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					             CORNELL
             POULTRY POINTERS
              Cornell Cooperative Extension

              Vol. 52, No. 1, January 2002              Barb Smagner, Managing Editor




                 MARK YOUR CALENDARS FOR
                 THE 2002 CORNELL POULTRY
                        CONFERENCE
                 The 2002 Cornell Poultry Conference will be held June 19th at the Ramada
              Inn, Ithaca, NY. The pre-conference symposium entitled, “Managing modern
              layer strains for productivity and profitability - how a producer should
              decide strain selection.” Strains included are: DeKalb White, Shaver White,
              Bovans, Hy-Line W98 and ISA White.

              The Poultry Conference topics will include:
              Bio-terrorism and the poultry industry, industry consolidation - what is
              the outlook for small farm egg operations? What do they need to do to
              survive the difficult cycles?
              Animal welfare regulations in the European community: What are they,
              how did they come about, and what are the long-term implications?
              What was learned when an egg processing plant burned and there were
              200,000 hens on production.
              Mycoplasma synoviae, avian influenza, virus-induced immunosuppression,
              nutritional problems on commercial pullet and egg laying farms.
              Investigation on egg cholesterol.
              Composing poultry manure at Adams’ Egg Farm in NYS.
              Pest management.




   CONTENTS
1) Mark your calendars for the 2002 Cornell Poultry Conference
2) Ezra Cornell: An excellent poultry breeder
3) Changing concepts for housing and equipment
6) Animal welfare activities
6) Developments in research
2 POULTRY POINTERS



                                         E. Rice was the first College worker,      was primarily interested in breeding
EZRA                                     in the USA, to present a course            fancy chickens, so that they would
CORNELL: AN                              dedicated entirely to poultry (1891).
                                         He created the Department of
                                                                                    be recognized at Exhibition Poultry
                                                                                    Shows as being the best to meet the
EXCELLENT                                Poultry Husbandry in 1907. A similar
                                         department had been established in
                                                                                    specifications for the given breed
                                                                                    and variety. These requirements
POULTRY                                  Ontario in 1894, and Professor W. R.       were organized by The American
                                         Graham took control in 1899.               Poultry Association, at a meeting in
BREEDER                                    This was before the science of           Buffalo (February 1873). This
                                         Genetics (Mendelian) had become            Association of people involved with
Poultry breeding is an art and           known. Gregor Mendel reported              breeding chickens for, or judging
science used by man to guide             (1865) his observations, dealing with      them at, Poultry Shows soon
evolution, as used for all species of    crosses of varieties of garden peas        published the first “American
domesticated animals, so that            that differed in a variety of traits, to   Standard of Excellence” in 1874.
poultry could be better able to meet     the Natural History Society of Brunn,      Subsequently the revised editions
the needs, desires, or interests of      Austria, a city now known as Bruno         were entitled “Standard of
humans.                                  in the Czech Republic. These findings      Perfection”, dedicated to the
   Chickens were domesticated from       were not brought to public scientific      improvement of purebred domestic
the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus)      knowledge until 1900. They were            fowl. Ezra was also the president of
about 4,000 years ago in India. There    found and reported on by three             the Cornell Incubator Company.
is now evidence that domestication       European plant breeders (de Vries             A footnote, by the Editor, to the
had also occurred 3,400+ years           in Holland, von Tschermak in               article on “Breeding White
earlier in China. The evidence found     Austria, and Correns in Germany).          Leghorns” states: “The above article
in China indicated that the              Similar findings had already been          was written by the late Ezra Cornell
domesticated birds were larger than      made and recorded in chickens by           for the first edition of “The
those in the south. They gave origin     W. Bateson in England, who was             Leghorns”, and being of such
to what is now known as the Asiatic      crossing fowls with different types        instructive merit is reprinted in the
Class of chickens, which includes        of combs. His studies had started in       present edition. As Mr. Cornell was
the Brahmas, Cochins, and                1898 but were not officially reported      one of the most careful, intelligent
Langshans.       Birds of this type      until given at the Royal Society of        and conscientious breeders of White
produced brown-shell eggs and            London Meeting in December 1901.           Leghorns of his day, the advice on
played a major role in the selective     Had the findings of Mendel not been        the correct mating of Single Comb
breeding used to create the              reported upon at that time, the basis      White Leghorns so clearly presented
American Class of chickens. Those        of heredity, as already established in     by him should prove not only
of the Mediterranean Class               animals (chickens), would likely           interesting but valuable to all
(Leghorns, Anconas, Minorcas) are        have become known as Batesonian            breeders of this popular variety”.
smaller in size and produced white-      Genetics.                                     For the American Class, the
shell eggs. These are likely to have       Thanks for help from the Kroch           Plymouth Rock and Dominique
come from the domesticated               Library, it was found that the Ezra        breeds had been accepted by the
population moved west from India.        Cornell, who was breeding chickens         American Poultry Association at its
   In a publication, “The Leghorns”,     for exhibition purposes, was a             first meeting in 1874 as already
edited by J. H. Drevenstedt and          grandson of the founder of the             developed in the USA. In 1883
published in 1911, obtained by me        University. He lived in Ithaca and         another breed (Wyandotte, silver-
in the mid-20’s while learning how       had the “Valley View Farm” on the          laced) was accepted. Attempts had
to judge chickens in a 4-H club, there   west-hill area, but died in 1902. Thus,    been made to develop another breed
were two articles by Ezra Cornell.       essentially, all his work and              that could be competitive with the
These dealt with “Breeding White         accomplishments had been done              long existing Plymouth Rock, first
Leghorns to Standard Requirements”       before genetics became a science.          exhibited at America’s first poultry
and “Buff Color Breeding Problems”.        He was one of the first to graduate      show, held at Boston, Massachusetts,
Nothing in the publication provided      from Cornell University in Electrical      1849. Several different types of
any evidence who or where Ezra           Engineering (1887) and soon had a          chickens had been involved, starting
Cornell was, except that he was          position in New York (City) where          in the 1860’s, in crosses that
likely in central New York.              he was exposed to the severe blizzard      eventually gave rise to the type called
   Cornell University was founded        of 1888 that led to a health problem.      “Wyandotte”. Many breeders in
in 1865 by an Ezra Cornell and in its    Thus, he returned to Ithaca and            New York State had made crosses
Agricultural section Professor James     became involved with chickens. He          that involved Buff Cochins, Brahmas,
                                                                                                  POULTRY POINTERS 3



