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					                                                                                                              Texas Forest Service Safety Manual


                                               TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOPIC                                                         CHAPTER REFERENCE
PAGE

Introduction ............................................................ ......................................................................... 1

General Safety Requirements ......................... ......................................................................... 2

    General Safety Requirements ............................ 1.1 ...................................................................... 2
    Personal protective Equipment ......................... 1.2 ...................................................................... 2
    First Aid ................................................................ 1.3 ...................................................................... 4
    Fire Protection ..................................................... 1.4 ...................................................................... 4
    Noise ..................................................................... 1.5 ...................................................................... 4
    Lifting .................................................................... 1.6 ...................................................................... 5
    Smoking ............................................................... 1.7 ...................................................................... 7
    Americans with Disabilities Act ......................... 1.8 ...................................................................... 7
Texas Forest Service Safety Council ........... ......................................................................... 8

Accident and Illness Investigation................ ....................................................................... 10

    Accident and Illness Investigation ..................... 3.1 .................................................................... 10
    Report of Injuries ................................................. 3.2 .................................................................... 11
    Report on Vehicle Accidents .............................. 3.3 .................................................................... 13
    Other Equipment Accidents ............................... 3.4 .................................................................... 15
    Accident Review .................................................. 3.5 .................................................................... 16
    Records ................................................................ 3.6 .................................................................... 17
Travel ........................................................... .......................................................... 18

    General Vehicle Travel ........................................ 4.1 .................................................................... 18
    Truck Driving ....................................................... 4.2 .................................................................... 24
    Trailer Towing ...................................................... 4.3 .................................................................... 24
    Road Maintenance ............................................... 4.4 .................................................................... 25
    Bridge Inspections .............................................. 4.5 .................................................................... 25
    Heavy Equipment ................................................ 4.6 .................................................................... 25
    Motor and Pull Graders ....................................... 4.7 .................................................................... 27
    Tractors ................................................................ 4.8 .................................................................... 28




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                                                                                   Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

Safety Requirements for Move-Up Operations. 4.9 .................................................................... 29




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                                              TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                   (continued)

      TOPIC                                                        CHAPTER REFERENCE                                                          PAGE

Project Work ......................................................... ......................................................................... 33
    Firefighting ......................................................... 5.1 ...................................................................... 33
    Vehicle Fires ...................................................... 5.2 ...................................................................... 35
    Fencing ............................................................... 5.3 ...................................................................... 35
    Felling ................................................................. 5.4 ...................................................................... 36
    Bucking and Limbing ........................................ 5.5 ...................................................................... 38
    Tree Climbing..................................................... 5.6 ...................................................................... 38
    Tree Planting ...................................................... 5.7 ...................................................................... 41
    Tree Injection ..................................................... 5.8 ...................................................................... 42
    Prescribed Burning ........................................... 5.9 ...................................................................... 42
    Log Scaling ........................................................ 5.10 .................................................................... 43
    Mill Studies......................................................... 5.11 .................................................................... 45
    TFS Sawmill, Shingle Mill and Portable Mill ... 5.12 .................................................................... 46
    Carpentry ............................................................ 5.13 .................................................................... 47
    Painting .............................................................. 5.14 .................................................................... 47
Equipment ............................................................. ......................................................................... 50

    Hand Tools ......................................................... 6.1 ...................................................................... 50
    Chopping Tools ................................................. 6.2 ...................................................................... 51
    Cutting Tools ..................................................... 6.3 ...................................................................... 51
    Burning Out and Backfiring Equipment .......... 6.4 ...................................................................... 52
    Chainsaws .......................................................... 6.5 ...................................................................... 52
    Aerial Lifts .......................................................... 6.6 ...................................................................... 54
    General Shop Safety ......................................... 6.7 ...................................................................... 57
    Automotive and Equipment Repair Shops ..... 6.8 ...................................................................... 58
    Welding and Cutting ......................................... 6.9 ...................................................................... 59
    Arc Welding ........................................................ 6.10 .................................................................... 60
    Gas Welding and Cutting .................................. 6.11 .................................................................... 60
    Striking Tools..................................................... 6.12 .................................................................... 61




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                                                                                                              Texas Forest Service Safety Manual


                                               TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                    (continued)

 TOPIC                                                       CHAPTER REFERENCE                                                                PAGE

    Punches .............................................................. 6.13 .................................................................... 61
    Wrenches ........................................................... 6.14 .................................................................... 61
    Power-Operated Hand Tools ............................ 6.15 .................................................................... 62
    Air Equipment and Pneumatic Tools ............... 6.16 .................................................................... 62
    Drills .................................................................... 6.17 .................................................................... 63
    Grinders .............................................................. 6.18 .................................................................... 63
    Winches and Hoists .......................................... 6.19 .................................................................... 63
    Pressure Vessels ............................................... 6.20 .................................................................... 64
    Woodworking Equipment ................................. 6.21 .................................................................... 65
    Fork Lifts ............................................................ 6.22 .................................................................... 68
Building and Grounds ...................................... ......................................................................... 69

    Housekeeping .................................................... 7.1 ...................................................................... 69
    Walking and Working Surfaces ........................ 7.2 ...................................................................... 69
    Fire Prevention .................................................. 7.3 ...................................................................... 69
    Electrical Safety ................................................. 7.4 ...................................................................... 71
    Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ...... 7.5 ...................................................................... 73
    Grounds Maintenance ....................................... 7.6 ...................................................................... 74
    Offices ................................................................ 7.7 ...................................................................... 75
    Storage and Warehouses ................................. 7.8 ...................................................................... 78
Employee Health and Safety ......................... ......................................................................... 81

    Employee Health ................................................ 8.1 ...................................................................... 81
    Plant and Animal Hazards ................................ 8.2 ...................................................................... 84
Laboratory Safety and Health ....................... ......................................................................... 87
7

    Equipment and Clothing ................................... 9.1 ...................................................................... 87
    Availability of Emergency Equipment ............. 9.2 ...................................................................... 88
    Handling Chemicals .......................................... 9.3 ...................................................................... 88
    Laboratory Operations ...................................... 9.4 ...................................................................... 90




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                                                                                                          Texas Forest Service Safety Manual


                                             TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                  (continued)

 TOPIC                                                      CHAPTER REFERENCE                                                             PAGE

Hazardous Materials and Waste ............................. ......................................................................... 93

    Definitions ........................................................ 10.1 ...................................................................... 93
    Hazardous Waste............................................. 10.2 ...................................................................... 94
    Transportation ................................................. 10.3 ...................................................................... 94
    Dispensing Flammables & Combustibles ..... 10.4 ...................................................................... 95
    Flammable and Combustible Gases .............. 10.5 ...................................................................... 96
    Pesticides ......................................................... 10.6 ...................................................................... 97
    Wood Preserving Chemicals .......................... 10.7 .................................................................... 101
Texas Forest Service Policy Directives .... ....................................................................... 103

    Drug and Alcohol Abuse ..................................... ....................................................................... 103
    Hazard Communication Policy ........................... ....................................................................... 110
    Hazard Communication Procedures ................. ....................................................................... 111
Appendix ................................................................ ....................................................................... 124

    SARA Title III Consolidated List ......................... ....................................................................... 125
    Texas Forest Service Accident Review Form ... ....................................................................... 128
    Texas Forest Service Preliminary Report of Injury Form ........................................................ 129
    TAMUS Motor Vehicle Accident Report Form .. ....................................................................... 130




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                                                                      Texas Forest Service Safety Manual




                                    ABBREVIATIONS


The following abbreviations are used in the Texas Forest Service Safety manual. To minimize the
need to define each term every time it is used, please refer to this list as necessary.


CPR          Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation

DBH          Diameter at Breast Height (4½ feet above ground level)

DPS          Department of Public Safety

DOT          Department of Transportation

EPA          Environmental Protection Agency

LP GAS       Liquid Petroleum Gas

MPH          Miles Per Hour

MSDS         Material Safety Data Sheet

OSHA         Occupational Safety and Health Administration

RPM          Revolutions Per Minute

TAMUS        Texas A&M University System

TFS          Texas Forest Service

TFS-NET      Texas Forest Service Network (Agency Electronic Bulletin Board Service)

TNRCC        Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission




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                                                                         Texas Forest Service Safety Manual


                         TEXAS FOREST SERVICE
                                     SAFETY MANUAL


Introduction
It is the goal of the Texas Forest Service that all employees have the safest possible working
conditions available. The Texas Forest Service, as your employer, shall provide the necessary
leadership, guidance, training and motivation needed to enhance a safe working environment.

This Safety Manual was developed to help the Texas Forest Service accomplish its mission safely,
healthfully, and efficiently. It describes programs, practices and procedures to be followed to help
ensure a safe and healthy environment. It is the intent of the Texas Forest Service to comply with all
relevant occupational and environmental regulations and nationally recognized codes and standards.
 Using this manual’s protocols will complement responsible efforts to foster safe work habits and to
maintain safe work environments.

The Texas Forest Service has no greater concern than to perform its statutory responsibilities in a
manner which provides the safest possible working conditions for all employees. It is of paramount
importance that each employee perform his duties in the safest possible manner. No job of the
Texas Forest Service is more important than the safety of an employee or other human lives.

For the most part, this Safety Manual is written in the imperative: "Wear a hardhat on the fireline."
"Shut off engine before lubricating or repairing machine." The imperative indicates that the procedure
is mandatory and must be followed. Some practices are only suggested and are indicated by the
word "should."

The standard operating procedures described herein are applicable to all administrative levels within
the Texas Forest Service. All employees, particularly supervisors, must identify job-related hazards
and eliminate the causes of illnesses and accidents to the best of their ability by:

      1.   Knowing the type of equipment being used and its limits.

      2.   Carefully identifying any safety and health hazards for each project and assuring that all
           workers are aware and trained to work safely under these conditions.

      3.   Eliminating accident-causing errors by inspecting, evaluating, and correcting errors.




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                                                                       Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

            CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

1.1 General Safety Requirements
Texas Forest Service employees shall observe all provisions of applicable federal, state and local
laws for persons engaged in potentially hazardous occupations or tasks. Safety equipment and
devices shall conform to American National Standards and shall be maintained in safe condition.
Texas Forest Service supervisors shall instruct their employees in the proper use of all equipment
provided for them and shall require that safe working practices be observed. A job briefing, work
procedure and assignment shall be worked out carefully before any potentially hazardous job is
begun.

All equipment upon which the worker must rely for his safety shall be inspected by the worker each
day before use.

When involved in potentially hazardous duties or tasks, employees will perform in a professional
manner (e.g., horse-play of any kind will not be permitted).


1.2 Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment includes all clothing and work accessories designed to protect
employees from workplace hazards. Personal protective equipment shall be required where there is
a reasonable probability of injury or illness that can be prevented by such protection. Employees
shall use such protection. Use of specific equipment is referred to in applicable sections.

                            PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Job Category                                   Required Safety Items

Motor vehicle                                  Seatbelts

Tractor operation                              Seatbelts, Safety glasses or goggles, Hardhats,
                                               Boots, Gloves

Firefighting:
 Tractor operator                              Seatbelts, Safety glasses or goggles, Hardhats,
                                               Yellow jackets, Boots, Gloves

 Ground-man                                    Hardhats, Yellow jackets, Boots, Gloves

Tree climbing                                  Hardhat, Tie-in equipment, Safety glasses or
                                               goggles, Boots, Gloves

Tree planting:
 Machine Planting                              Seatbelts (Operator), Hardhat, Safety glasses,
                                               Boots




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                                                            Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

                       PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
                                 (continued)

Job Category                        Required Safety Items

 Hand Planting                      Hardhat, Boots

 Planting Inspection                Hardhat, Boots

T.S.I.                              Hardhat, Safety glasses/goggles, Rubber boots,
                                    Long sleeves

Prescribed burning                  Hardhat, Boots, Yellow jacket, Gloves

Scaling                             Hardhat, Safety glasses/goggles, Boots, Hearing
                                    protection (mill deck)

Mill studies                        Hardhat, Ear protection, Safety glasses/goggles,
                                    Boots

Sawmill                             Hardhat, ear protection, Eye protection, Boots,
                                    Gloves

Carpentry                           Eye protection

Spray painting                      Breathing Mask

Welding, Cutting                    Safety glasses or goggles (cutting), Gloves, Long
                                    sleeves

Chainsaws                           Hardhat, Eye protection, Chaps, Gloves, Long
                                    sleeves, Boots, Ear Protection

Cone collection                     Hardhat, Wasp repellent, Gloves, Goggles

Shops                               Boots

Mowing                              Hardhat, Eye protection, Boots

Ground checking                     Hardhats, Boots

Timber marking                      Hardhats, Boots




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                                                                         Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

                              PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
                                        (continued)

Job Category                                     Required Safety Items


Chemicals:
 (Fungicides, Herbicides, Insecticides),etc.     All safety items recommended by the manufacturer
                                                 as printed on the container label, plus, when:

 Mixing                                          Respirator,   Splash    goggles     or    face    shield,
Chemical
                                                 approved rubber gloves;

 Applying with spotgun                           Rubber gloves, Rubber boots.

 Using on-site                                   Eye Washer, Soap and Water.


1.3 First Aid
An approved first-aid kit adequately stocked and maintained shall be provided by the Texas Forest
Service for each administrative unit or crew. Each employee shall be instructed in its use.


1.4 Fire Protection
Federal, state and local regulations shall be complied with in providing the necessary fire protection.
Gasoline-powered equipment shall be refueled only after it has been stopped. Any spilled fuel shall
be removed from the equipment before restarting. Flammable liquids shall be stored, handled and
dispensed only from metal containers or approved safety cans.

Smoking shall be prohibited when handling or working around any flammable liquid. Each Texas
Forest Service vehicle will be equipped with a dry chemical extinguisher of the ABC type having a
minimum capacity of 2.5 pounds. Fire extinguishes of the ABC type will be maintained in laboratories
where flammable gases or liquids are used. All fire extinguishers will be inspected at periodic
intervals (at least every 2 years) and refilled or replaced when necessary.


1.5 Noise
When employees are required to work in areas in which noise levels exceed acceptable standards as
established by federal regulations, the Texas Forest Service shall take appropriate measures to
suppress the noise to safe levels. When it is not practical to decrease the noise or isolate the
workers from it, the workers shall wear effective protective hearing equipment as provided by the
Texas Forest Service.




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                                                                         Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

1.6 Lifting
The back supports the weight of the entire upper body. When you lift objects or move heavy loads,
your back has to support even more weight. If you exceed your body’s natural limits, your back
cannot support both your body and the extra load. The excess unsupported pressure is transferred
to the lower back, where injury is imminent. By using the muscles in your arms and legs and
exercising proper lifting techniques, you can move loads safely and protect your back from possible
injury.

All employees must use proper lifting techniques to avoid injury when lifting heavy objects. In
general, employees should seek assistance when lifting objects that weigh 50 pounds or more. Use
your good judgment to determine if you need assistance, a dolly, back support belt or other tool to
safely lift an object.

Follow these guidelines to help avoid back injuries:

            Avoid moving objects manually when practical. Plan jobs and arrange
             work areas so that heavy items may be moved mechanically.

            Keep in good physical condition. If you are not used to lifting and
             vigorous exercise, do not attempt difficult lifting tasks.

            Think before you act. Use proper lifting techniques and lifting aides
             such as back support belts, dollies, etc... Get help if you need it.

When lifting heavy objects, follow these steps:

            Test the object’s weight before handling it. If it seems too heavy or
             bulky, get assistance.

            Face the object, place one foot behind the object and one foot along its
             side.

            Bend at the knees.

            Get a firm, balanced grip on the object. Use the palms of your hands
             and use gloves if necessary.

            Keep the object as close to your body as possible (pull the load close to
             you before lifting).

            Lift by straightening your legs and slightly unbending your back.

            When moving objects, proceed with caution through doors and around
             corners.


Employees who are in “high risk” job categories for potential back injury will be assigned a back
support belt and will receive training in the proper use of the belt and proper lifting techniques. The
belt remains the property of the Texas Forest Service, but employees are allowed to use the belt
during off hours. Refusal to wear the belt as directed can result in disciplinary action.




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                                                                        Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

1.7 Smoking
The United States Surgeon General and the Environmental Protections Agency have determined the
following:

            Breathing secondary smoke causes various diseases and allergic
             reactions in healthy non-smokers.

            Separating smokers and non-smokers within the same air space does
             not eliminate exposure to environmental tobacco smoke for non-
             smokers.

            Tobacco smoke and secondary tobacco smoke are Class A
             carcinogens.

To promote a safe, healthy and pleasant environment for employees and visitors, the Texas Forest
Service has instituted a smoke-free policy.

           Smoking Policy: All Texas Forest Service facilities, buildings and vehicles,
           regardless of location or ownership, must be entirely smoke-free. This
           includes all foyers, entryways, classrooms, restrooms, offices and eating
           areas.

1.8 Americans with Disabilities Act
The Texas Forest Service complies with the requirements and guidelines of the Americans with
Disabilities Act. This means that new facilities and major renovations to existing facilities will be
designed to provide accessibility for handicapped persons.

Handicapped parking and wheelchair ramps must remain accessible at all times. Do not block these
areas or tamper with other accessibility equipment.

Report accessibility violations such as blocked wheelchair ramps and blocked handicapped parking
to your local administrator.




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                                                                      Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

     CHAPTER 2 - TEXAS FOREST SERVICE SAFETY COUNCIL

Texas Forest Service Safety Council
      1. Purpose - To guarantee each employee the safest possible conditions under which work
         can be accomplished and to provide the leadership, training and motivation necessary for
         each employee to become "safety conscious."

      2. Organization - The Texas Forest Service Safety Council shall consist of the following
         members:

         State Professional Development Coordinator (Chairman)
         Fire Control Department Representative
         Forest Resource Development Department Representative
         Region 1 Forester Representative
         Region 2 Forester Representative
         Forest Technician Representative
         Reforestation Representative

         All members will be appointed by the Texas Forest Service Administrative Team, except
         that the Forest Technician Representative will be elected at - large by employees. Each
         representative will serve a 6-year term with staggered terms of office.

      3. Safety Committees - Each Texas Forest Service Safety Council representative shall be
         chairman of a Safety Committee within his Region or Department. These Safety
         Committees shall implement the programs of the Texas Forest Service Safety Council
         within the respective administrative units. Duties of the local Safety Committees are the
         same as the Texas Forest Service Safety Council, except responsibility is limited to an
         administrative unit.

      4. Meetings - The Texas Forest Service Safety Council shall meet semi-annually, or more
         frequently as needed.

      5. Function - The council shall perform the following duties:

         a. Accident Investigation - Each council representative should immediately investigate
            every accident in his administrative unit, assist the unit administrator with completion
            of the accident report, and prescribe such recommendations as are essential to
            reduce the chances of a similar accident occurring again anywhere in the Texas
            Forest Service.

         b. Safety Evaluation Studies - The council shall be comprised of committees assigned to
            monitor, evaluate, and prescribe safe working conditions and equipment for Texas
            Forest Service employees. Recommendations must be approved by the council and
            the Director prior to initiation.

         c. Safety Incentive Program - The council shall maintain an incentive program designed
            to motivate safety consciousness. The incentive program may consist of incentive
            awards to recognize safety accomplishments and contributions or it may also include
            disciplinary actions where deemed essential. All incentive recommendations must be
            approved by the Director.




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                                                                Texas Forest Service Safety Manual


     d. Safety Training - In cooperation with administrative unit administrators, the Safety
        Council shall evaluate the needs for safety training designed to promote safe working
        conditions. The council should assist the unit administrator when requested in the
        development or location of suitable training programs or training materials. When
        similar safety training needs are identified that affect more than one administrative
        unit, a prescribed training approach should be recommended to the Director for
        implementation within all required administrative units.

6.   Safety Awareness - All Texas Forest Service offices should be supplied with the minutes
     of Texas Forest Service Safety Council meetings and other pertinent safety information.




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                                                                          Texas Forest Service Safety Manual




        CHAPTER 3 - ACCIDENT AND ILLNESS INVESTIGATION

3.1 ACCIDENT AND ILLNESS INVESTIGATION
Each occupational accident or illness, no matter how minor, warrants investigation. The primary
objective is to determine the cause(s). If the accident is the result of an unsafe act, or unsafe
condition, this information must be communicated to all employees responsible for the accident with
recommendations for corrective action.

Work supervisors must inquire into all accidents that they observe or are reported to them, even
though an injury might not have resulted.

It is essential to accurately investigate each accident so that the chain of events leading to the injury
or property damage can be identified and described. This chain of events is called the accident
sequence. The sequence is present in every accident, except those considered acts of nature, such
as lightning, windstorm, and earthquake.

In reconstructing the case, the accident sequence is considered in reverse order:

       1.   Result of Accident - Investigators shall identify the person(s) injured and property
            damaged and fully describe the injury and damage.

       2.   Accident - This is the event that resulted in injury or damage. The investigators must
            determine and describe how the accident happened and identify the person(s) and
            property involved.

       3.   Cause - Every accident, except for 2 percent that are classified as acts of nature, is
            caused by the unsafe behavior of an individual, or an unsafe mechanical or environmental
            condition, or both. The investigator must identify and describe the cause.

       4.   Personnel or Mechanical Factor - This is the reason why the individual committed the
            unsafe act, or why someone allowed an unsafe condition to exist. There are numerous
            reasons. Studies show that they can be grouped into 3 specific categories:

            a. Physical Defects - Employee was physically unable to do the job safely, because of
               physical handicap.

            b. Lack of Knowledge or Skill - Employee did not know the safe practice or fully
               understand how to proceed in accomplishing the task.

            c. Unsafe Attitude - An accident may be the result of a bad attitude, such as inattention,
               carelessness, or taking shortcuts. This determination is difficult and requires mature
               judgment. A poor investigation may result in obscure or inappropriate corrective
               action.




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                                                                      Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

     5.   Background Factors - Some of these background factors should be considered.

          a.   Inadequate work standards.
          b.   Inadequate design or maintenance.
          c.   Inadequate purchasing standards.
          d.   Abnormal use of equipment.
          e.   Inadequate training and instruction.
          f.   Inadequate job hazard analysis.
          g.   Improper selection of employees for the job.
          h.   Inadequate tools and equipment for the job.
          I.   Inadequate job planning.
          j.   Inadequate channels of communication.
          k.   Inadequate inspections and reviews of job.


3.2 Report of Injuries
     1.   When to File a Report of Injury - Each administrator shall submit a report of injury when
          any employee sustains any accidental injury on the job. The report should be submitted
          within two days of the injury.

     2.   Serious Injury - Whenever the injury is serious, immediately inform by telephone the
          Director's Office. The Director's Office may refer the administrator to the TAMUS
          Insurance & Risk Management. If for some reason the Director or his representative is
          not available, the TAMUS Insurance & Risk Management Manager should be called. His
          telephone number is (409) 845-5435. DEFINITION OF SERIOUS: LOSS OF LIFE, A
          LIMB, OR EYE, CRITICAL BURN OR BEING SEVERELY CRUSHED.

     3.   Forms to be Completed - A Texas Forest Service Preliminary Report of Injury form
          should be completed immediately upon discovery of an injury. The form may be
          transmitted to College Station via TFS-Net, FAX or mail, but must arrive in the Director's
          Office within three (3) days of the injury. Incomplete copies, faxed, or computer-
          transmitted reports should be followed up as quickly as possible by an original form
          containing required signatures of the injured employee, the employee's supervisor, and
          the Regional Forester or the Department Head.

     4.   The Employer's First Report of Injury (TAMUS Form 3) will be completed by the Texas
          Forest Service Benefits Office using information provided on the Preliminary Report of
          Injury.

     5.   Precautionary Reports - From time to time an employee may suffer an injury so slight that
          he or she is reluctant to file an injury report at the time the accident occurs. However,
          even the slightest injury can sometimes lead to complications that are severe. For
          example, a minor cut may become infected, resulting in a problem much more severe
          than the original injury. Conversely, some kinds of severe injuries are not readily
          manifested, and may be overlooked for some time. This can occur with certain back
          injuries, exposure to certain chemicals, etc...




