Docstoc

strategi manajemen

Document Sample
strategi manajemen Powered By Docstoc
					991122
         STRATEGIC
         MANAGEMENT
         MANAJEMEN STRATEGI
          PENGERTIAN DAN PROSES
991122
         Kepustakaan
          Strategic Management, John A. Pearce II and Richard B. Robinson, Jr.,
          6th & 5th Ed., Irwin, 1997 & 1994
          Strategic Management, Fred. R. David, 6th Ed., Prentice Hall, 1997
          Strategic Management, Charles W.L. Hill and Gareth R. Jones, 4th Ed.,
          Houghton Miflin, 1998
          Strategic Management, Michael A. Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, and Robert E.
          Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., West Publishing, 1996
          Strategic Management, Samuel C. Certo and J. Paul Peter, 3rd Ed., Irwin,
          1995
          The Strategy Concept and Process, Arnoldo C. Hax and Nicolas S.
          Majluf, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, 1996
          Strategy Safari, Henry Mintzberg, Bruce Ahlstrand, and Joseph Lampel,
          The Free Press, 1998
          Visionary Leadership, Burt Nanus, Jossey-Bass, 1992
         SOAL UJIAN AKHIR STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
000524   17 Desember 1999 - (40 menit)
991122
         Berhubung seorang kawan mengenal anda telah lulus ujian
         Manajemen Strategik tingkat Magister, dia meminta nasihat
         kepada anda. Dia memiliki modal sebesar X rupiah (Pilihlah
         angka X ini antara Rp. 10 juta sampai Rp 10 milyar), dan ia
         ingin berusaha. Dia minta anda nasihat: bagaimana memilih
         usaha yang cocok untuk dan apa yang harus dilakukannya
         sehingga kemungkinan suksesnya lebih besar.

         Tugas anda: Menuliskan proses yang baik sesuai proses
         manajemen strategik yang anda ketahui (termasuk tools
         yang dipakai serta uraian ringkas teori/pengertiannya) serta
         aplikasi dalam kasus kawan anda tersebut.
000524
         Sikap ke Perubahan Masa Depan
             Passive
               Tak peduli apa itu masa depan, yang penting kerjakan sebaik-baiknya sekarang.
               Yang penting, kita kerja keras dan makin efisien.


             Reactive
               Kita tunggu saja apa perubahannya, kita nanti sesuaikan/adaptasi dengan
               keadaan perubahan itu.

             Anticipative
               Kita perlu mencari tahu akan terjadi perubahan apa, sumber-sumber
               perubahannya. Kita harus sudah menyiapkan sarana prasarana dan ikut
               berubah bersama.

             Proactive
               Obsesi untuk menjadi pemimpin perubahan, ikut menentukan dan
               menciptakan perubahan, menentukan standar-standar baru industri.


                                                  Modified from:
                                                  Brown & Eisenhardt, Competing on the Edge, 1998, Chapt. 1
000524
991122


                TEKAD



         MISI           ALU



             STRATEGI


         JABARAN STRATEGI


           IMPLEMENTASI
         KONSEP DASAR *
         ( Oleh: Hiskak Secakusuma, 1990 )

991122

                                        COMMITMENT
                                             TEKAD




                                   MISSION           SWOT
                                      MISI            ALU




                                         STRATEGIES
                                     ALTERNATIF DAN PILIHAN


                                 OPERATING STRATEGIES
                                       STRATEGY TAHUNAN


                                      IMPLEMENTATION
                                  PELAKSANAAN & PENGENDALIAN




                                                              * BUILDING BLOCKS
         KERANGKA KERJA
991122


                           C
                    M          IE + EE
                Pr + Ma + Te    + CP + FC
                Go + Ph + Sc
                                  PO

                      GS + LO
                   OS + AO + P
                 SLCR + Control
         TIGA TEORI PORTER
991122




                            INDUSTRY ANALYSIS



                       GENERIC STRATEGIES


                    VALUE CHAIN
         Strategy Formulation Framework
000601


                                STAGE 1 : THE INPUT STAGE

             External Factor             Competitive              Internal Factor
             Evaluation (EFE)              Profile                Evaluation (IFE)
                  Matrix                   Matrix                      Matrix


                           STAGE 2 : THE MATCHING STAGE

                 TOWS                         SPACE                     BCG
                 Matrix                       Matrix                    Matrix

                          Internal-External            Grand Strategy
                               Matrix                      Matrix



                           STAGE 3 : THE DECISION STAGE
                                            QSPM
                            Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix


                                                                        David, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 6-2
000524   MISI DAN VISI
          VISION (The Future State)

          MISSION (ABOUT OUR BUSINESS & ABOUT US)

          STRATEGIC INTENT (OBSESSION, WINNING, LEADERSHIP)

          CORE COMPETENCE (CAPABILITY, SUSTAINED ADVANTAGE)

          STRATEGY (ACTIONS & DECISIONS, FIT TO COMPETITIVE ENV.)
000528
         VISION
              The ability to think about the future (Advanced Learner’s Dict.)

              Aspiration, Values, and Philosophies (Certo & Peter)

              = Mission (Hill & Jones)

              No definition (Hitt et.al.)