Spangled Hamburgs, Sebright              later considered the Eastern Strain      1904. It also became one of the
Bantams, and French Breda.               of the Partridge Wyandotte. A very       greatest of the domestic fowls; as
  Different types of comb were           similar Western Strain had been          egg producers there were none
present: rose ex Hamburgs, pea ex        developed in Wisconsin. They were        better. They laid well, if not better,
Brahmas, single ex Cochins as also       accepted by the American Poultry         than Single Comb White or Buff
were feathered shank and yellow          Association as one new variety in        Leghorns. Their eggs were larger
skin ex Brahmas and Cochins vs           1901. Ezra wanted the new variety to     than those of Cochins and other
white skin and black (blue) shanks       be named as the Golden Penciled so       Wyandottes. They also had
ex Hamburgs. Thus a variety of           that it would be similar to the name     remarkable fertility.
differences were initially present and   of Silver Penciled that they were           A quotation: “No one exhibitor at
available for consideration by the       using for another type he and G. H.      the poultry shows in New York ever
breeders. The Wyandotte, as finally      Brackenbury had also created. The        captured as many prizes and in some
accepted, had to have rose comb,         Silver Penciled variety was accepted     instances his exhibits captured nearly
yellow skin, and no feathers nor         in 1902. As quoted on page 705: “The     all first prizes.” Had Ezra survived,
pigment on the shanks or toes. It’s      Eastern Breeders, under the              it is quite possible that he might
name was proposed by F. A.               leadership of Ezra Cornell, were loud    have joined Professor Rice at the
Houdlette, from Massachusetts,           in their claim that the name be          Poultry Department to teach
because the new breed was created        Golden Penciled Wyandotte.”              students how to breed chickens. His
in the area of New York and                In both varieties the feather has      proven procedure, that apparently
Michigan originally controlled by        three or more pencilings (black          also included traits of importance to
the Wyandotte Indians.                   pigment) that are distinct in sharp      the developing poultry industry (egg
  The shape and size of the chicken      contrast to the ground color, reddish    production, egg size, and
is what the American Poultry             or silver. The pencilings are regular    reproduction), was used by many
Association uses to recognize a          in shape, uniform in width, and          breeders of commercial chicken
breed. Within a breed there can be       conform to the contour of the feather.   during the early part of the 20th
many differences in plumage color        The pencilling came from the             century.
or pattern. A variety is issued by the   Partridge Cochin.                                                      R. K. Cole
American Poultry Association to            The Eastern Strain of Partridge               Department of Microbiology and
recognize a specific color or pattern.   Wyandottes had been developed in                                    Immunology
These are the traits used by the         New York State by Brackenbury and                 College of Veterinary Medicine
breeders to create true-breeding         Cornell. In the process some birds                            Cornell University
populations within a given breed         that had some silver feather were
that will be recognized as a variety.    observed, so Ezra wanted to develop
  The number of varieties per breed,     a Silver Penciled variety. He began
that have been accepted by the           by mapping out a plan for the crosses
American Poultry Association,            necessary to reach the objective. He
varies from one (New Hampshires,         kept detailed records of what was        CHANGING
Rhode Island Whites, Delawares) to       involved. A quote from E. G.
many (7 Plymouth Rocks, 9                Wyckoff: “The known ancestry             CONCEPTS
Wyandottes and Cochins, and 13 Old
English Games). Breeders of bantam
                                         certainly adds flavor to the fancier’s
                                         enthusiasm, and the lineage of very
                                                                                  FOR HOUSING
breeds have, often, more varieties:
12 Modern Games, 13 Cochins, and
                                         few varieties can be so truly traced
                                         as that of the Silver Penciled
                                                                                  AND
19 Old English Games. A variety          Wyandotte”.
                                           E. G. Wyckoff had been intimately
                                                                                  EQUIPMENT
within a given breed may require a
specific type of comb. In Leghorns, 6    associated with Ezra Cornell in          (THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION
of the 16 varieties have rose combs      business enterprises and the poultry     WAS PRESENTED AT THE PACIFIC
but plumage color and pattern the        industry for 6 years, including work     EGG AND POULTRY ASSOCIATION
same as for 6 of the single-comb         on the Silver Penciled Wyandottes.       CONFERENCE, MONTEREY, CA,
varieties. Likewise, the two varieties   Thus, he purchased the farm and all      MAY 10, 2001, BY JOHN GINGERICH,
of Rhode Island Reds vary only in        the chickens. He was the one who got     WEGMANS EGG FARM, WOLCOTT,
type of comb.                            the American Poultry Association to      NY.)
  In “The Poultry Book”, Vol. II:        accept this type of a chicken as a new
699-701, 1904, there is a reprint of a   variety in 1902. A hen from this         In approaching this issue, I would
letter from Ezra Cornell to T. E. Orr    population won first prize at the        like to start by sharing my personal
concerning the Golden Penciled type,     Madison Garden Poultry Show in
4 POULTRY POINTERS