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                                                                     Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

     If an employee sustains an injury or possible injury of this nature, but does not see any
     immediate need for medical attention and does not lose any time as a result of the injury,
     he may submit the accident report as a precautionary measure only. This will not affect
     the processing of the report at the Office of Risk Management, but it will keep the
     accident from appearing on the employee's Texas Forest Service Safety record.

     The accident will be given a "pending" status by the accident Review Board until such
     time as all danger of injury is passed, or until medical attention is obtained or time is lost
     from work. If no injury is forthcoming as a result of the accident, and the employee loses
     no time from work, the accident will be removed from the agency safety records as
     though it had never occurred. If an injury develops later, the "pending" status will be
     removed and the accident will appear on the employee's record and be ruled upon as
     either "preventable" or "non-preventable," just as any other injury report.

     An employee who wishes to consider an accident report “precautionary” must write the
     word "Precautionary" at the top right-hand corner of the Preliminary Report of Injury, and
     should make a statement to that effect in the body of the report. Additionally, when the
     preliminary review process is completed, the review should specify "Pending" as the
     recommended ruling on the accident.

     It is the responsibility of the employee and his Safety Officer to ensure that precautionary
     reports are so noted. Otherwise, they will be treated in the same manner as any other
     accident report. It is also the responsibility of the employee and his Safety Officer to notify
     the Safety Council Chairman and the Chairman of the Accident Review Board if a
     "pending" accident develops into a condition that requires medical attention or time off
     from work.

     The sole purpose of precautionary reports is to encourage employees to file the required
     injury report whenever an on-the-job injury is sustained, even when it may not be serious
     enough to require medical attention. This will protect the employer and the agency in the
     event that the injury later develops into something more serious, but will not affect the
     employee's eligibility for safety awards or incentives.

     Whenever an injury occurs that could potentially lead to the need for medical attention or
     the loss of time from work, an injury report must be completed. The employee's belief
     that the pain will go away in a few days does not justify his failure to complete an accident
     report, and the ultimate responsibility for filing the report is the injured employee's.

6.   Eye Injury

     a. Because of the sensitivity of the eye to injury, no chances should be taken.
        Consultation with an opthamologist (eye specialist) should be immediate when an
        employee sustains an injury to the eye. "Injury" includes foreign particles that are
        bothersome.




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                                                                         Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

          b. If the eye is bleeding, a local physician should be consulted. After first aid has been
             performed, the injured person should be taken to an opthamologist. When an eye is
             injured and causes severe pain, the patient should be sent directly to an
             opthamologist.

     7.   Loss of Time as Result of Injury

          a. Form to be Completed - If injury results in a loss of time by the employee, a Worker's
             Compensation Insurance Request for Paid Leave form is to be completed and
             submitted to the Benefits Office. This form designates how the employee wishes to be
             paid for his time off. It should be sent to the Benefits Office, along with the Preliminary
             Report of Injury.

          b. Worker's Compensation - Worker's Compensation pays two-thirds of the employee's
             salary after the seventh day off from work. If the employee is off for more than 30
             days, Worker's Compensation will pay retroactively for the first seven (7) days. If the
             employee wishes to be paid at his full salary amount, however, he must use his annual
             or sick leave.

          c. Supplemental Report of Injury - It is very important that the Benefits Office be notified
             whenever an employee loses time due to a work-related accident, or returns to work
             following such an accident. A "Supplemental Report of Injury" form must be
             completed by the Benefits Office, and submitted to Worker's Compensation and to the
             Office of Risk Management within three (3) days if an injured employee returns to
             work, and then loses additional time as a result of the previous injury.

             Failure to complete the required forms in a timely manner can result in sizable fines
             being levied against the agency.

          d. Further Information - For additional information on compensation payments, insurance
             benefits, use of sick leave, etc., please review sections 3300, 3400, and 3500 of the
             Administrative Handbook.


3.3 Report on Vehicle Accidents
 Vehicle Accident/Damage:

     1.   When to File a Vehicle Accident Report - Drivers of state-owned vehicles involved in any
          accident resulting in injury, death, or property damage will complete and file the proper
          form within five (5) days. EMPLOYEES SHOULD NOT ADMIT LIABILITY. Equipment
          Accident/Damage Report (Form SC-1) will be completed and submitted on accidents
          involving only Texas Forest Service vehicles, and when the Department of Public Safety
          forms and TAMUS Form 9 are not used. A property damage estimate of $100.00 or more
          is necessary before Form SC-1 is required to be filed.




                                                                                                        18
                                                                 Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

2.   Serious Vehicle Accident Notification - The Director's Office should be notified by
     telephone of any serious vehicle accident.

3.   Forms to be Completed - The following forms are required to report a vehicle accident:

     a. Department of Public Safety Report - Four (4) copies of the necessary Department of
        Public Safety accident form(s) must be completed and submitted to the local Texas
        Forest Service administrator. Note: If an investigating Department of Public Safety
        officer completes these forms, only three (3) copies need be submitted to the local
        administrator, however, a note should be attached calling attention to the action.

     b. Texas A&M University System Report - The Employee's Benefit System Form 9
        (white, yellow and blue copies) should be completed and submitted to the local Texas
        Forest Service administrator. Be sure to get the complete addresses or other parties.

     c. Equipment Accident/Damage Report - When Another Vehicle is Not Involved - Four
        (4) copies of the form (SC-1) will be completed and submitted to the proper Texas
        Forest Service administrators. One copy shall go to the Texas Forest Service Safety
        Council Chairman, one to the Regional Forester or Department Head, and one to the
        operator's personnel file. The fourth copy shall be retained by the operator.

     d. Availability - A few copies of each of the forms should be maintained in each vehicle,
        along with a designation of the current vehicle insurance carrier and policy number.

4.   Internal Distribution of Vehicle Accident Reports - All copies of the above reports
     (Department of Public Safety, 4 copies; Texas A&M University System - 3 copies) should
     be thoroughly examined by each reviewing administrator for completeness and accuracy
     and then forwarded as follows:

     a. Districts submit reports to Regional Forester.

     b. Sections submit reports to Department Heads.

     c. Regional Foresters and Department Heads submit forms to Director.

5.   Final Distribution of Vehicle Accident Reports - Final distribution of vehicle accident
     reports will be made by the Director's Office as follows:

     a. Department of Public Safety Report - Send one (1) copy to each of the following:

        Texas Department of Public Safety
        Box 4087
        Austin, Texas 78773

        (continued next page)




                                                                                                19
                                                                        Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

              Insurance & Risk Management Office
              Personnel Department
              Texas A&M University System
              College Station, Texas 77843

              Chairman, Texas Forest Service Safety Council
              P.O. Drawer 1327
              Henderson, Texas 75653-1327


Department of Public Safety will be provided a copy of the report by the Texas Forest Service
employee only in the case of injury, death or whenever damage is more than $25.00 and when the
Department of Public Safety investigating officer does not file the report.

The remaining copy shall be retained in the Vehicle Accident Report file #1361.

           b. Texas A&M University System Report - The white, pink and blue copies will be
              forwarded to the TAMUS Insurance & Risk Management Office. A photocopy will be
              retained in the Vehicle Accident Report file #1361.

      6.   Damage Estimate When Texas Forest Service Operator at Fault - When it is obvious the
           Texas Forest Service operator is at fault, at least two estimates of damage to the other
           vehicle should be obtained and submitted to the Director's Office. Damage estimates will
           be secured in accidents not involving another vehicle and/or when evidence exists of
           improper vehicle use or treatment by a Texas Forest Service operator. When it is
           obvious that the Texas Forest Service operator was responsible, regardless of whether
           the accident was avoidable or unavoidable, an estimate of damage will be made by the
           operator's supervisor and/or the Area or Department Safety Officer or the equipment shop
           mechanic.

      7.   Accident/Abuse Accounting - The avoidable accident will be treated as a Service accident
           and will count as an accident against the operator's safety record. If determined as an
           instance of vehicle abuse, a Safety Citation will be issued.


3.4 Other Equipment Accident/Damage
        1. When to File an Equipment Accident/Damage Report - The report (Form SC-1) must be
           filed when equipment repair or alteration costs exceed $100.00, and such costs result
           from an accident or possible equipment abuse, misuse, or lack of proper maintenance.

        2. Internal Distribution of Equipment Accident/Damage Report - Copies of this report should
           go to the local office administrator and the Regional Forester or Department Head.

        3. Accident/Abuse Accounting - Should it be determined that the damage was the result of
           abuse, misuse or poor maintenance, the responsible employee will be issued an abuse
           citation by the Department Head, Section Head, or Regional Forester.




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                                                                         Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

        4. Theft or Vandalism - Incidents of theft or vandalism are not and should not be considered
           accidents. Therefore, use of the form SC-1 is not recommended. In the event of a theft
           or vandalism (including vandalism of a vehicle), the Director's Office should be notified by
           phone, and supporting documentation (police reports, etc.) should be submitted with a
           memo of explanation.


3.5 Accident Review
Every occurrence that results in the filing of a Preliminary Report of Injury, Vehicle Accident Report,
or Equipment Accident/Damage Report must be followed up by a preliminary review and a final
review.

        1. Preliminary Review - The preliminary review should be done by the administrative unit's
           Safety Council representative or his/her designee. This may be an individual Safety
           Officer or a safety committee. During the review process, such things as causes,
           contributing factors, negligence, mitigating circumstances, and seriousness of the
           accident should be considered. Any information learned as a result of the accident that
           could be helpful in deterring, preventing or mitigating future accidents should be duly
           noted and, if appropriate, brought to the attention of the Safety Council. Following the
           review process, a recommendation should be made as to whether the accident should be
           considered preventable or non-preventable. Preventable accidents are counted against
           the employee's safety record. Non-preventable accidents are not.

        2. Accident Review Form - Following the preliminary review, the Safety Officer or his/her
           designee shall complete a Texas Forest Service Accident Review Form and forward it to
           the Chairman of the Accident Review Board.

        3. Final Review - The Texas Forest Service Accident Review Board will meet as needed to
           conduct a final review of every accident reported throughout the agency. The Review
           Board's responsibilities include, but are not limited to the following:

               Review all accidents

               Determine whether accidents are preventable or non-preventable

               Report all findings to the Safety Council

               Notify the Safety Council of apparent trends, and make suggestions and
               recommendations, if appropriate, for accident prevention or mitigation.

               Consider enhancements to the overall safety program as it relates to the
               reporting, weighing, and disposition of accidents.

           The Accident Review Board must have a properly completed Accident Review Form
           before determining whether an accident is preventable or non-preventable. Failure to
           submit one of these forms to the Board will result in an automatic determination of
           "preventable" for that accident.




                                                                                                        21
                                                                         Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

3.6 Records
Records provide the information that enables the Texas Forest Service administrators to determine
where accidents are occurring and the types of accidents that are most costly. They enable the
Service to direct its efforts in prevention efforts on the locations and types of accidents/abuse which
are most prevalent. Your cooperation and assistance in accurately preparing these reports will be
invaluable in assuring safe working conditions for each employee and maximum life-span of all
equipment.




                                     Chapter 4 - Travel




                                                                                                        22
                                                                           Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

4.1 General Vehicle Travel
Motor vehicle operation is one of our greatest hazards. All drivers must adopt a policy of defensive
driving. This includes:

      1.   Attending a National Safety Council defensive driving course each three years
           or within 90 days of a reportable accident.

      2.   Attending the Texas Forest Service Driver Training Course (Texas Forest Service field
           personnel only).

      3.   Driving to avoid accident situations created by the mistakes of others, or by weather and
           road conditions.

      4.   Yielding the right-of-way even when, by all rules of the road, it is yours.

      5.   Making an unbroken series of concessions to other drivers who are thoughtless, unskilled
           or ignorant of the hazards they create.

      6.   Being confident you can drive without having a preventable accident.

      7.   Constantly looking far enough ahead to get the "big picture." This includes being aware of
           traffic situations developing far ahead of your vehicle.

      8.   Expecting reckless, illegal and clumsy behavior on the part of other drivers and being
           prepared to adjust your driving to prevent accidents.

      9.   Being especially courteous to pedestrians. Honor their right-of-way privileges. Watch
           carefully for erratic behavior by children, the elderly and those who have been drinking.

     10.   Wearing seatbelts and shoulder harnesses by all in vehicles so equipped; tractors without
           roll-over protection is excepted from this policy.

     11.   Adjusting the headrest to prevent whiplash.

     12.   Learning to recognize the hazards rural roads present.

     13.   Knowing and observing State and local traffic rules and regulations.

Vehicles owned by the Texas Forest Service must be driven only by physically fit employees who
hold a valid Texas driver's license. Operators must be thoroughly familiar with the Texas Driver-
Operator Handbook. Texas Forest Service vehicle operators must have a Commercial Drivers
License, with applicable endorsements, where required for the most appropriate legal, safe and
effective performance of their specified and/or reasonably expected job duties.




                                                                                                          23
                                                                          Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

Daily, before driving any assigned vehicle, check: (1) brakes, (2) steering, (3) windshield wipers, (4)
tires, (5) all operational lights, (6) horn and (7) exhaust system. Always keep vehicle windows clear
of dirt, grease and steam. Never move a vehicle found unsafe to operate; check with your supervisor
or mechanic.

  Official Vehicle Equipment:

Equip vehicles used on official business with:

           1. Seatbelts and/or shoulder harnesses, and seatbelts for all passengers.      This
              requirement does not apply to equipment that does not have a roll-over protective
              structure (ROPS), i.e., wheel tractors.

           2. Warning flags or flares and flashlight.

           3. First-aid kit.

           4. Fire extinguishers.

  Driving Tips:

           1. When driving, have no other duties in addition to operating the vehicle.              If it is
              necessary to refer to a map or instructions, pull off the road and stop.

           2. Never consume food or drink while driving.

           3. Before backing, either walk behind the vehicle or be guided by a helper who can see
              all of the area involved. Tap horn and turn on flashers.

           4. Drive at a speed that permits full control of the vehicle. Consider factors, such as
              posted speed limits, stop signs, weather, visibility, traffic and road conditions, and safe
              stopping distances.

           5. Lock unattended vehicles, except those at fire suppression sites.

           6. Keep well to the right side on narrow roads and blind curves, and be able to stop the
              vehicle within less than half of the visible distance.

           7. Loose objects must be securely tied down or separated from the passenger area by a
              well-anchored partition. Never keep loose items on the dashboard or over the sun
              visor or floor.

  Drivers shall:

           1. Never exceed posted speed limits. Fires and other emergencies are no exception!

           2. Bring vehicle to a full stop before entering a hard-surfaced road when there is no yield
              or stop sign, or when a view is restricted to less than 500 feet in both directions.




                                                                                                         24
                                                                           Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

           3. Stop at railroad crossings when: (1) Automatic lights or other warning devices are
              operating. (2) A clear view or right-of-way is restricted to less than 500 feet in both
              directions. (3) In a vehicle capable of carrying 11 or more people and there are no
              signaling devices. (4) Hauling flammable liquids.

           4. Use caution at multiple railroad crossings and make sure all tracks are clear.

           5. When driving in convoy, keep at least 200 feet between vehicles, or farther if required
              by law.

           6. Reduce speed when driving on wet, hard-surfaced roads. The front wheels of a
              vehicle begin to hydroplane at 45 mph and lose contact with the road.

Towing:

           Pull a vehicle only with a tow bar. Only drivers qualified to tow trailers shall
           tow vehicles. Before towing vehicles with automatic transmissions, disconnect
           the drive shaft or check vehicle's manual for instructions. Contact your
           supervisor or Area mechanic before towing.

Parking:

           1. Always park vehicles off the traveled portion of the highway. When
              necessary to park near or partly on the traveled portion of the highway,
              place warning devices in accordance with State or local regulations.

           2. On standard shift vehicle, place transmission in lower gear in direction
              of probable roll. Automatic transmission must be left in "park" position.

           3. Set hand break.

           4. Turn wheels into bank or curb if present.

Condition of Driver:

           Employees shall not operate an official motor vehicle while under the influence
           of alcohol, drugs, or while sick or suffering from undue fatigue or emotional
           stress.

Expressway Driving:

           1. Know your State laws for freeway driving.

           2. Special considerations before entering an expressway:

              a. Have ample fuel.

              b. Study map in advance; know where you expect to exit and how
                  to identify exists in advance.

           3. When possible, enter from acceleration lane at approximate speed of
              through traffic. While merging, check traffic carefully to be sure the
              traffic gap is sufficient to allow entry, and that approaching traffic is not




                                                                                                          25
                                                                   Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

       forced to slow down or swerve from its lane. Be sure you do not
       overtake the car entering ahead of you. Yield right-of-way to through
       traffic.

  4. Never back up, turn around, or cut across a dividing strip.

  5. Remember that faster-than-usual traffic adds to your driving responsibilities. You have
     to think ahead.

  6. Be alert and anticipate moves of other drivers.

  7. Plan on longer stopping distances due to higher speeds. Figure 2-1 shows stopping
     distances at various speeds under good driving conditions.

                      Figure 2-1. - Vehicle stopping distances


              Driver reaction           *Vehicle braking          Total stopping
Speed          Distance                   distance                 distance
(mph)           (feet)                     (feet)                  (feet)

      15                17                        14                        31

      20                22                        26                        47

      25                28                        39                        67

      30                33                        55                        88

      35                39                        78                       117

      40                44                       106                       149

      45                50                       136                       186

      50                55                       188                       243

      55                61                       230                       291

*Truck-tractor units require greater braking distance. Refer to Truck Driver Manual.

 8.    These stopping distances are based on the average driver taking 3/4 of a second to
       begin braking on dry pavement. Slower reaction time or delayed recognition of danger
       further decreases the margin of safety.

 9.    Keep eyes moving to prevent highway hypnosis. Scan the road ahead.

10.    Avoid driving long periods, especially at night. If possible, change drivers regularly.




                                                                                                  26
                                                                         Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

        11.    Follow the "two-second rule" in calculating following distance. It works like this:
               Watch the vehicle ahead when it passes some point on the highway, such as a sign
               post or mileage marker. Then, begin counting to yourself "1 thousand 1, 1 thousand
               2." This is two seconds. If you reach the point before you finish those words you are
               following too closely. Add seconds to your count for less than optimum driving
               conditions or larger, heavier vehicles (for Texas Forest Service truck-tractor units use
               4 seconds).

        12.    Use the passing lane properly. Stay in right lane except when passing or as signs
               direct when passing exits or passing through cities. Check traffic front, side, and rear
               before changing lanes; signal and pass in the left lane. Stay in it until you can see in
               your inside rearview mirror, the front tires of the car you have passed touching the
               road surface. Change lanes smoothly.

        13.    If you must stop because of an emergency, give directional and stop signal as soon as
               possible and drive as far off roadway as the shoulder permits. As a distress signal,
               raise the hood or tie a handkerchief to your radio antenna, door handle, or from the top
               of window on highway side. Do not leave car until help comes. On manual
               transmissions you can use low gear and battery to get stalled vehicle to shoulder.
               Activate 4-way emergency flashers and put out emergency flags, reflectors or flares.
               If you must get out, leave the vehicle from the side opposite traffic flow.

        14.    Leave a vehicle that is stalled in traffic lanes only when there is greater danger
               involved in remaining inside the vehicle. Activate emergency flashers. Go to the
               closest edge of road when it is safe to do so and stay there until help arrives.

        15.    Plan ahead when using exits. Watch for directional signs. Move to proper lane as
               early as possible. Drive into deceleration lane and slow to posted exit speed.

        16.    Check speed carefully after leaving expressway. Drivers often exceed safe or posted
               speed limits without being aware of it after long periods at high speed.

        17.    As weather, traffic and road conditions change, so must your driving, attitude,
               awareness and speed.

  Driving on Rural Roads:

Consider these factors when driving forest roads:

          1.   Road Width - Rural road width varies greatly, some are one lane. Alertness must be
               exercised on such roads.

          2.   Grade - Grades vary greatly. Extreme grades cause difficulty in stopping and
               controlling a vehicle. Speed should be adjusted to circumstances and lower gear
               ranges should be used.




                                                                                                        27
                                                                         Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

         3.   Surface - Most rural roads have a variety of surfaces. Dirt roads are the most
              dangerous because they are often deeply rutted and dusty. When wet, they become
              slick. Sand and gravel surfaces can also cause vehicle control difficulty.

         4.   Sight Distances - Blind curves, foliage, dust, smoke, sunlight flickering through the
              forest canopy; all affect a driver's sight distance. The ability to see or be seen is
              greatly reduced when following, passing or approaching other vehicles on the road.
              When coming out of deep shade and facing directly into the sun, it can take as long as
              10 seconds for eyes to adjust.

         5.   Other Road Users - Rural road users vary from those driving heavy industrial
              equipment to those driving sports cars and motorcycles. Few of them drive on the
              extreme right side of the road and often cut corners and disregard recommended
              speeds for particular hazards.

  Defensive Driving:

The only defense against vehicle accidents and near misses is to learn to recognize hazards and the
defenses against them. Drive defensively.

         1.   Drive Slowly - The only way a driver can reduce impact or increase reaction time is to
              drive slowly. Drive at a speed that permits full control of the vehicle. Use compression
              and gravity to slow the vehicle going uphill, and compression and low gear ratios going
              downhill. If you have to ride the brakes, you are in the wrong gear.

         2.   Keep Right - This is difficult because tracking surfaces (ruts) make it easier to travel
              the center of the road. Driving on the right affords the driver the greatest protection
              from head-on collisions.

         3.   Keep Alert - A driver must keep his mind alert to the multiple hazards of the road.

         4.   Use Headlights - Drive with the headlights on when visibility conditions are adversely
              affected by fog, darkness, rain, dust or smoke.

         5.   Keep Windshields and Headlights Clean - Increase your chances to see and to be
              seen by regularly cleaning the windshield, mirrors, headlights and taillights. Do this
              often, even if it means making an unscheduled stop.

         6.   Allow Following Distances - When dust or smoke limit visibility, slow down. When
              following another vehicle, stay far enough back to have adequate visibility.




                                                                                                        28
                                                                          Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

4.2 Truck Driving
All operators of truck/tractor units will be given special training in that vehicle's operation and use.
They will be required to demonstrate to an instructor their knowledge and capabilities before they are
allowed to operate a Texas Forest Service transport truck.

  Transport Trucks and Pickups:

          1.   Every truck transport shall have seat belts for each passenger.

          2.   Don't haul personnel with loose supplies and tools; separate and secure tools so they
               cannot contact personnel.

          3.   Passengers must never ride on top of a load of supplies or tools.

          4.   Before moving a vehicle, be sure all persons are seated with seatbelts on and end
               gates are fastened.

          5.   Passengers shall ride only inside the cab or passenger area and must be seated while
               the vehicle is in motion.

  Dump Trucks:

          1.   Dump truck drivers shall:

               a. Ensure the hoist control mechanism cannot be accidentally engaged when hauling
                  supplies. Secure front of bed to frame.

               b. Remain in truck during the loading operation provided there is cab protection on
                  truck. If truck is being loaded by a swing boom loader that swings over the cab,
                  have the driver get out of the truck and stand clear.

               c. Have only dump truck drivers or dump bosses trip the tailgate and then only after
                  the truck has been brought to a full stop. If the tailgate must be tripped while
                  moving, as when spreading gravel, have an observer present.


4.3 Trailer Towing
Any towing vehicle must be of adequate size and equipped to handle the particular trailer to be
towed.

Equip trailer and towing vehicle with brakes, lights, coupling, safety chain and other devices
prescribed by State law.

Equip towing vehicles with mirrors that provide adequate rear vision.




                                                                                                         29
                                                                             Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

Use a safety chain with trailer coupling or tow bar.

Keep hands and feet off the coupling device when steering the trailer into position for locking.

Pull trailers with a vehicle properly equipped for towing. Gross trailer-weight (GTW) is not to exceed
75 percent of gross vehicle weight.

Permit only drivers who are experienced to drive vehicles towing trailers.

Never permit personnel to ride in trailers.


4.4 Road Maintenance
State forest roads should be maintained to a safe standard or be closed for public use.

Minimum safety requirements of road maintenance include:

        1.Dead trees near roads should be cut; branches that obscure vision should be removed.

        2.When roads are being repaired, warning signs or barricades should be used.


