Present Status and Future Planning of National Sci Tech Program

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					Present Status and Future Planning of
     National Sci-Tech Program
      for Agric. Biotechnology
    National Science and Technology Program for
       Agricultural Biotechnology (NSTP/AB)

      Director Su, C. J. , Prof. Emeritus
                November 28, 2003
Objectives and Planning
Overall Objectives

  To build up a solid foundation and capabilities for the
  development of biotechnology-based agricultural
  industry through integration and coordination of
  manpower, capital and technology resources.
  To enhance Taiwan’s leadership and capability in
  agricultural biotechnology R & D among Asia-Pacific
  countries by capitalizing in local natural resources and
  technical strength.
  Manpower development through project
Research Programs/Disciplines

1. Flowers and Ornamental Plants
2. Plant Protection (including Biocides)
3. Aquaculture
4. Livestock/Animal Vaccines
5. High-value-added Plant Products
   (including Plants used as Bioreactors)
6. Environmental Protection (including Agricultural and
   Animal Waste Treatment and Utilization)
7. Medicinal Herbs and Health Foods
                                                                      Floral and Ornamental                                                   Utilization of Useful                 Medicinal Herbs and
                                                                               Plants                                                           Genes in Plants                        Health Plants
                                                                                                           Transgenic and broodstock
                                                                                                                                                                                     Mass propagation techniques
                                                                     Utilization of native germplasm        development                         Mechanism of senescence               from tissue culture
                                                                                                                                                 and chilling injury
                                                                                                         Bioactive ingredient applications
Agricultural biotechnology R & D for industrial applications

                                                                                                                                              Development of postharvest           Establishment of clinical
                                                                                                                                                                                    pharmacy information
                                                                  Development of new cultivars          Diagnostic kits and vaccine             technology
                                                                                                                                             Applications of anti-                Transformation of genetic engineering
                                                                                                        Stocking improvement and mass
                                                                                                                                             sensescence genes
                                                                Virus certification                    seed production
                                                                                                                                        Transgenic technology for                Extraction techniques of bioactive components
                                                                                                                                                                                Development of cultivation techniques
                                                                                                     Development and applications        production of high-value
                                                               Production of healthy seedlings       of microbial products               products

                                                                                                                                                             Degradation methods and disposal techniques
                                                                 Selection and specification
                                                                                                                                                               for agricultural waste
                                                                   of microbial strains                    Vaccine and adjuvant development

                                                                   Mass production and formulation                                                             Development of biofertilizer
                                                                                                           Encapsulation techniques
                                                                    development                                                                                 Compost technology
                                                                    Cloning and applications of                                                                  Establishment of microbial database for
                                                                      antagonistic genes                                                                          applications in environmental biotechnology
                                                                                                             Vaccine certification
                                                                     Mechanisms and action of biocontrol
                                                                                                                                                                     Soil remedy by microorganisms
                                                                                                               Transgenic and stock improvement
                                                                      Toxicity certification

                                                                           Plant Protection                     Livestock/Animal Vaccine                               Environmental Protection

                                                               The scope of research and development in the National Science and Technology for Agricultural
                                                               Biotechnology in phase 2.
                                                        Floral and Ornamental                                                Utilization of useful               Medicinal Herbs and
                                                                 Plants                                                         gene in plants                      Health Plants

                                                                                                                                                                 Functional genomics of medicinal
                                                       Flowering and physiological          Functional genomics related to
                                                                                                                               Functional genomics of rice        plants related to health protection
                                                        related genes of Phalaenopsis         reproduction, development and
                                                         and Oncidium:                         growth, immunity, and stress
                                                                                                                              Functional genomics related to   Germplasm identification of medicinal
                                                      * coloration, appearance and
Applications of Agricultural Genomics Research

                                                                                                                               post- harvest vegetables          plants using molecular biological
                                                       aroma of flower crops               Functional genomics of patho-
                                                     *Disease-resistance, insect-           genic microbials
                                                                                                                            Functional genomic research on
                                                        resistance and stress tolerance
                                                                                                                            medicinal mushroom
                                                   Mechanisms of flowering and          Establishment of EST library
                                                     cycling regulation
                                                  Postharvest and anti-senescence
                                                   genes of flowers

