Sample Thesis on Strategic Management - PowerPoint

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					Thesis & Project Preparation
        Workshop:
 Developing the Essentials for a Scholarly
Master’s Thesis/Project for Smooth Passage
       through the Graduate School
      Saturday, September 27, 2008
            Dr. Fidelis M. Ikem, Ph.D.
         Dean and Chief Research Officer
             Linda N. Hudson, Ph.D.
                  Associate Dean
      School of Graduate Studies and Research
                   It’s your future.
                Imagine going further.
   It’s your future.
Imagine going further.
                         Workshop Outline
     Part 1: Organizing to Write the                   Part 3: Defending your Thesis
              Thesis/Project
                                                                    What is a Defense?
             What is a Thesis/Project?                  Tips for Preparing Presentation/Seminar|
What your advisor would look for in a Thesis/Project        What to expect during the Defense
  Strategies for Completing your Thesis/Project        Things to Remember about the Thesis Defense
               How Do I Get Started?                                Thesis Defense Tips
                                                         Graduate School Requirements for Thesis
                                                                         Defense

   Part 2: Writing your Thesis/ Project                  Part 4: Defending your Project
                  The Prospectus                              Role of the Graduate School
             Organization of Content                                   Uniformity
              Organization of Thesis                                  Consistency
Manual of Basic Requirements for Thesis and Project
                  required forms                                        Legibility
                   The Abstract                                 Formatting Guidelines
                     Title Page                                        Next Steps
                  Signature Page                                       Submission
                  Dedication Page
                 Table of Contents
                   List of Figures
                   Bibliography
          Development of Thesis/Project
                        Part 1:

Organizing to Write the Thesis/Project
                 What is a Thesis/Project?
    What your advisor would look for in a Thesis/Project
      Strategies for Completing your Thesis/Project
                   How Do I Get Started?




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                        What is a Thesis/Project?
                   Thesis                                                  Project
•   A formal document whose sole purpose is            •   A scholarly research study that:
    to prove that you have made an original                 –   Evidences originality and independent
    contribution to knowledge.                                  thinking
•   Thesis must show two important elements:                –   Demonstrates mastery of an identifiable
     –   That you have identified a worthwhile                  body of literature
         problem or question which has not been        •   Types of Projects
         previously answered;
                                                            –   Creative project
     –   That you have solved the problem or
         answered the question.                                   • Contribution to the verbal, visual or
                                                                      performing arts
•   An argument that must:                                  –   Curriculum project
     –    form a distinctive contribution to the                  • Contribution to the field of teaching
         knowledge of the subject                                     by enhancing communication of a
     –   afford evidence of originality                               subject matter
     –   Proven by the discovery of new facts               –   Investigative or Research project
     –   Exercise independent critical thinking                   • Contributes to the disciplines or the
         power                                                        professions by
•   A exposition of original research                                    – adding to
     –   Significant to students and scholars in the                         technical/professional
         field                                                               knowledge
•   Product of an apprenticeship                                         – Providing original application
                                                                             of technical/professional
•   Research that can be published in a                                      knowledge in the professional
    scholarly journal                                                        field
     –   In Part                                                  • Ex: designing an experiment, field
•   A degree requirement for Master’s degree                          study, case study, a documentary
                                                                      report
What Your Advisor Would Look For In A
           Thesis/Project
1. What is this student’s research question?
2. Is it a good question?
3. Has it been answered before?
4. Is it a useful question to work on?
5. Did the student convince me that the question
   was adequately answered?
6. Has the student made an adequate contribution
   to knowledge?