4.5 Bridge Inspections
Bridges on State forest roads should be inspected annually and also immediately after heavy rains.

Bridges needing repair should be barricaded until repairs are completed.


4.6 Heavy Equipment
Equipment operators must demonstrate their ability to handle the equipment. Supervision and
training should be provided until the operator has demonstrated the ability to perform alone.

Operators of fire suppression units will be given special training on those units, including information
in hazard recognition and safe and unsafe procedures.

Always follow manufacturer's recommendations for machine operation. (If operating manuals are not
available, contact your supervisor or mechanic.)

Never ride on any vehicle not designed to carry passengers.

To carry passengers, provide a seat and seatbelt for each person.

Never get on or off moving equipment or equipment that is stopped without notifying the operator.




                                                                                                            30
                                                                        Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

Before using equipment make needed repairs or adjustments or promptly notify supervisors of safety
deficiencies. Shut down defective machinery until repairs are made and inspect and test before
returning to service.

Operators will wear hard hats and safety glasses or goggles.

When changing operators, discuss with new operator and crew the plan of work, hazards, hand
signals, and other safety features of the job.

Machines with parts or accessories lowered by gravity or hydraulic levers, such as shovels, buckets,
plows, bulldozer blades, and skip loaders must have them resting on the ground and controls in
neutral when the machine is shut down.

Provide fire extinguishers or Compressed Air Foam System (CAFS) where machine hazards warrant
them.

Practice defensive operations at all times. Operators must:

        1.    Understand the limits of their equipment and operate within those limits.

        2.    Avoid doubtful or spectacular operations.

        3.    Avoid hazardous situations created by ground, weather or fire conditions. Be alert to
              changing conditions.

Stop engines before refueling.
Provide adequate ventilation if there is a chance of carbon monoxide entering enclosed areas. Do
not use equipment with exhaust systems that are suspect.

Operate heavy equipment at night only on fires and in emergencies. Use lights and assign helper
equipped with hand light.

Operators shall inspect machines for safe operation daily.

Follow manufacturer's recommendations for maintenance and inspections of:

        1.    Engine

        2.    Blades

        3.    Tracks

        4.    Drives

        5.    Hydraulic and mechanical braking systems

        6.    Other unique and vital parts of machine




                                                                                                       31
                                                                          Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

  Large Transports:

Persons moving equipment shall be familiar with State laws.

Before moving heavy machinery, check route of travel for overhead and side clearance; culverts and
bridges for width and load limits; overhead high-tension lines and similar hazards; weight limits, and
other State and county highway laws. Transport operators have final approval over load and routing.

Transport operators shall know load weight, width and height; obtain State permit; comply with the
State requirements for flagging, signaling and placarding, such as "Wide Load."

Block heavy equipment sideways and lengthways on truck beds. Securely bind it to the truck, both
front and rear or on each side, with chain or cable tightened with load binders.

The total static breaking strength of the tie down assemblies securing equipment against movement
in any direction must be at least 1-1/2 times the weight of the equipment.

Keep unnecessary personnel away from tractor transport when loading or unloading heavy
equipment.


4.7 Motor And Pull Graders
The operator is the only person allowed on a moving machine.

  Operator must:

          1.   Keep cab ventilated to avoid exhaust fumes. Set exhaust tailpipe at a 45 degree angle
               to the right or left of line of travel unless it is equipped with a rain cap.

          2.   Never reach through the steering wheel to adjust levers or controls.

          3.   Watch the road for hazards. Dismount and look things over carefully it you cannot see
               clearly.

          4.   Pull -- not push -- logs and windfalls off the road where there is danger of their sliding
               or rolling on the machine.

          5.   Adjust speed to match road, traffic, and weather conditions.

          6.   Grade slowly enough to prevent the machine from being thrown out of control if it
               strikes roots, rocks, or stumps.

          7.   Be sure entire crew is in full view before starting. See that people do not get close to
               the machine while it is in motion.




                                                                                                         32
                                                                             Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

          8.   Maintain control on hills by keeping machine in gear; never coast out of gear. Do not
               depend entirely on brakes to hold grader while traveling, working or when parked.

          9.   Keep graders away from edge of fills with soft shoulders.

         10.   Watch above cut for rocks, logs and trees that blade action could loosen when bank
               sloping.

         11.   Remember that brakes do not hold as well in reverse as when going forward.

  Maintenance and Fueling:

          1.   Stop engine when filling fuel tank.

          2.   Before checking blade bolts, put a block under blade.

          3.   Correct and clean oil leakages on cab floors, controls, steps and
               handles before operating.


4.8 Tractors
The efficiency and safety of tractor operations depends on the equipment condition and operator
driving skills. Safety is the foremost concern when operating a tractor. Injuries resulting from tractor
operations are usually very serious.

Under no conditions shall a tractor operator operate alone.

Seatbelts shall be worn on all crawler tractors with roll-over protection.

Do not operate tractor if it is not in safe operating condition. This includes hydraulic, steering and
braking system.

Safety glasses or goggles and hardhats shall be worn during tractor operation. Nomex clothing (fire
resistant) shall be worn during operation on all wildfires and prescribed burning. Gloves should be
worn in tractor operation on wildfires and control burning.

All tractors should be equipped with a high beam cab light for night operations.

When unloading tractors use slowest speed possible. Persons on the ground should remain in front
of the bed where the tractor operator can see him. Check to see if the ground will support the weight
of the tractor or if the incline is too steep. Unloading on an incline should be avoided if possible.

When loading a tractor, use the lowest gear and low throttle.




                                                                                                            33
                                                                             Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

Keep the tractor blade as close to the ground as possible during operation. This will avoid tractor
hang-up on stumps or other obstacles. When filling-in crossings, allow only the blade to stick out
over ditch.

Make turns on uphill side if possible. If tractor slides sideways, kick uphill track.

Never jump off a moving tractor.

Blade and plow should be lowered to the ground before dismounting.


4.9 Safety Requirements for Move-Up Operations
Despite our finest intentions to provide the best possible service to the people and to the volunteer
fire departments in the state of Texas, we must retain our perspective and our priorities. The safety
and health of our employees is just as important as the safety of other Texans, and is more important
than the potential loss of structures, property and wildlife.

While implementation of these guidelines may involve the use of additional personnel, other state
resources and/or result in higher fire suppression costs, they have been developed for the sole
purpose of insuring the safety and health of all Texas Forest Service employees deployed on
incidents around the state. They apply not only to line firefighters, but to overhead and support
personnel as well. Fatigue is just as critical a factor in the performance of those in key decision
making positions as it is to firefighters on the line.

  Travel:

All personnel who have been without sleep for 24 hours are prohibited from travel. This includes all
previous work hours, travel hours and off-duty hours. Personnel who have been without sleep for 24
hours must sleep a minimum of six hours before attempting travel to another fire or to return home.

        1.     Overhead Teams - The Incident Commander has the authority to make all decisions
               related to travel. This authority may be delegated to the Safety Officer.

        2.     Strike Teams - In situations where there is no Incident Commander, the designated
               Strike Team Leader has the authority to make all decisions concerning travel,
               including travel routes, rest periods, sleeping quarters, etc...

        3.     Convoys - When personnel and equipment are dispatched as a convoy, the Head,
               Fire Control Department, or his designated representative, will appoint a leader. This
               leader will be identified to all personnel in the convoy. The leader will brief all convoy
               personnel. The leader has the authority to make all decisions concerning travel.




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Travel should generally be limited to no more than 12 hours per day. This requirement may be
extended on a case by case basis only under the following conditions:

        1.    Total travel time will not exceed 16 hours per day.

        2.    There is more than one driver, so that no one driver will exceed eight
              hours of driving per day.

        3.    Reasons for the time extension are documented and justifiable. Reasons
              may include proximity to final destination, adequate rest available for
              personnel who are not driving, an early start in the day, etc...

If long distances of travel are required to reach an incident, every effort should be made to provide a
minimum of eight hours of rest for personnel before reporting to fireline duty. However, if this is not
feasible, the following guidelines are recommended:

        1.    Total hours of travel plus work cannot exceed twenty continuous hours,
              followed by a minimum of eight hours of rest.

        2.    After 1200 (12:00 noon), total hours of travel plus work cannot exceed
              fourteen hours, followed by a minimum of eight hours of rest.

        3.    After 1800 (6:00 pm), total hours of travel plus work cannot exceed eight
              hours, followed by a minimum of eight hours of rest.

Personnel may travel up to sixteen hours per day by bus to reach almost any destination in Texas.

Nighttime travel via passenger bus may be considered rest time, provided that conditions are suitable
for resting on the road, ie., reclining seats, ample room, reasonable quiet, etc... Crews rested on the
road will be limited to a twelve hour shift assignment upon arrival at the incident.

It is the responsibility of the Fire Control Department to analyze the time of mobilization and the
distance to the incident, relate these to the stated travel policy and provide a realistic estimate of
arrival time on the incident. Typically, a minimum of four hours is required for mobilization of
resources. At no time should an estimated time of arrival be given that violates the Texas Forest
Service travel policy.

Depending upon distances to be traveled and the number and types of resources to be mobilized,
alternate methods of travel may be considered to optimize response time. These may include air
travel for crews while vehicles are transported over the road, chartered buses for maximum crew
comfort while traveling, etc... If such alternatives are appropriate, the Fire Control Department will
coordinate arrangements with the Division of Emergency Management and other agencies.

  Region-to-Region Move-Up:

The Regional Forester receiving move-up crews has the responsibility and authority to make all
decisions concerning travel for visiting crews and personnel.




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  Work Shifts on the Incident:

On the incident, a 2:1 work/rest ratio should be followed. Wherever possible, actual work shifts
should be limited to twelve hours, not counting travel time to and from the fireline, briefings, meals,
etc... A typical shift should allow for a maximum of sixteen hours on duty and eight hours off.

Under extreme circumstances, such as initial attack, life threatening conditions, threatened
structures, endangered species, etc..., the Incident Commander may authorize a twenty-four hour
work shift. Studies completed by the United States Forest Service Technology and Development
Center have found that twenty-four hour work/rest cycles are no less safe in terms of injury frequency
than the traditional two-shift system, and they are slightly better in terms of transportation safety and
total shift production. However, their use is still only recommended under certain conditions where
they present a clear advantage over the two-shift system.

In implementing a twenty-four hour work shift, the Incident Commander must develop a plan to
provide for the following:

        1.     A minimum of twelve hours of rest for each twenty-four hours worked
               (twenty-four hours off being preferred).

        2.     Additional resources, if needed, to take over work beyond the twenty-four
               hour period.

        3.     Adequate sleeping conditions, consisting of a quiet, shaded facility away
               from noise and dust.

The Incident Commander may meet this requirement by dividing his available resources into two
shifts, or by ordering up additional resources to respond in twenty-four hours.

  Travel from one incident to another:

Personnel on duty for more than ten hours must be given a minimum of six hours of rest before
traveling to a second incident.

Personnel on duty for less than ten hours before demobilizing to a second incident may travel to the
second incident without prior rest provided that:

        1.     Travel time to the second incident is less than six hours, and

        2.     A minimum of six hours of rest will be provided upon arrival to the second
               incident before reporting to the fireline.

  Travel home from an incident:

Driving time home will generally be limited to twelve hours, but may be extended under certain
conditions if justifiable.




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A minimum of six hours of sleep will be required of any employee prior to travel if they are coming off
an incident lasting longer than twenty-four hours, or if they have gone without sleep for twenty-four
hours.

  Incident Safety Officers:

A designated Safety Officer should be appointed to each Overhead Team that deploys to a Type II or
Type I incident.

Unless otherwise delegated to a Safety Officer, the Incident Commander will make all decisions
related to travel. In situations where there is no Incident Commander, the designated Strike Team
Leader or Convoy Commander has the authority to make all decisions concerning travel.

Every employee should be familiar with the Texas Forest Service policy regarding safety and travel.
Situations resulting in violations of these policies must be brought immediately to the attention of the
Safety Officer, the Incident Commander or supervisory personnel.

  Other Agency Assignments:

All Texas Forest Service personnel temporarily assigned to other agencies will comply with the
receiving agency's safety requirements, to the extent that those requirements do not conflict with
Texas Forest Service safety minimums.




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                                  Chapter 5 - Project Work

5.1 Firefighting
Fire Hazard - Firefighting is hazardous work. Inform personnel of the hazards they face on wildfires,
especially local conditions they may confront daily. This is particularly important for those assigned to
fires away from their districts.

Forest Fire Control Safety Guidelines - All employees, including temporary employees, that hold
Texas Forest Service positions that require the employee to be subjected to periods of strenuous
work or perform “on the ground” fire suppression duties will be required to pass the Texas Forest
Service “Step Test” as a condition of employment. The step test will be given as soon as possible
after an offer of employment has been made. Requests for waivers of successful completion of this
testing requirement is discouraged.

All firefighters will complete the Texas Forest Service Basic Fire Control Training Course.

  Clothing and Protective Equipment Required for Fire Suppression Activities and Prescribed
Burning:

        1.      Wear hardhat equipped with chin strap and Nomex neck/face shield.

        2.      Wear goggles with or without safety glasses.

        3.      Wear leather boots with slip-resistant soles. Laced boots with 8" tops are preferred.

        4.      Wear flame-resistant Nomex clothing. Shirts should be buttoned and tucked in pants,
                with sleeves rolled down to provide maximum protection. Never wear polyester,
                nylon or other flammable synthetic clothing. Even underwear should be made of a
                natural fiber such as cotton.

        5.      Wear chrome tanned leather gloves.

        6.      Fire shelters will be carried by all personnel. Shelters will be worn on the belts of
                ground personnel. Dozer operators will have shelters positioned on dozers at easily
                accessible and visible locations. If dozer operator dismounts dozer to perform other
                duties, shelter must be carried by the operator. Note: Fire shelters are a last resort,
                imminent danger protective devices. Fire shelters do not allow personnel to
             take additional or unnecessary risks.

The "Ten Standard Firefighting Orders" and "Fire Situations That Shout Watch Out" should be made
available to all firefighters in their initial orientation and training. These are to be covered in detail.




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                                                                           Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

                              Ten Standard Firefighting Orders

               Fight fire aggressively but provide for safety first.
               Initiate all action based on current and expected fire behavior.
               Recognize current weather conditions and obtain forecasts.
               Ensure instructions are given and understood.

               Obtain current information on fire status.
               Remain in communication with crew members, your supervisor and adjoining forces.
               Determine safety zones and escape routes.
               Establish lookouts in potentially hazardous situations.
               Retain control at all times.
               Stay alert, keep calm, think clearly, act decisively.


                         18 THINGS THAT SHOUT "WATCH OUT"
          1.   Fire not scouted and sized up.
          2.   In country not seen in daylight.
          3.   Safety zones and escape routes not identified.
          4.   Unfamiliar with weather and local factors influencing fire behavior.
          5.   Uninformed on strategy, tactics and hazards.
          6.   Instructions and assignments not clear.
          7.   No communication link with crew members/supervisors.
          8.   Constructing line without a safe anchor point.
          9.   Building fireline downhill with fire below.
         10.   Attempting a frontal assault on the fire.
         11.   Unburned fuel between you and the fire.
         12.   Cannot see main fire; not in contact with anyone who can.
         13.   On a hillside where rolling material can ignite fuel below.
         14.   Weather is getting hotter and drier.
         15.   Wind increases and/or changes direction.
         16.   Getting frequent spot fires across line.
         17.   Terrain and fuels make escape to safety zones difficult.
         18.   Taking a nap near a fireline.

Fill water containers only from clean water sources; have plenty of clean water available at all fires.

All personnel should remain a safe distance away from a moving plow unit.

When operating in an oil or gas field, use extreme caution not to plow into a shallow pipeline. If
pipeline is on the surface and you have to cross, cut poles and lay on each side of the pipe. Never
cross at a joint. Call dispatcher to be sure that Texas Railroad Commission field personnel are
notified if any pipeline is damaged.




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If fire is due to a downed hot electrical wire, call dispatcher to make sure that the electric company
maintenance personnel are notified. Do not go near area where hot wires are grounded or broken
and hanging down.


5.2 Vehicle Fires
Provide basic training in handling vehicle fires.

The first priority is the safety of the vehicle occupants and rescuers.        Exercise care to prevent
additional injury when removing occupants.

Control traffic as soon as possible to prevent accidents and interference with firefighting.

If a vehicle is engulfed in flames, and firefighting looks futile, back off 500 feet and concentrate on
preventing the fire from spreading. The gas tank is extremely dangerous. If you choose to fight the
fire, start at the gas tank and control the fire there first.

Dry powder extinguishers, dirt or other smothering techniques are effective.

Remember, some items on vehicles can be hazardous. Batteries, hydraulic systems and even some
types of drive lines can be pressurized by heat and explode. Beware of magnesium wheels; they
burn intensely and may explode if hit with water.

  In case of an engine compartment fire:

        1. Turn off ignition.
        2. Raise hood carefully because the fire may flash out. A fog or foam spray directed at
           hood area as it is opened provides additional protection.
        3. Direct a quick burst from a fog or foam nozzle or dry chemical extinguisher through the
           radiator to reduce most of the fire and chance of flash fire when the hood is raised.
           Radiator vanes will help disperse either suppressive agent.
        4. Control small fires in the engine compartment with a dry powder extinguisher.
        5. Remove gas tank cap to relieve pressure and stop the flow of fuel, if necessary.

5.3 Fencing
Wear gloves, hardhat, eye protection and long-sleeve shirt when working with barbed wire.

Never work on wire fences during lightning storms or if powerlines may be down. Move to a safe
place.




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Before crawling under or through a fence, place anything being carried on the other side.

Be careful of old wire fences while going through woods.

Help other men when going through a fence.

When cutting barbed wire, use care that wire does not snap back and cut a person standing nearby.

Workers handling chemically treated wooden posts shall take precautions to keep the post from
touching their skin.

Do not place an arm over or under wire to steady post while driving staple. Keep the wire close to
your hand on the post while driving the staple.

When stretching wire, inspect wire for nicks, weak spots and splices. Repair before stretching.


5.4 Felling
When felling trees, move all equipment that is not being used away form the work site.

From the immediate working area, clear all brush, vines, briers, small trees, etc... that would interfere
with cutting.

  The feller should carefully consider the tree to be cut and its surroundings:

        1.     Check the area for hazards such as snags, dead limbs, ground or tree nesting wasps,
               electric lines, etc... that could cause trouble when the tree falls.

        2.     The shape, balance and lean of the tree should be evaluated.

        3.     Wind speed and direction should be considered. During periods of high or gusty
               winds (20-30 mph), it may be necessary to suspend felling operations.

        4.     Watch out for decayed or other weak spots in the tree.

        5.     Keep persons clear of the area.

        6.     Have secure footing at all times when operating the saw.

        7.     Watch for metal in trees, such as wires, nails, staples, etc...

An escape route and alternate escape route should be planned before any cutting is started. The
best escape routes are neither directly opposite (180) from the intended direction of fall or at 90, but
in a direction of approximately 135 of the intended direction of fall.




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Wedges should be used as necessary to prevent binding of the guide bar or chain. Turn the saw off
if the bar or chain becomes pinched or wedged.

Never work with the saw held above shoulder level.

An undercut or notch facing the intended direction of fall shall be used when felling trees over 10"
diameter at breast height (DBH).

The depth of the undercut should be 1/4 to 1/3 of the tree's DBH. The opening or height of the
undercut should be about 2 1/2" for each foot of the tree's DBH.

While cutting, the saw should be held with both hands, with the fingers and thumb of one hand firmly
locked around the front handle; the other hand firmly holding the throttle guard and throttle. The
operator should be well balanced with feet apart.

The backcut should be made about 2" higher than the point or apex of the undercut to prevent
kickback. A small section of the tree should be left uncut to act as a hinge. This helps the feller
control the direction of the tree's fall.

Stand directly behind the saw when felling a tree.

Just before the tree is ready to fall, an audible warning shall be given to those in the area (i.e.,
TIMBERRR!!!!).

When the feller is moving away from a tree that is beginning to fall, he should place the saw on the
ground in a safe place and then follow his planned escape route.

All persons shall stay away from the butt of a tree that is beginning to fall.

In order to fell a tree in a desired direction, a pole or pike may be used to push the tree. If this is
done, place the small or pointed end of the pole as high as possible on the trunk of the tree while
staying clear of the saw operator. The person with the pole should place the butt end of the pole over
his shoulder; never push with the butt of the pole against the abdomen or chest.

If there is danger that a tree may fall in the wrong direction or damage property, the direction of fall
should be controlled with the use of a wedge(s), block and tackle, rope(s), wire cable(s), tractor
blade, come-along, winch, etc...

Special precautions should be used when felling rotten or split trees because they may fall in an
unexpected direction.

  A lodged tree requires special care to finish getting it down:

        1.     A cant hook or "peavey" could be used to roll the tree off an obstruction.

        2.     A "come-along," block and tackle or winch could be used to dislodge it.

        3.     A tractor or dozer could be used to "ride" the tree down safely.




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                                                                             Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

        4.        Never walk, stand or work under or on top of a lodged tree.

        5.        A lodged tree should never be left hanging in the woods.

Long splinters that may be left on the stump after a tree is felled should be removed.


5.5 Bucking and Limbing
When bucking, study the situation carefully before the cut is begun so that the sawyer knows just how
the log will move when the cut is completed.

Remove the limbs from top and sides of log first. Usually it is best to work from the bottom to the top
of the tree.

IN LIMBING, THE SAW OPERATOR SHOULD ALWAYS CUT AWAY FROM, AND NOT TOWARD
HIMSELF.

Stand on the uphill side of a tree when limbing or bucking on a slope.

The tree worker should work on the opposite side of the limb being cut. If this is not possible, stand
to one side of the saw. Avoid standing directly over or behind the saw.

When limbing or bucking, the saw operator should block the log to prevent it from rolling.

Wedges should be used to prevent binding of the guide bar or chain. Turn the saw off if the bar or
chain becomes pinched or wedged.

Branches or saplings bent under tension should be considered dangerous. The tension should be
gradually released by a series of shallow cuts on the tension side of the bow.

Have secure footing at all times when limbing or bucking.


5.6 Tree Climbing
  Ropes and Climbing Saddles:

             1.   Climbing ropes shall be used when working aloft in trees. These ropes should have a
                  minimum diameter of 1/2 inch and should be 3 or 4 strand first-grade manila.
                  Synthetic rope must have minimum diameter of 7/16 inch.

             2.   Each climbing rope shall be carefully inspected prior to climbing. Broke strands, cuts,
                  abrasions or other damage to the rope which reduces its strength should be checked.
                  Discard damaged rope immediately.

             3.   Rope shall be stored away from all cutting edges and sharp tools.                Corrosive
                  chemicals, gas, and oil shall be kept away from rope.




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      4.   When stored, rope shall be coiled and piled or suspended, so that air can circulate
           through the coils.

      5.   Rope ends shall be secured to prevent unraveling.

      6.   Climbing and safety rope shall not be spliced to effect repair.

      7.   Safety snaps shall be rotated from one end of the rope to the other, as needed, and
           the worn end cut off.

      8.   When climbing ropes get wet they shall be dried carefully and completely as soon as
           possible. Storing a damp or wet rope will cause the fibers to decay and lose strength.
           Store all ropes inside in a cool dry place.

      9.   Manila climbing ropes will be discarded after two years if no damage is apparent.
           Nylon ropes will be discarded after eight years if no damage is apparent. Damaged
           ropes will be discarded immediately regardless of age.

     10.   Climbing ropes may be used to lift sections of climbing ladders; otherwise they shall
           never be used for any purpose except climbing.

     11.   Safety saddles shall be maintained in good condition. Leather saddles shall be well
           cleaned and maintained frequently to prevent the leather from drying. Discard leather
           safety saddles after five years. Nylon web saddles shall be discarded if worn or
           damaged enough to cause possible failure.

     12.   Extreme caution will be used when climbing near electrical wires.

Ladders:

      1.   Ladders made of metal or other conductive material shall not be used where an
           electrical hazard exists. Only approved wood ladders or non-conductive ladders made
           of synthetic material equal to or exceeding the strength of approved wood ladders,
           shall be used.

