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					            COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON OPERATING SYSTEMS




        BRIEF HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEM


             AND COMPARATIVE STUDY


                             ON

        VARIOUS OPERATING SYSTEMS




                                  From the department of Computer Science

                                  College of Natural Sciences (COLNAS)

                                  University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB)


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1.0    BRIEF HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEM

1.1    INTRODUCTION

The history of computer operating systems recapitulates to a degree the recent history of
computer hardware.

Operating systems (OSes) provide a set of functions needed and used by most application-
programs on a computer, and the necessary linkages for the control and synchronization of the
computer's hardware. On the first computers, without an operating system, every program
needed the full hardware specification to run correctly and perform standard tasks, and its own
drivers for peripheral devices like printers and card-readers. The growing complexity of
hardware and application-programs eventually made operating systems a necessity.

The user had sole use of the machine and would arrive armed with program and data, often on
punched paper and tape. The program would be loaded into the machine, and the machine
would be set to work until the program completed or crashed. Programs could generally be
debugged via a front panel using switches and lights. It is said that Alan Turing was a master of
this on the early Manchester Mark 1 machine, and he was already deriving the primitive
conception of an operating system from the principles of the Universal Turing machine.

Later machines came with libraries of support code, which would be linked to the user's
program to assist in operations such as input and output. This was the genesis of the modern-
day operating system. However, machines still ran a single job at a time; at Cambridge
University in England the job queue was at one time a washing line from which tapes were
hung with different colored clothes-pegs to indicate job-priority.

As machines became more powerful, the time to run programs diminished and the time to hand
off the equipment became very large by comparison. Accounting for and paying for machine
usage moved on from checking the wall clock to automatic logging by the computer. Run
queues evolved from a literal queue of people at the door, to a heap of media on a jobs-waiting
table, or batches of punch-cards stacked one on top of the other in the reader, until the machine

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itself was able to select and sequence which magnetic tape drives were online. Where program
developers had originally had access to run their own jobs on the machine, they were
supplanted by dedicated machine operators who looked after the well-being and maintenance of
the machine and were less and less concerned with implementing tasks manually. When
commercially available computer centers were faced with the implications of data lost through
tampering or operational errors, equipment vendors were put under pressure to enhance the
runtime libraries to prevent misuse of system resources. Automated monitoring was needed not
just for CPU usage but for counting pages printed, cards punched, cards read, disk storage used
and for signaling when operator intervention was required by jobs such as changing magnetic
tapes.

All these features were building up towards the repertoire of a fully capable operating system.




1.1      OPERATING SYSTEM

An operating system consists of one or more programs that control the allocation and usage of
hardware and software resources and functions as an interface between the user, application
programs, and the hardware.




1.2      FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM

The functions of operating system includes:

1.2.1 Command Interpretation: The Central Processing Unit (CPU) needs to understand a
command keyed in by a user. The CPU can interpret only binary code, that is, code containing
0’s and 1’s. A command keyed in by a user has to be translated to binary code for the CPU to
understand it. An Operating System perform this task.



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1.2.2 Process Management: A process is defined as a program in execution. Program needs
to be in the main memory called Random Access Memory (RAM) for execution. When you
want to execute a program, the operating system loads the program in the memory and the CPU
executes one instruction at a time. In a multi-programming environment, there are many
processes running on the computer at the same time. To enable several processes to run
concurrently, the operating system has to ration the CPU time. The operating system allocates
time slices to the processes in the memory and facilitates their execution

1.2.3 Memory Management: The operating system keeps a track of the part of the memory
that is in use and the part that is free. The operating system uses the free part of the memory to
allocate storage space to the processes. Since the main memory is limited, it is not possible to
load all the processes in the main memory at one go. The disk stores the processes that are not
being executed, and the main memory stores processes that are running. The disk is used only
as a temporary storage device. The operating system swaps the processes from the disk to the
main memory because processes can be executed only when they are in the main memory.

