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Retail Industry and Usage of Accounting Principles

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					International Telecommunication Union




Basic NGN Architecture
  Principles & Issues
         Keith Knightson
 Rapporteur Q3/13 (Architecture)
                 Industry Canada

       ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                     Geneva, 1-2 May 2005
                        NGN Definition
        Next Generation Network (NGN):
ITU-T   a packet-based network able to provide
        telecommunication services and able to make use
        of multiple broadband, QoS-enabled transport
        technologies and in which service-related
        functions are independent from underlying
        transport-related technologies.

        It enables unfettered access for users to networks
        and to competing service providers and/or
        services of their choice. It supports generalized
        mobility which will allow consistent and
        ubiquitous provision of services to users.
                ITU-T Recommendation Y.2001
             ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                           Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                    2
dates
        What’s Old: Vertically-Integrated
                   Networks
ITU-T                               Pre-NGN

              Video                    Telephone                   Data
            Services                    Services                 Services
         (TV, movie, etc)                                        (WWW,
                                                                e-mail, etc)




              Video                    Telephone                  Data
             Services                   Services                 Services
             Network                    Network                  Network




                 ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                               Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                            3
dates
                 What’s New:
        Horizontally-integrated Network
ITU-T
                              Video Services (TV, movie, etc)
                          Data Services (WWW, e-mail, etc)
                                 Telephone Services


                             NGN Services
             Point to point, Point to multipoint, Multipoint to multipoint




                           NGN Transport
           Point to point, Point to multipoint, Multipoint to multipoint




                   ITU-T Recommendation Y.2011
              ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                            Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                             4
dates
        Effects of Separation: the good, the
                  bad and the ugly
ITU-T   o Good:
           • Any service over a single IP transport network

        o Bad:
           • Two different levels of control, authentication,
             admission, charging, etc.

        o Ugly:
           • QoS selection, QoS control, transport resource
             allocation, monitoring, accounting for usage.



                   ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                 Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                    5
dates
        Decoupling Services from Transport
                     Network
ITU-T
                                                                           Service Management
                                                                   Service  Resource AAA Billing
        Application
                                                                  Instance Management
         Services
                                             Wholesale                     Service infrastructure
                        Retail

                                        Service Management
        Transport                 Service  Resource AAA Billing                 Settlement
         Services                Instance Management

                                        Service infrastructure
                        U                                        A10

           Subscriber                       NAP                                    NSP/ASP




                          ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                        Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                        6
dates
                Re-distribution of service
                       intelligence
ITU-T                          Migration of
                            Service Intelligence




         User  Access               Core                      Access      User
        Domain Domain              Domain                    Domain      Domain




                   ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                 Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                             7
dates
                                           Basic Functional Architecture

ITU-T
                                             Service stratum
                                                                                                Application Functions
        Management Functions




                                                                                                                               Service
                                                                                                                                User
                                                                              Service and Control                              Profile
                                                                                   Functions                                  Functions


                                             Transport
                                               User
                                              Profile       Network               Transport Control                Media
                                             Functions     Attachment                 Functions
                                                         Control Functions                                        Handling
                                                                                                                  Functions                       Other
                               Customer                                                                                       Gateway              Other
                               Functions                                                                                      Functions         networks
                                                                                                                                                 networks
                                                             Access
                                                              Access
                                              Access        Transport          Edge                 Core Transport
                                                                                                     Core Transport
                                             Functions       Transport       Functions                Functions
                                                            Functions
                                                             functions                                  functions
                                       UNI                                                                                                NNI
                                             Transport stratum
                                                                                                         Control
                                                                                                          Media

                                                    ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                                                  Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                                                      8
dates
            End-User Services in NGN R1

        o All 3GPP IMS Services delivered to fixed line
ITU-T
          systems
        o PSTN replacement and legacy services
        o IMS extensions to accommodate regulatory
          requirements (emergency, disaster relief, etc.)
        o QoS-enabled transport
        o Secure IP network
        o Mobility (continuous where available, global
          requirement limited to nomadism for R1)
        o Global Interconnect (other NGNs, PSTN/ISDN,
          Public Internet, etc.)
                 ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                               Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                    9
dates
        Release 1 Service & Capabilities
        u Service Types
ITU-T    l PSTN/ISDN Emulation services
         l PSTN/ISDN Simulation services
         l Multimedia services
         l Internet access
         l Other services (data services etc.)
         l Public service aspects (LI, ETS/TDR, etc.)