                                                                                                                                          Genomics research on environmental microbes
                                                   Functional genomics related to
                                                    insect- and disease-resistance genes    Functional genomics and proteomics of
                                                                                                                                            Functions of multiple source genomes of soil
                                                     in crops or native plants                livestock
                                                   Genomics of antagonistic micro-
                                                                                                                                             Removal biotechnology for soil heavy metals
                                                    organisms against pests and plant         Development and applications of genetic
                                                     pathogens                                 markers in livestock

                                                     Functional genomics of stress            Functional genomics and applications of
                                                      resistance genes                         pathogenic microbials

                                                            Plant Protection                       Livestock/Animal Vaccine                       Environmental Protection

                                                 The organization and the scope of research in the National Science and Technology for Agricultural
Program Integration Mechanisms

 Discipline coordinators are responsible for
 integrated projects planning, development and
 Integration of three categories (Academic,
 Development and Manufacturing) of projects
 for enhancing technology transfer and
 Research and management manpower
 development is achieved through project
Integration and Operational Flow Chart


                                      Strategic and potential
                          AS         products, Key technology

           Nuclear projects                    R&D phase


                                       Products with commercial
                          COA        applicability; Key technology

           Extension and                    Production phase
         Application project


                          COA        Marketable products, Key
                          Industry         technology

                                            Marketing phase
Project Development and Evaluation

 The Working Group is responsible for final project
 approval and overall program coordination and integration.
 The group consists of program director, vice-directors,
 associate director, executive secretary, discipline
 coordinators, several representatives from academic
 institutions, industrial sector, and funding agencies.
 Guiding principles, management, and evaluation of the
 Program implementation are all provided by the rules and
 regulations setup by the NSC.
                                        Guidance Committee                                                       Governmental

                                                               Implementation status report
                      Project approval
                                                               Progress report
                      Evaluation on the

                                                                                                                          Feed back

                                                                                                                                            Extension and applications
                      progress and
                 Submittance of program planning
                 Submittance of the status of                                Request for project
                 Program implementation                                      evaluation
Advisory                                                                                              Ad hoc Advisory
                                           Chairman/Working Group
Committee                                                                                               Committee
               Reviewing on the                                               Assistance on project
               program                                                         evaluation
               Assistance on policy                                           Evaluation on the progress and
               making                     Planning          Consolidation    achievement
               Evaluation on program     Progress report   Coordination     Information exchange
               performance                Patent            Management

   Request for Projects                                                                 Participation
                                                Research Groups                                                                        Industr
  ﹙Competitive Grant﹚                                                                                                                  y
                                                    Project implementation             Transfer
                                                    R & D

      The organization of the National Science and Technology Program for Agricultural Biotechnology
                                and the responsibilities of each committee.
Communications and Interactions between Academia/
 research Institutions and Industry

  Program Announcement meeting: call for proposals
  Forum: introduction of new technology and business
  opportunities and academic-business sector interactions
  News Media Conference : introduction on newly-developed
  technologies (called by NSC)
  Accomplishment Announcements of the Program: business
  promotion (at least once a year)
  Participation of Bureau of Industry, Ministry of Economic
  Affairs: assisting in technology transfer and developing
  positive environment for new ventures
  Strategic planning for biotechnology industrialization by the
  Taiwan Economic Research Institute.
Scope of Work of NSTP/AB Related to Other
National Biotechnology Programs

  Use of plants as bioreactors or applications of enzyme
  1. Banana fruits as the carrier of oral vaccines
  2. Taxol production thru hairy root culture of transgenicTaxus mairei.
  3. Fine chemical production thru enzyme reactors or fermentation technology
  Pharmaceutical products as the down-stream of medicinal
  plants/health foods development:
  1. Dendrobium huoshanense :ophthalmological pills
  2. Bupleurum kaoi : hepatoprotective agents
  3. Others: Cordyceps sinensis , Anoectochilus formosanus hayat, Dioscorea
     spp, etc.
  Findings of new antibiotics in the process of Biocides researches.
  Supply of raw materials thru stock screening, propagation, and
  plantation, to meet other National Programs’ needs.
Budgets and Accomplishments
    Approved Budgets for the Program
     (Phase II, 2002-2004)
                                                                       (Unit:thousand NT$)