              What do we want to become? (David)



         The Future State of the Company
         Keadaan (kejayaan) Perusahaan di Masa Depan
000528
         MISSION
              A particular aim to fulfil more than anything else (Adv. Learner’s Dict.)

              Specific Statement of Organizational Purpose (Certo & Peter)

              A formal declaration of what the company is trying to achieve
              over the medium to long term (Hill & Jones)

              Statement of a firm’s unique purpose and the scope of its
              operations in product and market terms (Hitt et. al.)

              Enduring statements of purpose that distinguish one business
              from other firms. What is our business?.(David)

         Satu pernyataan tentang batasan dan pedoman usaha
         perusahaan serta tujuan yang hendak dicapainya.
000528
          STRATEGIC INTENT
         We believe that the application of concepts such as
         “strategic fit”, “generic strategies”, and the “strategy
         hierarchy” have often abetted the process of
         competitive decline. (8 rules, 7=S, 5 forces, 4 stages, 3 generics, 2x2 matrices)

         To create an obsession with winning and sustained for
         global leadership.
         - captures the essence of winning
         - stable over time
         - sets a target that deserves personal commitment

                                                           Hamel & Prahalad, HBR May-June 89, Page 63-76
000528   CORE COMPETENCE

         A core competence is a central value-creating
         capability of an organization - a core skill.

         - Identification of current core competence
         - Establish the core competence agenda
         - Create new business opportunities



                                          Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Chapter 10
                                          Hamel & Prahalad, HBR May-June 89, Page 63-76
000528
           STRATEGY
              A plan designed for a particular purpose (Adv. Learner’s Dict.)

              The patern that integrates goals, policies, and actions
              sequences into a cohesive whole (Certo & Peter)

              Specific patern of decisions and actions to achieve an
              organization’s goals (Hill & Jones)


         Satu set keputusan dan kegiatan yang pas dengan
         lingkungan persaingan yang dinamis untuk mencapai
         tujuan perusahaan yang ditetapkan.
         PERNYATAAN MISI
991122   TIGA SEHAT ENAM SEMPURNA
991129

               Produk dan/atau Jasa (Products/Services, yang
               menyediakan nilai atau manfaat sepadan dengan harganya)

               Pasar atau Konsumen (Consumers, kebutuhan segmen
               pasar tertentu yang akan dilayani/dipenuhi)

               Teknologi Bersaing (Technology, yang dipakai dalam
               proses menciptakan nilai/manfaat produk atau jasa yang bersaing)

               Tujuan (Goals, tujuan yang akan diperjoangkan untuk periode
               perencanaan: survival, growth, profitability)

               Falsafah (Philosophy, dasar keyakinan dan nilai-nilai yang
               menjadi landasan kebersamaan dalam berinteraksi)

               Konsep Diri (Self Consept, kompetensi dan ciri keunggulan
               yang diagungkan, termasuk mana intern: apakah kita ini dan ekstern:
               apakah citra yang kita inginkan)


                                                               Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Page 29
                                                               David, 6th Ed, 1997, Page 88
         SWOT STRENGTH-WEAKNESS-OPPORTUNITY-THREAT
991122   ANALISIS LINGKUNGAN USAHA



                 Analisis Usaha Intern (Internal Environment)

                 Analisis Usaha Ekstern (External Environment)

                 Analisis Persaingan (Competitive Profile)

                 Teknik Prakiraan (Forecasting)
         Analisis Lingkungan Ekstern
991129


                                   Remote Environment
                                  (Global and Domestic)

                   Economic, Social, Political, Technological, Ecological



                                   Industry Environment
                                  (Global and Domestic)

                              Entry barriers, Supplier, Buyer,
                                    Substitute, Rivalry


                                  Operating Environment
                                  (Global and Domestic)

                                  Competitors, Creditors,
                                   Customers, Labors,
                                       Suppliers

                                       THE FIRM



                                                            Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 3-1
         Analisis Industri
         (Porter’s Five Forces)
991129

                                      Potential
                                       Potential
                                      entrants
                                       entrants
                                                Threat of
                                               new entrants


           Bargaining power of                                     Bargaining power of

                                  Rivalry among
               Suppliers                                                   Buyers
                Suppliers         existing firms                            Buyers




                                 Threat of

                                      Substitutes
                                       Substitutes




                                                              Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 3-4
         National Competitive Advantage
         (Porter’s Diamond)
000524

                          Strategy, Structure,
                           Strategy, Structure,
                                Rivalry
                                 Rivalry




                               National
               Factor                               Demand
                Factor         Competitive           Demand
            Endowments
             Endowments                            Conditions
                                                    Conditions
                               Advantage




                              Related & Supp.
                               Related & Supp.
                                 Industries
                                  Industries



                                                  Hill&Jones, 4th Ed, 1998, Fig. 3-8
                          A firm’s
                    strategic conduct is
                     dynamic in nature


                                                 Competitive
Actions taken                                 responses lead
                                                to additional
by one firm
elicit responses
                    Competitive                 actions from
from                 Dynamics                   the firm that
                                                        acted
competitors
                                                   originally


                   Actions and responses
                    shape the competitive
                   positions of each firm’s
                   business level strategy
         HYPERCOMPETITION
         (D’Aveni’s - Teori Obok-obok)
000607

                      HYPERCOMPETITION
                         The stable periods have become shorter. Sustainable advantages are
                         becoming more temporary everyday.