                    It’s your future.
                 Imagine going further.
      Strategies for Completing Your
              Thesis/ Project
• Time Management Tips
  –   Plan
  –   Concentrate
  –   Take Breaks
  –   Avoid Clutter
  –   Don’t Be a Perfectionist
  –   Don’t Be Afraid to Say No
  –   Don’t Procrastinate




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        Strategies for Completing Your
         Thesis/ Project (Continued)
• Building a Personal Support System
• “The only good thesis is a done thesis”
• The ups and downs of research – you are fulfilling an academic
  requirement
• There are some good days and some bad days – this is a learning
  experience for you
• Get accustomed to more independence -
• Feeling that you need to make it perfect the first time through
• Feeling that you never have enough data collected
• Getting into a flow – write down your ideas
• Disruptions from other real life events
• Need to devise and follow a schedule – set milestones
• Maintain confidence in yourself and know that you can do this
• Write something every day
• Absence of deadlines
• Select your topic early in your graduate program - really of interest to you
• Culture of “silence” in academia
• Overcoming the “doldrums” a period of inactivity – reestablish priorities
                 How To Get Started
• Select a topic (pg. 11 of Manual)
   (soon after admission into program- 2nd semester)
    – Interview research professors in graduate program
         • Area of Expertise/ Research Interest
    – Choose research topic of interest to you
    – Choose a topic that is manageable
• Select a thesis/project research committee
• Start a file/binder
    – Keep all thesis materials in this location
         • Background Information/ Literature Review
• Plan your argument
• Complete the Prospectus
    – Requirement for thesis
    – Check Graduate Program and School/College for Project
          Part 2:
Writing your Thesis/ Project
                          The Prospectus
                    Organization of Content
                      Organization of Thesis
Manual of Basic Requirements for Thesis and Project required forms
                          The Abstract
                            Title Page
                         Signature Page
                         Dedication Page
                        Table of Contents
                          List of Figures
                          Bibliography
                  Development of Thesis/Project



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                    The Prospectus
• The prospectus should include the following:
   – Purpose, Method and, Scope of the topic
   – Outline and Proposed organization and manner of treatment of your
     topic
   – Bibliography of materials on the topic
• Copies distributed:
   – Each member of the research committee
• Prospectus Approval
   – Research committee
• Prospectus Approval Form
   – Records topic with the
       • Dean of the school
       • Department chair
       • Dean of the School of Graduate Studies and Research
   – Human Subjects
       • Consult the Internal Review Board (IRB) Manual for Research Involving
         Human Subjects
       • Complete the appropriate forms for the Dean of the Graduate Studies
         Review
            Organization of Content
                   Thesis                                          Project
• Abstract                                          • Text
• Preliminary Pages                                        –   Introduction
   –   Title Page
                                                           –   Methodology
   –   Approval Page
   –   Acknowledgement Page
                                                           –   Results
   –   Table of Contents                                   –   Discussion
   –   List of tables and figures                          –   Summary/Conclusion-
• Text                                                         Abstract
   –   Introduction                                 • References
   –   Literature Review                            • Appendix
   –   Methodology
   –   Results
   –   Discussion
   –   Summary/Conclusion
• References
• Appendix                             It’s your future.
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                 Organization of Thesis
                                 Sample Table of Contents
Abstract                                                              Abstract
 Title Page
 Signature Page
 Dedication                                                         Preliminaries
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 List of tables and figures
 List of Symbols or Abbreviations
 Chapter 1. Introduction
      1.1 Scope and Focus of Question
      1.2 Rationale
 Chapter 2. Literature Review
      2.1 Introduction
      2.2 Background Information                                    Text
 Chapter 3. Methodology
      3.1 Design of investigation
      3.2 Population/ Sample/Subjects
      3.3 Apparatus/Materials/Treatment
      3.4 Data Analysis Procedures
 Chapter 4. Results and Discussion
      4.1 Presentation of Findings
      4.2 Discussion of Findings
 Chapter 5. Summary/Conclusions
References
Appendix                                                    Reference Materials
Manual of Basic
Requirements for
Thesis and Research
Projects required
Forms
 •Abstract - although
 appearing first, the abstract
 should be the last part of
 the thesis to be written. It
 shows the reader, in a few
 sentences, the context and
 content of the work.




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                              Title Page
Format the title page as
shown here using the
same margins required
for the entire document.
Use the same font size
as used for the text,
except for the title, which
may be up to four points
larger. Each line should
be centered to ensure
balance and even
spacing between the
parts.