     Funding Agency                        Yr 2002              Yr 2003              Yr 2004
          NSC                                160,000                331,437               383,872

               COA                          400,040*                182,849               317,500

                 AS                            35,000                 40,000               45,000

               BHA                             10,000                 16,366               13,600

             Total                           605,040                570,652               759,972

    NSC : National Science Council
    COA : Council of Agriculture; *includes a GMO safety verification facility building
    AS : Academia Sinica
    BHA : Bureau of Health Administration
         Support of Project Categories

     Agency                                  Types of Projects
       NSC               All types

      COA                Basic and Development types, Core facilities

        AS               Basic and Development types

       BHA               GMO food labeling technology

       BOI               Technology transfer, Information service, Logistic
                         support for business development

NSC : National Science Council
COA : Council of Agriculture
AS : Academia Sinica
BHA : Bureau of Health Administration
BOI : Bureau of Industry, Ministry of Economic Affairs
    Implementation Status of Technology Transfer Projects

                                                    Project                                                     Progess Status

   2. Plant Protection

Development and application of biomass production and formulation of Trichoderma virens stain R4-2.                In Year 02

Mass production and apllication of orchid mycorrhizal fungi.                                                       In Year 01

Platform technology development of commercial scale production of bactericides, Streptomyces saraceticus SS31
                                                                                                                  Under review
and its applications

   3. Aquaculture

Applications of myostatin (double muscle) gene and antimicrobial peptide to improve aquacuture production.         Completed

Applications of myostatin (double muscle) gene and antimicrobial peptide to improve aquacuture production.         In Year 01

Application and development of nervous virus and iridovirus vaccines.                                             Under review

The application of immunological methods for the production of NNV free grouper fry.                               In Year 01
     Implementation Status of Technology Transfer Projects

                                                            Project                                                  Progess Status

   4. Livestock and animal vaccines
The product development of the enteric microspheres of animal oral vaccines.                                            In Year 02

Vaccine Development for Infectious Bursal Disease.                                                                     Under review

   5. Plant gene utilization
Improve chilling tolerance in tomato plants by genetic transformation techniques.                                      Under review

   6. Environmental Protection
Biological treatment to remove the waste gases from the composting field and analysis microbial community
                                                                                                                       Under review
changes during deodorous process.
   7. Health and Medicinal plants
Development and application for the herbal plant- Dendrobium huoshanense C.Z. TANG et S. J. CHENG.                      Completed
The development study of plant Cultivation and biological activity on Bupleurum kaoi, a folk medicine endemic in
                                                                                                                        In Year 02
The bioactive constituents of Cordyceps sinensis.                                                                       In Year 02
Selection and Development on Multiple Lines and Processing Products of Yam (Dioscorea spp.) for Healthful Purpose.     Under review

Development of Anoectochilus formosanus for hepatoprotective health food.                                                In Year 01