                      FOUR ADVANTAGES/ARENAS of Competition
                         Cost & Quality, Timing & KnowHow, Strongholds, DeepPockets

                      NEW 7-S’s Analysis
                         Vision for Disrupting
                            Superior Stakeholder Satisfaction
                            Strategic Soothsaying
                         Capabilities for Executing Disrupting
                            Capability for Speed
                            Capabilty to Surprise
                         Tactic Used to Deliver the Disruptions
                            Shifting the Rules
                            Signaling
                            Simultaneous & Sequential Thrusts
                                                                  D’Aveni, Hypercompetition, 1994
         HYPERCOMPETITION
         (D’Aveni’s - Teori Obok-obok)
000607


                        FOUR ADVANTAGES/ARENAS of Competition

                                                                              Perfect
                                                                               Perfect
                                                                            Competition
                                                                             Competition


                                                           Deep Pockets
                                                            Deep Pockets


                                             Stronghold
                                              Stronghold


                          Timing/Know-how
                           Timing/Know-how


            Price & Qualty
             Price & Qualty




                                                                    D’Aveni, Hypercompetition, 1994
         HYPERCOMPETITION
         (D’Aveni’s - Teori Obok-obok)
000607

                      NEW 7-S’s Analysis

                                          VISION
                                         Satisfaction
                                         Soothaying




                                           Market
                                         Disruption



                                                          TACTICS
                       CAPABILITY
                                                            Shifting
                          Speed
                                                           Signaling
                         Surprise
                                                         Simultaneous


                                                        D’Aveni, Hypercompetition, 1994
000601
         Analisis Usaha Intern
         (Merumuskan Strengths & Weaknesses)




                 Fungsional (Produksi, Keuangan, HRD, Marketing, R&D)

                 Value Chain (Prasarana dan Operasional)

                 Tolok Ukur (Rata-rata Industri, Pesaing, Obsesi)

                 Key Success Factors (Current, Potential)

                 Competence (Assets, Capabilities)
000601   Analisis Keunggulan

            RESOURCES
             RESOURCES
          Tangible + Intangible
           Tangible + Intangible

                                       CORE                         COMPETITIVE
                                        CORE                         COMPETITIVE
                                   COMPETENCIES
                                    COMPETENCIES                    ADVANTAGE
                                                                     ADVANTAGE

           CAPABILITIES
            CAPABILITIES
           Skill + Knowledge
            Skill + Knowledge


                                              SUSTAINABILITY




                                                   Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 3.2 (mod)
000524
          Evolusi Daur
          Industri/Produk
         Demand




                  Embryonic


                              Growth   Shakeout   Maturity            Decline

                                        Time
                                                     Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 3.6
000601
         Analisis Persaingan
         (Competitive Profile Matrix)

                                      Company        Competitor 1      Competitor 2
          Success Factors    Weight   Rate   Score    Rate   Score       Rate     Score


          Market Share
          Price
          Fin. Position
          Product Quality
          Customer Loyalty
          etc.




          Total Weighted Score




                                                                     David, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 4-18
000607
              KONSEP DASAR

                                   COMMITMENT
                                        TEKAD
         VALUE OF THE FIRM


                              MISSION           SWOT
                                 MISI            ALU      CORPORATE LEVEL
         VALUE &/or COMP.
                                                          GLOBAL LEVEL

                                   STRATEGIES             BUSINESS LEVEL
                                ALTERNATIF DAN PILIHAN
         COMPETITIVENESS
                                                          OPERATING LEVEL
                             OPERATING STRATEGIES
                                  STRATEGY TAHUNAN
         PRODUCTIVITY
                                IMPLEMENTATION
                             PELAKSANAAN & PENGENDALIAN
010306
                       FINANCIAL STRATEGIES

 Financial Criteria                 COMMITMENT
 (Morden 18 & Lynch 9)                   TEKAD

 Accounting for Improvement
 (Hope : Issue 6)

                               MISSION           SWOT
 Four Perspectives                MISI            ALU      Faktor Pencapaian
 Financial
 Customer
 Internal Business Process
 Learning & Growth                                         Finance & Accounting
                                    STRATEGIES
 Four Processes                  ALTERNATIF DAN PILIHAN
 Translating the Vision
 Communicating & Linking                                   Balanced Scorecard
 Business Planning
 Feedback & Learning          OPERATING STRATEGIES
                                   STRATEGY TAHUNAN
 Building Stra-Man System
 National’s 10 Steps
                                 IMPLEMENTATION
                              PELAKSANAAN & PENGENDALIAN
991122
         Berbagai Jenis Strategi

            Strategi Portofolio (BCG, GE, McKinsey, Lifecycle)

            Strategi Generik (Porter)

            Strategi Utama (Grand Strategies)