        u Service Capabilities
         l Basic network capabilities
         l Service support capabilities
             l Open Service Environment
             l Service Enablers
             l PSTN/ISDN Emulation support
         l Public service support capabilities

                 ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                               Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                    10
dates
                           Multimedia Services

ITU-T   •   Real-time Conversational Voice services
        •   Instant messaging (IM)
        •   Push to talk over NGN (PoN)
        •   Point to Point interactive multimedia services, including interactive real-
            time voice, video and other media (videotelephony, whiteboarding, etc.)
        •   Collaborative interactive communication services: support of multimedia
            conferencing with file sharing and application sharing, e-learning,
            gaming.
        •   Group Messaging
        •   Content delivery services
        •   Push-based services
        •   Broadcast/Multicast Services
        •   Hosted and transit services for enterprises (IP Centrex, etc.)
        •   Information services, such as cinema ticket information, motorway traffic
            status, advanced push services, etc.
        •   Presence and general notification services
        •   3GPP Release 6 and 3GPP2 Release A OSA-based services

                        ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                      Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                11
dates
                      Other Services
        • Data retrieval applications, such as tele-software.
ITU-T    • Data communication services, such as data file transfer, electronic
           mailbox and web browsing
         • Online applications (online sales for consumers, e-commerce, online
           procurement for commercials)
         • Sensor Network services
         • Remote control/tele-action services, such as home applications
           control, telemetry, alarms etc.
         • Over-the-Network Device Management

                 Public Service Aspects
          • Lawful Intercept.
          • Malicious call trace
          • User identity presentation and privacy
          • Emergency Communications (ETS/TDR)
          • Users with disabilities
          • Carrier selection
          • Number portability

                     ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                   Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                          12
dates
                  Component/subsystem viewpoints


ITU-T                 Based on
                      3GPP IMS
                                                                       Applications

                      IP Connectivity                                        Other Multimedia
                      Access Network                   User
                      And related functionality       Profiles                Components …
                                                                               Streaming Services
                                                                                  (RTSP based)
                                                                                PSTN / ISDN Emulation
                                                                                    (SIP-I based)




                                                                                                          Other Networks
                                                                                     IP Multimedia
                                                                                  Component (Core IMS )
                                                                                       (SIP based)


                                                  Network Attachment   Resource and Admission
                            GW                       Functionality      Control Functionality
           Legacy                                       NASS                   RACS
          Terminals



          Customer
          Networks                           Access Transport                     Core transport
                                                 Network                            Network
            NGN
          Terminals

                                           3GPP IP-CAN
        3GPP Terminals




                            ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                          Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                                             13
dates
                Changing Environment (1)

        Original Requirements                        New Requirements
ITU-T
        E2E transparency                             Packet inspection/NATs
        Peer-to-peer                                 NATs/Firewalls/servers
        Connectionless                               MPLS
        Best Effort                                  Real-time demands
                                                     Bandwidth demands
        User back-off                                QoS “guarantee”
        Network empowerment                          User Empowerment
        No flow state                                Flow state
        Trust                                        Hackers everywhere
        Static Addresses                             DHCP, Mobility
                      ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                    Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                      14
dates
                   Changing Environment (2)
        Original Requirements                      New Requirements
ITU-T
        Fairness                                   QoS (implies deliberate
                                                   unfairness)
        Terminal-to-host, BE                       Mass public residential
                                                   services, multi-terminal multi-
                                                   QoS
        Flat network                               Access & Core Domains
        Layer Independence                         Inter-layer coupling?
        Simple protocol layering                   Protocol maze
        Research/Defense use                       Commercialization,
                                                   competition, consumer choice

                    ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                  Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                               15
dates
            Next Generation Internet: Papers of Interest
        •      Developing a Next Generation Internet Architecture, Bob Braden, David Clark, et
               al.
ITU-T   •      Role-based Architecture, Bob Braden, Ted Faber.
        •      A new architecture for an Internet, David Clark, Steve Bellovin, Bob Braden,
               Noel Chiappa, Ted Faber. Scott Schenker, John Wroclawski, et al.
        •      RFC 2775, Internet Transparency. Brian Carpenter.
        •      RFC 3439, Some Internet Architectural Guidelines and Philosophy, R.Bush, D
               Meyer.
        •      IAB Concerns Regarding Congestion Control for Voice Traffic in the Internet,
               Sally Floyd, James Kempf
        •      Making the world (of communications) a different place, Report of a working
               session of the End-to-End Research Group, Version 4 3/24/05, David D. Clark,
               Craig Partridge, Robert T. Braden (chair), et al.
        •      Rethinking the design of the Internet: The end to end arguments vs. the brave new
               world, Marjory S. Blumenthal & David D. Clark.
        * Just a small sample   ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                              Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                 16
dates
               A Golden Opportunity for
                    Collaboration
ITU-T
        o A recognition in both organizations that some
         new approaches may be required?