Taxol production from hairy root culture of Taxus mairei.                                                              Under review
Fora, Symposia, Accomplishment Announcements Organized and Sponsored by NSTP/AB
                 Title                       Date                                           Location
 Symposium for the industrialization   Dec. 15, 1998      #501 conference room, Central Office, Bureau of Industry , Ministry of
 of animal vaccines                                       Economic Affairs
 Symposium of herbal medicine          April 2, 1999      2nd floor. Lecture room, Institute of Geological Science, Academia sinica.
 The forum for flower industry         Nov. 24, 2000      1st floor, Applied Mechanics Building, National Taiwan University
 Symposium on the biotechnology of     Dec. 9, 2000       International Conference Room, National Cheng Kung University
 herbal medicine
 International symposium on            Dec. 13-14, 2000   Cheng-Shin Hall, National Cheng Kung University
 agricultural biotechnology
 The forum for Environmental           July 18, 2001      3rd floor, Agriculture Exhibition Building, National Taiwan University
 The forum for Aquaculture             Aug. 31, 2001      International Conference Room, Institute of Fisheries Research, Council of
 The forum for the Utilization of      Jan. 31, 2002      No. 1 Conference Room, Academic Activities Center, academia Sinica
 Plant’s useful genes
 The forum for Plant Protection        Aug. 1, 2002       Institute of Drug and Toxicology , Council of Agriculture
 The forum for livestock and animal    Feb. 13, 2003      Animal Technology Institute Taiwan
 The forum for Flowers and             Oct. 31, 2003      International Conference Room, Lantan campus, National Chiayi University
 ornamental plants
 The forum for health and medical      Nov. 21, 2003      Auditorium, Design Building, Chaoyang University of Technology
 1st R&D announcement                  Feb. 27, 2001      2nd Student Activity Center, National Taiwan University
 2nd R&D announcement                  Dec. 19, 2001      Academic Activity Center, Academia Sinica
 3rd R&D announcement                  Jan. 23, 2003      Academic Activity Center, Academia Sinica
 Flowers and Ornamental plants
This research group has sharpened up its foci
 onto two orchid crops:
          Oncidium and Phalaenopsis
 Oncidium projects:
  – Transgenic development of flower shape
  – Flowering mechanism
  – Flowering time control
  – Cut flower shelf life
  – Flower branch development
  – DNA fingerprint
  – Transgenic vector
  – Micro propagation
Oncidium and Phalaenopsis

Phalaenopsis projects:
  –Transgenics of temperature tolerant varieties

  –Embryo development

  –DNA fingerprint for variety identification

  –Basic biotechnological studies.
 Development of disease tolerant Anthurium
 Transferring blue color gene from soybean seed
  coat to lily
 Establishment of virus-free Oncidium mother
  stock system
 Development of Chrysanthemum varieties
 Establishment of tissue and cell cultural
  propagation technology of Oncidium plantlets
 Basic studies on flowering physiology,
  temperature tolerance and flower life on various
  flowering crops
1. Phalaenopsis Orchid
The major product in the program, which is the most popular pot plant in
the world market.
2. Oncidium Orchid
The major produce in the program, which is one of the important export
cut flowers from Taiwan.
3. Plant tissue culture is the necessary biotechnology to complete the
recombination process between plant materials.
4. Plant cell culture is the first step needed for transgenic plant materials.
             Plant Protection
Microbial pesticides
Cloning of functional genes from antagonistic
microorganisms and disease or insect resistant
resistant plants for transgenic applications.

More than 200 strains of Actinomycetes were
isolated from farm soils and agricultural wastes.
Among these, the culture filtrate of Streptomyces
padamus PMS-702 showed strong in vitro
antifungal activity
Fig. 1 Application of Streptomyces
padanus PMS-702 for
controlling peach fruit rot caused by
Phytophthora citrophthora.

Fig 2 Effect of the cultural filtrate
of Streptomyces padanus PMS-702
on control of damping-off of
cabbage caused by Rhizoctonia
solani RST-04.
Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZTMV) and
papaya ringspot virus W type (PRSV-W) are the
most important virus diseases of melon in
Taiwan. Several transgenic lines of melon
harboring the coat protein gene of either ZYMV
or PRSV-W were shown to resist the virus
Transgenic plants challenged with ZYMV

 A transgenic plant of melon line 8-1 showing resistance to ZYMV after
 mechanical challenge with ZYMV (right) as compared to an
 untransformed control (left)
A novel plant defensin, named VrCRP (cysteine-
rich protein of Vigna radiata), has been isolated
from a bruchid resistant isogenic line of mung
bean Vigna radiata VC6089A. VrCRP cDNA was
also cloned and used for generation of insect-
resistant transgenic tomato and other crops
Artificial mungbean seeds
with insect resistant protein
Tomatoes having VrCRP are insect resistant
            Results (Continued):

 Several multi-disease resistant transgenic lines
  of tomato have been established.