            Strategi SWOT (SWOT Strategy Analysis)

            Strategi-strategi Operasional (Operating)
         Berbagai Kelompok Strategi
991122
              Stars, Cash-Cows, Dogs, Question Marks
              Invest/Grow, Selectivity, Harvest/Divest
              Winner, Profit Producer, Average, Question, Loser

         Berbagai Jenis Strategi
              Broad Differentiation, Broad Low-Cost (Overall Cost Leadership),
              Focus Differentiation, Focus Low-Cost
              Concentrated Growth, Market Development, Product
              Development, Innovation, Horizontal Integration, Vertical
              Integration, Concentric Diversification, Conglomerate
              Diversification, Turnaround, Divestiture, Liquidation
              Bentukan: New, Acquisition, JV, Strategic Alliances, Concortia
              Strategi-strategi operasional/fungsional di bidang : Produksi,
              Marketing, Keuangan, Sumberdaya Manusia, Riset, Organisasi &
              Manajemen, dan Sistim Informasi
         STRATEGI STRATEGI
         UTAMA
991122   12 GRAND STRATEGIES. The comprehensive, general
         plan of major actions through which a firm intends to achieve its
         long term objectives in a dynamic environment.
                       Concentrated Growth (product, market, technology)
                       Market Development (geographic, segments)
                       Product Development (prolong life cycle, brand name)
                       Innovation (new lifecycle, existing obsolete)
                       Horizontal Integration (similar business)
                       Vertical Integration (forward, backward)
                       Concentric Diversification (synergistic possibilities)
                       Conglomerate Diversification (financial synergy)
                       Turnaround/Retrenchment (cost, assets)
                       Divestiture (business, major component)
                       Liquidation (assets value, non-going concern)
                       Bentukan: New Venture, Acquisition, Joint Ventures,
                       Strategic Alliances, Consortia
                                                             Pearce & Robinson, 5th Ed, 1994, Ch. 7
991122
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif

            Analisis SWOT (SWOT Analysis Matrix)
            Diagram SWOT (SWOT Diagram)
            Analisis Strategi Generik (Porter’s Generic Strategies)
            Pilihan Strategi Utama (Grand Strategy Selection)
            Matriks Strategi Utama (Grand Strategy Matrix)
            Analisis SPACE (Strategic Position & Action Eval. M.)
            Matriks Portofolio (BCG, GE, McKinsey, Lifecycle,Core)
         STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FORMULATION PROCESS
         (TRADITIONAL APPROACH or FIT APPROACH-IO Approach)




  DYNAMIC
ENVIRONMENT
                        FORMULATION
                                                       STRATEGIES           IMPLEMENTATION
  ASSETS &
                          PROCESS
CAPABILITIES



 BUSINESS
 MISSION


                                         OUTSIDE - IN

                           Mencari alternatif strategi sebanyak-banyaknya
                           (yang fit pada lingkungan ekstern ddan intern)
                           Dan memilih yang terbaik di antaranya.
            STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FORMULATION PROCESS
            (RESOURCE-BASED APPROACH or COMPETENCE-BASED APPROACH)




  DYNAMIC
ENVIRONMENT
                                                                                                    G
                         FORMULATION
                                                                                   IMPLEMENTATION   O
                                                        STRATEGIES
  ASSETS &
  ASSETS &                                                                                          A
                             PROCESS
CAPABILITIES
CAPABILITIES                                                                                        L



 BUSINESS
 MISSION


                                                                           STRATEGIC INTENT




                                            INSIDE - OUT

                         Mencari alternatif kompetensi sebanyak-banyaknya
                         (yang feasible untuk dipertahankan atau dibangun)
                         Dan memilih yang terbaik di antaranya dan menetapkan strateginya
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio

         BCG Growth-Share Matrix
991122
         (Boston Consulting Group)




                                               High
                        Industry Growth Rate
                                               Low




                                                      High                                        Low
                                                             Relative Market Share


                                                                                     Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.1
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
         CFROI (Cashflow Return on Investment, BCG)
991122   Strategies for Value Creation


                    CFROI (%)




                           A
                                                          Cost of Capital (Tolok Ukur)

                                      B             C D E
                              Positive               Neutral           Negative
                               Spread
                              Business
                                                      Spread
                                                     Business
                                                                       Spread      F
                                                                       Business
                                                                                                Size
                       * Increase CFROI           * Increase CFROI   * Increase CFROI
                       * Hold CFROI, Grow Fast    * Then Grow        * Reduce Reinvestment
                       * Erode CFROI, Grow Faster                    * Divest or Liquidate


                                                                                    Memilih Core of Business :
                                                                                   Ide dari BCG di Jaya, 1997
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio

991122
         GE Nine Cell Planning Grid



                      Industry (product-market) attractiveness
                                                                 High
                                                                          Invest/Grow      Invest/Grow        Selectivity

                                                                 Medium



                                                                          Invest/Grow       Selectivity     Harvest/Divest
                                                                 Low




                                                                          Selectivity     Harvest/Divest    Harvest/Divest

                                                                            Strong          Average              Weak
                                                                                        Business Strength