1.2.4 Input/Output (I/O) Operating and Peripheral Management: When you execute a
program, it requires some input and results in some output. User programs cannot perform
these I/O operations directly. Therefore, the operating system provides a means of performing
I/O operation from the I/O device like Keyboard, Mouse or printer. An operating system also
controls devices (peripherals) attached to the computer. It manages communication between the
devices and the CPU. For example, it manages communication between the printer or the
modem and the CPU.

1.2.5 File Management: Another important service that an operating system provides is file
management. The operating systems enables you to perform file operation such creating a file,
naming it, opening it, reading it, writing on it, and closing it.




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1.3    TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEM

Due to the variation in the kind of job been carried out by people in the different industries
around us, and the need to be secured in their record and report generation, thus, the varying
operating system used are classified into Single-User Operating System, Multi-User Operating
System and Multi-Tasking Operating System.

1.3.1 Single-User Operating System (SUOS): A single user operating system is a command
Line Interface (CLI) operating system, which involve the use of command in its operation. A
SUOS is a one way operating system which allows an operator to perform a task one at a time
and one operator at a time. One can not work on two applications at a time. A good Example of
this Operating System is the Microsoft Disk Operating System.

1.3.2 Multi-User Operating System (MUOS): The MUOS operating system is an operating
system which gives room for interaction. It allows more than a user to operate on the
environment at a time. Unlike the Single-user which grants only one access to users, it grants
one access to as each-many users that are available to work on it.

1.3.3 Multi-Tasking Operating System (M-TOS): The M-TOS Operating System is the
operating system which grant a user more than one access at a time and also grant more access
to as many users as possible.




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2.0       ANALYSIS OF OPERATING SYSTEM

2.1       MICROSOFT DISK OPERATING SYSTEM (MS. DOS)

MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) is a single-user, single-tasking computer
operating system that uses a command line interface. In spite of its very small size and relative
simplicity, it is one of the most successful operating systems that has been developed to date.

The role of DOS is to interpret commands that the user enters via the keyboard. These
commands allow the following tasks to be executed:

         file and folder management
         disk upgrades
         hardware configuration
         memory optimisation
         program execution

These commands are typed after the prompt, in the case of MS-DOS (Microsoft DOS, the most
well known): the drive letter followed by a backslash, for example: A:\ or C:\.


To execute a command type the command then hit ENTER.

2.1.1 A Quick and Dirty History

When IBM negotiating team visited Microsoft to close the deal on BASIC, it sought Bill Gates’
help in recommending what to do about the operating system. Bill Gates was highly eager to
accommodate IBM’s needs and offered to provide one to IBM, which without seeing the actual
product, entered into an agreement. Bill Gates, with his experience of the advantages of royalty
rather than outright selling of BASIC for Altair, insisted a royalty for each copy it sells rather

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than selling outright. IBM agreed with royalty fee set to be between $ 10 and $ 50 for each
copy sold. Microsoft, however, did not have an actual operating system ready, neither did it
have the resources to develop one to beat IBM’s deadline. However, Gates knew that Tim
Paterson, the owner of Seattle Computer Products had developed an operating system for Intel
8086 chip, known internally by QDOS for “Quick and Dirty Operating System.”
Microsoft initially paid $ 15,000 for the rights to use the product and later paid a larger sum of
money for the complete rights. Microsoft, after slight modification named it MSDOS (MS
standing for Microsoft) (Ichbiah and Kneeper, 1991). During the summer of 1991, the first
personal computers by IBM began to come off from the IBM assembly plant and by early
August, initial shipments totaling 1,700 machines were delivered to Sears Business Centers and
ComputerLand stores, the two retail outlets that IBM had chosen. A fully equipped IBM
personal computer, with 64 KB of memory and a floppy disk, cost $ 2,880 (Ichbiah and
Kneeper, 1991).