 A Bacillus strain was isolated and was shown to
  strongly inhibit the growth of pathogens Botrytis
  cinerea and B. elliptica. A chitinase gene was
  also isolated and characterized from this strain.
 Biotechnology approaches to enhance aquacultural
  production by generation of transgenic finfish and
 Technology development on controlled reproduction
  and seed production of economically important marine
 Practicality of white spot syndrome virus PCR
  detection kit in field.
 Selective breeding of specific pathogen free strains of
  Penaeus monodon
 Production of recombinant insulin-like growth factor for
  growth enhancement of snapper.

Transgenic silver sea bream carrying
 rainbow trout growth hormone cDNA
 showed more than 50% of growth
A white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) PCR
detection kit has been developed and
successfully used in screening carriers in
shrimp larvae and parental spawners.
        White Spot Syndrome (WSS)

 affects most of the commercially cultured
  shrimp species
 can cause up to 100% mortality
 can have a serious economic impact on
  cultured shrimp
By the implantation of synthetic gonadotropin-
 releasing hormone analogues (GnRHA),
 vitellogenesis of groupers and grey mullets was
 satisfactorily induced, and the oocyte maturation
 and the development of mature brood stock were
 also achieved.
          Results (Continued):

The survival and reproduction of female brood
 stock of specific pathogen free (SPF) F2 were
 significantly improved than F1

Addition of the recombinant insulin-like growth
 factors enhanced the growth of snapper
Animal Production and Vaccine Development

Development of new vaccines: Lactobacillus
 reutert plasmid vaccine, oral vaccine for bursitis
 caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV),
 DNA vaccine for porcine foot and mouth disease
 (FMD) vaccine adjuvant, viral subunit vaccine for
 infective pancreatic ulcer of fish, DNA vaccine for
 fish, and oral microcapsule vaccines.
Generation of cloned pigs carrying lactoferrin
 gene, heat shock protein gene or human factor
 Ⅸ gene.

 The program of oral microcapsule vaccines now
  has industrial partners. The technology transfer is
 Patent applications for some of the developed
  vaccines are pending.
 Cloned pigs were generated from cultured skin
  fibroblasts derived from a double transgenic
  (human factor Ⅸ and porcine lactoferrin) three year
  old sow.
        Useful Genes from Plants

Functional genomics of rice double stranded RNA
 (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing method and T-
 DNA insertion mutagenesis.

Senescence associated genes and post harvest

Transgenic plants as bioreactor.

Transgenic broccoli carrying either
isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene or ethylene
response sensor mutant gene (mERS) have
been shown to exhibit retarding senescence
on leaves and florets.
Transgenic broccoli expressing IPT gene delays floret yellowing

    I. Transgenic broccoli expressing IPT gene delays
       floret yellowing
Several transgenic lines of banana were
established and banana fruit ripening was
delayed by the expression of an antisense
ACC synthase gene.
Expression of a bacterial amylopullulanase gene
in transgenic rice seeds establishes novel
approaches to alter starch composition and to
accelerate bioprocessing of starches and
production of a high-protein flour from rice seeds.
            Environment Protection

 Biological nutrient removal in piggery wastewater
 Development of multiple function biofertilizers
 Degradation of agricultural chemicals in soils.
 Preservation of potentially useful microbes for
  environmental biotechnology.
 Genomics of environmental microbes.
 Construction of soil metageomic libraries.

Immobilized cell reactors

– Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria immobilized reactor:
  100% H2S removal

– Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria immobilized reactor:
  97% ammonia removal
H2S removal efficiency (207 days operation)
NH3 removal efficiency ( 207 days operation)
              Results (Continued)

Anaerobic-anoxic reactor was established for nitrate,
 nitrite and phosphate removal from piggery
Bacteria with phosphate-solubilizing, cellulolytic and
 nitrogen-fixing activities were isolated.
Mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) microbes
 (Pseudomonas cepacia) were isolated, the gene
 responsible for MPS was cloned and characterized.
A total of 112 strains of microbes for environmental
 protection use have been collected and deposited at
 the Culture Collection and Research Center (CCRC).
 Chlorinated compound decomposing bacteria
  eliminated residues of agricultural chemicals in the
              Medicinal Plants
Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata (Orchidaceae)-
A threatened ethnomedicinal herb
Micro propagation and biologicl activity studies on
Dendrobium spp
Comparative antioxidative enzyme activity studies
of different Dioscorea spp
Transgenic cultures of Taxus maizei for the
production of taxol
Isolation, cultivation and biological activity studies
on marine algae for health food development
   Suspension cells and hair roots induced from
   Taxus mairei explants have been
   successfully cultured in both airlift and stirred-
   tank bioreactors
A threatened ethnomedicinal herb Anoectochilus
formosanus Hayata (Orchidaceae) was shown to
possess hepatoprotective, antihyperglycemic, and
antioxidant activities
Herb extract stimulates murine splenocyte
An active fraction from medicinal plant extract
exhibited anti-tumor cell activity
            Results (Continued)