                                                                                                            Pearce & Robinson, 5th Ed, 1994, Fig. 8-7
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
         McKinsey Matrix (McKinsey & Company)
991122


                                                       Winner           Winner           Question Mark

                                              High
                  Industry Attractiveness


                                                       Winner           Average                Loser

                                            Medium




                                                         Profit          Loser                 Loser
                                                       Producer
                                              Low



                                                     Good               Medium                           Poor
                                                                  Competitive Position


                                                                                         Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.2
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
         Industry Attractiveness - Business Strength Matrix
991122
         (McKinsey & Company and General Electric)
                                                             Industry Attractiveness
                                                   High               Medium                    Low



                                          High    Invest             Selective                Grow or
                    Business Strength                                 Growth                  Let Go




                                        Medium   Selective           Grow or
                                                  Growth             Let Go                  Harvest




                                                 Grow or
                                          Low    Let Go              Harvest                  Divest




                                                                                 Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 9-4
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio

991122
         Lifecycle Portofolio Matrix
                                                                Stage of Market Life Cycle
                                                   Introduction    Growth       Maturity                      Decline



                                                                        e ly
                 Competitive Strength


                                            High                   h siv
                                                                  s s
                                                               Pu gre
                                                                 Ag
                                                              st
                                                           ve                         n ity
                                                        In                         tio ctiv
                                        Moderate                                 u e
                                                                             Ca Sel
                                                                                st
                                                                             ve                           er
                                                                          In
                                                                                                        ng est
                                            Low                                                       Da r v
                                                                                                       Ha




                                                                                              Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 9-5
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio

991122
         MISSION and VALUE



                                              High
                                                                             C
                                                            B                         E
                        Fitness to Mission*                                       Creat Value /
                                                                                 Divest if cannot
                                                         Invest & Grow              improve



                                                                             D

                                                                                           F
                                                      A
                                              Low




                                                      Sell & Realise Value       Close / Divest
                                                     High                                         Low
                                                                    Value Creation
                                                                       Potential                    * Istilah Vision dipakai oleh BCG
                                                                                                     Memilih Core of Business :
                                                                                                    Ide dari BCG di Jaya, 1997
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
         Core Competence Agenda
991122




                                         New
                                                    Premier plus 10 yrs            Mega-opportunities

                       Core Competence
                                         Existing




                                                     Fill in the Blanks              White Spaces




                                                         Existing                       New
                                                                          Market

                                                                                         Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.3
PARENTING MIX
BUSINESS LEVEL STRATEGIES
(Winning the Competition)

      MARKET LEADERSHIP

      COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

      TARGET MARKET/CUSTOMERS
MARKET LEADERSHIP

     PIONEER

     FOLLOWER

     CHALENGER
OPERATING LEVEL STRATEGIES
(Productivity)

       EFFECTIVE (Key Result Area)

       EFFICIENT (Economically)

       SATISFACTION
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif
         Matriks SWOT (TOWS Analysis
991122
         Matrix)

                                          S    trenghts      W      eaknesses




                      O   pportunities
                                          SO WO
                                          Use strengths to   Overc. weaknesses
                                         take advantage of    taking advantage
                                            opportunities      of opportunities




                      T  hreats
                                           ST                  WT
                                         Use strengths to    Min. Weaknesses
                                          avoid threats      and avoid threats




                                                                   David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-3
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif

991122   GENERIC STRATEGIES


                                                          Differentiation            Overall



                                                  Broad
                                                                 in                   Cost
                                 Strategic Target          Broad Target            Leadership
                       Narrow/Focus




                                                          Differentiation         Low Cost
                                                                 in                   in
                                                          Narrow Target          Narrow Target




                                                          Differentiation            Low Cost
                                                                    Strategic Advantage

                                                                                Michael Porter’s on Competitive Strategy, Video, 1988
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif

         Diagram SWOT (SWOT Analysis
991122   Diagram)
                                      Numerous
                                     Environmental
                                     Opportunities




                              Turnaround      Aggressive
                               Oriented
                                               Strategy
                               Strategy
               Critical                                                Substantial
              Internal                                                  Internal
             Weaknesses                                                Strengths
                               Defensive     Diversification
                               Strategy         Strategy




                                         Major
                                     Environmental
                                        Threats


                                                               Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-1
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif

         Grand Strategy Selection
991122
                                             Overcome
                                             Weakness




                                  Turnaround
                                        Divest          Vertical Integration
                                   Liquidation          Congl. Diversification

               Internal                                                               External
              Resources                                                              Resources

                                  Concentrated          Horizontal Integration
                           Market Development           Concentric Diversification
                          Product Development           Joint Venture
                                    Innovation




                                             Maximize
                                             Strength


                                                                     Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 8-4
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif


991122
         Grand Strategy Matrix/Cluster
                                                 Rapid
                                             Market Growth



                             Market Penetration        Market Penetration
                            Market Development         Market Development
                           Product Development         Product Development
                           Horizontal Integration      Horizontal Integration
                                      Divestiture      Vertical Integration
                                      Liquidation      Concentric Diversification
            Weak                                                                         Strong
          Competitive                                                                  Competitive
           Position                                                                     Position
                      Concentric Diversification       Concentric Diversification
                       Horizontal Diversification      Horizontal Diversification
                    Conglomerate Diversification       Conglomerate Diversification
                                  Retrenchment         Joint Venture
                                     Divestiture
                                     Liquidation