      2.   Tree climbing ladders shall be made of aluminum alloy tubing with rungs less than 18"
           apart and have galvanized safety chains. Ladders shall be of the Swedish sectional
           tree climbing type.

      3.   All ladders shall be inspected prior to use. Defective bolts, rivets, or chains should be
           replaced immediately. Safety snaps shall be present on safety chains on all tree
           climbing ladders.

      4.   The attaching of cleats, metal points, and safety feet, lashing or other effective means
           of securing the ladder shall be used if there is danger of its slipping. Safety chains will
           be pulled tight and safety snaps secured when each section is placed against the tree.
            Safety straps must be secured around the bole of the tree before each section of
           ladder is put into place.




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                                                                      Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

       5.   Except when on mobile equipment, tree climbing ladders shall be stored under
            suitable cover, protected from the weather.

       6.   Ladders shall not be used as bridges or inclined planes to load or handle logs or other
            material.

       7.   Trailer mounted extension ladders shall be moved on the road or any distance only in
            the down position. When the ladder is elevated it shall be locked upright and secured
            with restraining bars in place. Lock pins shall be placed in the restraining bars.

       8.   Under no circumstances shall anyone remain on the ladder while the trailer is being
            moved to a new position.

       9.   Safety straps with an appropriate climbing belt or harness will be used when working
            on the ladder.

     10.    Tree climbing ladders shall be lowered from the tree with the climbing rope, ladders
            shall never be dropped from the tree during descent.

Climbing Procedures:

       1.   Climbing spurs shall be used and shall have gaffs. Only sharp gaffs in good condition
            will be used. Do not attempt to walk long distances while wearing spurs.

       2.   A figure-eight knot should be tied in the end of the rope, particularly when climbing
            high trees. This will prevent pulling the rope accidentally through the taut-line hitch.

       3.   The climbing rope should be crotched as soon as practical after the worker is aloft,
            and then a taut-line hitch shall be tied. The taut-line hitch shall be checked carefully
            before any weight is placed on the rope.

       4.   The worker must be completely secured with the climbing rope before starting his
            operation.

       5.   The worker shall remain tied in until the work is completed and he has returned to the
            ground. If it is necessary to recrotch the rope in the tree, the worker shall use the
            safety strap before releasing the previous tie. The safety strap should not be released
            until the tie in and taut-line hitch are securely tied.

       6.   When climbing, a 2-man crew will always be used. The ground man assists by tying
            ladders on the rope during the ascent and by pointing out hazards to the climber. The
            ground man should be an experienced climber.

       7.   The ground man shall always wear a safety hat while the climber is in the tree and stay
            clear of the area immediately below the tree.




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                                                                          Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

5.7 Tree Planting
  General:

All planting equipment and safety devices shall be checked for damage or wear at least twice daily
while in use.

  Hand Planting:

All employees shall be instructed in the proper use and care of hand planting tools.

        Personal Protection:

          1.   Hardhat

          2.   Safety glasses (recommended)

          3.   Boots (recommended)

  Machine Planting:

        Personal Protection:

          1.   Seat belts (tractor operator)

          2.   Hardhat

          3.   Safety glasses or goggles

All employees shall be aware of the potential danger involved in working with planting equipment and
shall demonstrate the ability to operate same in a safe manner prior to being assigned to a job.

All planting machines shall possess a reliable, audible warning device to notify the tractor operator of
trouble encountered by the planter.

The tractor operator shall constantly monitor the progress of the planter. Under no circumstances
shall a planter be hydraulically lifted without the person riding the planter dismounting and standing
clear.

When planting behind a planting machine, maintain a minimum distance of 75 feet.




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                                                                          Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

5.8 Tree Injection
  General:

All field crews shall be familiar with the safe use of pesticides and shall demonstrate the ability of
proper operation and care of injection equipment.

All injection equipment shall be constantly monitored for leaks, loose screws, sharpness, etc...

No employee shall use injection equipment which is not properly functional.

Safety guidelines established in respect to poisonous snakes, plants and spiders shall be followed.

All employees shall maintain a safe distance from each other while working.

  Personal Protection:

  Protective devices shall be used as follows:

          1.   Hardhat

          2.   Gloves

          3.   Boots

          4.   Safety glasses

          5.   Long sleeves

  The following protective items are suggested:

          1.   Rubber boots (Basal injector use)

          2.   A complete clothing change, including footwear

          3.   Vinyl legging (Hypo-hatchet use)

Soap, water and towels shall be available on each job site and used prior to eating, smoking, drinking
or going to toilet.


5.9 Prescribed Burning
  General:

Prescribed burning shall only be conducted under the direct supervision of a supervisor experienced
in fire behavior and the policies of the Texas Forest Service in prescribed burning and smoke
management.




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                                                                            Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

All prescribed burns shall be conducted under the guidelines of a written plan including fuel types,
topography, and hazards. Such plan shall be reviewed by all employees on the burn.

The supervisor is in charge of the burn and shall make specific assignments.

Smoke warning signs shall be posted 1/4 mile either side of any public road obscured by smoke, and
all employees shall be warned of the hazard of working close to a road.

Park and secure vehicles in a designated area a safe distance from the burn and pointed away from
the burn.

No one shall set fire without direct communication with the fire supervisor and a clear understanding
of where the fire is to be started.

Multiple strips shall be set only at intervals sufficient to give each torch bearer time to safely complete
his strip with no danger from the adjacent strip fire.

Drip torch fuel mixtures shall not contain greater concentrations of gasoline than 1/3 of total contents.

Extreme caution should be used to insure that all torch bearers are accounted for at all times.

The fire supervisor shall frequently check on torch bearers for signs of excessive fatigue.


5.10 Log Scaling
Forest product scaling covers many methods (measuring, counting and weighing) and locations
(truck, ramp, millyards, milldeck and sale area). Those involved in this job must analyze each scaling
location and prepare a plan.

Let all woods workers know where you are working when in the woods. Never depend on them for
safety.

Be continually alert for changing conditions that may create new hazards.

Keep scaling areas clear of extra people. Never engage in horseplay, pranks, or idle conversation.

Maintain scaling tools and equipment in a safe condition.

In the woods or during truck scaling, as soon as scaling is completed, move to a safe place to make
extensions in the scalebook.




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                                                                        Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

Scaling in Woods and Landings:

       1.   Scaling at Landings

            a. Stay clear for each turn of logs until the chokers are clear, the cat or other skidding
               equipment is out of the way, and the logs have stopped rolling and sliding and are
               secured. Never scale on landings where logs are being moved if there is a danger
               of a roll or slippage.

            b. Arrange with operator to keep landing clear of unmerchantable logs, rigging and
               jammers or cranes in operation.

            c. Be alert for and keep away from running lines, moving chokers, swinging logs,
               rigging and jammers or cranes in operation.

            d. Never walk between truck and loading platform.

            e. Stay clear of the loaded truck as it leaves the landing. Never turn your back on a
               moving truck.

            f. Choose a safe and convenient place to stay when not actually engaged in scaling.
               This is usually toward the front of the landing and away from turnarounds, swinging
               lines and logs rolling from the deck.

            g. If possible, arrange to scale at least one landing behind the active landing site.

       2.   Scaling on Mill deck

            a. Wear boots with nonskid soles, a hardhat designated for sawmill use, safety
               glasses and hearing protection.

            b. Never scale moving logs. If the company people are not willing to stop logs, do not
               scale them.

            c. Never be in area at right angles to any log being handled or processed in the
               debarker.

            d. Use handrail or safety rope when crossing "log slip." Never cross "log slip" while
               chain is in motion. Always face "log slip" when logs are moving.

            f. Stay in a safe area when clamps or log kickers are being used.

            g. Never allow grease, oil, water, bark or log chunks to accumulate in the scaling
               area.

            h. Never assist company workers in work not related to scaling.




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                                                                             Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

          3.   Millyard Scaling

               a. Wear high visibility clothing, nonskid boots, hardhat and safety
                  glasses. Make your presence known to millyard workers.

               b. Scale logs only if presented in an orderly safe fashion.

               c. Scaling area should not be crowded, active, near areas of truck
                  unloading, log sorting, mill feeding or possible rolling log decks.

               d. Logs should be well spread out on solid ground or solid skid
                  platforms. Be alert to logs lying on debris and not solidly on the
                  ground. Do not allow jack straws or debris accumulations that
                  elevate logs.

               e. Stop scaling and move to a safe area should machinery become
                  active in the scaling area.

               f. Never stand between logs when the possibility of log ends being
                  struck exists.

               g. Keep one hand on log measuring tape to control speed while
                  retracting. Avoid edges which could cut.

               h. Do not carry calipers hooked over any part of the body.

               i. Be alert to millyard hazards while walking to and from your
                  vehicle.


5.11 Mill Studies
Wear hearing protection, hardhat and high visibility clothing. Eye protection recommended.

Be familiar with and obey company rules on conduct, restricted areas and use of personal protective
clothing and safety equipment.

Stay alert to hazards posed by moving equipment and materials and unfamiliar machinery and mill
operation.

Stand clear of moving equipment and use extreme caution when passing close by.

Never ride on company vehicles unless seats and seatbelts are used. Never walk or run under
suspended loads.

When required to cross a flow of materials, never step on powered rollers, belts or chains.

Never use air under pressure for blowing dust from clothes or body.




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                                                                        Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

  Be aware of housekeeping and maintenance hazards:

          1.   Wet, oily and icy floors, stairways and walkways.

          2.   Pieces of wood and bark, tools and other equipment and cluttered traffic areas.

          3.   Sawdust and residue escaping from leaky blowpipes and conveyors.

          4.   Poorly lighted areas, unguarded stairways, walkways, belts, gears and shafts.


5.12 Texas Forest Service Sawmill
  General:

All saw mills and log milling equipment within the Texas Forest Service shall be operated only under
the approval and supervision of the Texas Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory.

  Personal Protection:

        1. Protective devices shall be worn by all Texas Forest Service employees as
           follows, when the sawmill/shingle mill is in operation:

          a.   Hardhat

          b.   Gloves

          c.   Boots (steel-toe recommended)

          d.   Safety glasses with side shields or goggles

          e.   Hearing protection - ear plugs or ear muffs

  Housekeeping:

Every effort shall be made to keep the work areas clean of debris. The last 30 minutes of each work
day will be for clean up, machine maintenance and lock up.

  Portable Sawmill:

Any person who operates the portable sawmill shall be thoroughly familiar with its operation through
training and/or the operator's manual. Use of the sawmill must be approved by the Pest Control
Section.




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During operation of the sawmill the following safety precautions will be followed:

          1.   Wear hardhat

          2.   Wear gloves

          3.   Use safety glasses or goggles

          4.   Ear plugs or muffs are recommended

          5.   Wear boots (steel-toe recommended)

          6.   Use common sense around head and edger saws

          7.   No horseplay

          8.   When transporting the mill, secure the engine at the hitch end of the
               trailer to prevent fish-tailing

          9.   Perform regularly scheduled maintenance

         10.   Keep work area clear of debris that could cause operator to stumble

         11.   Use extreme caution when loading logs on the saw carrier


5.13 Carpentry
Carpentry, although commonly practiced, requires many tools and safety equipment items. All
carpentry and related projects are required to conform to specific procedures for tools and techniques
outlined in this and other chapters of the Texas Forest Service Safety Manual.


5.14 Painting
Prepare a job safety and health hazard analysis for the storage, preparation, application and cleanup
of paint.

Refer to section on Hazardous Materials in Texas Forest Service Manual for information on storing
flammable and combustible liquids. Latex paints are not volatile and therefore not subject to
restrictive requirements.

Store volatile painting materials in tightly closed containers and clearly mark contents before storing.

Store flammable or combustible paint materials (with the exception of tree-marking paint), in special,
well-ventilated buildings or fireproof cabinets designed for such purposes. A good rule is to not have
more materials on a project than is required for one day's use.




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  Paint Housekeeping:

Store paint-soiled clothing and drop cloths in well-ventilated steel cabinets; launder soiled cloths and
clothing periodically.

Remove paint scrapings and debris from the premises daily.

Spontaneous combustion may ignite oil and paint-soaked rags and sponges. Dispose of them daily
or place them in airtight containers.

Do not burn pressurized containers. Empty waste can daily.

  Paint Removal:

When scraping or using liquid paint remover, protect eyes and skin.                Read the manufacturer's
instructions on the containers of all products before using.

Allow only highly qualified individuals to remove paint by sandblasting or burning.

  Ventilation:

Ventilate area when mixing or using petroleum base paints.

Ventilation for spray painting must follow OSHA standards.

  Spray Painting:

Smoking, open flame, exposed heating elements or other sources of ignition of any kind are not
permitted in areas where spray painting is done. Clearly post "No Smoking" signs.

Ensure that spray paint booths and equipment meet the Uniform Fire Code or the National Fire Code
and National Electrical Code.

Paint respirators are needed when painting with a spray gun. A respirator wearer shall:

          1.     Be sure the respirator fits snugly; facial hair can interfere with proper fit.

          2.     Sterilize and inspect the respirator before each new job begins or at least weekly.

          3.     Renew filters per manufacturer's directions.

          4.     Renew chemical cartridges as recommended by manufacturer.

          5.     Always store respirator in a clean box away from heat and moisture.




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Respirators should be:

       1.   Snug fitting

       2.   Sterilized and inspected before each job

       3.   Renewed as recommended

       4.   Stored in a clean, dry box




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                                    Chapter 6 - Equipment


6.1 Hand Tools
Train all users of hand tools in their proper use. Never trust employees to work alone with a tool until
they have thoroughly demonstrated their ability to handle it safely. Supervisors are responsible for
continuing to monitor the crew member's performance periodically to assure that the proper methods
are followed.

   Observe these guidelines when selecting and using a tool:

          1.   All handles tightly fitted, secured with a wedge, inspected for splitting,
               checking, warping and absence of slivers.

          2.   Only sharp tools available for use.

          3.   Tool guards in position on the cutting edge while the tool is transported
               to and from the job site. Guards kept by each worker to use when
               leaving the job site.

          4.   Use the proper tool for the job.

          5.   Maintain the tool in good condition on the job site by keeping it “touched
               up.”

          6.   Always keep tools secure and in a safe place both on the job and in
               storage.

          7.   Never transport loose tools inside the same compartment with people.

          8.   When tool is not in use, place it in a predetermined location, away from
               people, with the cutting edge shielded or on the ground, resting the
               handle against a wall, bank or stump.

          9.   Return worn tools to the toolroom for repairs. Separate tools needing
               repair from broken or worn out tools. Tag unrepairable tools that must
               be disposed of.

         10.   Never throw tools.

The supervisor is responsible for inspection and repair of tools used on the project.




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6.2 Chopping Tools
Chopping tools include axes, adzes, brush hooks, hatchets, machetes and pulaskis.

Maintenance - Instruct workers in tool sharpening procedures. When grinding, grind slowly toward
the cutting edge, taper properly, avoid overheating and use a file and stone to take off burrs or rough
spots. When filing, secure the tool, stroke the file across the edge and use a hand stone to finish the
edge. Filers shall use gloves and a file equipped with a handle and knuckle guard. Destroy axes,
pulaskis and hatchets that are excessively round-cornered. Check for loose or cracked heads and
split, crooked, warped or splintered handles.


6.3 Cutting Tools
Cutting tools include saws, knives, chisels, files and injector tools.

  Follow these guidelines:

          1.   Keep All Tools Clean - Protect against corrosion damage. Wipe off
               accumulated grease and dirt. Clean thoroughly with a nonflammable,
               nonirritating solvent when necessary and wipe clean. Lubricate moving
               and adjustable parts to prevent wear and misalignment.

          2.   Keep Cutting Edges Sharp - Sharp tools improve accuracy and are
               safer than dull tools.

          3.   Keep Tools Sharp - Use an oilstone or grindstone for tool sharpening.
               If an abrasive wheel must be used for this task, grind only a small
               amount at a time, with tool rest not more than 1/8 inch from the wheel.
               Hold tool lightly against the wheel to prevent overheating. Frequently
               dip tool in water to keep it cool. This retains metal temper and cutting
               edge. Eye protection is required.

          4.   Repair - Repair damage or worn tools promptly and correctly.
               Temporary and makeshift repairs are prohibited. If tools cannot be
               repaired on the job, send them to the shop or factory; do not keep them
               on the job. Discard tools that cannot be repaired.

          5.   Tool Selection - Select the weight, size and type of tool to fit the job at
               hand. Never substitute pliers for hammers, screwdrivers for pinch bars,
               chisels for screwdrivers, etc...

          6.   Handles - All handles shall be tightly fitted. Check wood handles
               carefully and tighten with wedges when necessary.

          7.   Sparking Hazards - In the presence of flammable materials or explosive
               dusts and vapors, use nonsparking tools.




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6.4 Burning Out and Backfiring Equipment
Allow only trained, qualified people to operate back-firing equipment.

Transport drip torches in containers that hold them upright. Wear fire-resistant clothing, chrome-
tanned gloves and hardhats. Hold drip torches away from open flame. Use only approved fuel
mixes.

Never open fuel tanks while hot or near flames or sparks. Never use straight gasoline as a fuel. Fuel
mix must contain no more than one part gasoline to three parts diesel or heavier oil.


6.5 Chainsaws
In addition to these guidelines the Texas Forest Service has prepared a slide/tape series entitled
"Chainsaw Safety--Safety Procedures and Operating Techniques."

The person using the chainsaw must wear the following protective equipment:

          1.   Hard hat

          2.   Safety goggles or safety glasses

          3.   Chainsaw chaps

          4.   Gloves

          5.   Ear protection in the form of ear muffs or earplugs

          6.   Boots, preferably with steel safety toes

          7.   Clothing should not be loose and dangling or so tight and/or bulky that it
               hampers movement.

          8.   Long sleeves

The saw manufacturer's operating, maintenance and safety instructions should be read and followed.

When using a power saw, there is no time for horseplay or kidding around.

An approved first-aid kit adequately stocked and maintained should be available anytime a power
saw is being operated. The first-aid kit should include a tourniquet.

The saw and other equipment should be in good operating condition.

The engine should be properly tuned and the points and spark plug checked periodically.




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The chain should be sharp and have the proper tension. A dull chain will produce very fine sawdust
as it cuts; an improperly sharpened chain will tend to cut in an arc or curve rather than a straight line.
The chain should not move along the bar when the engine is idling.

The saw should be kept clean of sawdust and flammable materials. Do not allow dirt, sawdust or
debris to build up on the cooling fins or clog the exhaust port.

The air filter should be kept clean.

The engine muffler should be maintained in good condition.

The oil reservoir should be filled with lube oil or special chain oil each time the fuel tank is filled.

Maintain the proper fuel (gas and oil) mix.

Wedges, sledges, axes, files and other accessory equipment should be kept in good operating
condition. Only wood or plastic wedges should be used with power saws.

  Equipment to carry to the woods:

           1.   Sufficient chainsaw fuel already mixed with the proper amount of oil and
                in an approved container.

           2.   Sufficient quantity of bar and chain oil.

           3.   An extra chain (in the truck).

           4.   Chain file and guide.

           5.   Several wedges--plastic and metal.

           6.   An ax.

           7.   Spark plug wrench and spark plug (in the truck).

           8.   Screwdriver, pliers and necessary wrenches for chain tightening, bar
                removal and other maintenance procedures.

           9.   First-aid kit.

Carry the saw at the operator's side with the bar to the rear. Never carry the saw on your shoulder
unless the chain is safely encased in a protective covering.

Always turn the saw off when walking to and from the work site. The saw need not be stopped
between cuts during consecutive felling, bucking or limbing operations on reasonably level and open
ground.




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It is not recommended that any saw be "drop started." However, if this method is used, it should be
used only on saws weighing less than 15 pounds. Saws weighing over 15 pounds should be started
with the saw on the ground, one foot on the trigger panel, one hand on the handle bar and the other
hand to pull the starter cord.

When starting the saw, be sure all co-workers are clear and that you have secure footing. The bar
and chain should not be touching anything.

Do not run the engine at full throttle unless actually cutting wood.

The engine should be stopped for all cleaning, refueling, adjustments and repairs to the saw or
motor, except where manufacturer's procedures require otherwise.

Saw fuel shall be stored, handled and dispensed only form metal containers or approved safety cans.
Use clean, regular gasoline.


6.6 Aerial Lifts
Only trained and authorized personnel shall be allowed to operate aerial lift equipment.

Do not exceed bucket capacity; 575 pounds for Texas Forest Service unit.

Workers shall not work aloft using aerial devices which are unattended by a groundman, except
where workers are qualified by training for safe egress from malfunctioned equipment.

Training shall consist of the proper use of the tautline hitch or riggers knot and a safety saddle or
sling.

Egress equipment from malfunctioned aerial devices shall be the responsibility of the administrative
unit intending to use the aerial device.

In the event that aerial devices malfunction while attended by a groundman, the safe return to the
ground of the worker aloft shall take precedence over the restoration of the equipment.

There will be strict adherence to the proper operational procedures for the aerial lift equipment at all
times.

  Inspection Schedule:

          1.   Daily

               a. Bucket and ground controls.

               b. Safety devices; belts and rings.

               c. Truck oil level.




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         2.   Weekly

              a. Hydraulic hoses for leaks.

              b. Fiberglass for structural damage.

              c. Hydraulic fluid levels.

              d. Safety lock controls.

         3.   Monthly (30 days or 40 hours of operation)

              a. Hydraulic cylinders.

              b. Leveling system.

              c. Lift system.

              d. Lubricate pivot points.

              e. Lubricate boom elbow hinge.

              f. Lubricate platform hinge.

              g. Lubricate turntable.

              h. Lubricate outrigger.

Preventive maintenance on the transport truck should be conducted before heavy seasonal use.

  Safety Devices:

         1.   All step surfaces on equipment shall be skid resistant.

         2.   Truck bed shall be kept clean of spilled or leaking hydraulic fluid to
              prevent accidental falls.

         3.   Safety belts shall be worn at all times when working from the bucket.

         4.   An approved first-aid kit and fire extinguisher shall be kept with the unit
              at all times.

         5.   Eye protection, hard hats and wasp repellent shall be used by persons
              in bucket while working in and around tree branches and needles.




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Operating Instructions:

       1.   Set vehicle parking brakes before operating boom assembly.

       2.   Do not operate unless unit is relatively level on solid ground and
            outriggers are full extended.

       3.   Pads shall be used under outriggers on soft surfaces.

       4.   On slopes in excess of 5, extend bucket only over uphill side of
            vehicle.

       5.   On slopes less than 5 , avoid maximum outreach position on downhill
            side of vehicle.

       6.   Operate all controls slowly and smoothly. Always depress trigger
            before moving control handle and return control handle to neutral
            position before releasing handle.

       7.   When operating an aerial lift, the operator shall look in the direction of
            travel of the bucket and be aware of the boom in relation to other
            objects and hazards.

       8.   Do not allow the boom to descend on or strike a fixed object.

       9.   An aerial lift shall not be used as a crane or hoist to lift or lower
            materials.

      10.   An aerial lift truck shall not be moved when the boom is elevated in a
            working position with men in the basket. The booms of a fully
            articulated aerial device shall not be considered elevated in the working
            position when the basket is landed directly in front of or behind the truck
            with the booms held as low as feasible.

Folding procedure for boom:

       1.   Fold the lower boom to leave 12 to 18 inches between the boom and
            carrying cradle.

       2.   Fold the upper boom completely against the lower boom.

       3.   Fold lower boom into cradle, making certain that the boom is accurately
            centered before dropping into place.

       4.   Boom shall be buckled down for all movement of transport outside
            orchards.




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6.7 General Shop Safety
The hazards associated with shop work require special safety considerations. Whether you work in a
maintenance shop or the woodworking shop, the potential hazards for personal injury are numerous.

It is not possible to detail all the risks involved with shop work; however, it is possible to foresee many
hazards by carefully planning each job. To prevent accidents, utilize your knowledge, training and
common sense. Evaluate potential sources of injury and attempt to eliminate any hazards.

There are several measures you must take to protect yourself from shop hazards. For example:

              Avoid loose fitting clothing.

              If you must wear a long sleeved shirt, be sure the sleeves are rolled
               down and buttoned.