2.1.2 Types of Dos Command
DOS has two sets of commands called:

-      Shell commands or Internal commands like DIR, CLS, CD are interpreted by
command.com

-      External commands are separate programs that perform useful tasks such as Format
       which is actually format.com




2.2    UNIX OPERATING SYSTEM

In 1969, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie wrote a small, general-purpose operating system
called UNIX. This operating system was written mostly in assembly language. In 1973, they re-
wrote the Unix operating system using the C, breaking away from the tradition of writing

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operating systems in assembly language. Around 1974, Unix was licensed to Universities for
educational purposes, and few years later was made commercially available. The UNIX
operating system was designed to let a number of programmers access the computer at the same
time and share its resources. This real-time sharing of resources makes UNIX one of the most
powerful operating systems ever.

2.2.1 Component of Unix Operating System

The UNIX operating system is made up of three parts; the kernel, the shell and the programs.

a.    The kernel: The kernel of UNIX is the hub of the operating system: it allocates time and
      memory to programs and handles the filestore and communications in response to
      system calls. An illustration of the way that the shell and the kernel work together,
      suppose a user types rm myfile (which has the effect of removing the file myfile). The
      shell searches the filestore for the file containing the program rm, and then requests the
      kernel, through system calls, to execute the program rm on myfile. When the process
      rm myfile has finished running, the shell then returns the UNIX prompt % to the user,
      indicating that it is waiting for further commands.
b.    The shell : The shell acts as an interface between the user and the kernel. When a user
      logs in, the login program checks the username and password, and then starts another
      program called the shell. The shell is a command line interpreter (CLI) which interprets
      the commands the user types in and arranges for them to be carried out. The commands
      are themselves programs: when they terminate, the shell gives the user another prompt
      (% on our systems).
      The adept user can customize his/her own shell, and users can use different shells on the
      same machine. As an illustration the shell may be customized with certain features to
      help the user in inputting commands. Filename Completion - By typing part of the name
      of a command, filename or directory and pressing the [Tab] key, the tcsh shell will
      complete the rest of the name automatically. If the shell finds more than one name


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         beginning with those letters you have typed, it will beep, prompting the user to type a
         few more letters before pressing the tab key again.
c.       Programs: Program consists of the tools and applications that offer additional
         functionality to the operating system. Typically, tools are grouped into categories for
         certain functions, such as word processing, business applications, or programming.




2.3      SOLARIS OPERATING SYSTEM

Solaris is an Operating System which is developed from the existence of the Unix Operating
System.

The history of Solaris, the Unix-based operating system developed by Sun Microsystems,
displays that company's ability to be innovative and flexible. Solaris was born in 1987 out of an
alliance between AT&T and Sun Microsystems to combine the leading Unix versions (BSD,
XENIX, and System V) into one operating system. Four years later in 1991, Sun replaced it's
existing Unix operating system (SunOS 4) with one based on SVR4. This new OS, Solaris 2,
contained many new advances, including use of the OpenWindows graphical user interface,
NIS+, Open Network Computing (ONC) functionality, and was specially tuned for symmetric
multiprocessing.

This kicked off Solaris' history of constant innovation, with new versions of Solaris being
released almost annually over the next fifteen years. Sun was constantly striving to stay ahead
of the curve, while at the same time adapting Solaris to the existing, constantly evolving wider
computing world. The catalogue of innovations in the Solaris OS are too numerous to list here,
but a few milestones are worth mentioning.

       Solar 2.5.1 in 1996 added CDE, the NFSv3 file system and NFS/TCP, expanded user
         and group IDs to 32 bits, and included support for the Macintosh PowerPC platform.

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       Solaris 2.6 in 1997 introduced WebNFS file system, Kerberos 5 security encryption, and
          large file support to increase Solaris' internet performance.
       Solaris 2.7 in 1998 (renamed just Solaris 7) included many new advances, such as native
          support for file system meta-data logging (UFS logging). It was also the first 64-bit
          release, which dramatically increased its performance, capacity, and scalability.
         Solaris 8 in 2000 took it a step further was the first OS to combine datecentre and dot-
          com requirements, offering support for IPv6 and IPSEC, Multipath I/O, and IPMP.
       Solaris 9 in 2002 saw the writing on the wall of the server market, dropped
          OpenWindows in favour of Linux compatibility, and added a Resource Manager, the
          Solaris Volume Manager, extended file attributes, and the iPlanet Directory Server.
       Solaris 10, the current version, was released to the public in 2005 free of charge and
          with a host of new developments. The latest advances in the computing world are
          constantly being incorporated in new versions of Solaris 10 released every few months.