                                                 Slow
                                             Market Growth

                                                                               David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-11
                                                                    Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 8-5
         Perangkat Pencari Alternatif

         SPACE Matrix (Strategic Position and Action
         Evaluation)
991122
                                             Financial Strength
                                                       +6
                                                       +5
                                                       +4

                         Conservartive                 +3             Aggressive
                                                       +2
                                                       +1
           Competitive                                                                      Industrial
           Advantage                                                                        Strength
                         -6   -5   -4   -3   -2   -1        +1   +2   +3   +4   +5 + 6
                                                       -1
                                                       -2
                              Defensive                          Competitive
                                                       -3
                                                       -4
                                                       -5
                                                  -6
                                              Environmental
                                                Stability

                                                                                         David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-5
         In Search of Excellence
000528
         We chose 75 highly regarded companies (on the subject of
         excellence as we had defined it - continously innovative big
         companies) - Hati-hati karena tidak ada control group.

         The 8 attributes that emerged :
                A bias for action (“Do it, fix it, try it”)
                Close to customer
                Autonomy and entrepreneurship
                Productivity through people
                Hands-on, value driven
                Stick to the knitting
                Simple form, lean staff
                Simultaneous loose-tight properties


                                                              Peters & Waterman Jr., 1982
         Pemilihan Strategi
         (Melakukan pemilihan strategi terbaik dari sebanyak-banyak strategi
         alternatif yang telah tersaring)
991122

                                   THE QSPM MATRIX
                                  (The Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix )
                                                                 STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES
                       KEY FACTORS
                                                    Weight   Strategy 1   Strategy 2     Strategy 3


                 EXTERNAL FACTORS
                 Economy
                 Political/Legal/Governmental
                 Social/Cultural/Demographic/Env.
                 Technological
                 Competitive

                 INTERNAL FACTORS
                 Management
                 Marketing
                 Finance/Accounting
                 Production/Operation
                 Research and Development
                 Computer Information Systems

                 SUM OF WEIGHTED
                 SCORES
                                                                                 David, 6th Ed, 1997, Tab. 6-5
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

991122
         Penjabaran Tahunan
                Strategi Operasional/Fungsional menjabarkan
                Strategi Utama/Bisnis menjadi Strategi menurut fungsi
                manajemen dan/atau sektor, dan tahapan

                Sasaran Tahunan menjabarkan Sasaran (Objectives)
                Jangka Panjang menjadi Sasaran yang harus dicapai
                tahunan

                Kebijakan (Policies) menjabarkan Falsafah dan
                Konsep Diri ke dalam bentuk pedoman perilaku

                Rencana Kegiatan (Action Plan) penjabaran lebih
                spesifik kapan, apa, siapa, sasaran pendek-pendek

                Taktik adalah kegiatan yang harus dikerjakan sekarang/
                segera, sangat spesifik, keputusan pelaksana
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI


         Strategi Fungsional
991122    /Operasional
         (menjabarkan Strategi menurut fungsi manajemen dan/atau sektor, dan tahapan)

                 Strategi Produksi (biaya, mutu, pelayanan, frekuensi, sourcing/
                 manajemen material, proses/otomasi, sistim & kendali)
                 Strategi Pemasaran (Segmentasi, Posisi, Target, Produk, Harga,
                 Promosi, Distribusi)
                 Strategi Keuangan (Sumber Dana, Alokasi, Dividen & Modal Kerja)
                 Strategi Sumber Daya Manusia (Perikrutan, Pengembangan
                 Karir, Kompensasi, Evaluasi Kinerja, Sistim R/P, Hubungan Kerja)
                 Strategi Riset & Pengembangan (Orientasi fungsi/produk,
                 Pengembangan/Inovasi, Pemuka/Pengikut , jangka panjang/pendek,
                 sentral/desentral, In-house/luar)
                 Strategi Organisasi dan Manajemen (Struktur,
                 Kepemimpinan/Leadership, Budaya/Culture)
                 Strategi Sistim Informasi (Manual/Otomasi, Sistem Objectives,
                 System Constrains, System Design) - Raymond McLeod, Jr., MIS, 6th Ed.,Prentice Hall, 1995, Fig. 2.6
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

         Strategi Fungsional/Operasional
         A Typical Value Chain
991122



                                                                     Firm Infrastructure


                  Support Activities                      Human Resources Management




                                                                                                                                            Ma
                                                                                                                                              rgin
                                                            Technology Development


                                                                          Procurement




                                                                                                  Marketing and Sales
                                                                              Outbound Logistic
                                       Inbound Logistic



                                                              Operation




                                                                                                                                Service




                                                                                                                                             Ma
                                                                                                                                                rgin
                                                                          Primary Activities

                                                                                                                        Michael E. Porter, Competitive Advantage, 1985
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI


         Kebijakan (Policies)
991122   Jabaran Falsafah dan Konsep Diri ke dalam bentuk pedoman perilaku,
         para pelaksana dapat mengambil keputusan dan bertindak sendiri tetapi
         terkendali oleh rambu-rambu kebijakan ini.