              Always wear safety glasses with side shields when working with shop
               equipment. Additional protection using goggles or face shields may be
               necessary when grinding, chipping, sandblasting or welding.

              Wear approved hard hats as specified by this manual.

              Wear suitable gloves, preferably leather, when working with scrap
               metal, wood, sharp-edged stock or unfinished lumber.

Before beginning work in a shop, be sure you are authorized to perform the work to be done and
inspect your tools and equipment. If a procedure is potentially hazardous to others in the area, warn
fellow workers accordingly. Use warning signs or barriers as necessary.

Notify your supervisor if you notice any unsafe conditions such as:

              Defective tools or equipment.

              Improperly guarded machines.

              Oil, gas or other leaks.

Follow these guidelines for general shop safety:

              Know the hazards associated with your work.

              Be sure you are fully educated on the proper use and operation of any
               tool before beginning a job.

              Always wear appropriate safety gear and protective clothing.




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             Ensure that there is adequate ventilation to prevent exposure from
              vapors of glues, lacquers, paints and from dust and fumes.

             Keep the work area free from slipping/tripping hazards.

             Clean all spills immediately.

             Leave tool and equipment guards in place.

             Know where fire extinguishers are located and how to use them.

             Make sure all electrical tools and equipment are properly grounded and
              that cords are in good condition.

             Secure all compressed gas cylinders.

             Exercise particular care when running engines, welding or working with
              certain chemicals in confined areas. Proper ventilation is an important
              part of shop activities.

             Operate power tools and machines according to manufacturer's
              instructions. Post these instructions at the machine or where they are
              readily available to the operator.

             Use the right tool for the job; always use proper sizes of wrenches,
              sockets, hammers and power tools.

             Anchor machines securely to the floor (unless they are portable) and
              properly ground them.

             Install non-skid surfaces where floors are slick or normally wet.

             Mark hazard areas with a yellow or red paint.


6.8 Automotive and Equipment Repair Shops
Wear clothing appropriate to the work. Generally, this means snug-fitting clothes with long sleeves.
Wear safety-toe boots when working on heavy equipment. Wear eye protection as required.

Engine exhaust must be vented.

Construct battery charging areas so fumes are vented outside.

Store creepers on end or hang on a wall.

Mark maximum allowable weight load on support stands. Never exceed this weight limit.




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Vehicles catalytic converters may become extremely hot so avoid contact. Keep cleaning rags or
other combustibles away from the converter.

Never allow grease pits in automotive or equipment repair shops. Use outside lift to change oil and
grease vehicles.

Never work on or under a raised vehicle unless it is properly supported.

Never use gasoline for cleaning. Cleaning solvents must have a flashpoint of 140 F or higher.

Post maximum hoist weight capacity prominently. Lock the hoist when it is in the raised position.

Keep the area under hoist or jacks clean and free of oil and grease.

Shop or other supervisor will identify any vehicle(s) that are unsafe to operate.


6.9 Welding and Cutting
Principal hazards are shock and burns from the electric current, eye and skin injury from ultraviolet
and infrared radiation and internal injury from fumes; hot metals or sparks can also burn the skin.

Only a competent welder should use the welding equipment.

Use only approved torches, regulators or pressure reducing valves.

Wear safety glasses, gloves and long sleeves when using cutting torch.

Have fire extinguishers on hand during welding and cutting.

Conduct welding and cutting on a fireproof, heat-resistant surface away from combustible materials.

Inspect hose lines and connections and welding cables daily before using.

Use acetylene at 15 pounds pressure or less.

Test for gas leaks with soapy water only.

Provide adequate ventilation when welding and cutting in confined places to prevent accumulation of
hazardous substances.




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  Materials Giving Off Hazardous Substances:

          1.   Fluoride compounds - often found in cleaning materials.

          2.   Zinc - found in culverts and other galvanized materials.

          3.   Lead - found in lead-based metals, plumbing lead and lead-based paints.

          4.   Cadmium - found in certain alloys used in making bolts and other
               fasteners and present in silver solder and other fluxes.

          5.   Stainless steel - found in stainless steel rod and materials.

6.10 Arc Welding
Provide adequate electrical circuiting for the welding machine. Check electrical connections before
starting work.

Store equipment and supplies in dry protected areas.

Use insulated platform in wet places.

Turn off the switch whenever work is stopped.

Ground the material being welded as close as possible to the weld.

Do not weld near batteries.      Disconnect all electronic devices such as vehicle alternators and
batteries before welding.

Wear long sleeved shirt, gloves and/or leather vest apron when welding.

When chipping, wear goggles and gloves and chip away from your face.


6.11 Gas Welding and Cutting
Do not use oxygen or other gases where oils or combustible liquids are present.

Shut off gases when putting down a welding or cutting torch.

Avoid excessive pressure and never allow pressure to remain in the hose for long periods or
overnight.

Check gauges and valves often for accuracy.

Never subject cylinders to temperatures above 130 F.

Inspect hoses and torch tips before use and keep in good repair.




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6.12 Striking Tools
Striking tools are tools such as hammers, mauls and sledges.

Use the right size hammer with right size chisel. Make sure that handles are not cracked.

When driving a large chisel or bar requiring assistance, have helper hold the object with tongs.

Always use maul tempered harder than object being struck.


6.13 Punches
Punch must be straight and heavy enough for the work. (Keep accurately grounded at all times.)

Start punch with light tap. Hold securely, especially on rounded surfaces.

Never use screwdriver as a chisel pry bar, or for any other purpose than that intended.

Select screwdriver to fit size of screw being driven. Never grind to a fine point to fit all sizes of screw
heads. (Keep tip ground properly squared across.)

Fit handles on shank tightly.

Never drive a screwdriver with a hammer.

Never use a screwdriver at eye level when directing pressure upward.


6.14 Wrenches
Use tools with insulated handles for electrical work.

Select the correct size and type of wrench for each job.

Never use a wrench as a hammer.

Never use a wrench on material or machine in motion. Never position hands so they can be jammed
against other objects if wrench slips.

Do not use wrenches when jaws are sprung to the point of slippage.




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6.15 Power-Operated Hand Tools
Most power tool accidents are caused by improper handling and poor maintenance. These can be
corrected by proper training.

  The following apply to all types of power tools:

          1.   Good housekeeping is essential to good workmanship. Store all tools
               neatly when not in use.

          2.   Be systematic in maintenance of equipment. Replace or repair worn or
               damaged equipment immediately. Clean, test and inspect tools
               regularly.

          3.   Leave safety equipment, such as guards, in place and wear gloves,
               safety shoes and safety glasses when needed.

          4.   Permit only authorized personnel to operate power tools.

          5.   Provide electric tools with grounding connections or double insulated
               cases. Use only 3-wire extension cords when making a connection,
               first connect the tool to the extension cord and then the extension cord
               to the power source.

          6.   Check power cables frequently for breaks in the insulation and repair or
               replace defective cables.


6.16 Air Equipment and Pneumatic Tools
A variety of tools including hammers, drills, saws and vibrators are powered by compressed air.

Protect air supply lines from vehicles. Inspect them regularly and maintain them in good condition.

Never kink airhose to cut off air pressure, turn off at control.

Never under any circumstances, aim an airhose at anyone.

Do not exceed manufacturer's recommended safe operating pressure.




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6.17 Drills
Do not use wood bits for drilling metal. If bit is long enough to pass through material, protect against
damage or injury on the far side.

Secure small pieces to prevent spinning by the drill.

Prevent sleeves and other clothing from being around drill.

Never straddle a portable drill in an attempt to use more pressure.

Secure drill presses to the floor or bench.


6.18 Grinders
Inspect grinder wheels regularly - a cracked wheel may fly to pieces.

Use wheels of proper rpm rating.

Portable grinder must be equipped with safety guards.

Never use sides of grinding wheels to grind with.

Equip bench grinder with eye shields and hood guards and secure them firmly to prevent movement.

Employees must wear goggles or eye shields while operating grinders.


6.19 Winches and Hoists
  Winches:

          1.   When a winch line is spooled on a drum, the wire rope should be
               wound under tension and turns guided to lay together.

          2.   Wear cotton gloves, not leather gloves, while handling wire rope.

          3.   A winch should take up slack gradually. Avoid sudden jerks that may
               damage the winch or break the rope.

          4.   When a short section of chain is used on the end of a winch rope, use
               chain with rated strength exceeding the rated capacity of the rope.

          5    Use a forged steel hook equipped with a safety keeper on the rope end.




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          6.   After hitching winch to the load or deadman, have everyone stand clear
               at least a distance equal to the length of rope being used.

          7.   Laying a blanket or knapsack over a cable under tension will retard its
               whiplash if it breaks.

          8.   Check drums, clamps and wire rope regularly for wear.

          9.   Lubricate wire rope regularly to protect against corrosion and excessive
               wear.

  Chain Hoists:

          1.   Inspect running gear, hooks, straps and chains for cracks and other
               signs of fatigue to make sure they will not slip or give way under stress.

          2.   Use overhead support and rigging strong enough to carry maximum
               loads with safety factor of 2.5:1 (that is 2-1/2 times stronger than the
               maximum load they are rated to carry.)

          3.   Side-pull chain hoist only when superstructure is braced to withstand
               lateral stress.

          4.   Guide heavy loads with ropes rather than by hand.


6.20 Pressure Vessels
Pressure vessels include air, nitrogen, water heaters, autoclaves and oxygen and acetylene.

Pressure vessels can be extremely dangerous. They may have an explosive capacity similar to a
bomb.

  Water Heaters:

          1.   Provide hot water tanks with pressure and temperature relief valves.
               The temperature-sensing element must extend into the top position of
               the heater tank. Never install the relief valve on the cold water line.

          2.   Provide downturn pipe to near floor level or vent outside.

          3.   Drain tanks at least annually, more frequently in areas of poor water
               quality.

          4.   Never locate LP gas fired hot water heaters in pits, below houses and
               other locations where leaking gas can accumulate.




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  Air Compressor Tanks:

Install pressure relief valves in the upper part of the tank to prevent possible sediment or corrosion
from sealing valve.

  Air Receiver:

          1.   Air receivers and tanks must have a pressure gauge and air relief valve.

          2.   Portable tanks are particularly susceptible to dents and damage.
               Damage requires tank retesting. Destroy damaged or "suspect" tanks.

  Steam Cleaning Vessels:

          1.   Maintain gauges, relief and check valves in good operating conditions.

          2.   Conduct inspection before each use of equipment. Only experienced
               personnel shall operate steam cleaning equipment.

          3.   Do not overheat the tank barrel or heat exchange because overheating
               weakens the tank.

          4.   Repair or replace damaged hoses, fittings and connections.


6.21 Woodworking Equipment
  When operating such equipment:

          1.   Keep area clean and clear of debris.

          2.   Remove dull, badly set, improperly filed or tensioned saws immediately
               from service.

          3.   Clean gum adhering to sides of saws immediately.

          4.   Keep knives and cutting heads sharp, properly adjusted and firmly
               secured.

          5.   Sharpening or tensioning of saw blades or cutters shall be done only by
               persons of demonstrated skill.

          6.   Remove cracked saws from service.

          7.   Operators shall wear eye or face protection.




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       8.   Woodworking equipment shall be operated only by employees who
            have been trained and have demonstrated their skill to a woodworking
            shop supervisor.

       9.   Use a "pusher" stick when ripping short stock or for any operation which
            requires finger to be near the blade.

      10.   Turn off saw when not in use.

      11.   Provide extension tables for radial arm and table saws when cutting
            long stock.

      12.   Stand out of line of feed on table and radial arm saws. Radial arm
            saws can be particularly dangerous when used to rip material.

      13.   Place guards on all belts, pulleys, gears, shafts and moving parts.

      14.   Hold stock being cut firmly against back guide or fence. Cut all material
            in a single, steady pass. It is dangerous to stop the saw for any reason
            before the cut is completed. If this is done for any reason, have the
            blade turning freely and at full speed before cut is resumed.

      15.   Ground all machines.

      16.   When cutting a warped board, be sure it is touching the table top at the
            line of cut.

Circular Table Saws:

       1.   Use a saw only for the work it was designed to do.

       2.   Use saw only at design speed.

       3.   Check each day that saw teeth are set and sharp, and that the arbor nut
            is tight.

       4.   Never use the ripping fence as a guide for crosscutting material.

Radial Arm Saws:

       1.   Provide and use upper and lower blade guards.

       2.   Ensure that anti-kickback fingers or dogs contact material when ripping
            and that guard just clears work.

       3.   Provide an adjustable stop to prevent forward travel of the blade beyond
            the edge of the table.




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          4.   Make provision for the cutting head to automatically return gently to the
               starting position when released.

          5.   It is imperative that work be fed into radial arm saws from the proper
               direction. Make sure that saw rotation is conspicuously marked on the
               hood. In addition, affix a sign to the rear of the guard that reads:
               "Danger -- Do Not Rip or Plough From This End."

  Radial arm saws must:

          1.   Be equipped with a stop to prevent saw blade from traveling beyond
               front of table.

          2.   Be sloped or spring-loaded to allow the blade to return to the rear
               position when released.

          3.   Be equipped with a floating lower blade guard.

  Bandsaws:

       Bandsaws must have:

          1.   Wheels that are fully encased or guarded.

          2.   Effective brakes to stop the wheels in case of blade breakage.

          3.   A self-adjusting guard for that portion of the blade between the sliding
               guide and the upper saw wheel guard.

          4.   A tension control device.

          5.   Guards around powered feed rolls.

Turn the upper wheel manually before starting to insure that the saw band will travel smoothly on
both upper and lower wheels and through the band guide.

Use a saw band as wide as the work permits.

  Jointers:

          1.   Each hand-fed jointer must have an automatic guard that will cover all
               of the cutting head on the working side of the fence or gage and a
               guard on the exposed portion of cutting head in back of gage or fence.

          2.   Vertical molding heads must have a guard that will completely enclose
               the revolving head

          3.   Use push sticks or blocks to push stock over cutting heads.




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 Sanders:

       1.   Provide belt sanders with guards at each nip point where the sanding
            belt runs onto a pulley.

       2.   Use dust masks or respirators when operating sanders.

       3.   Dust may create an explosion hazard; have it exhausted and collected.
            Avoid open flame and sparks.


6.22 Fork Lifts
       1.   Only authorized employees may operate forklifts.           The following list
            provides general safety guidelines:

       2.   Do not allow riders.

       3.   Drive up and back down ramps.

       4.   Do not walk, stand or work under the elevated portion of a forklift.

       5.   Make sure that the forklift has an overhead barrier (headache rack) to
            protect the operator from falling objects.

       6.   Always work within the capacity limits of your forklift.

       7.   Never lift a load while moving. Wait till you are completely stopped
            before raising the mast.

       8.   Move loads in lowered position.

       9.   Center load on forks before moving.

      10.   Never try to lift a load with the tip of the forks.

      11.   Do not lift people on forks. Appropriate platforms and railings are
            required for this type of operation.

      12.   Check vertical clearance of doorways before entering.

      13.   If you cannot see over a load, drive in reverse. Do not try to look
            around a load and drive forward.

      14.   Lower forks, shut off engine, set brakes and place controls in neutral
            when leaving lift unattended.




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                         Chapter 7 - Buildings and Grounds

7.1 Housekeeping
Work areas and living space must be clean and neat with all materials properly stored.

Keep aisles and passageways between cabinets, desks, work and laboratory benches and machinery
clear, especially of loose materials and tools.

Store moveable equipment in an assigned location when not in use. Remove debris from service
and equipment repair areas before beginning job. Clean up loose materials, waste and debris
afterwards.


7.2 Walking and Working Surfaces
Keep walking and working surfaces free of tripping hazards. Mark hazards not readily repairable.

Require non-skid surfaces where floors are slick or normally wet.

Guard openings in floors, porches and unusual edges of loading docks with guardrails, mid-rails and
toeboards.

Keep stairways, aisles, floors, working spaces, platforms and exits free of debris, rubbish, slippery
substances, loose materials or obstructions that might cause falls.

Stair risers must be uniform and well-lighted.


7.3 Fire Prevention
The greatest protection against property loss and injuries from fire is fire prevention. Work habits
and compliance with safety procedures are critical to fire prevention. All employees must be
concerned with:

          1.   Smoking - Post and enforce restrictions. Provide designated smoking
               areas and sufficient butt cans and ashtrays in areas where smoking is
               permitted.

          2.   Handling and Storing Flammables and Combustibles - Store
               flammables and combustibles only in containers, cabinets and buildings
               approved for that purpose. Use only in ventilated and fire safe areas.
               Never start fires with flammable liquids.

        3. Electrical Systems - Electric systems must meet local and national codes.
           Never overload circuits; maintain in good repair and protect from
           damage.


        4. Heating Systems - Inspect and maintain in good condition.




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Operation of Electrical Equipment :

          1.   Be aware of locations where potential heat buildup can occur. Never
               cover baseboard heaters with curtains. Never enclose electrical coffee
               pots and other appliances in cabinets.

          2.   Always provide adequate air circulation around heating and electrical
               appliances to reduce heat buildup. Provide reflectors or nonheat
               conducting insulation where space is not available.

          3.   Provide annual preventive maintenance for all electrical equipment and
               fuel-fired appliances. Check all electrical wiring, connections and
               mechanical equipment to eliminate possible heat buildup. Loose
               electrical connections increase resistance and cause conductors to
               heat up.

          4.   Check appliance cords and plugs regularly for defects which may cause
               electrical fires.

          5.   Never overload lighting fixtures and electrical circuits. Overheating,
               before circuit breakers trip off, causes deterioration of conductor
               insulation.

          6.   Investigate all "hot" smells and odors from fluorescent ballasts and
               oversized light bulbs. Heated metal, paint, etc..., is an indicator of
               trouble.

          7.   Be aware of friction buildup in machines and electric motors. Provide
               lubricants to reduce wear and heat.

          8.   Never use solvents, gasolines or volatile materials in a room with an
               electrical outlet lower than 18 inches above the floor or an open flame,
               for example, pilot lights on heaters, hot water tanks or lighted
               cigarettes. Post notice outside rooms where flammable or toxic
               materials are being used or stored. Always provide positive ventilation
               outside to prevent vapor buildup and leakage to adjacent rooms.

          9.   Always place oil and solvent-soaked cleaning rags in an approved,
               waste container for flammables. The container must be marked.




7.4 Electrical Safety
Electrical safety is of vital importance for reducing property loss due to fire and, more importantly, to
prevent injury or death to personnel from electrical hazards. The danger of injury through electrical
shock is possible whenever electrical power is present. When a person’s body completes a circuit
and thus connects a power source with the ground, an electrical burn or injury is imminent. Most fatal




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injuries result from high voltage exposure; however, people can sustain severe injuries from low
voltage power if it has a high current flow.

Any electrical shock is an indicator of an electrical hazard. Incidents must be reported and promptly
investigated. Take the equipment or appliance out of service until repaired.

All installations and maintenance involving wiring, fixtures, equipment, appliances, techniques and
practices should comply with State and local safety codes.

Where ground protection has not been provided, ground motor frame and portable electrical tools
before using or use double-insulated electrical equipment.

Never touch washers, dryers, electrical tools, stoves, refrigerators, etc..., with wet hands while
grounded or touching plumbing pipes or faucets.

Promptly repair or replace defective switches, convenience outlets and light fixtures.

Have exposed electrical circuitry, broken switch plates, uncapped extension cord plugs, open light
sockets and junction boxes covered or protected to eliminate accidental contact.
Locate extension cords away from heat sources and protect from abrasion, crushing, kinking and
pulling.

Do not enclose extension and appliance cords inside walls or otherwise install to prevent inspection.
Disconnect cords only by pulling on plug. Never knot a cord.

Electrical cords, tools and appliances should be inspected twice a year for wear or damage.

Some operations and locations have potential for developing and collecting explosive or corrosive
vapors and gases. Common areas requiring specific protection are:

          1.   Flammable dispensing and storage areas.

          2.   Pesticide storage areas.

          3.   Automotive repair shops.

          4.   Battery storage and changing areas.

          5.   Dusty areas.

          6. Chemical laboratories and storage areas.

          7.   Gasoline stations.

Small tools, fans, blowers and appliances driven by an electric motor must be provided with a
grounding-type connection plug or be of approved double-insulated construction.

Never remove ground connections on appliance or extension cord plugs.

Do not work on energized lines. Shut power off first.
Circuit breakers and disconnecting means must be legibly marked to indicate their purpose.

Switches supplying current to lines being worked on must be locked in the "Off" position. ATTACH A




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WARNING TAG INDICATING WORK IS IN PROGRESS.

Eliminate potential shock hazard by providing easy access and working clearances around all
electrical power panels and safety switches. Building modifications, equipment and fixture installation
and operations must not interfere with access and code-required clearances.

DO NOT TOUCH LOOSE WIRES HANGING FROM BUILDINGS OR POLES UNTIL YOU ARE
CERTAIN THEY ARE NOT "HOT.”

Pull switch before removing or replacing cartridge-type fuses.

Never use larger fuses than appropriate for the circuit wire. When in doubt, use 15-ampere fuses
and have an electrician determine if wiring will permit larger size.

Never overload circuits. When fuse failure occurs often, consult a licensed electrician.

Treat all power lines as dangerous. Follow procedures outlined below when working in the vicinity of
power distribution or transmission lines:

NEVER ASSUME ANY WIRE IS DE-ENERGIZED. TREAT ALL WIRES AND GUY WIRES AS IF
THEY WERE "HOT.”

A metal pole or piece of equipment does not need to touch a power line to become energized.
Coming in close proximity can cause the conductor to become energized. Never use metal poles for
pruning, window washing or other activities near electrical wires.

Felling in the vicinity of a high-voltage line must be done by professional fellers under the direction of
a power company representative.

Do not burn brush close to powerlines. Flame is a conductor of electricity. Heating powerlines
increases sag.

Never direct a stream of water at or near an electric line.

Bare powerline conductors lying on the ground will not necessarily trip an automatic circuit breaker or
blow a fuse. The breaker or fuse may fail to operate, the breaker may be re-closed or the line may
be subject to induced voltage. Powerline conductors must be handled only by power company
employees.


Identify low powerlines that may interfere with radio antennas or equipment and have them raised.
Avoid contact with low powerlines and long radio antennas mounted on vehicles and if not possible to
move vehicle safely, stay in it until current can be turned off.

Employees engaged in any electrical work shall be trained to give CPR (cardio-pulmonary
resuscitation) and first-aid treatment for burns and traumatic shock to victims of electrical shock.
Rescue:

          1.   Low Voltage - To rescue persons in contact with low voltage (under 600
               volts) live wires or electrical tools or appliances:

               a. Always assume that wire is hot and never allow it to touch you.




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               b. Shut off current at nearest switch.

               c. Use a nonconductor, such as dry pole or dry rope, to pull wire
                  from victim. Secure the wire if possible.

               d. Do not touch victim with bare hands until the service wire is
                  removed.

          2.   High Voltage - To rescue persons in contact with high voltage
               powerlines (this does not include the service wires to buildings), do not
               attempt to pull the line off the victim or the victim off the line. Contact
               the power company to shut off power.


7.5 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Equipment
Improper operation of heating, ventilating and air conditioning equipment is not only uncomfortable
and costly, but also can cause health and safety problems. Only trained individuals shall repair,
adjust and operate such equipment.

As a minimum, have equipment inspected annually by a qualified repairman. Perform preventive
maintenance as recommended by the manufacturer. Keep maintenance records with the equipment.

All combustion systems require an adequate fresh air supply.

Energy conservation and higher heating costs have created demands for tighter, more heat-efficient
buildings. Insulation, sealing, caulking and storm windows may require reevaluation of ventilation
needs, particularly where space heaters are used.

LP gas is heavier than air. There must be adequate ventilation before lighting LP gas appliances.
Investigate gas odors promptly. Shut off gas lines at the tank and notify local LP gas dealer if you
suspect leaks.

Check air filters monthly to improve air circulation.




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  Heaters and Furnaces:

          1.   Let the type of work dictate the selection of heaters and furnaces for
               shops, warehouses and other work locations. For example, never use
               open-flame furnaces when solvents are often used or petroleum
               products are in open tanks.

