Case management in health care
The Case Management Society of America defines case management as: "a collaborative process of assessment, planning, facilitation and advocacy for options and services to meet an individual's health needs through communication and available resources to promote quality cost-effective outcomes."

What are the Signs of Clinical Depression?
 No one becomes depressed in the same way. Some people have only a few symptoms. Other people have many. Symptoms of Depression:

       

Persistent sad, anxious, or empty mood Sleeping too much or too little, middle of the night or early morning waking Reduced appetite and weight loss or increased appetite and weight gain Loss of interest or pleasure in activities, including sex Irritability or restlessness Difficulty thinking or concentrating, remembering or making decisions Fatigue or loss of energy Persistent physical symptoms that don’t respond to treatment (such as chronic pain or digestive disorders)  Thoughts of death or suicide, including suicide attempts  Feeling inappropriate guilt, hopelessness, or worthlessness

Case Management
 …collected data concerning an individual, including family, environment, medical history and any other information that may be useful in analysis and diagnosis of medical condition.  Case management focuses on delivering personalized services to clients to improve their care, and involves:  Planning & Delivery of Service  Evaluation of results for each client & adjustment of the Comprehensive Service Plan (CSP)  Evaluation of overall effectiveness & adjustment

Federal Disability Mental Health Disorders
How You Qualify for Social Security Disability Benefits?
 To qualify for benefits, you must first have worked in jobs covered by Social Security. Then you must have a medical condition that meets Social Security's definition of disability. In general, cash benefits are paid to to people who are unable to work for a year or more because of a disability.

 Benefits usually continue until you are able to work again on a regular basis. There are also a number of special rules, called "work incentives," that provide continued benefits and health care coverage to help you make the transition back to work.  If you are receiving Social Security disability benefits when you reach full retirement age, your disability benefits automatically convert to retirement benefits, but the amount remains the same.

Continuing Eligibility for Benefits
 In most cases, benefits are received as long as a disability exists. However, there are certain circumstances that may change continuing eligibility for disability benefits. For example,  health may improve to the point where person is no longer disabled or  person would like to go back to work rather than depend on disability benefits.  How does Social Security decide Disability?  By law, Social Security has a very strict definition of disability. To be found disabled:  must be unable to do any substantial work because of medical condition(s); and  medical condition(s) must have lasted, or be expected to last, at least 1 year, or be expected to result in death.

Disability Evaluation Under Social Security
 The following sections are applicable to individuals age 18 and over and to children under age 18 where criteria are appropriate.  Musculoskeletal System  Special Senses and Speech  Respiratory System  Cardiovascular System  Digestive System  Genitourinary System  Hematological Disorders  Skin Disorders  Endocrine System  Impairments that Affect  Multiple Body Systems  Neurological  Mental Disorders  Malignant Neoplastic Diseases  Immune System Disorders

Tips on Engaging Clients
 The job tasks are not presented in any particular order of importance.  Maintain confidentiality of records relating to clients’ treatment.  Encourage clients to express their feelings, discuss what is happening in their lives, and help them to develop insight into themselves.  Guide clients in the development of skills and strategies for dealing with their problems.  Prepare and maintain all required treatment records and reports.  Counsel clients to assist in overcoming dependencies, adjusting to life, and making changes.  Collect information about clients through interviews, observations, and tests.  Act as the client’s advocate in order to coordinate required services.  Develop and implement plans based on experience and knowledge.  Collaborate with other staff members to perform develop action plans.  Evaluate client’s physical or mental condition based on review of client information.


				
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Tags: MENTAL, HEALTH
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posted:3/7/2009
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Description: MENTAL HEALTH OVERVIEW