                    Kebijakan menciptakan kendali tak langsung atas
                    tindakan mandiri
                    Kebijakan mengatur penanganan yang sama untuk
                    aktivitas yang sama
                    Kebijakan membuat keputusan lebih cepat
                    Kebijakan membakukan perilaku dalam perusahaan
                    Kebijakan mengurangi ketidak pastian
                    Kebijakan mengurangi aksi keengganan
                    Kebijakan menyediakan jawaban untuk hal rutin
                    Kebijakan menghindari perdebatan berdasar emosi
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI


         Contoh :    Strategi Pemasaran
991122                                            2. Market Share
                    1. Market Size (units)        (current strategy)
                                                                              3. Impact of Strategy
                        1994           1995       1994            1995        (effects of new program)
                        actual       predicted    actual        predicted       Market Share
                       500,000       520,000      20 %            18 %          Modification

                                                                                1.06           Product (+6%)

                                                                              X 1.20        Promotion (+20%)
                                                                                1.27

                                                                              X 0.95            Price (-5%)
                                                                                1.21
                                                                                            Distribution (-4%)
                                                                              X 0.96

                                                              X 1.16            1.16            Combined

                                                               20.9
                                        X .209                          4. Modified Market Share
              5. Predicted Units       108.582

                                         X 205      6. Price $ 205 per unit
              7. Projected Sales    22,259,710
                                   - 17,120,400     8. Cost
              9. Gross Margin        5,139,310

                                                               New Marketing Strategy’s Projections for 1995,
                                                                                     ZEP Convection Ovens
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

991122   Prasarana Implementasi

               Organisasi/Management (Structure)
               Kepemimpinan (Leadership)
               Budaya (Culture)
               Sistim Imbalan (Reward Systems)
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
         Prasarana Implementasi
991122    McKinsey 7-S Framework
                                                Strategy


                           Structure                S                          Systems


                                             Shared Value                            R
                        S                      (Culture)



                                                    C
                           S  kill                                           S tyle
                        (Management)                                      (Leadership)




                                                 S  taff
                                              (Management)
                                                                               L
                                                             Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig.11-1
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
         Prasarana Implementasi
         Structure (Organisasi & Manajemen)
991129

                    Organizational Design (Collecting the combination of
                    organizational structure and control systems to implement its
                    strategy and to create and sustain a competitive advantage)
                    Differentiation (How to allocate people and resources to
                    organizational tasks in order to create value. Span of Control)
                    Vertical Differentiation (How to distribute decision-making
                    authority. Tall and Flat Structures)
                    Horizontal Differentiation (How to divide people and
                    tasks into functions and divisions to increase their ability to create
                    value. Simple, Functional, Divisional, Matrix)
                    Integration (How to coordinate people and functions to
                    accomplish organizational tasks)
                    Bureaucratic Costs (The cost of operating and
                    organizational structure and control system)

                                                              Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Ch. 11
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
         Organisasi dan Manajemen
         Tall and Flat Structures
991129




                           8

                           7

                           6

                           5

                           4

                           3                         3

                           2                         2

                           1                         1


                    Tall Structure           Flat Structure



                                               Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 11-2
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
         Kepemimpinan

991129
         Visionary Leadership

                  Vision (A realistic, credible, attractive future for the
                  organization. It deals with the future and expresses what you will be
                  working hard to create)

                  What is not? (It is not: a prophacy, a mission, factual, true
                  or false, static for all time, a constrait on actions)

                  Criteria (Future oriented, utopian, appropriate, high ideals,
                  clarify purpose and direction, inspire enthusiasm, reflect
                  uniqueness, ambitious)

                  Leadership (Take charge, make things happen, dream
                  dreams, then translate them into reality)




                                                                 Burt Nanus, Visionary Leadership, 1992
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
         Kepemimpinan

991129
         Visionary Leadership
                                         External
                                       Environment




                          Spokesperson        Direction Setter



             Present                                                          Future




                              Coach           Change Agent




                                         Internal
                                       Environment
                                                      Burt Nanus, Visionary Leadership, 1992, page 13
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
         Prasarana Implementasi
         Effective Leadership
991129
         (Kepemimpinan Efektif)


                   Strategic Leadership (The ability to anticipate,
                   envision, maintain flexibility, and empower others to create
                   strategic change as necessary)

                   Strategic Intent (The leveraging of a firm’s internal
                   resources, capabilities, and core of competencies in the
                   competitive environment) - (Misintrepreted??? Sc:The obsession
                   with winning and sustained for global leadership in the future
                   competitive env.)