          2.   Locate space heaters so doors, clothing or furniture cannot restrict
               ventilation and cause a fire hazard.

          3.   Refer to local fire codes and manufacturer's recommendations before
               installing any heating appliance.

  Air Conditioning and Ventilation Equipment:

          1.   Ground window air conditioners either through an electrical ground in
               the wiring system or by grounding the frame with a separate ground
               wire.

          2.   Fan blade protectors must not have openings larger than 1/2 inch.

          3.   Check blower fans, shafts and motors twice a year to prevent damage
               due to loosening by vibration.


7.6 Grounds Maintenance
Limit speeds in office compounds and parking areas.

Provide parking space delineators or striping. Clearly mark parking areas.

Gates must be clearly marked and visible.

Clearly mark roads through stations and compounds. Prohibit parking in roadways.

  Pruning and Mowing Safety:

          1.   Inspect the area before mowing. Remove rocks, sticks and other
               materials that may be thrown by mowers.          Personal protective
               equipment, such as boots, eye protection and hard hat shall be worn
               when mowing. Steel-toed boots and ear protection are recommended.

          2.   Prune brush and trees to maintain good visibility around access roads
               and buildings.

          3.   Trim around all pipes, markers and monuments. Filament (fishline)
               type weed trimmers are recommended.

          4.   Never leave lawn tools lying about.




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          5.   Small rotary mowers are particularly dangerous. They throw small
               objects with great force and may injure or sever toes and fingers.
               Observe the following safe practices:

               a. Keep mower in good mechanical condition with complete
                  protective shields to reduce throwing of debris by the blade.
                  Inspect after each use to ensure it has not been damaged.

               b. When starting the motor, keep feet outside the protective skirts.
                  Place one foot on the mower as a brace and pull the starting cord
                  without jerking it.

               c. Never permit persons other than the operator near the mower
                  when engine is running. Area should be clear of all people for
                  100 feet. While people are passing, stop; start when people are
                  safely out of range.

               d. Avoid hitting irregular surfaces of the lawn and fixed obstructions,
                  such as curbs, walks, posts and pipes with the blade.

               e. Turn off power: (1) if the mower must be left; (2) before clearing
                  mower of debris; (3) before making adjustments or repairs.

               f. Never lift or tip a running rotary mower.

               g. Cool engine for 5 minutes before refueling. Move at least 10 feet
                  from fueling point before restarting.

               h. Push mowers across slope on the contour rather than up and
                  down to keep feet from slipping under the protective skirt.

Operate riding mowers and small tractors according to the safety recommendations of the
manufacturer.

The center of gravity of equipment varies greatly with rider's weight; be careful when mowing sloped
surfaces.

Allow only the operator on tractor or mowing equipment.


7.7 Offices
Have first-aid kits and supplies for treatment of all scratches and cuts. Keep contents up to date by
reviewing expiration dates.

Examine furniture frequently for splinters and weakened or broken parts. Take furniture needing
repairs out of service.




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When sitting in chairs, keep legs on the floor.

Keep window sills and ledges free of loose objects.

Place extension cords for electrical equipment and telephones where they are not tripping hazards.

Never connect more appliances or pieces of electrical equipment to an outlet that exceeds the outlets
capacity (for example, duplex outlets equal two pieces of equipment). Do not use extension cords in
place of permanent wiring circuits.

Store heaviest loads in bottom file drawers. Have only one drawer opened at a time.

Close desk and file drawers, cabinet doors and bookcase sliding doors when not in use.

Free-standing book shelves should not exceed four shelves high without being adequately braced.

Place or store electric fans, paper cutters and other hazardous equipment in a safe area.

Install guards on office machines to protect against all hazardous belts, gears, pulleys and rotating
parts.

Matches, cigars, cigarettes and pipe ashes must be dead out when disposed of.                 Never use
wastebaskets as ashtrays.

Take extra precaution in disposing of fluorescent tubes to prevent accidental breakage. They contain
a toxic substance.

With the extensive use of computers and other automated desk devices in the workplace, employees
must take special care to ensure proper work station arrangement. For the purpose of this manual, a
work station consists of the equipment and furniture associated with a typical desk job, ie., desk,
chair and computer components.

In recent years, computer screens have received much attention concerning nonionizing radiation
levels. Tests prove however, that they do not emit harmful levels of radiation. Improper work station
arrangement combined with repetitive motion, however, may contribute to visual and musculoskeletal
fatigue.

Cumulative trauma disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome may result from the stress of repetitive
motion. Therefore, it is very important to arrange your work station properly and to take breaks
frequently.

Your seating position at work is important to your comfort and safety. To reduce the painful effects of
repetitive motion, follow these guidelines when working with computers or typewriters:

              Always sit up straight. Make sure your chair is adjusted to provide
               adequate support to your back.




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              Place your feet flat on the floor or on a footrest. Lower legs should be
               approximately vertical and thighs should be approximately horizontal.
               The majority of your weight should be on the buttocks.

              Ensure that there is a least one inch of clearance between the top of
               your thighs and the bottom of the desk or table.

              Keep your wrist in a natural position. They should not rest on the edge
               of the desk.

              Keep the front edge of your chair approximately four inches behind your
               knees.

By properly arranging your equipment, you can also help reduce the harmful effects of repetitive
motion. Follow these guidelines for arranging office equipment:

  Lighting:

        Lighting around computer work stations should illuminate the work area without
        obscuring the monitor or causing glare. Position monitors, draperies, blinds and
        pictures to reduce glare during work hours.

  Computer Monitors:

        Computer monitors should be clear and well-defined. Adjust the screen’s brightness,
        contrast and display size to meet your needs. If a screen flickers or jumps, have it
        repaired or replaced.

        Place the screen 20 to 28 inches away from your face. The center of the screen
        should be approximately 15 to 25 degrees below your line of vision.

  Keyboards:

        Position computer keyboards so that the angle between the forearm and upper arm
        is between 80 and 120 degrees. Place the keyboard in an area that is accessible
        and comfortable.

  Wrist Support:

        Use wrist supports made of a padded material. The support should allow you to type
        without bending your wrists.

  Document Holders:

        Keep documents at approximately the same height and distance from your face as
        the computer monitor.




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7.8 Storage and Warehouses
Keep aisles and passageways clear and in good repair for safe movement.

Segregate materials by kind, size and length. Stack neatly.

Materials in compounds or storage areas must be well guarded, have suitable signs in daylight and
be well lighted at night.

Use gloves, pads, aprons and safety-toed boots when handling heavy or sharp-edged objects.

When unpacking materials, immediately pull or clinch protruding nails in boards. Remove nails from
opened boxes and kegs used for storage or material carrying.

  Always store tools or materials away from:

          1.   Unguarded windows.

          2.   Heat sources, if flammable.

          3.   Aisles, fire exits, fire equipment, electric switches and panels.

Clearly label contents and special handling requirements on all containers.

Never store materials on supports not designed for such loading. This applies especially to bottom
boards of light-framed trusses.

  Material Storage:

          1.   Some materials require controlled temperature, humidity, isolation or
               fire protection.    Store compatible materials together to avoid
               deterioration and conserve energy.

          2.   Segregate noncompatible materials. Guard against chemical reactions,
               corrosion, flammability and possible explosion.

          3.   Never store excess materials on a scaffold or runway.

          4.   In handling lumber, follow these procedures:

               a. Remove nails from used lumber before stacking.

               b. Stack lumber on level and solid supports. Use cross strips or
                  piling where the pile is more than 4 feet high.

               c. Ensure that lumber stacks are stable and self-supporting.

               d. Never stack lumber higher than 8 feet.




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            e. Wear gloves when loading, unloading and handling rough
               lumber.

            f. Keep the top of lumber stacks as level as possible when lumber
               is removed.

            g. Long boards should be carried by two persons. Be careful at
               corners and crosswalks.

Material Handling:

       1.   Coordinate lifting, moving and lowering objects with prearranged
            signals.

       2.   Place planks between layers when barrels, kegs and drums are stacked
            on end. Planking should be as wide as the bearing surface of the
            container. If stacked on side, block first row to prevent rolling.

       3.   Stack cartons with care and protect them from moisture to prevent
            collapse.

       4.   Use mechanical devices such as skids, rollers, hand trucks, lift trucks,
            hoists, wheelbarrows, tongs, cant hooks, peaveys, haypoles and hand
            spikes to avoid injury.

       5.   Lifttrucks and other mechanical lifting devices must be operated only by
            authorized personnel. When using a hoist be sure the load is secure;
            never be under the load.

Supervisor's Responsibilities:

       1.   Be sure of worker's physical ability to lift and move things.

       2.   Give workers detailed instructions on how to move things.

       3.   Require hand trucks and dolly for moving equipment and supplies
            wherever possible.

       4.   Follow-up to see that worker is using correct moving practices.

Employee Responsibilities:

       1.   Check the intended route and the point of placement before moving
            load.

       2.   Ask for help if load is heavy.       Do not try to lift or otherwise move
            material beyond ability.

       3.   Stand close to the load with feet apart to lift.



       4.   Bend knees, keeping back straight as possible (not necessarily




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      vertical).

 5.   Get a firm grip under the load.

 6.   Test load.

 7.   Lift gradually and smoothly. Lift with legs, arms and shoulders, not with
      back and stomach muscles. Keep load close to body. Rise slowly,
      straighten knees and stand. Avoid quick, jerky motions.

 8.   Avoid twisting motions. Do not change position of feet before load is
      fully raised.

 9.   Be able to see over the load when carrying. If the load blocks vision,
      get help before changing grip.

10.   Face the spot where the load is to be placed.

11.   Bend knees slowly to lower the load. Keep back as straight as
      possible. Keep load close to body. Support load with legs, arms and
      shoulders, not back and stomach muscles.

12.   Protect fingers and hands from pinching and scraping.

13.   In tight places, set load down close to final location and slide into place.

14.   When lifting from a table, shelf or similar elevated surface, slide the
      load toward the edge. Support load with edge of elevated surface and
      lift properly as described above. In placing load on a raised surface,
      reverse this procedure.

15.   Avoid placing heavy and unwieldy loads overhead.

16.   Avoid "time saving" or show-off demonstrations of strength.




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                        Chapter 8 - Employee Health & Safety

8.1 Employee Health
Promotion of health is left up to the individual.

  Some healthful hints are:

          1.   Get seven to eight hours sleep each night

          2.   Exercise regularly

          3.   Control body weight

          4.   Limit alcoholic consumption

          5.   Avoid smoking

          6.   Get periodic medical check-ups

Heart associated problems are the number one killer in the United States.

All Texas Forest Service personnel should be trained in cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Field
personnel shall be trained with refresher courses.

        Early warning signs should be known by each individual and he/she should have a medical
        check-up if one or more of the following persist:

          1.   Dizziness

          2.   Indigestion (prolonged)

          3.   Leg swelling

          4.   Shortness of breath

          5.   Erratic heart beat

          6.   Chest pain and pain down either arm




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When an individual exhibits one or more of the above warning signs, he/she should:

          1.   Stop and rest.

          2.   Do not try to work it off.

          3.   Get to a doctor as soon as possible even though pain may subside.

When temperatures exceed 90, all employees engaged in field work should be monitored closely for
signs of heat stress, heat exhaustion or heat stoke.

  Heat Stress:

Employees are prone to suffer form heat stress during hot, humid conditions. Because of the field
nature of many of our programs, employees must take preventive measures to reduce their risk. To
prevent heat stress, employees should limit strenuous physical activity during the hottest portion of
the day, if practical. In addition, employees should:

Have plenty of drinking water available.

Take frequent breaks.

Take appropriate measures, such as the use of sun screen, to prevent sunburn.

  Heat Exhaustion:

Heat exhaustion is also usually caused by strenuous physical activity and hot humid conditions.
Because heat exhaustion is the body’s response to insufficient water and salt, it should be treated as
quickly as possible.

Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion include the following:

              Exhaustion, and restlessness

              Headache, dizziness, cold, clammy moist skin

              Pale face

              Cramps in abdomen and lower limbs

              Fast, shallow breathing

              Rapid, weak pulse

              Falling body temperature

              Fainting




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Take the following steps to administer first aid for heat exhaustion:

          1.   Have the victim lie down in a cool or shaded place.

          2.   If the victim is conscious, have him/her slowly sip cool water.

          3.   If the victim is unconscious or is conscious but does not improve, seek
               medical aid as soon as possible.

          4.   If the victim is sweating profusely, have him/her sip cool water that
               contains one teaspoon of table salt per pint of water.

  Heat Stroke:

Heat stroke is usually caused by exposure to extreme heat and humidity and/or a feverish illness.
Heat stroke occurs when the body can no longer control its temperature by sweating. Heat stroke is
extremely dangerous and may be fatal if not treated immediately.

The signs and symptoms of heat stroke include the following:

              Hot, dry skin

              Headache

              Dizziness

              High temperature

              Strong pulse

              Noisy breathing

              Unconsciousness

Immediately take the following steps to administer first aid for heat stroke:

          1.   If possible, move the victim to a cool place.

          2.   Seek medical attention as soon as possible.

          3.   Remove the victim’s clothing.

          4.   If the victim is conscious, place him/her in a half-sitting position and
               support the head and shoulders.

          5.   If the victim is unconscious, place him/her on their side with their head
               facing sideways.

          6.   Fan the victim and sponge the body with cool water.




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  Lightning & Thunderstorms:

       During a storm:

         1.   Stay out of creek beds.

         2.   Do not use radios or telephones.

         3.   In open country, sit or lie down.

         4.   Do not group together.

         5.   Crawler tractors should be dismounted.

         6.   Stay in vehicle.

         7.   Close doors and windows.

         8.   If you feel an electrical charge (hair stands on end of skin tingles)
              lightning may be about to strike. Drop to the ground immediately.

         9.   A person struck by lightning can be touched safely. A person may
              require CPR.


8.2 Plant & Animal Hazards
A seasonal training session should be given to make employees aware of these problems. Correct
first-aid treatment should be demonstrated.

  Poison Plants:

         1.   Body ointments or salves should be available when an individual is
              exposed to poisonous plants.

         2.   Highly sensitive persons should be careful in job duties that expose
              them to poisonous plants.

         3.   Avoid smoke from poisonous plants. Smoke can be more irritating than
              direct contact.

              In poisonous plant areas you should:

              a. Fasten trouser legs securely over boots.

              b. Wear gloves and do not touch other body parts.

              c. Wash thoroughly after each job.




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               d. Clean tools.

               e. Wash exposed clothing separately.

  Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Ticks:

All Texas Forest Service employees are exposed to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Texas.
Because of this, employees should:

          1.   Wear medium-high boots and fasten trousers over them.

          2.   Inspect body and clothing twice a day.

          3.   Insect repellents should be used when working in the field.

If a tick is attached to the body you should coat the tick with heavy oil if possible and allow the tick to
release itself. Whenever the tick is removed you should wash thoroughly with soap and water.
Symptoms include chills, followed by fever, severe headaches, pains in bones or muscles and skin
irruptions. If symptoms continue, see a doctor.

  Chiggers:

          1.   Do not sit on ground or logs in area prone to chiggers.

          2.   Apply repellent or sulfur to legs and hands.

          3.   Bathe in hot soapy water.

  Spider and Scorpion Areas:

          1.   Wear work gloves and do not place them on the ground.

          2.   Do not leave boots, jackets or trousers on ground.

          3.   Inspect material before handling.

If a bitten area shows inflammation and severe pain associated with chills, fever, nausea and
vomiting, see a doctor.

  Bees, Wasps, and Yellow Jackets:

A person should avoid working in high infested areas if you are allergic to stings. When working in
these areas:

          1.   Wear long-sleeved shirts with close-fitting collars.

          2.   Keep trousers tucked in boots.

          3.   Strong scented lotions can attract bees.




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  Snakes:

When possible, working in snake habitat areas should be avoided. Training on poisonous snakes
should be given with proper first-aid treatment.

  Rabies:

Animals that act strange should be avoided and local health officials notified. If bitten by an animal
get medical attention and report to local health officials. If the animal is killed avoid damaging head.




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                      Chapter 9 - Laboratory Safety & Health

9.1 Equipment and Clothing
Never allow new (untrained) employees to work in laboratories without close supervision.

Keep laboratory work areas clean and orderly. When not in use, store chemicals, equipment and
glassware in cabinets designed for their storage. Never store glass containers and chemicals on the
floor, on the edge of a counter or on cabinet tops.

Always keep floors dry when the laboratory is in use.

Make absolutely sure that any personal protective equipment and other special equipment or devices
needed for handling, using or disposing of chemicals is available and is used.

All laboratory activities involving high-risk procedures, hazardous materials or toxic substances shall
be reviewed by the Safety Officer before the project begins. Correct all problems before the work
begins. It is vital that laboratory employees inspect their equipment and work areas for hazards and
defects every work day and that they correct or repair hazards and defects as they occur.

Establish and maintain a respiratory protective program that meets product requirements.

Continually train employees to use available respiratory protective equipment. Use standardized
equipment. Dust masks do not provide protection against all airborne particles, poisonous gases or
oxygen deficiency. When wearing a canister-type mask, use the proper canister. Canister-type gas
masks have limited capacities and do not protect in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. If an odor is
detected when a canister-type mask is being worn, gas concentration may be too high, the face piece
may leak, the canister may have reached its absorbing capacity or it may be the wrong kind of
canister.

Safety glasses are minimum eye protection for laboratory work.

Always use goggles and a face shield when there is increased risk of eye damage, such as when
handling strong acid. Clean lenses often. Always flush abrasive dirt from lenses with running water;
do not clean with abrasive soap. Inspect lenses for chips or scratches that weaken hardened lenses.
Replace damaged lenses immediately.

Use special lenses for work with ultraviolet and infrared light.

Wear heavy rubber gloves when handling concentrated acids and other corrosive or highly toxic
materials. Have suitable gloves for handling hot objects.

Wear leather or cotton gloves when handling broken glassware. Wear leather or rubber footwear in
laboratory areas. Conductive soles shall be worn when working in a potentially explosive
atmosphere.




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Body protection (laboratory coats, aprons, coveralls) shall be used when increased risk situations are
encountered.

To reduce the spread of contaminants to other areas, such as offices, lunchrooms, meeting rooms
and homes, never wear protective clothing outside the laboratory.

Provide portable eyewashes capable of supplying water for at least 15 minutes.

Train employees in the use of emergency water supplies. Eyewash drills are especially important
because, in an emergency, the user will probably not be able to see.


9.2 Availability of Emergency Equipment
Post names and telephone numbers of those trained in first-aid conspicuously near each telephone.

An appropriate first-aid kit must be available at each laboratory.

Keep emergency equipment in good working order and conspicuously located along normal paths of
travel where it will be readily accessible.


9.3 Handling Chemicals
                                                Storage

Employees shall be fully informed of the hazardous properties of chemicals in their designated work
storage areas.

Protective equipment must be readily available where hazardous chemical are used or stored.

Incompatible chemicals shall be separated.

Know the properties of every chemical before purchase and be sure that proper transportation,
handling and storage facilities are available.

Order only enough of each chemical to meet current needs.

Date chemicals on receipt and date unstable chemicals, such as ethers, when opened.

Never store large chemical containers above eye level.

Use ventilated cabinets instead of fume hoods for storing volatile chemicals.

Limit the amount of flammable chemicals on hand to immediate needs.

Never use large glass containers to store flammable liquids.




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Prohibit smoking or unnecessary ignition sources within 50 feet of flammable storage or work areas.

Rooms and cabinets where chemicals are stored must be ventilated.

Chemical storage areas must be cool and dry and not exposed to direct sunlight.

Refrigerators for flammable chemical storage must be wired, grounded and insulated to prevent
sparks. Tight-fitting covers for containers must be used for storing flammable liquids in refrigerators.

Store compressed gas cylinders in a cool, dry area, out of direct sunlight. Valve protection caps must
be in place during storage and transportation.

Compressed gas cylinders must be secured to wall, bench or other stable object when stored or in
use. Always store empty cylinders separately away from those containing flammable or combustible
gases.

Mark compressed cylinders with Department of Transportation (DOT) labels and in the storage areas
prominently post the names of the gases.

Move cylinders by hand trucks equipped with a safety chain to secure the cylinder in an upright
position.

Cylinders in use must be equipped with an approved pressure regulator.

The toxicity of many chemicals has been incompletely investigated. Some chemicals may injure
living tissue by irritation, burning, blistering, disintegration and disorganization. Lethal doses of some
chemicals can be absorbed through the skin, lungs and by mouth. Avoid inhaling, ingesting or
contacting any laboratory chemicals.

Breathing fumes, poor housekeeping and personal contamination are the greatest sources of danger
around chemicals. Clothing and safety devices do not provide complete protection. Care in handling
dangerous chemicals is essential.

Clean up chemical spills immediately, using approved procedures for disposal.

Remove dangerous liquid chemicals from large storage containers by pump, siphon or by pipette
equipped with a rubber suction bulb. Never start siphons used to remove liquid chemicals by mouth.

Never allow mouth pipetting. Provide mechanical devices or specially designed safety devices for
this purpose.




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                         Disposal of Unused Chemicals and Containers

The safe disposal of waste chemicals requires that employees who handle this material be trained to
recognize the hazards and select the correct procedures for disposal.

Provide supervision for handling and disposing of chemicals that are sufficiently hazardous to require
special measures.

Never flush hazardous chemicals into sewers.

Destroy flammable liquids by burning. When such liquids are highly toxic or produce highly toxic
compounds, burn them in a suitable safe incinerator.

Follow State regulations for burying hazardous solid chemicals, such as pesticides.

Solid chemicals that will not pollute the underground water system can be disposed of in an approved
area. Package this material in boxes so it cannot break or spill.

Never use containers in which dangerous chemicals have been stored for trash barrels, water
storage tanks or feed troughs.


9.4 Laboratory Operations
                               Personal Contamination Prevention

Never eat, drink or smoke in any room or area where there is danger of contamination by toxic
substances.

Food and beverages must not be kept in laboratory refrigerators.

Laboratory glassware must not be used for food or beverages.

                                      Laboratory Equipment

The safe use and maintenance of laboratory equipment is each individual user's responsibility. As a
minimum, follow manufacturer's recommended use and maintenance instructions to provide for the
safe and extended use of each piece of equipment.

Inspect glassware before and after use. If damaged, repair or discard.

Use brush and dust pan to clean up broken glass. Remove large pieces of glass from sinks with
tongs and chips and slivers with cotton held by tongs.

Rinse or purge flammable or toxic residue from glassware after use.




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Protect hands with gloves or use toweling when breaking glass tubing. Break tubing away from the
face. Fire-polish rough ends of glass tubing or bevel them with a file.

  When inserting glass tubing in corks and stoppers:

          1.   Lubricate tubing and hole with water, glycerine or soap.

          2.   Grasp tubing with towel, gloves or tubing manipulator.

          3.   Hold stopper in leather glove or towel.

          4.   Avoid excessive force.

Use only borosilicate (Pyrex) glass where the glass is exposed to heat or cold.

Protect beakers and flasks with ceramic fiber-centered gauze when heating by flame.

Do not stress any glass part when setting up apparatus.

Use only heavy-walled glassware if it is to be subject to pressure or vacuum.

Use shielding or other protection with pressure or vacuum bottles.

Use shielding for highly reactive procedures.

Never pick up large glass containers by the necks or rims. Hands must be dry when handling
chemical containers.

                                          Electrical Hazards

National Electrical Code wiring standards are required in classified areas where hazardous materials
are stored and used.

Electrical equipment, including portable electric tools, must be properly grounded in accordance with
the National Electrical Code.

Electrical wiring, equipment and grounding must be inspected semiannually and repaired by a
competent electrician.

High-voltage equipment must be marked with warning signs indicating approximate voltage.

Electrical equipment controls must be mounted outside fume hoods in which flammable chemicals
are used.

Receptacles or switches mounted near sinks or where shock hazards exist shall have ground-fault
circuit breakers.




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                                     Nonionizing Radiation

Suitable eye protection or shields must be mounted on and warnings posted on instruments emitting
ultraviolet rays.

                                 Pressure and Vacuum Systems

Compressed gases must be stored and handled in a safe manner.