        o What kind of changes are required and/or
         foreseen?

        o Could/should the expertise of the ITU-T and
         the IETF be jointly applied to create the
         principles and architectural framework for
         next generation networks?
                 ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                               Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                    17
dates
             Obtain Respective Views on
            Architectural Issues such as: 1
ITU-T   o Role of Edge-based Servers:
           • E2E violation
           • Packet inspection
           • Admission control

        o Application selectable QoS:
           • Lack of adequate classes
           • Lack of standardized protocol mappings
           • Explicit bandwidth selection




                  ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                    18
dates
                 Obtain Respective Views on
                Architectural Issues such as: 2
ITU-T   o   QoS in Access:
            •    Multiple terminals, multiple QoS
            •    End-user Application selection of QoS
            •    Role of Home Gateway (shaping, limiting)
            •    Home gateway control

        o   Distributed network control of/for QoS path:
            •    Horizontal means
            •    Vertical means
            •    Monitoring, dynamic allocations, accounting

        o   Network Control and Management
            •    Protect from attack
            •    Separation from payload paths
            •    Inter-domain co-ordination
                     ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                   Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                    19
dates
           No conclusions, only Questions

ITU-T
        o Do the ITU-T and IETF have different views on
         the architecture of next generation networks?

        o Can a number of differences (if any) be
         identified and catalogued for study?

        o Can ITU-T and IETF collaborate with a view to
         eliminating or (at least minimizing) any
         differences wherever possible?
                 ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                               Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                    20
dates
ITU-T




        ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                      Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                    21
dates
ITU-T




        ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                      Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                    22
dates
                    Y.2011: Basic Functional Architecture

                               Application, Middleware & Baseware services
ITU-T
                                            Services

                                                    Resources
          NGN
         Service           Service                              Service
                     Management Functions                   Control Functions




                          Transport                             Transport
                     Management Functions                    Control Functions
          NGN
        Transport
                                    Transfer Functional Area

                        ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                      Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                       23
dates
                        Home Gateway Functionality
                                                     Desktop PC           Desktop PC

ITU-T

         Network                Home                 Customer
        Terminating   10/100   Routing                Premise                Set Top Box
           Unit       Base-T   Gateway               Network

                                                                                               Television

                                        Other
                                       Devices,
                                      Appliances,                  Set Top Box
                                         etc

                                                                                       Television

                                                        ….         IP
                                                        ….
                                                        ….
                                                        ….        phone


                                   QoS per device/terminal
                               ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                             Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                           24
dates
                           Wireline Access Architecture

ITU-T           A10-NSP


        NSP 1       L2TP      L2TS

                A10-NSP                                                                            User 1
                                                        L2
        NSP 2        IP                                 Agg                         DSL
                                              BRAS               Access
                                   R                                              Modem/RG     T
                                                                 Node
                                                                                                   User 2
                                                                            U
                     IP-QoS                               Access Network                 CPN
        ASP 1
                           Regional Network
                A10-ASP
                                                 RAN




                                   ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                                 Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                       25
dates
                         Mobility Requirements

ITU-TDevice Mobilty Domain                                                         User/Service
                                                                                   Mobilty Domain




                                                Network




                             ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                           Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                     26
dates
                                  Generic Functional Architecture
                                                                A-1                                Application Server Function




                                                                                                                                                                                Application
                                                                                          (may include own Authentication, Authorization and Accounting)




                                                                                                                                                                                                          Network Border
                                                                A-2

ITU-T                                                           Application Gateway Function

                                                                                                         S -9
                                                                                                        S.Authentication & Authorization Function




                                                                                                                                                                                 Session & Call Control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Other NGN
                                                                                                              S -10
                                                          S -4                                                      Registration
                                                               User Profile DB Function   S -17
                                                                                                                     Function
                                                                                         LS Function
                                                                                                                                           S -13
                                                                S -1               Session Control Function                              PGCF
            Management Function