Extracts of Dendrobium caulis promoted
 phagocytic activity and productions of nitric oxide
 (NO) and hepatocyte growth factor (HFG).

30 Dioscorea genotypes have been cultivated,
 analyzed and evaluated at Taiwan Agricultural
 Research Institute.

Water and methanol extracts of yam (Dioscorea
 spp.) were found to exhibit potent activity against
 breast cancer cells.
Present status and Future Planning
  for International Cooperation
Present Status
The component of international cooperation has not been incorporated into
the Program in the current year. The Program activities relevant to the
international cooperation are however listed as follows:
1. Site visits and scientific exchanges abroad (completed or in progress)
(1) Sept. 1998, visited Singapore Molecular Agricultural Biotechnology Institute for
    scientific exchanges, led by Director S. F.Yang.
(2) Feb. 1999, visited Texas A & M University, USA for site visit and held discussions
    on the scientific cooperation, led by Director S. F. Yang.
(3) Feb. 2002, site visit for GMO biosafety certification and facilities in Japan, led by
     Director C. J. Su.
(4) June 2003, site visit to Bhutan for technical exchange and discussions on the
    possible subjects of cooperation, led by Director C. J. Su.
2. Participation of an International Feed Company in the extension
   project of NSTP/AB :Applications of myostatin and antimicrobial
   peptide genes for increased production of aquatic organisms (in progress)
3 .Assistance to organize the International Symposium /Conference :
   International Symposium on Agricultural Biotechnology (completed).
               Future Planning

    Inclusion and implementation of following projects in
    NSTP/AB are strongly recommended.

1. Development and strengthening of agricultural
   biotechnology R &D projects with international
   academic and research institutions, and industrial sectors.
2. Mutual exchanges of information and material databases,
   development of information exchange channels to fully
   utilize technologies and research resources.
3. Promotion of international cooperation for developing
   innovative technologies/products.
         Future Planning (cont’d)

4. Establishment of GMO safety platform technologies and
   safety verification facilities for animals, plants and
   aquatic organisms which meet international criteria.
5. Development of international inter-laboratory
   calibration and certification systems for GMO.
6 .International cooperation for manpower development and
   training : technological and management personnel for
   research and technology transfer.
7. Active participation in the international conferences and
   symposia on the subjects relevant to agricultural
            Future Planning (cont’d)

8. Enhancement of information exchange and cooperation
   on functional genomics of cultivars.
9. Solicitation of distinguished and reputed biotechnology
   companies to establish R & D base in Taiwan.
10. Make suggestions to the International Cooperation
  Divisions of NSC and COA to promote and establish
   higher level international cooperation programs with
   advanced countries.
           Planning at Present

Topics for cooperation with
technologically advanced countries:
1. New techniques of gene transfer ( not using
antibiotic resistance as a selection marker or the
marker mat be removed after gene transfer )
2. Application of stress resistant genes
3. Exchange of gene inactivation mutant library of
4. All aspects of safety verification technology for
      Planning at Present (cont’d)
5. R & D on genes and proteins related to the
  resistance of crops and aquatic organism
  toward pest and disease
6. Use of transgenic crops for the production
  of high-value products (Use of plant as
7. R & D on Chinese medicinal resources:
  preventive and therapeutic effects of herbs
  and herb extracts
8. Livestock cloning and transgenic
       Planning at Present (cont’d)

 Topics for cooperation with developing
1. Agricultural technology demonstrating
 program for providing field training and
 assisting manpower development.
2. Development and exchange of germ bank
      Thank you

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