To mention just a few, Solaris features more and more compatibility with Linux and IBM
systems, has introduced the Java Desktop System based on GNOME, added Dynamic Tracing
(Dtrace), NFSv4, and later the ZFS file system in 2006.

Also in 2006, Sun set up the OpenSolaris Project. Within the first year, the OpenSolaris
community had grown to 14,000 members with 29 user groups globally, working on 31 active
projects. Although displaying a deep commitment to open-source ideals, it also provides Sun
with thousands of developers essentially working for free.




2.4       LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM
Linus Torvalds, a young man studying computer science at the university of Helsinki, thought
it would be a good idea to have some sort of freely available academic version of UNIX, and
promptly started to code.


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He started to ask questions, looking for answers and solutions that would help him get UNIX
on his PC.
Below is one of his first posts in comp.os.minix, dating from 1991:


         From: torvalds@klaava.Helsinki.FI (Linus Benedict Torvalds)
         Newsgroups: comp.os.minix
         Subject: Gcc−1.40 and a posix−question
         Message−ID: <1991Jul3.100050.9886@klaava.Helsinki.FI>
         Date: 3 Jul 91 10:00:50 GMT
         Hello netlanders,
         Due to a project I'm working on (in minix), I'm interested in the posix
         standard definition. Could somebody please point me to a (preferably)
         machine−readable format of the latest posix rules? Ftp−sites would be nice.
From the start, it was Linus' goal to have a free system that was completely compliant with the
original UNIX. That is why he asked for POSIX standards, POSIX still being the standard for
UNIX.
In those days plug−and−play wasn't invented yet, but so many people were interested in having
a UNIX
system of their own, that this was only a small obstacle. New drivers became available for all
kinds of new hardware, at a continuously rising speed. Almost as soon as a new piece of
hardware became available, someone bought it and submitted it to the Linux test, as the system
was gradually being called, releasing more free code for an ever wider range of hardware.
These coders didn't stop at their PC's; every piece of hardware they could find was useful for
Linux.
Back then, those people were called "nerds" or "freaks", but it didn't matter to them, as long as
the supported hardware list grew longer and longer. Thanks to these people, Linux is now not
only ideal to run on new PC's, but is also the system of choice for old and exotic hardware that
would be useless if Linux didn't exist.

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2.5    WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM

Microsoft Windows is a series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces
produced by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in
November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user
interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market,
overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced previously. As of October 2009, Windows had
approximately 91% of the market share of the client operating systems for usage on the
Internet. The most recent client version of Windows is Windows 7; the most recent server
version is Windows Server 2008 R2; the most recent mobile device version is Windows Mobile
6.5.

The history of Windows dates back to September 1981, when the project named "Interface
Manager" was started. It was announced in November 1983 (after the Apple Lisa, but before
the Macintosh) under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November
1985. The shell of Windows 1.0 was a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Other
supplied programs were Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control
Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal, and Write. Windows 1.0 did not allow overlapping
windows, due to Apple Computer owning this feature]. Instead all windows were tiled. Only
dialog boxes could appear over other windows.

Windows 2.0 was released in October 1987 and featured several improvements to the user
interface and memory management. Windows 2.0 allowed application windows to overlap each
other and also introduced more sophisticated keyboard-shortcuts. It could also make use of
expanded memory.



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Windows 2.1 was released in two different flavors: Windows/386 employed the 386 virtual
8086 mode to multitask several DOS programs, and the paged memory model to emulate
expanded memory using available extended memory. Windows/286 (which, despite its name,
would run on the 8086) still ran in real mode, but could make use of the high memory area.