                                  Terminal     S -18                              S -11                                                              S -19      S -12
                                  Function     Session Control Proxy                 Media Resource Control Function                               AGCF       MGCF
                                                     Function
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           other IP MM
                                                                       T-16                        Transport Adaptation                                      T-12                                                            Network
                                                                          Transport Resource / Policy Control Function                                              SGF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (e.g. IMS)
                                                     T-18 T. Authentication                            T-11
                                                           &Authorization                                 Media
                                                               Function                                 Resource                                                    T-3
                                                      T-20                                             Processing
                                                       T.Network Access
                                         T-7
                                         Access Relay Control Function                         T-13
                                                                                                        Function                                                                                                           Internet
                                                                                                                                                                      PGF
                                           Function T-4




                                                                                                                                                                                Transport
                                                       T.Network Access                             Traffic
                                                                            T-15Transport
                                                       Process Function                         Measurement
                                                      T-8                       Resource &        Function
                                                       Mobility Support        Enforcement
                                  T-6                      Function             Functions                                                                           T-9                                                    PSTN/ISDN
                                             T-1
                                    AMGF                                                                                                                             TMGF
                                                                        Packet Transport Function
        Management

                                                                               Scope of NGN
                                               All lines of this type attach to the corresponding input line at the CCF
                                               within session & call control                                                                                 Connection point


                                                 ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                                               Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                                                                                                                                    27
dates
        IMS Architectural Component
                Other IP Multimedia Networks                                          AS

ITU-T                   PSTN                                     ISC                  Sh
                                              Mm


                  MGW                BGCF                                 HSS
                                                         CSCF           (AAA+DB)
                          PSTN                Mk
                                                                                 Cx
                                                              Mw
                                            BGCF       Mi                                  Dh
                                       Mj
                            Mn
                  Mb                           Mg
           Mb                      MGCF                     CSCF                            SLF
                   MRFP                                                     Dx
                                                  Mr
           Mb                                                    Mw
                                    MRCF
                              Mp                       P -CSCF

                                             Gq                        Gm
                  Mb

        IP Con nectiv ity Access Network                         UE
                 ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                               Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                               28
dates
         Fixed to Mobile convergence (1)

ITU-T

                                         Radio Access            Base
                                           Network              Station
                                                               Controller



             Dual Mode                                                       Core
        ….    Handset                                                       Mobile
        ….
        ….
        ….
                                                                            Network


                                                                 UMA
                                          IP Access
                                                               Network
                                           Network
                                                               Controller

                         WiFi


                         How to integrate with fixed VoIP service?
                              Cross Architectural impacts?


                  ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                  29
dates
             Fixed to Mobile convergence (2)

ITU-T
                                             Radio Access          Base
                                               Network            Station
                                                                 Controller


                 UMA-enabled                                                  GSM/IMS Core
        ….        Dual Mode
        ….
        ….
                                                                                 Service
        ….         Handset                                                     Architecture


                                                                  GANC
                                             Tunnelled            (UMA)
                 WiFi                        IMS stack           Network
                                                                 Controller
                                              IP Access
                               RG              Network
                                                                                     IP
                                              Native IP           VoIP              Core
                 ….
                 ….                                                SIP            Transport
                 ….
                 ….                            Stack
                                                                  Server

                  SIP
        Fixed/wireless Telephone

                        ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                      Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                    30
dates
                   Traffic shaping at user site
                                             RL      EF

                                                   AF1
ITU-T                                              AF2
                                                              ASP
                                                             Access
                                             RL
                                                   AF3
                                                   AF4

                                                    BE
                                                                        Classifier
                                             RL      EF
                                                                                     Data In
                                                   AF1
                                                   AF2
                                   RL        RL
        Data Out   S                               AF3        PTA

                                                   AF4

                                                    BE

                                   RL       PPP Access (BE or AF)

                                   PTA = PPP Termination Aggregation
                                   RL = Rate Limiter
                                   S = Scheduler
                       ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                     Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                                      31
dates
                Summary of Work in SG13
        •   Y.2001: NGN Overview
            • NGN Definition, Characteristics & Subject Areas
ITU-T
        •   Y.2011: General Reference Model
            • Identify high-level paradigms
            • Separation of concerns, services from networks
            • Identify emerging NGN-generic issues
            • Architectural principles
            • OSI model relevance
            • G.805 relevance
        •   Y.FRA: Functional Requirements & Architecture
            • Service control functions
            • Transport control functions
            • Mobility management functions
            • Wireless and Fixed access
            • IMS positioning
            • Multi-terminal/multi-QoS Home Gateway
                  ITU-T Workshop on NGN (jointly organized with IETF)
                                Geneva, 1-2 May 2005                    32
dates

				
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Description: Retail Industry and Usage of Accounting Principles document sample