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                         Signature Page
Format the
signature page as
shown here. Use
the same font as
used for the text.
Center and use the
spacing and wording
as shown here. Use
the full length of the
page. All signature
lines must be
signed.




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                  Dedication Page
The dedication page is used
to recognize individuals in
token of affection or esteem.




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                   Table of Contents
The Table of Contents lists
everything that follows it but
nothing that precedes it
(Abstract, Blank cover
Sheet, Title Page, Signature
Page, Dedication and/or
Acknowledgement Page).
Information listed in the
Table of Contents must
match exactly the
capitalization and wording of
titles for the parts, chapters,
and subheadings used in the
thesis.



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                     List of Figures
Lists of figures or tables
immediately follow the
table of contents and
must be listed in the
Table of Contents.
Number figures and
tables in seperate but
continuous series
throughout the text (e.g.
1,2,3. etc) or by chapter
(e.g. 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2,
etc.)




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                      Bibliography
The form of the bibliography
references will be dictated by
the manual of style chosen by
the discipline for which the
thesis is written. The
Graduate School prefers APA
style.




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  Development of Thesis/Project
• The Abstract
  – a brief comprehensive summary of the contents
    and context of the research (thesis or project)
     •Purpose of work (questions asked)
     •Approach used
     •Main findings and conclusions
     •Information on style, organization and structure of the
      work
  – Complete this section after all other sections are
    complete.

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Development of Abstract Cont’d.
– Tips for Abstract Writing
   • Accurate- do not include information that does not appear in the text
     of the thesis/ project.
   • Self-Contained- define any abbreviations and acronyms. Define
     unique terms. Paraphrase rather than quote.
   • Concise and Specific- Make each sentence informative, especially the
     lead sentence. Be brief. Abstracts should not exceed one page.
     Include only four or five most important concepts findings, or
     implication.
   • Non-evaluative- Report rather than evaluate. Do not add to or
     comment on what is in the text of the thesis/project.
   • Coherent and Readable- Write in clear and vigorous prose. Use:
       –    verbs rather than their noun equivalents,
       –    active rather than the passive voice.
       –   present tense to describe results or conclusions drawn.
       –   past tense to describe specific variables manipulated or tests applied.
       –   third person rather than first person.
   Development of Introduction
• Statement of the goal of the paper/the problem/the
  hypothesis
   – Why the study was undertaken
   – Why the paper was written
   – DO NOT REPEAT THE ABSTRACT!

• State purpose and rationale
   –   Explain your approach to solving the problem
   –   Closing paragraphs of introduction
   –   Define variables
   –   Formal statement of hypotheses
   –   Clearly develop the rationale for each hypotheses.
Development of Literature Review
• The rationale for the Literature Review consists of an argument with two
  lines of analysis:
    – This research is needed; and
    – The methodology I have chosen is most appropriate for the question
      that is being asked
• Background Information – to learn from others who have preceded you
    – Discuss the literature for each variable, population or example used in
      the research. Each literature discussion for each population should be
      in a different sub section.
    – Assume the reader is knowledgeable about the field in which you are
      writing
    – Citation of and specific credit to relevant earlier works are part of the
      author’s scientific and scholarly responsibility.
    – Demonstrate the logical continuity between previous and present
      work.


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        Development of Methodology
• Choose your Methodology Wisely
• Describes in detail how the study was conducted:
    –   Materials, procedure and theory
    –   Calculations, technique, procedure, equipment, and calibration plots
    –   Limitations, assumptions, and range of validity
    –   Enables reader to evaluate
          • the appropriateness of methods
          • Reliability and validity of results
    – Enables others to replicate the study if the desire

• Divide into Subsections:
    –   Design of investigation
    –   Population/ Sample/subjects
    –   Apparatus/materials/Treatment
    –   Data analysis procedures

• Citations in this section should be limited to data sources and references of where
  to find more complete descriptions of procedures.