The early versions of Windows were often thought of as simply graphical user interfaces,
mostly because they ran on top of MS-DOS and used it for file system services. However, even
the earliest 16-bit Windows versions already assumed many typical operating system functions;
notably, having their own executable file format and providing their own device drivers (timer,
graphics, printer, mouse, keyboard and sound) for applications. Unlike MS-DOS, Windows
allowed users to execute multiple graphical applications at the same time, through cooperative
multitasking. Windows implemented an elaborate, segment-based, software virtual memory
scheme, which allowed it to run applications larger than available memory: code segments and
resources were swapped in and thrown away when memory became scarce, and data segments
moved in memory when a given application had relinquished processor control, typically
waiting for user input.

Windows 95 was released in 1995, featuring a new user interface, support for long file names
of up to 255 characters, and the ability to automatically detect and configure installed hardware
(plug and play). It could natively run 32-bit applications, and featured several technological
improvements that increased its stability over Windows 3.1. There were several OEM Service
Releases (OSR) of Windows 95, each of which was roughly equivalent to a service pack.

Microsoft's next release was Windows 98 in 1998. Microsoft released a second version of
Windows 98 in 1999, named Windows 98 Second Edition (often shortened to Windows 98 SE).

In 2000, Microsoft released Windows Me (Me standing for Millennium Edition), which updated
the core from Windows 98 but adopted some aspects of Windows 2000 and removed the "boot
in DOS mode" option. It also added a new feature called System Restore, allowing the user to
set the computer's settings back to an earlier date.
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3.0    COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM

3.1    FEATURES & RESTRICTIONS

This will compare the Operating System as regard physical structure or assimilation such as:

3.1.1 Case Sensitivity

M.S. DOS             MS. WINDOWS LINUX                       UNIX                  SOLARIS
Case Insensitive     Case Insensitive     Case Sensitive     Case Sensitive        Case Sensitive



Windows and DOS are case "insensitive", Unlike Unix, Linux, and Solaris (which are very
powerful operating system), you will understand what I mean. For Unix, Linux and Solaris, a
directory called "folder" is different from another called "Folder", this makes Unix them
Sensitive. DOS and Windows don’t care whether you type DIR folder or dIr fOlDeR because
they are the same. You can even begin a DOS commands wherever you like. For instance you
can type the following:

                      C:\WINDOWS\Desktop>           dir myfolder

and still get a listing of directory content.

3.1.2 Filename Size

M.S. DOS             MS. WINDOWS LINUX                       UNIX                  SOLARIS
Restricted to 8 Not Restricted            Not Restricted     Not Restricted        Not Restricted
characters

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One annoying thing about DOS is that it's restricted to 8 characters, a filename cannot go
beyond 8 chars. A file called "onelengthyfile.txt" will be cut to "onelen~1.txt". Windows,
Linus, Unix and Solaris unlike DOS will allow a user to define a specific filename size without
truncating it. In a nutshell the Windows, Unix, Linux and Solaris does not define a filename
size.

3.1.3 Spacing at Command Line

M.S. DOS            MS. WINDOWS LINUX                         UNIX                  SOLARIS
Doesn't Support Support         space Support        space Support         space Support           space
space entries       entries             entries               entries               entries
DOS doesn't support space entries, so if you type "a file with space.txt" it will be ignored.
Windows, Linux, Unix and Solaris, doesn't have any problem with spacing, for instance if you
create a file called "a file with space.txt" inside Windows, DOS will see it "afilew~1.txt". If
you still want to space your words in

DOS use the underscore character "_".




3.2     FUNCTIONS

M.S. DOS            MS. WINDOWS LINUX                         UNIX                  SOLARIS
Single Tasking      Multitasking/       Multitasking/         Multitasking/         Multitasking/
                    Multiuser           Multiuser             Multiuser             Multiuser

The Operating System have what they can do and what they can’t do such as:

3.2.1 Single Tasking

In this aspect, only DOS in this course of study is a single tasking operating system.


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  3.2.2 Multitasking / Multiuser

  The Unix Linux and Solaris, inclusive of windows, in this course of study are multitasking
  because of their ability assign roles from different login known as the DBA (Database
  Administration). This also enables a user to switch operations from one job to job.




