Anatomy and Physiology Hyaluronic Acid

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					                           Anatomy and Physiology
                          Definitions and Terminology
                               Histology Review

Gross Anatomy Vs Microscopic Anatomy
Gross – That which we can see. Ex. Bones and muscles
Microscopic – Structures which we can’t see. Ex. Nephrons, cells

Homeostasis – The condition in which the body’s internal system’s remain within
          normal physiological limits. Internal balance.
          Ex. Body temp. BP, HR, blood glucose, pH etc.

            Stimulusreceptorcontrol centereffectorresponse
                               (Determines
                               action to maintain
                               homeostasis)
            Ex:
            Hot burner (stimulus)pain receptorsafferent nerves to spinal cord
            (Control Center)Efferent nerves to arm muscles
            (effectors)jerk hand away (response)

      Homeostasis can be maintained by either negative or positive feedback
      mechanisms.
      Negative feedback – reaction of the body serves to diminish the
                         intensity of the original stimulus. Ex. Insulin and blood
                         glucose levels. Many hormonal secretions.
      Positive feedback – the change that occurs in the body potentiates the
                         activity of the stimulus. Ex. Uterine contractions during
                         delivery.

Examples of homeostatic imbalances:
 1. Failing immune system
 2. Hemorrhage causing BP
 3. Dehydration
 4. Low blood glucose
 5. Burns

Terminology Homework
1.  Define the following directional   terms:
    Superior                            Superficial
    Inferior                            Deep
    Anterior (ventral)                  Proximal
    Posterior (dorsal)                  Distal
    Medial
    Lateral
    Intermediate



2.    Be able to recognize the following planes of the human body.
                                                                                     1
     Frontal
     Transverse
     Median or midsagital
     Oblique
3.   Be able to recognize the following regions of the human body.
     Anterior regions                         Posterior regions
     Cervical                                 cephalic
     Patellar                                 Occipital
     Axillary                                 acromial
     Abdominal                                vertebral
     Thoracic                                 scapular
     Sternal                                  brachial
     Brachial                                 olecranal
     Antecubital                              lumbar
     Pelvic                                   sacral
     Carpal                                   gluteal
     Palmar                                   perineal
     Pubic (genital)                          femoral
     Inguinal (groin)                         popliteal
     Femoral                                  plantar (sole)
     Peroneal                                 calcaneal
     Pedal
     Dorsum
     Mediastinum

4.   Diagram the 9 abdomino pelvic regions and the 4 quadrants of the
     abdomen.

5.   Name the 2 dorsal body cavities and the 3 ventral body cavities and
     the organs contained within each.

6.   Peritoneum is a serous membrane that surrounds organs and lines
     body cavities. Where would you find the following types of
     peritonea?
     Visceral peritoneum
     Parietal peritoneum

7. Where would you most likely find the following types of epithelial cells?
   1. Stratified squamous (keritanized)
   2. Simple squamous
   3. Simple cuboidal
   4. pseudostratified columnar (ciliated)
   5. simple columnar (non-ciliated)
   6. transitional

8. Explain the difference between supine and prone.



Connective tissue:
                                                                           2
Def: A collection of tissues which serves to:
     1. bind and support body parts (ex. tendons, bones, ligaments)
     2. Allows movement (because bones are connected to muscles, BUT muscle
        is NOT connective tissue)
     3. protect the body (ex. bone, adipose, connective tissue proper, cartilage)
     4. produce heat (adipose)
     5. insulate the body (adipose)
     6. transport stuff (blood)

Connective tissue is made of:
     1. Ground substance – a sort of gluey fluid that makes everything stick
         together, and allows for passage of nutrients. Includes proteoglycans
         (protein core plus polysaccharides) called glycosaminoglycans (GAGS)
         including chondroitin sulfates, keratin sulfates and hyaluronic acid.
     2. Fibers including:
          Collagen – very tough, resists stress and torsion. Found in bone,
             cartilage, tendons and ligaments.
          Elastic – found in skin, lungs and walls of blood vessels
          Reticular – delicate network. Surrounds blood vessels, supports
             organs, found within lymphoid organs
     3. Cells including fibrocytes (make fibers and ground substance),
         chondrocytes (cartilage cells), osteocytes (bone cells), blood cells.

Types of connective tissue:
1. Connective tissue proper
   loose – includes areolar (surrounds blood vessels and nerves and cushions
            organs) adipose (fat) and reticular (lymphoid organs)
   dense – includes regular (ligaments and tendons), and irregular (dermis,
            submucosa of G.I. tract, organ capsules, joint capsules)
2. Cartilage – ex. Rib cage, ear, intervertebral disks
3. Bone
4. Blood – consists of blood cells surrounded by non-living fluid matrix of plasma.
5. Lymph – similar to plasma, but with less protein. Courses through lymphatic
   vessels.

Tissue Repair
 Depends on the type of tissue damaged and the severity of the injury
 Regeneration – replacement of destroyed tissue w. same kind of tissue
 Fibrosis – formation of scar tissue (fibrous connective tissue)
 New cells divide from stroma (supporting connective tissue) or parenchyma (the
   tissue itself) or from stem cells (immature, undifferentiated cells – found in
   many tissues including skin, bone marrow, G.I. tract.)




Steps of tissue repair
1. Severed blood vessels cause release of chemicals, including vasodilators,
   WBC’s, clotting proteins. First a blood clot and then a scab forms.
                                                                                      3
2. Granulation tissue.
       Capillaries begin to invade the damaged area
       Fibroblasts migrate to the area and secrete soluble collagen (structural
         support or “stroma” upon which epithelial cells can grow).
       Surface epithelial cells proliferate and migrate over the granulated tissue
3. In one week, scar has formed. May remain or may contract as epithelium
   grows over damaged area.

Problems w. scar formation
 Muscle contraction. Ex. Burn patients
 Post myocardial infarction
 Adhesions

Embryonic Germ Layers:
   Ectoderm – gives rise to the nervous system and epidermis
   Endoderm – gives rise to epithelial linings of the digestive, respiratory, and
     urogenital systems, plus associated glands
   Mesoderm – gives rise to most of the skeletal system, skeletal, smooth and
     cardiac muscle, bone marrow, organs of the urogenital system

Revised 8/06




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