Safety shields must be used to protect personnel from equipment that might explode or implode.

Regulatory and safety valves or controls must be maintained and regularly inspected as prescribed
by manufacturer.

                                        Thermal Hazards

Wherever there are high or low temperature areas in the laboratory, install suitable insulation and
warning signs.

Employees working with high or low temperatures shall use adequate safety clothing.

Never leave high temperature ovens or furnaces unattended unless they are equipped with
temperature control and warning signs.




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                       Chapter 10 - Hazardous Materials/Waste
The unique properties of hazardous materials require that all employees who work with them have
knowledge of how such materials react and their potential dangers.

10.1 Definitions
Hazardous materials may be solid, liquid or gas, each of which require special handling and
procedures. Know the hazards of all materials you work with--solid, liquid or gas.

Read labels before using any substance. Ask questions about the specific properties of anything you
do not understand or are not familiar with.

                                      Hazardous Materials

  Classification                                Hazard

Explosive                                Concussion, causing death and destruction.

Flammable Liquid                         Ignites below 100F.

Pyrophoric Liquid                        Ignites spontaneously at or below 130F.

Combustible Liquid                       Ignites between 100F. and 200F.

Flammable Solid                          Ignites easily and burns vigorously.

Oxidizing Material                       Yields oxygen to stimulate combustion.

Corrosive Material                       Can destroy human skin tissue.

Compressed Gas                           Explosive action if suddenly released. May irritate eyes,
                                         skin and lungs.

Flammable Compressed Gas                 Explosive action and capable of burning.

Poison                                   Adversely affects systems of the body.

Irritating Materials                     Releases dangerous fumes on contact with fire or air.

Etiologic Agent                          May cause human disease.

Radioactive Material                     Emits energy which can damage living tissue.

Cryogenic Material                       Potential for explosion.

Toxic Material                           Can cause systemic damage when taken into the body.




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10.2 Hazardous Waste
Hazardous waste disposal is governed by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Texas
Natural Resource Conservation Commission through State and Federal regulations. The purpose of
environmentally sound disposal methods is to prevent harm to the water, land and air.
Noncompliance with any hazardous waste regulation may result in substantial fines and penalties for
the Texas Forest Service. In addition, individuals may be personally liable. Generators may be cited
or fined for numerous types of violations, ranging from improperly labeling a waste container to
intentionally disposing of hazardous waste incorrectly.

                                     Types of Hazardous Waste

An item is considered waste when the owner determines that the material is no longer useful and
needs to be discarded. An item is considered to be hazardous if it meets one or more of the
following characteristics:

          1.   A chemical component is listed on one of the Chemical Tables included
               in the appendix at the end of this manual.

          2.   Mixture contains a listed hazardous waste and a nonhazardous waste.

          3.   Material meets the definition of one of the following:

               a. Ignitability (flashpoint <60C or supports combustion)

               b. Reactivity (e.g., water reactives, cyanides, explosives, unstable chemicals)

               c. Corrosivity (ph <4 or >10)

               d. EP toxicity (e.g., pesticides, heavy metals, poisons)

               e. Material is not excluded from regulations.

Individual administrative units are responsible for properly identifying the hazardous waste they
generate and for following Texas Forest Service disposal procedures.

10.3 Transportation
All containers (safety cans, drums, tanks or tank trucks) used for transporting hazardous materials
must be correctly labeled to ensure quick identification of the materials.          Department of
Transportation placarding and labeling requirements are found in title 49 Code of Federal
Regulations, sec. 100-199.

Those persons at an accident scene involving hazardous materials, should exercise caution to
prevent being injured and should promptly take measures to protect the public. Emergency action
information can be obtained by telephoning the material name to:

        Chemtrac (1 800-424-9300).




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10.4 Dispensing Flammable and Combustible Liquids
Pumps are the best means of withdrawing a flammable liquid from tanks or drums because the flow
can be controlled.

Where faucets are used on tanks or drums, provide the spring-closing type that will flow only while
manually held open. Blocking such faucets open is not permitted.

Ground or bond gravity-flow dispensing units to prevent a build-up of static electricity.

Cleanliness is essential where combustible or flammable liquids are handled. Spills must be cleaned
up immediately. Use sand, dry earth or special oil-absorbent compound (not sawdust) to soak up
spills.

Use hot water solutions of baking soda or other strong alkali cleaner or nonflammable solvents (not
gasoline) to remove oil from metal parts.

Gas and oil-soaked wood floors will be replaced with a non-absorbent surface or removed from
inside building or platform.

Do not dispense gasoline in enclosed buildings.

Post "No Smoking" signs on outside of gasoline stations. Prohibit smoking within 50 feet of the
dispensing station.

When filling tanks, leave vapor space above the liquid level to permit expansion with rising
temperatures.

Shut engines off before filling fuel tanks.

Prevent accumulation of static electricity; ground storage platforms for all flammables.

On all tank trucks, ground tank to truck frame. Establish a positive ground between truck and fill
pipe.

Ground delivery hose or gasoline can before holding hose nozzle or can spout against the container
being filled.

Do not use wool, nylon or other static-generating materials to wipe up spilled gasoline or flammables.

Approved overhead storage tanks must be painted, vented and signed. Locate tanks at least 50 feet
from other buildings.




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10.5 Flammable and Combustible Gases
The hazard of flammable gases is generally similar to that of flammable liquids. When mixed with
air, gases may burn rapidly or explode when ignited.

The density of a gas effects its behavior when it escapes and consequently effects its hazard.

The heavier gases have a greater probability of coming in contact with sources of ignition.

Some gases are odorized to assist in detection of their presence, but smell is only a very rough
estimator of the hazard.

Store LP gas containers, including portable tanks, outside in a well-ventilated area and protected
from mechanical damage.

Use only Department of Transportation (DOT) approved tanks which have specifications stamped
into tank body.

Store all LP gas bottles upright and restrained.

Have tanks and containers plainly labeled to identify contents and capacity.

Protect supply lines from damage. Keep weeds, brush and other foliage away from tanks. Do not
clear with a power mower or edger.

Prohibit smoking within 25 feet of storage tanks.

Butane and other liquefied gases must be transported, used and stored with the safety valve
protected by a ventilated cap or collar.

Never drop tanks.

When repainting tanks, use paint with heat reflectivity equal to aluminum or white.

Use only a container furnished by a distributor for bottled gas.

Gas regulators must be checked by recognized dealers and their maintenance people.

Tightly close cylinder valve when not in use or when empty.

Never allow LP gas to contact skin or clothing.

Always store portable propane tanks and torches top-end up in a cool, dry area marked "No
Smoking." Transport with top-end up, fastened down and fixtures tight.

Protect propane tanks, empty or filled, from hot sun and fire.




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10.6 Pesticides
                                                General

Restricted use pesticides (i.e., Guthion) must be purchased and used only by licensed certified
applicators or persons under their direct supervision and used only for those purposes covered by the
Certified Applicator's License.

Regular cholinesterase testing and medical surveillance of all who are occupationally exposed to
organophosphate pesticides (e.g., Guthion) are required.

Read the label and follow instructions. Be sure the precautions on the container label are heeded.
Re-read each time you use a pesticide.

Use pesticides only when they are needed; use only on the crops and in the amounts recommended
on the label. Don't misuse pesticides.

In selecting a pesticide, pick one that will handle your problem. If more than one is available,
consider using the one that will offer less hazard of soil and water contamination.

Keep a record of materials, amounts used, the dates of application, when and where used and who
was involved in each application.

If a pesticide is marked "POISON,” it will have an antidote statement on the label. Be sure to read it.
In case of an accident, take the container with you to your doctor or Poison Control Center.

                                                Storage

Store all pesticides in locked area. Do not store pesticides where food, feed or seed can be
contaminated. Do not store herbicides where they can contaminate other pesticides.

Pesticides should be stored in a dry, well-ventilated place. A separate building is preferred.

All entrances to the storage area/building should be clearly marked that pesticides are stored there.

Always keep pesticides in their original containers. Make sure they are closed tightly and plainly
labeled.

Never put a pesticide in an empty food or drink container of any kind!! This is a major cause of
deaths from pesticides.

Containers with pesticides should be examined periodically for leaks and tears.

Spilled or leaked material should be cleaned up promptly.

Glass containers with liquids should be stored at temperatures of 40 F or above to prevent
breakage.




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                                     Handling and Application

When handling pesticides do not allow them to come in contact with the skin.

Do not inhale dust, sprays or vapors. Dilute or mix the chemicals outdoors in a well-ventilated place.

Do not smoke, chew or use snuff tobacco while handling pesticides.

When opening a container of emulsifiable concentrate, keep your face away from and to one side of
the cap.

Handle liquid concentrates and oil base sprays as though they were flammable.

Wear a respirator over nose and mouth if there is danger of inhaling fine dust or spray during
application. Wash respirator face piece with soap and warm water after each use. Make sure dirty
filters or cartridges are replaced if breathing is difficult or odor of pesticide is detected.

After handling pesticides, wash hands and face.

Use protective equipment if the label recommends it. Avoid excessive contamination of clothing
when spraying or dusting. Launder contaminated clothing daily before reuse.

If pesticides are spilled on skin or clothing, remove contaminated clothing immediately and wash
thoroughly. If pesticide concentrates are spattered into the eye, flush with plenty of water for 15
minutes and get medical attention.

Keep people, particularly children, away from areas where pesticides are being mixed, applied or
stored.

Cover food and water containers when using pesticides around livestock.

When using pesticides, be sure to use only the correct amount. Over-dosage is illegal, wasteful,
often injurious to plants, and may leave excessive, dangerous residues; it seldom kills more insects,
diseases or weeds.

In applying pesticides make sure output of equipment is calibrated and is checked frequently to
prevent excessive application.

Spray or dust in the direction of air movement, if possible, never into the wind. Do not apply when
wind or other conditions promote excessive drift.

Use separate equipment for applying hormone type herbicides in order to avoid accidental injury to
susceptible plants.

Be sure not to apply pesticides more often than recommended.

Be sure to permit at least the amount of time specified on the label between last application and
harvest or re-entry.




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Never combine two insecticides unless it is certain that it is safe to do so, and that there is a need.
Combining some phosphate insecticides may result in an even more toxic material.

Check any questions of proper use of pesticides before application, not after!

                         Protection of Water, Fish, Wildlife and Neighbors

To protect water supply, fish and wildlife, be careful not to contaminate streams, lakes or ponds with
pesticides. Do not clean spray equipment or dump excess spray materials near streams, ponds or
lakes.

Never leave puddles of pesticides to attract birds, pets or other animals.

Apply pesticides in a manner so that they will not drift onto nearby crops and pastures, bee hives,
livestock, fish and wildlife, streams, ponds, and other water sources.

Try to apply insecticides when bees and other pollinating insects are not active. If large areas are to
be treated, nearby bee keepers should be notified at least 48 hours in advance so that they can
protect their bees.

Keep herbicide drift away from susceptible plants and crops.

Avoid the use of dusts or fine sprays whenever possible to reduce drift. Coarse sprays and granular
materials are preferred.

                                         Cleaning Equipment

When finished, all equipment used in applying and preparing pesticides should be thoroughly flushed
with water. Discharge the cleaning water where it will not contaminate.

Avoid using a hormone (2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; Alanap-3) contaminated sprayer for other purposes.

Never use your mouth to blow out lines, nozzle tips, etc...

Wear plastic or rubber gloves to handle clogged nozzles or for measuring out concentrates. Wash
hands and gloves after using.

If symptoms of illness occur during or shortly after use, call a physician or take patient to the hospital
immediately. Take labeled container for clear identification of material used.

                                     Disposal of Used Container

Dispose empty containers safely and in accordance with the instructions on the label.

Don't leave empty containers lying around. Don't put them in farm or municipal dumps. These
frequently drain into lakes or streams.




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Burn empty pesticide bags and cardboard containers daily except those containing herbicides. Do
not breathe the smoke. Herbicide containers should be crushed, broken, torn or punctured so they
cannot be reused or cannot collect water. They should be buried at least 18 inches.

Non-combustible bottles or cans should be triple rinsed, broken or punctured and buried at least 18
inches deep in a flat area that will not drain into streams, ponds or wells. Empty rinse water into
sprayer and not on the ground, in the driveway, lawn or near water sources.

                                       Disposal of Pesticides

  Concentrates and Dusts:

If you can't use all of your undiluted spray materials, try to return them to your dealer. Dispose of
concentrates in an incinerator or landfill approved for pesticide disposal. Consult Federal, State or
local disposal authorities for approved alternative procedures.

Do not dispose of these materials in municipal or private dumps. Never pour leftover pesticides
down the sink or into toilet bowls.

Make up dilute concentrations in spray tank and dispose as described below in "Materials Left Over
In Spray Tank." This is one of the best methods as the chemicals break down more quickly.
However, it may not be suitable if large quantities are involved.

  Materials Left Over in Spray Tank:

Such materials will break down most quickly if sprayed out over a large flat area of unused land far
from wells, streams or ponds. Harm to non-target organisms should be avoided. Under no
circumstance should such a practice be followed on land used as pasture or for forage.

  Handling of Contaminated Articles:

Contaminated clothing and rags receiving undiluted Guthion as a result of leaks, spills or mishaps
should be removed immediately and not reused. These contaminated articles should be buried in the
same manner as the empty container (see container disposal section for directions). Contaminated
articles which should be discarded include: hats, gloves, aprons, coats, boots, etc..., which are not
made of rubber, or coated with rubber or other similar materials.

Contaminated clothing receiving spray mist or droplets from mixed, diluted Guthion should be
removed and decontaminated before reuse. This clothing can be decontaminated by machine-
washing separately from other items, with soap or detergent and bleach in hot water twice before
reuse. Protective clothing and equipment should be washed-down with detergent or soap and bleach
in water.

Read all precautionary statements on labels before use and follow them.

Keep chemicals out of eyes, off of skin and do not inhale fumes. In some cases rubber gloves and
nose mask are necessary.




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10.7 Wood Preserving Chemicals
  When using pentachlorophenol preservatives take the following precautions:

         1.   Keep shirt sleeves rolled down. Wear gloves that preservative cannot penetrate.

         2.   Cover neck by turning up collar or wearing handkerchief.

         3.   Roll trouser legs down over ankles and boot tops.

         4.   Wear protective goggles, spectacles, or face shield.

         5.   Have Permanent or portable eyewash facilities available on site.

         6.   Wash hands and face thoroughly with soap and hot water immediately
              after work or at earliest opportunity if preservative dust or solution falls
              on bare skin.

         7.   Keep hands or clothing with preservative dust or solution on them away
              from eyes. If solution or dust enters the eyes, flush eyes immediately
              with clean water for several minutes. Consult a doctor immediately.

         8.   Change to fresh clothes after workday. Launder clothes that become
              soiled with preservatives frequently, but separately from other clothes.
              Clothing in contact with salt and poisonous preservatives should be
              rinsed in clean water after each workday to dissolve salts and decrease
              toxicity.

         9.   Wear rubberized protective gear when operating a treating plant.

        10.   Post manufacturer's antidote where it may be easily read.

        11.   Do not use workers with fair skin and light hair where they are in
              frequent contact with preservatives because they are more susceptible
              to skin irritation than darker skinned and dark haired workers.

        12.   Timbers must be piled or removed in tiers and blocked to prevent rolling.

        13.   Do not inhale preservative dust. Wear a properly rated respirator to
              prevent dust inhalation. See a doctor immediately if nauseated and at
              earliest opportunity if burning or irritation of nose, mouth and throat
              occurs.

        14.   Follow manufacturer's instructions for mixing or handling. Mix solutions
              by placing compound into water. Mix in area with as little wind as
              possible.

Many water soluble preservatives are poisonous when taken internally. Follow the precautionary
measures for their handling and use. Post manufacturer's antidote where it may be easily read.

Note: All preservative treatment of wood or wood structures shall be supervised by Forest Products
Laboratory personnel with knowledge and experience in their use.




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                                POLICY DIRECTIVE
                                TEXAS FOREST SERVICE


0301      DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE
          ALL TEXAS FOREST SERVICE ADMINISTRATORS SHOULD
          EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION IN ALL MATTERS RELATING TO THIS
          POLICY, ASSURING THAT PROCEDURES ARE CAREFULLY
          FOLLOWED AND THAT SUBSTANTIAL EVIDENCE FROM RELIABLE
          SOURCES SUPPORTS A DECISION TO CONFRONT AN EMPLOYEE.
          SYSTEM GENERAL COUNSEL SHALL BE APPRISED THROUGH THE
          DIRECTOR'S OFFICE OF POSSIBLE VIOLATIONS OF THIS POLICY
          AND THEIR ADVICE SHALL BE SECURED BEFORE TAKING ANY
          ACTION WITH REGARD TO TESTING.

Purpose

Based on our commitment to provide and maintain a safe and healthy workplace, the Texas Forest
Service seeks to assure work environments free of the unlawful manufacture, distribution,
dispensation, possession or use of a controlled substance or the abuse of other drugs or alcohol. To
the extent alcohol and drug abuse may affect the responsible conduct of all employees, it will not be
tolerated.

This policy is based on the following objectives:

       1. To maintain a safe and healthy work environment for all employees;

       2. To maintain the good reputation of the Texas Forest Service and its employees within the
          respective communities where Texas Forest Service employees are located;

       3. To minimize accidental injuries to persons or property;

       4. To keep absenteeism and tardiness at a minimum and to improve the effective
          performance of job duties and productivity of all employees;

       5. To provide employees with information on the dangers of alcohol and drug abuse and
          sources of available alcohol and drug counseling, rehabilitation and employee assistance
          programs;

       6. To assist employees, when deemed appropriate, in securing alcohol and substance abuse
          rehabilitation; and

       7. To comply with the federal Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 and other applicable
          Legislation.




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Definitions

As used in this policy, the following definitions apply.

       1. "Drugs or other controlled substances" means any substance, including alcohol, capable
          of altering an individual's mood, perception, pain level or judgment.

           a.    A "prescribed drug" is any substance prescribed for individual consumption by a
                 licensed medical practitioner. It includes prescribed drugs and over-the-counter
                 drugs which have been legally obtained and are being used for the purpose for which
                 they were prescribed or manufactured.

           b.    An "illegal drug" or chemical substance is: (a) any drug or chemical substance, the
                 use, sale or possession of which is illegal under any state or federal law, or (b) one
                 which is legally obtainable but has not been legally obtained. The term includes
                 prescribed drugs not legally obtained and prescribed drugs not being used for
                 prescribed purposes.

           c.    The term "controlled substance" means a controlled substance in schedules I
                 through V of Section 202 of the Controlled Substance Act (21 U.S.C.S. 812) or
                 whose possession, sale or delivery results in criminal sanctions under the Texas
                 Controlled Substances Act (Art. 4476-15, TCS). In general, this includes all
                 prescription drugs, as well as those substances for which there is no generally
                 accepted medicinal use (e.g., heroin, LSD, marijuana, etc.), and substances which
                 possess a chemical structure similar to that of a controlled substance (e.g.,
                 "Designer Drugs"). The term does not include alcohol.

       2. "Alcohol" refers to any alcoholic beverage that is "alcohol, or any beverage containing
          more than one-half of one percent of alcohol by volume, which is capable of use for
          beverage purposes, either alone or when diluted."

       3. "Alcohol abuse" means the excessive use of alcohol in a manner that interferes, but not
          chronically, with (1) physical or psychological functioning; (2) social adaptation; or (3)
          occupational functioning.

       4. "Under the influence" means, for the purposes of this policy, that the employee is affected
          by alcohol, drugs, controlled substances, or a combination thereof which is detectable in
          any manner. The symptoms of influence are not confined to those consistent with
          misbehavior, nor to obvious impairment of physical or mental ability, such as slurred
          speech or difficulty in maintaining balance. A determination of influence can be
          established by a professional opinion, a scientifically valid test, or, in some cases, by a
          layperson's opinion.

       5. The term "conviction" means a finding of guilt (including a plea of nolo contendere) or
          imposition of sentence, or both, by any judicial body charged with the responsibility to
          determine violations of the Federal or State criminal drug statutes. (See Attachment A for
          time limitations on reporting such convictions.)




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         6. "Cause for reasonable suspicion" shall be established by: (1) observation; (2) employee
            actions/behaviors; (3) witness by supervisor of possession or use; or (4) any other legal
            measure used for alcohol or drug detection.

         7. The term "criminal drug statute" means a criminal statute involving manufacture,
            distribution, dispensation, use, or possession of any controlled substance.

         8. "Sanctions" means personnel actions against an employee, up to and including
            termination, or requiring satisfactory participation in an approved alcohol or drug abuse
            assistance or rehabilitation program. If the employee has been convicted of a criminal
            drug statute, sanctions must be imposed within 30 days.

Policy

All Texas Forest Service offices and employees are expected to abide by state and federal laws
pertaining to controlled substances, use of alcohol and illegal drugs. The federal requirements are
outlined in Attachment A, and include the penalties for noncompliance.

It is the policy of the Texas Forest Service that:

         1. All employees are prohibited from using or being under the influence of alcohol, drugs or
            controlled substances during working hours, except for the legal use of a controlled
            substance prescribed by a licensed physician, which shall be used only in the manner,
            combination and quantity prescribed and which shall be used only by the person for whom
            it is prescribed.

         2. The manufacture, sale, possession, transfer or purchase of alcohol or illegal drugs on
            Texas Forest Service premises or while performing Texas Forest Service business is
            strictly prohibited, and any such action will be reported to the appropriate law enforcement
            officers.

         3. The improper or illegal use, sale or possession of alcohol, illegal drugs or a controlled
            substance during working hours, or the conviction for illegal drug use, sale or possession
            of alcohol, drugs or controlled substances will result in sanctions being imposed against
            the employee.

         4. Any employee whose off-duty use of alcohol, drugs or controlled substances results in
            absenteeism, tardiness, impairment of work performance, or is the cause of workplace
            accidents, will be referred to an assistance program and may be subject to discharge if he
            or she rejects participation in the program.

         5. Employees whose work-related performance gives cause for reasonable suspicion of use
            or possession of alcohol or any controlled substance may, at the discretion of the Director,
            be subjected to testing for the substance in accordance with the sections in this policy
            related to testing and chemical screening. A refusal to submit to a test, combined with a
            reasonable suspicion of usage, may be a sufficient basis for termination.




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      6. A written copy of this policy shall be provided to each employee and a record shall be kept
         of the distribution.

      7. Any disciplinary action shall be governed by Texas Forest Service policies on discipline
         and dismissal and may include a two-month period of probation. A record of the action will
         be placed in the employee's personnel file.


Alcohol and Drug-Free Awareness Program

Each Texas Forest Service administrator will establish an alcohol and drug-free awareness program
to inform employees about: (1) the dangers of alcohol and drug abuse in the workplace (2) the Texas
Forest Service policy of maintaining an alcohol and drug-free workplace; (3) any available alcohol
and drug counseling, rehabilitation, and employee assistance programs; and (4) the penalties that
may be imposed upon employees for alcohol and drug abuse violations.

Additionally, within the first 30 days of employment, all Texas Forest Service employees in any
employment capacity, will be shown the video "Welcome To Our Drug Free Workplace" which is
available through the Director's office. Each employee will also be given a copy of the publication
"About Substance Abuse At Work" (provided by Director's office).

Every Texas Forest Service office will maintain the following information and assure that each
employee of that administrative unit be aware of its availability:

      •   Current Directory of Services published by Texas Department of Mental Health and Mental
          Retardation (provided annually by the Director's office).

      •   Local directory of area support groups, halfway houses/temporary shelters, alcohol and
          drug addiction assistance programs, inpatient treatment programs and other services
          such as American Red Cross, Counseling Centers, Alcoholics Anonymous, etc.

      •   Educational materials on alcohol and drug abuse.

Where available and practical, each employee should be given personal copies of all information and
encouraged to keep it available for ready reference. Otherwise, a complete folder of alcohol and
drug abuse information must be kept available and prominently displayed in every office.