  3.3    GRAPHIC USER INTERFACE (GUI)

  M.S. DOS                 MS. WINDOWS        LINUX               UNIX                 SOLARIS
  Does     not   Support Support      Graphic Support Graphic Does                 not Support Graphic
  Graphic User Interface   User Interface     User Interface      Support Graphic User Interface
                                                                  User Interface


  It is obvious that DOS and Unix in this course of study, lack the GUI this is the edge which
  Windows, Linux and Solaris has over them. This implies that Windows and Linux has GUI.
  But Solaris does have GUI support - Common Desktop Environment, OpenWindows etc. but
  they are far way from the other GUI environments seen in Windows and Linux.




  3.4    EASE

M.S. DOS            MS WINDOWS LINUX                        UNIX                     SOLARIS
Not Users Friendly Users Friendly      Not Users Friendly   Not Users Friendly       Not Users Friendly


  Although the majority Linux, Unix, Solaris, and DOS variants have improved dramatically in
  ease of use, Windows is still much easier to use for new computer users. Microsoft has made
  several advancements and changes that have made it a much easier to use operating system, and
  although arguably it may not be the easiest operating system, it is still Easier than Linux,
  Solaris, DOS and Unix.
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3.5    RELIABILITY

M.S. DOS            MS. WINDOWS LINUX                        UNIX                  SOLARIS
Highly Reliable     Fairly Reliable     Highly Reliable      Highly Reliable       Highly Reliable

The majority of Linux, Unix, Solaris and DOS variants and versions are notoriously reliable
and can often run for months and years without needing to be rebooted. Although Microsoft
Windows has made great improvements in reliability over the last few versions of Windows, it
still cannot match the reliability of Linux, Unix, and Solaris.




3.6    SOFTWARE

M.S. DOS            MS. WINDOWS LINUX                        UNIX                  SOLARIS
Low Selection       Larger Selection    Low Selection        Low Selection         Low Selection

Because of the large amount of Microsoft Windows users, there is a much larger selection of
available software programs, utilities, and games for Windows. Though, Linux has a large
variety of available software programs, utilities, and games as well as Solaris. However,
Windows has a much larger selection of available software.




3.7    HARDWARE

M.S. DOS            MS. WINDOWS LINUX                        UNIX                  SOLARIS
High support for High support for Low support for Low support for Low support for
hardware            hardware            hardware             hardware              hardware


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Linux and Unix companies and hardware manufacturers have made great advancements in
hardware support. Today, Linux and Unix will support most hardware devices. However, many
companies still do not offer drivers or support for their hardware in Linux and Unix, inclusive
Solaris. Because of the amount of Microsoft users and the broader driver support, Windows and
DOS has a much larger support for hardware devices and a good majority of hardware
manufacturers will support their products in Microsoft Windows. Solaris will also support most
devices. In summary, Windows and DOS support more Hardwares than Linux, Unix and
Solaris. It is not recommended to run Solaris on other architectures such as Intel, AMD. It is
possible to install Solaris on Intel however, the performance would degrade considerably since
Solaris cannot make use of Intel that efficiently.




3.8     SECURITY

M.S. DOS            MS. WINDOWS LINUX                           UNIX                  SOLARIS
Low vulnerable to Highly vulnerable Low vulnerable to Low vulnerable to Low vulnerable to
virus               to virus            virus                   virus                 virus


Although Microsoft has made great improvements over the years with security on their
operating system, their operating system continues to be the most vulnerable to viruses and
other attacks. Linux, Unix, DOS, and Solaris are and has always been a very secure operating
system. Although they can still can be attacked when compared to Windows, it much more
secure. In summary, the Windows operating system is more expose to virus than any other
operating system.

3.8.1 File Integrity and Secure Execution

M.S. DOS            MS. WINDOWS LINUX                           UNIX                  SOLARIS
Attack can not be Attack       can   be Attack       can   be Attack      can    be Attack      can   be


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detected easily      detected easily   detected easily      detected easily       detected easily


System administrators can detect possible attacks on their systems by monitoring for changes to
file information. In the Solaris, Unix, Linux, and Windows Operating System, binaries are
digitally signed, so administrators can track changes easily, and all patches or enhancements are
embedded with digital signatures, eliminating the false positives associated with upgrading or
patching file integrity-checking software.