• DO NOT INCLUDE DESCRIPTIONS OF RESULTS!
Development of Results and Discussion
 • Results
    – actual statements of observations:
        • Statistics
        • Tables
        • Graphs
    – Mention positive and negative results
    – Categorize the results into logical segments by using subheadings.
 • Discussion
    – Start with few sentences that summarize the most important results.
    – This section should be rich in references to similar work and
      background used to interpret results.
    – Develop the discussion into logical segments by using subheadings



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     Development of Conclusion
• Refer back to the problem posed
• Describe the conclusions that you reached from
  carrying out this investigation
• Summarize new observations, new interpretations, and
  new insights that resulted from the present work
• Include broader implications for you results
• DO NOT REPEAT WORD FOR WORD THE
  ABSRACT, INTRODUCTION OR DISCUSSION
• Present recommendations-further research to fill in
  the gaps in understanding
• Give directions for future investigations on this or
  related topics
              Part 3

   Part 3: Defending your Thesis-
               What is a Defense?
    Tips for Preparing Presentation/Seminar
       What to expect during the Defense
 Things to Remember about the Thesis Defense
               Thesis Defense Tips
Graduate School Requirements for Thesis Defense




               It’s your future.
           Imagine going further.
            What is a Defense?
• Includes 2 components
  – Seminar for Projects
     •Formal Presentation of research topic and results
        – Usually lasting no more than thirty minutes
     •Seminar open to public
  – Defense for Thesis
     •Purpose- to test the candidate’s knowledge/ability of
        – Subject area
        – Thinking in related areas
        – Usually lasting no more than two hours
     •Conducted by Thesis Committee
     •Departmental Faculty may attend the defense
        – The committee and audience may question the candidate
               Tips for Preparing
              Presentation/Seminar
• Prepare a clear oral presentation with illustrative
  graphics
• This presentation is the committee’s basis for
  understanding your work
• Organize your oral presentation effectively and
  practice it before your defense.
• To organize your presentation:
   –   Begin with your background
   –   State the problem
   –   Give the specific approach (methodology)
   –   Give results and conclusion
  What to Expect During the Defense
• Defense Questions typically are about:
   – The content of the thesis
   – The claims made in the thesis
       • Thesis Committee may need clarification on a point or may ask the candidate to
         explain his or her reasoning or research further
       • Questions are often friendly, but may also challenge the candidate's views, methods,
         or conclusions
       • Part of the evaluation is based on how well the candidate can defend his/her work .

• Following the examination, the candidate and other persons who
  are not members of the Thesis Committee are asked to leave the
  room
• Thesis Committee discuss the outcome in the candidate’s absence
  and votes to pass or fail the candidate
• The record of the vote is recorded on the School of Graduate
  Studies and Research Thesis Outcome Form (Appendix), and
  submitted to the Graduate School.
                                     It’s your future.
                                Imagine going further.
      Things to Remember about the
              Thesis Defense
• Purpose is to show everyone how well the candidate has conducted
  research.
• Seminar atmosphere – where the exchange of ideas is valued
• You are the most knowledgeable person when it comes to your
  subject – You should know more about your thesis than anyone
  else.
• Meet together with your committee in advance to discuss strategies
• Identify any possible problems discuss ways that they should be
  dealt with.
• Committee members will assist you and help you understand the
  very research that you have invested so much of your time and
  energies.
• This is the last presentation you will have to make if you are
  successful.
• The audience will be your co-workers, peers, faculty members,
  deans, and classes of students interested in your work. It is open to
  the public.
                Thesis Defense Tips
• Try to attend one or more defenses prior to yours
    – Keep your focus on the interactions that occur.
• Discuss your research with your friends and colleagues
    – Present your information in a clear and coherent manner
    – Is there anything that is confusing and need further explanation?
    – Are there things you should have said but did not say?
    – What things should you avoid?
• You are not alone in this – major professor
• Try and make the defense more of a team effort
• Don’t be defensive at your defense
• Organize the defense as an educational presentation usually 20-25
  minutes
• Tape record your defense in the event changes are suggested at the
  defense
       Graduate School Requirements for
                Thesis Defense
                   (These guidelines must be adhered to)