Suspicion of Usage

If a supervisor reasonably suspects that usage of alcohol or a controlled substance has affected an
employee's job performance, the supervisor shall immediately notify the Associate Director or
Director and, upon direction, the supervisor shall discuss with the employee the suspected alcohol or
drug-related problems. The employee should be advised of any available alcohol or drug counseling,
rehabilitation, or employee assistance programs, and the terms of any applicable two-month period of
probation. All such meetings between the employee and the supervisor or other designated
administrative official to address the suspected alcohol or drug-related problem and/or its resolution
shall be documented in a memorandum to the record and filed in the employee's personnel file.




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Should such discussion and/or participation in any available alcohol or drug counseling, rehabilitation,
or employee assistance program fail to resolve the suspected alcohol or drug-related problems, or
should the employee fail to meet the terms of any applicable probation period, the employee may be
subject to termination, or a chemical screening may be required as provided below.


Testing

Testing of employees may be undertaken in the following circumstances: (1) there is reasonable
suspicion that the employee's job performance has been affected by the use of alcohol or illegal
drugs, and (2) there is a reasonable belief that such impairment presents a risk to the physical safety
of the employee or another person.

The decision to test an employee shall be made only by the Director or Associate Director after
consultation with TAMU General Counsel.

Procedure for Chemical Screening

      1. The decision to require a chemical screening must be reviewed with TAMU General
         Counsel prior to the screening.

      2. Prior to the administration of chemical screening, the appropriate administrative or
         supervisory personnel must explain the chemical screening procedures to the employee
         and then accompany the employee to a hospital or clinic for the taking of a specimen for
         screening purposes.

      3. Before the specimen is taken, the employee should be asked to sign a consent form
         agreeing to the taking of a specimen for testing purposes. The signed form will be
         required by the hospital or clinic. The employee may be asked to list any medications
         being taken. There will be a reasonable opportunity to rebut or explain a positive test
         result, including an independent retest of the sample. The expense of the test, and any
         retest, shall be borne by the Texas Forest Service. The testing procedure will be kept
         confidential, with the results being reported to the employee and the appropriate
         administrator as soon as they are available.

FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TEXAS FOREST SERVICE

The Texas Forest Service is required to publish a notification to employees that the unlawful
manufacture, distribution, dispensation, possession, or use of a controlled substance or alcohol is
prohibited in the workplace. Actions will be taken against employees for violations of such
prohibitions. A copy of this policy must be provided to each employee who is or will be engaged in
the performance of a federal grant or contract.

Each administrative unit will establish or participate in an alcohol and drug-free awareness program
to inform employees about: (1) the dangers of alcohol and drug abuse in the workplace; (2) the
System policy of maintaining an alcohol and drug-free workplace; (3) any available alcohol and drug
counseling, rehabilitation, and employee assistance programs; and (4) the penalties that may be
imposed upon employees for alcohol and drug abuse violations.




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As a condition of employment, employees must abide by the required notification statement (see
above) and must report any criminal alcohol or drug statute conviction for a violation occurring in the
workplace to their employer no later than five days after such conviction. The employer, in turn, must
so notify the contracting federal agency within 10 days after receiving notice from an employee or
otherwise receiving actual notice of such conviction, and within 30 days must impose sanctions on
the employee involved. Such sanctions may take the form of personnel actions against such an
employee, up to and including termination, or requiring the employee to satisfactorily participate in an
approved alcohol or drug abuse assistance or rehabilitation program.

The Texas Forest Service must make a good faith effort to continue to maintain an alcohol and
drug-free workplace through implementation of these requirements.               Failure to fulfill these
requirements could lead to suspension, termination or debarment from future contracts and grants
for a period of up to five years. Multiple incidents at any one contractor will be monitored closely by
the contracting agency.

Mandatory drug testing is required by federal law in accordance with the Drug-Free Workplace Act of
1988, for individuals who occupy sensitive positions on U. S. Department of Defense (DOD)
contracts. Any such contracts involving classified information or certain other types of DOD contracts
should also be in compliance with the DOD rules for maintaining a program for achieving an alcohol
and drug-free workplace.

In addition to other federal requirements, colleges and universities are required under Title IV of the
Higher Education amendments of 1986 (P.L. 99-498) to certify the availability of an alcohol and drug
abuse prevention program for officers, employees and students of the institution.




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                  PLEASE RETURN THIS FORM TO THE DIRECTOR'S OFFICE



I,                                    , hereby acknowledge that I have received a copy of
                (employee's name)

the Texas Forest Service policy on "Drug and Alcohol Abuse".


The contents of this policy have been explained to me and I agree to abide by all of the conditions
therein stated. I understand that failure to comply with the terms of this policy might result in
employment probation and/or termination. I also understand that each Texas Forest Service office
has information available to me on the dangers of alcohol and drug abuse and also sources of
available alcohol and drug counseling, rehabilitation and employee assistance programs, and that it is
my responsibility to review this information during the next 30 days.




                                                                       (Employee's Signature)




                                                                               (Date)




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                                      POLICY DIRECTIVE
                                      TEXAS FOREST SERVICE



0381      HAZARD COMMUNICATION POLICY

The 69th Legislature of the State of Texas, in 1985, enacted the Texas Hazard Communication Act. The purpose
of the Act includes improving the health and safety of persons living and working in the State of Texas by providing
access to information regarding hazardous chemicals in the workplace. This "right to know" law is the purpose of
this policy.

All administrative personnel of the Texas Forest Service are expected to be familiar with and adhere to the Hazard
Communication Policy and Procedures.

For specific guidelines see:

                                         3812    HAZARD COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES




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                                      POLICY DIRECTIVE
                                      TEXAS FOREST SERVICE


3812     HAZARD COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES


PURPOSE

The purpose of this policy is to provide written procedures that assure compliance with the Texas Hazard
Communication Act (hereafter referred to as the "Act").


GENERAL

The 69th Legislature of the State of Texas, in 1985, enacted the Texas Hazard Communication Act. The purpose
of the Act includes improving the health and safety of persons living and working in the State of Texas by providing
access to information regarding hazardous chemicals to which they may be exposed either during the course of
their normal employment activities, during emergency situations, or as the result of proximity to the manufacture or
use of those chemicals. It is also the intent and purpose of the Act that information be provided to emergency
service organizations responsible for dealing with chemical hazards during emergency situations and to the
Commissioner of Health so as to make the information available to the general public.

The Texas Forest Service, a member of The Texas A&M University System, as an employer within the State of
Texas, must comply with the requirements of the Act. Employees of the Texas Forest Service are likewise
required to comply with the provisions and the spirit of the Act.


SCOPE

            A. Texas Forest Service employees, including student and seasonal employees, are covered by the
               Act and must be provided access to Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs).

            B. Texas Forest Service shall provide information to employees on the hazards of chemicals they
               work with or may be exposed to and how they can protect themselves from these hazards. Texas
               Forest Service shall make this information available by compiling chemical inventory lists, by
               conducting training programs, by maintaining MSDS files and by properly labeling containers.

            C. Requirements of the Act cannot be waived.

            D. Responsibility for ensuring that employees have access to and appropriate information on
               hazardous chemicals is delegated throughout administrative channels to every supervisor.




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DEFINITIONS

Hazardous Chemical - A hazardous chemical is defined as any element, chemical compound or mixture of
elements or compounds that is a physical or health hazard.

Health Hazard - A health hazard includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents,
reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on
the hemopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.

Physical Hazard - A physical hazard includes chemicals which are a combustible liquid, a compressed gas,
explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water reactive.

Work Area - A work area is a room or defined space within a workplace where hazardous chemicals are
produced, used, or stored and where employees are present.

Workplace - An establishment at one geographical location containing one or more work areas. A single building
or a complex of buildings in close proximity with similar work activities can be designated as a workplace.

Exposure or Exposed - The contact of an employee with a hazardous chemical in the course of employment.
This includes contact through any route of entry (inhalation, ingestion or absorption) and also includes potential
(accidental) exposure.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) - A written information sheet furnished by the manufacturer of chemicals
giving specific details regarding the chemical product (i.e. chemical name, trade name, CAS registry number, date
prepared, composition of mixtures, health hazard data, physical/chemical characteristics, fire/explosion hazard
data, reactivity data, spill/leak procedures, etc.).

Department Hazard Communication Coordinator (DHCC) - All Associate Directors, Section Heads, Regional
Foresters and District Foresters are responsible for ensuring compliance with this policy within their administrative
unit.

EXEMPTIONS (The provisions of this Act do not apply to chemicals in the following categories:)

            1. Any article that is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture, that has end-use
               functions dependent in whole or in part on its shape or design during end use, and that does not
               release or otherwise result in exposure to a hazardous chemical under normal conditions of use
               (e.g., tires, PVC piping).

            2. Products intended for personal consumption by employees in the workplace (e.g. aspirin, hair
               spray).

            3. Any food, food additive, color additive, drug or cosmetic as those terms are defined in the Food
               and Drug Act.

            4. Hazardous waste regulated pursuant to the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

            5. Radioactive waste.




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RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE TEXAS FOREST SERVICE

           1. It is the responsibility of the Safety Coordinator appointed by the Director of the Texas Forest
              Service to conduct periodic reviews of procedures; and to monitor and coordinate the safety
              program to insure Texas Forest Service compliance with the Texas Hazard Communications Act.

           2. Every unit administrator shall assign designated workplaces for each unit's chemical inventory.

           3. Unit administrators will maintain and provide upon request, an inventory list of all applicable
              chemicals (Department Workplace Chemical Inventory Form, Attachment A) along with Material
              Safety Data Sheets for each chemical itemized. This information must be easily accessible to all
              employees. Administrators will submit one (1) copy of the compiled chemical lists, as outlined in
              Section 3812.7B, (without the MSDSs) to the Safety Coordinator of the Texas Forest Service by
              September 30 of each year. The Safety Coordinator will compile the Agency Workplace Chemical
              Lists to be submitted to TAMUS as directed in the Chemical Inventory Requirements Section
              3812.7D.

                    CHEMICAL LISTS ARE TO BE RETAINED FOR A MINIMUM OF 30 YEARS.

           4. Unit administrators shall provide the local fire department the names and telephone numbers of
              emergency contacts for each unit, and provide designated workplace chemical lists and MSDSs
              upon request. Local fire departments will be allowed to conduct on-site chemical inspections upon
              request.

           5. Each administrative unit will post a "Notice to Employees" document at locations where notices
              are normally posted in each workplace (See Attachment B).

           6. Each unit administrator shall maintain a current workplace chemical list, and conduct annual
              chemical inventories.

           7. Administrators shall ensure that employees are properly trained both in the use of chemicals and
              safety procedures. Records of such training must be kept in each employees' personnel file in
              College Station. Employees must have access to MSDSs and chemical inventory lists.

                       EMPLOYEE TRAINING RECORDS ARE TO BE RETAINED FOR
                                    A MINIMUM OF 30 YEARS.

           8. Administrators shall ensure proper labeling of chemical containers

CHEMICAL INVENTORY REQUIREMENTS

The Act requires employers to compile and maintain a workplace chemical list. Chemicals to be inventoried shall
include the chemicals referenced under section 1910.1200(d) (3) & (4) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act
(OSHA) standard and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III list of extremely
hazardous substances (see attached SARA Title III Consolidated List).




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Each administrative unit shall conduct an inventory of referenced chemicals annually, or more often if needed. The
inventory data shall include the identities, quantities and locations of the chemicals (see Attachment A).
Procedures are as follows:

            1. Chemicals that are included in the reference list of chemicals, including products with referenced
               chemicals as ingredients, shall be inventoried within each department work area regardless of
               chemical quantity.

            2. Each region shall combine district workplace chemical inventory lists into one region workplace
               chemical inventory list. Other administrative units (IMN, MSSO, Fastrill, Oak Wilt Offices, etc.)
               shall submit the workplace chemical inventory list to the appropriate administrator or department
               head to be compiled and submitted to the Safety Coordinator. Like chemicals (same CAS
               number) and like products, whose total combined work area quantities exceed 55 gallons or 500
               pounds, are to be included on the agency workplace list. Information on the workplace inventory
               form shall include the common name and chemical name used on the MSDS and container labels,
               the product name and hazardous ingredients, the work areas where the chemical/product is stored
               or used, and the quantity of the chemical/product.

            3. Each administrative unit shall make workplace chemical lists readily accessible to employees.

            4. The Texas Forest Service Safety Coordinator shall provide a copy of the combined agency
               workplace chemical list(s) to the Director of Safety and Health of The Texas A&M University
               System. A workplace list form shall be provided even if there are no hazardous chemicals in
               quantities exceeding 55 gallons or 500 pounds. This shall be stated on the form. Agency lists
               shall be provided by November 1 of each year, or upon request by TAMUS.

TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

The Act requires employers to provide a training program that is designated to ensure an appropriate level of
understanding by employees of the dangers of hazardous chemicals used and what employees can do to minimize
risks. The level of training required will depend upon the employee's work assignment and potential exposure to
hazardous chemicals.

                 CHEMICALS FOR WHICH EDUCATION & TRAINING SHALL BE PROVIDED
                   INCLUDE THOSE CONSIDERED A HEALTH OR PHYSICAL HAZARD

The Texas Forest Service will conduct the following Hazard Communications Training:

            1. Minimum training requirements:

                Every employee shall attend a general orientation session at which time he/she shall be provided
                information on the law, its purpose, his/her rights as an employee, and an explanation of
                TAMUS/Texas Forest Service's program of compliance (Category I Training). New employees
                shall receive Category I training within 3 months after employment. Upon completion of Category I
                Training, each employee shall sign the Category I Training Attendance Record (Attachment C),
                and this record shall be inserted into each employee's personnel file in College Station.




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                   Office workers, security personnel and others whose job performance does not routinely involve
                   using or handling hazardous chemicals may only need to attend Category I training. The
                   department head shall make this decision.

               2. In addition to Category I training, it is MANDATORY that departments with research labs and/or
                  other jobs where hazardous chemicals are routinely used or handled shall participate ANNUALLY
                  (or more often if needed) in the following Category II training:

                   a. Require employees to read and sign a statement that they have read the MSDSs for each
                      hazardous chemical they use (Attachment D).

                   b. Provide, when requested by an employee, one-on-one instructions concerning information on a
                      MSDS.

                   c.   Provide and/or make available periodic chemical training sessions to employees.          These
                        training sessions involve ANNUAL study and review of each of the following:

                                "SAFETY TRAINING FOR HERBICIDE APPLICATORS" (Texas Forest Service
Publication)
                                "PEST AND PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT ON SOUTHERN FORESTS"
                                   (USFS Bulletin R8-MB 60/Sept. 1992)

                           (OTHER TRAINING MANUALS & MATERIALS MAY ALSO BE USED FOR SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION)

                        INSTRUCTION WILL EMPHASIZE:

                           1.   Interpreting labels and MSDSs
                           2.   Location of, acute and chronic effects of and safe handling of hazardous chemicals.
                           3.   Personal protective equipment and first aid treatment.
                           4.   Clean-up and disposal procedures.

                        PROVIDE CATEGORY II TRAINING TO NEW, OR NEWLY ASSIGNED, EMPLOYEES
                                 PRIOR TO THEIR WORKING WITH OR IN A WORK AREA
                                       CONTAINING HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS.

               3. The Texas Forest Service Safety Coordinator must provide written notification to the Director of
                  Safety and Health of The Texas A&M University System upon completion of annual employee
                  training, as well as any other training information requested. This notification shall be submitted by
                  November 1 of each year.

               4. Category I and II training sessions shall be documented and training records shall be maintained
                  for a minimum of 30 years in the employee's personnel file in College Station. Administrative
                  records shall include the dates of training sessions, the training subjects covered, and the
                  attendance rosters (see Attachment E). Employees shall read and sign a statement of
                  acknowledgment after Category I and/or Category II training is received as specified in the above
                  sections.




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EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS

Employers need to provide an exchange of information between outside contractors, maintenance personnel, and
workplace occupants to lessen potentially harmful exposures from the use of chemicals/products within a
workplace.

            1. When outside contractors are to be utilized to perform various job functions (i.e. painting, etc.), the
               outside contractors shall provide a list of the standard chemicals/products to be used in conducting
               their work and shall provide a MSDS for each chemical/product. Information on what type of work
               is to be done, on when the work is scheduled, and on how the chemicals/products are to be used
               shall be provided. Precautions necessary to minimize potentially harmful exposures, to both the
               contractor's workers and Texas Forest Service employees, from the contractor's work operations
               shall be discussed. Location of and access to workplace chemical lists and MSDS’s shall also be
               provided.

            2. Maintenance supervisors and DHCCs shall exchange information as appropriate in order to
               determine safety precautions necessary to minimize potentially harmful exposures to either
               maintenance personnel or to workplace occupants at or near the work site. MSDSs for
               chemicals/products used shall be made available for review by the maintenance supervisors and
               the DHCCs upon request.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET REQUIREMENTS

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) shall be maintained and be readily accessible to all employees. MSDS
requirements are as follows:

            1. Each administrative unit shall maintain a file of MSDSs for those hazardous chemicals purchased
               and/or in use by employees.

            2. Each administrative unit shall provide ready access to MSDSs for those hazardous chemicals
               present in each workplace.

            3. Each administrative unit shall provide a copy of MSDSs to the Texas Forest Service Safety
               Coordinator and/or the Director of Safety and Health of TAMUS upon request.

            4. All purchase orders for chemicals shall include a request for a MSDS, if applicable.

CONTAINER LABELING REQUIREMENTS

The Act states that all containers must be labeled except for portable container(s) intended for the immediate use
by the employee who performs the transfer. It is recommended that in order to minimize risks, no container be
excluded from labeling. Labeling requirements shall be as follows:

            1. Primary container labels shall not be removed or defaced.

            2. Secondary container labels shall include the chemical identity, appropriate hazard warning, and
               date of transfer. The appropriate hazard warning shall include as a minimum the key word(s) of
               the chemical hazard (e.g., flammable, corrosive, poison, etc., and if the chemical is a carcinogen
               or radioactive).




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            3. MSDSs and/or primary container labels shall be available for chemical specific information when
               chemical transfer to secondary containers is performed.

            4. Use of precautionary labels, such as the NFPA 704 and HMIS Systems, is allowed for showing
               hazard warnings PROVIDED the employees are trained on the system used and have access to
               chemical specific information.


FIRE DEPARTMENT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

The DHCC for each administrative unit shall provide the following information to the fire department having
jurisdiction over the respective area of responsibility:

            1. Shall provide in writing, a list of knowledgeable representatives and telephone numbers where they
               may be reached in case of emergency.

            2. Shall provide, upon request, a copy of each designated workplace chemical list and a copy of the
               MSDS on any chemical on the workplace chemical list.

            3. Shall notify the fire chief of any significant changes that occur in the workplace chemical lists.


COMMISSIONER OF HEALTH REPORTING AND FEE REQUIREMENTS

It is the responsibility of the Texas Forest Service Safety Coordinator to notify the Commissioner of Health, at the
Texas Department of Health, regarding training completion, the designated workplace chemical lists, and required
fees on an annual basis.

            1. Using the standard form for reporting, each Texas Forest Service administrative unit shall provide
               a copy of the designated workplace chemical inventory lists as outlined in the Chemical Inventory
               Requirements Section 3812.7B. Since the Texas Forest Service has many geographical locations
               throughout the state, each location shall be treated as a separate entity for reporting purposes.

            2. A fee of $50 is to be provided for each designated workplace chemical list or consolidated filing
               submitted. The Texas Forest Service has many geographical locations within the state, and each
               location must be treated as a separate entity for fee purposes. However, a consolidated filing may
               be made of those designated workplace chemical lists having fewer than 25 items on each list. If a
               designated workplace chemical list has 25 or more items, it shall be reported separately.




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               Texas Forest Service
        HAZARD COMMUNICATION PROGRAM

                                         Category I Training
                                         Attendance Record

I hereby acknowledge receipt of the Texas Forest Service Hazard Communication Program Category I Training. I
have received information regarding the purpose of the Texas Hazard Communication Act, the Texas Forest
Service Hazard Communication Program, and my rights under the Act as an employee of Texas Forest Service.

I understand that my area/district/department/unit will provide access to chemical information and will provide
additional training as appropriate regarding hazardous chemicals to which I may be exposed during my
employment activities.




Employee Name (please print)                                 Region/District/Department/Unit




                                                             ______________________________
*Employee Signature                    Date                  Instructor Signature      Date




*The employee is responsible for ensuring that this complete form is given to the person within his or her
area/district/department/unit who is responsible for maintaining the personnel records.




ORIGINAL to payroll/personnel office                                                                 COPY to employee




                                                                                                  122
                                                                             Texas Forest Service Safety Manual


               Texas Forest Service
        HAZARD COMMUNICATION PROGRAM

                                          Category II Training
                                          Attendance Record

I hereby acknowledge receipt of the Texas Forest Service Hazard Communication Program Category II Training. I
have been instructed on matters related to chemical and physical hazards in my workarea. The topics covered
included:

                   Safe handling of the hazardous chemicals specific to my work area
                   Instrumentation and physical hazards specific to my work area
                   Appropriate personal protective equipment needed and protective measures taken for the work
                    done
                   Location of all emergency equipment (fire extinguisher, first aid kit, eyewash/shower, spill control
                    materials, etc.)
                   Location and use of Material Safety Data Sheets
                   Reminder that all chemical containers (gas cans, jars, flasks, vials, etc.) left for an extended
                    period of time (overnight) must be labeled
                   Other hazards specific to my working conditions and/or in my work area (please list other topics
                    covered):




Employee Name (please print)                                 Region/District/Department/Unit




Employee Signature                     Date                  Instructor's Signature             Date



ORIGINAL to payroll/personnel office                                                                         COPY to employee




                                                                                                          123
                                                                        Texas Forest Service Safety Manual

                             TEXAS FOREST SERVICE
                    SAFETY EDUCATION & TRAINING PROGRAM
                            ATTENDANCE RECORD
1.                                                           3.
                         DATE(S)                                               TELEPHONE NUMBER


2.                                                           4.
                     INSTRUCTOR(S)                                      DEPARTMENT/REGION/DISTRICT/UNIT

The employees listed below have received training as required in the Texas Hazard Communications Act for each
of the following subjects:




5.          ATTENDING EMPLOYEES (PRINT)                        ATTENDING EMPLOYEES (PRINT)




ORINGINAL to TFS Safety Coordinator        COPY in Departmental Files                COPY in Central Files (1.7)




                                                                                                      124
                            DEPARTMENT WORKPLACE CHEMICAL INVENTORY FORM

(1)    DATE                                      (3)           UNIT NAME/BLDG. NO.                        (2)
       UNIT ADMINISTRATOR                          (4)         TELEPHONE

      CHEMICAL NAME   TRADE NAME OR     ACTIVE INGREDIENT(S)      C.A.S.       LOCATION BY    QUANTITY
      (COMMON NAME)   PRODUCT NAME      (CHEMICAL FORMULA)       REG. NO.      WORK AREA(S)   (GAL/LBS)
PAGE _____ OF _____
                           INSTRUCTIONS for completing the DEPARTMENT WORKPLACE CHEMICAL INVENTORY FORM:




1.   CHEMICAL NAME (COMMON NAME) - Chemicals should be listed alphabetically.
2.   TRADE NAME OR PRODUCT NAME - This column should be completed if the chemical/product has a different name by which it can also be identified.
3.   ACTIVE INGREDIENT(S) - Formula of product.
4.   C.A.S. REGISTRATION NUMBER - This number can be found on all MSDSs.
5.   LOCATIONS BY WORK AREA(S) - The actual location where this product is stored when not in use.
6.   QUANTITY (GAL/LBS) - Quantity in stock.




EXAMPLE:




     CHEMICAL NAME               TRADE NAME OR               ACTIVE INGREDIENT(S)                    C.A.S.        LOCATION BY         QUANTITY
     (COMMON NAME)               PRODUCT NAME                (CHEMICAL FORMULA)                  REG. NO.         WORK AREA(S)         (GAL/LBS)

 Borax                       Sodium Tetra Borate         B4Na2O7                            1303-96-4            Cabinet #3          (3) 16 oz.
                                                                                                                                     bottles
INSERT TFS 3812.E ATTACHMENT B

				
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Description: TEXAS FOREST SERVICE Glycerine