                   Strategic Direction (Longterm vision of a firm’s
                   strategic intent)




                                                              Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL

         Strategic Competitiveness
991129                                    Effective Strategic
                                              Leadership

                                      Shape the formation
                                              of

                          Strategic Intent               Strategic Mission

                                             Influence

                                             Successful
                                          Strategic Actions



                          Formulation                     Implementation
                          of Strategies                    of Strategies



                                             Strategic
                                          Competitiveness

                                                                Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996, Fig. 12-1
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL

         Kepemimpinan Efektif
991129

                                               Effective
                                         Strategic Leadership




         Determining                                                                          Establishing
          Strategic                                                                            Balance
          Direction                                                    Emphasizing             Controls
                        Maintaining
                                                                         Ethical
                          Core        Developing     Sustaining an
                                                                        Practices
                       Competencies    Human         organizational
                                       Capital          culture




                                                                 Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996, Fig. 12-4
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL

         Entreprenur Korporasi
991129

                  Corporate Entrepreneurship (The set of
                  capabilities to produce or acquire new goods or services and manage
                  the innovation process (for pre-existing markets). Take risk, be
                  aggressive, proactive, and innovative)

                  Invention (The act of creating or developing a new product or
                  process idea)

                  Innovation (The process of creating a commercial product
                  from invention)

                  Imitation (The adoption of the innovation by similar firms)
                  Internal Corporate Venturing (The set of activities
                  used to create inventions and innovations within a single organization)




                                                              Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL

         Internal Corporate Venturing
991129
                                              Concept of
                                           Corporate Strategy




                       Strategic Context                        Structural Context




                         Autonomous                                   Induced
                          Strategic                                   Strategic
                          Behavior                                    Behavior




                                                            Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996, Fig. 13.1
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
         Prasarana Implementasi
         Culture (Budaya)
991129
                 Budaya Perusahaan (Perangkat/set yang terdiri dari
                 keyakinan, norma-norma, nilai-nilai, dan kebiasaan yang menjadi dasar
                 kebersamaan dan menjadi dasar cara berinteraksi)

                 Keyakinan/Beliefs (Keyakinan tentang hal-hal yang paling
                 cocok bagi perusahaan, seperti “being the best, superior, importance of
                 people-details-subtlety-communication”)

                 Norma-norma (Batasan-batasan yang menyatakan suatu
                 perilaku/perbuatan itu salah atau benar, biasanya tertulis)

                 Nilai-nilai (Batasan-batasan kebersamaan tentang
                 perilaku/perbuatan yang baik/buruk atau layak/tak layak, biasanya tak
                 tertulis kadang tertulis seperti kose etika)

                 Kebiasaan (Perilaku pelaku-pelaku utama perusahaan yang
                 menjadi panutan yang menjadi berpengaruh kepada kenyamanan
                 apabila dilakukan atau tidak dilakukan)
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
         Manajemen Perubahan
         Strategi-Perubahan-Budaya
991129




                  Perubahan yang perlu untuk implementasi
                                                                                           Reformulasi strategi
                                                                       Hubungkan erat
                                                                                                  atau



                                                            Banyak
                                                                       dengan misi dan
                                                                         norma dasar       Siap untuk kesulitan
                                 strategi                                                  perubahan budaya




                                                                         Synergistic          Pengelolaan
                                                            Sedikit




                                                                         Fokus pada          sekitar budaya
                                                                      memperkuat budaya




                                                                           Tinggi              Rendah

                                                                      Kompatibilitas perubahan dengan budaya
                                                                                                   Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig.11-8
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI


         Strategic Challenge of Change
000417


                   Managing Change (Reacting, Anticipating, Leading)
                   Competing on the Edge (Where to go/Direction, How
                   to get there/Concepts, What is the result)

                   Strategic Direction (Unpredictable/today,
                   Uncontrolled/units, Inefficient/reinvent, Proactive/lead,
                   Continous/relentless, Diverse/lots of moves)

                   Core Concepts (The Edge of Chaos/structure-surprise, The
                   Edge of Time/past-current-future, Time Pacing/rhythm for change)

                   Building Blocks (EoC: Improvisation-Coadaptation,
                   EoT:Regeneration-Experementation, TP:Transition-Rhythm)




                                                                  Competing on the Edge 1998, Chap 1
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI


         10 Rules of Competing on the Edge
                    Strategy
000417

                    Advantage is Temporary
                    Strategy is Diverse, Emergent, and Complicated
                    Reinvention is the Goal
                    Organization

                    Live in the Present
                    Stretch Out the Past
                    Reach into the Future
                    Time Pace Change
                    Leadership

                    Grow the Strategy
                    Drive Strategy from Business Level
                    Repatch Businesses and Articulate the Whole
                                                Competing on the Edge 1998, Chap 9
         IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

         Empat Jenis Kendali
991129




                                       1. Pengintaian Strategi
                             Monitor selalu kejadian-kejadian dalam atau luar
                            perusahaan yang berpengaruh besar pasa strategi



                                            2. Kendali Premis
                         Apakah asumsi dan prediksi yang dipakai masih sahih ?



                                              3. Kendali Dadakan Khusus
                                                  Akibat kejadian mendadak

                                                  4. Kendali Implementasi
                                               Perlu perubahan strategi akibat
                                                   tahapan pelaksanaan ?

                            Formulasi                   Implementasi
                  Saat                   Saat 2                                  Saat 3
                  1
                                                                    Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig.12-1

				
DOCUMENT INFO