• At least 2 weeks (10 business days) prior to thesis
  defense, the Thesis Director/Advisor must submit a
  Thesis Defense Form (Appendix) to
   – the School of Graduate Studies and Research,
   – the school/college of the graduate program
   – the department of the graduate program in which the
     student is enrolled.
• A Defense Announcement Flyer (Appendix) should
  be placed in strategic locations on the university
  campus
   – University audience
      Part 4
Part 4: Master’s Thesis:
  Role of the Graduate School
           Uniformity
          Consistency
            Legibility
    Formatting Guidelines
          Next Steps ..
           Submission
             Q &A




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     Role of the Graduate School
• Help students graduate
• Advise students of the technical demands of a
  clear, clean design and consistency in form
• Advise and assist in matters of style and format
• Review manuscripts for:
   – Uniformity, paper arrangement and spacing
   – Consistency
   – Legibility

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                Uniformity
•   Font and point size
•   Page numbering
•   Margins, spacing, and pagination
•   Headings, Tables and Figures




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              Consistency

• Information in preliminary pages agrees
  with text
• Style of each level of subheading is
  consistent and appropriate
• Reference list reflects journal format



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                    Legibility

•   Letter quality typeface
•   Good reproduction quality
•   Minimum size requirement
•   No inked in, fuzzy, or faint lettering




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              Graduate School Formatting
                      Guidelines
Required for all thesis
• Type- size should be 10 or 12 characters per inch. Original copy must be
   letter quality.
• Spacing- text should be double spaced.     Block quotations, footnotes and the
   bibliography should be single spaced.
• Margins-
    – Top 1 ½ inch
    – Right 1 inch
    – Bottom 1 inch (must be maintained even when footnote
      appear on the page.)
    – Left 1 ½ inch
         • Tables, maps, charts and illustrations should come within such margins
           or folded if necessary.
             Graduate School Formatting
                  Guidelines cont.
• Pagination- Page numbers should be placed in the upper right-hand
   corner, not less than ½ inch from the upper edge and directly on the
   established right margin. Both Arabic and lowercase Roman numerals are used
   according to the system described below.
    – All pages from the title page to the first page of the body of the text are prefatory
         • Lowercase Roman numeral (i, ii, iii)
    – Title Page and Signature Page together count as the first page of the prefatory
      material.
         • No page number appears.
    – Acknowledgement Page (if used) table of contents page (s) are the next prefatory
      pages to be counted
         • No page number appears
    – Text, Supplementary sections, appendices and bibliography.
         •   Arabic numeral (1, 2, 3) are used.
         •   First page is counted as first page – no number
         •   All pages thereafter counted.
         •   Do not number:
               – First page of each chapter
               – First page of each supplementary section (Appendix)
               – First page of bibliography
Next Steps in Graduate School Process
• Once thesis is approved and Thesis Outcome Form is
  submitted to the School of Graduate Studies and
  Research
   – Contact Graduate School to schedule an appointment with
     the Associate Dean for review of your thesis for corrections
   – Corrections MUST be made and resubmitted on regular
     paper.
      • Only one corrected copy is needed.
      • Submit corrections with the copy given which shows corrections to
        be made.
      • When the Graduate School is satisfied with corrections- sign
        signature page and the acknowledgement form (Appendix).
          – Acknowledgement Form indicates that thesis has been received and
            approved by the Graduate School.
              » This form will not be issued until all corrections have been
                approved.
              » After approval you will be asked to sign, date and enter your
                Banner ID number on this form.
       Submission to Graduate School
• Five copies of the approved thesis must be prepared on
   – White, good durable quality 100% rag content;
   – twenty pound bound Acid free paper
   – 8 ½ by 11 inches.


• The Library will bind the five required copies at no charge to the
  student.
   –   One copy for Library
   –   One copy to department
   –   One copy for the Major Advisor
   –   Once copy for the Graduate School
   –   One copy for the student
Questions and Answer Period

  Thank you for your attendance today.
Please complete the evaluation form. We
 use the comments and suggestions to
   improve upon our future workshops.




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