3.8.2 User and Process Rights Management

M.S. DOS             MS. WINDOWS LINUX                      UNIX                  SOLARIS
Free to users        Free to users     Require              Require               Require
                                       Administrative       Administrative        Administrative
                                       right                right                 right
In traditional UNIX, Linux platform-based operating systems, applications and users often need
administrative access to perform their jobs. However, most implementations offer just one level
of higher privilege: root or superuser. This means that any user or application given root access
has the ability to make major changes to the operating system—and is typically the target of
hacking attempts. The Solaris 10 OS offers unique User Rights Management (also known as
role-based access control, or RBAC) and Process Rights Management (also known as
privileges). Windows and DOS are almost free to any user except when specified.

3.8.3 Network Service Protection

M.S. DOS             MS. WINDOWS LINUX                      UNIX                  SOLARIS
Free to users        Free to users     Require              Require               Require
                                       Administrative       Administrative        Administrative
                                       right                right                 right


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The Solaris 10 and Linux OS ships with IP Filter firewall software preinstalled. This integrated
firewall can reduce the number of network services that are exposed to attack and provides
protection against maliciously crafted networking packets. The IP Filter firewall can also filter
traffic flowing between Solaris Containers when it is configured in the Global Zone. In
addition, TCP Wrappers are integrated into the Solaris 10 OS, limiting access to service-based
allowed domains. Windows also develop their own IP filter firewall which is not as strong as
that in Solaris and Linux.




3.9    OPEN SOURCE

M.S. DOS            MS. WINDOWS LINUX                       UNIX                  SOLARIS
Not Open source     Not Open source    Open source          Open source           Open source


Many of the Linux variants, UNIX, Solaris and many Linux programs are open source and
enable users to customize or modify the code however they wish to. Microsoft Windows is not
open source and the majority of Windows programs are not open source.




3.10   SUPPORT

M.S. DOS            MS. WINDOWS LINUX                       UNIX                  SOLARIS
Fair Support        Better Support     Fair Support         Fair Support          Fair Support
Although it may be more difficult to find users familiar with all Linux variants, UNIX and
Solaris, there are vast amounts of available online documentation and help, available books,
and support available for Linux. Microsoft Windows includes its own help section, has vast
amount of available online documentation and help, as well as books on each of the versions of
Windows.



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4.0    CONCLUSSION AND RECCOMMENDATION

4.1    CONCLUSION

This research work is an exposure based knowledge work which brings to lime-light the
choosing or selection mode of a particular operating system when planning to set up a system.
This research work also introduce the Operating System understudied and enlisted all the
features of the operating systems.




4.2    RECOMMENDATION

I strongly recommend that any persons choosing a particular operating system for his or her
industries should first analyze the kind of job his/her firm will be undertaking, know the kind of
data they will be handling before purchasing the operating system.




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REFERENCES

"Timeline of Computer History: 1956: Software". Computer History Museum. http://
www.computerhistory.org/timeline/?year=1956. Retrieved 2008-05-25. A Brief History of
Linux

Johnston (April 1, 2005). "VSE: A Look at the Past 40 Years". z/Journal (Thomas
Communications, Inc.) (April/May 2005).
http://www.zjournal.com/index.cfm?section=article&aid=293. Chuck Boyer, The 360
Revolution

"VMware API". VMware. http://www.vmware.com/support/developer/vix-api. Retrieved 26
November 2008.

"VMware file system". http://www.vmware.com/products/vi/esx/vmfs.html. Retrieved 26
November 2008.

"PowerVM Virtualization on IBM System p: Introduction and Configuration".
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247940.html?Open. Retrieved 26 November 2008.



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"JRockit's Liquid VM could be the first real Java OS".
http://www.theserverside.com/news/thread.tss?thread_ id=43424. Retrieved 26 November
2008.




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