views on animal welfare issues that        that UEP commissioned a Scientific         give the chickens. The reality is that
our industry is working at currently.      Advisory Committee for Animal              we also deal in perceptions, and those
I was born and raised on a dairy           Welfare, and in response to the            perceptions affect our futures.
farm, learning to care for animals at      recommendations given by that                 I would next like to talk about the
a very young age. I transitioned into      committee, has released its 2000           company I work for - its core values,
poultry when I finished school, and        edition of Animal Husbandry                and the foundational principles
have been associated with this             Guidelines for U.S. Egg Laying             which are guiding the way we are
industry for over 32 years. There          Flocks.                                    responding to these issues.
has never been a time since I was a           Antagonists of animal agriculture       Wegmans Egg Farm is a division of
child - even when I was in school -        have tried to paint the picture that       Wegmans Food Markets - a privately
that I have not been responsible for       advanced farming (a more                   held regional supermarket chain
the care of production animals. I          appropriate phrase than “factory           with 60 stores in New York,
was brought up having impressed            farming” which activists have tried        Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.
upon me that the care of animals           to impose upon us) cares only about        Wegmans operates its own egg farm
and the land was an honorable              profits, and that profits are inherently   in order to ensure that it is providing
profession. I still consider it a sacred   opposed to proper care of animals.         its customers with the best possible
trust.                                     Those of us who care for those             consistent quality product. Wegmans
  Until recent years, our society          animals know that viewpoint is             is a premier grocery merchandiser
overwhelmingly accepted that               overwhelmingly distorted. Yes,             who goes to great lengths to provide
farmers predominately behaved              sadly, there have been a few               outstanding customer service, which
with an acceptable level of integrity      operators who have treated their           includes variety, prepared foods,
in how they cared for their animals,       animals badly, but few of them stay        quality, food safety, how to prepare
and showed little concern about how        in business long. Animals are              foods at home, and being responsive
their food was being produced.             productive in direct relationship to       to customer needs and wants. Of
However, persons with a whole              the quality of their care, and only        course, this all functions in a cost
different philosophical perspective        highly productive animals are              competitive marketplace.
regarding the role of animals in           profitable. Advanced farming makes            In helping to facilitate these goals,
relationship to humans have become         use of an ever-increasing body of          Wegmans encourages customers to
increasingly activist in promoting         knowledge to increase animal well-         communicate with the company
their agenda for animal rights. One        being, productivity, and profitability     throughitsConsumerAffairsDepartment.
of their tactics (with the underlying      in direct relationship to each other.      As a result, we frequently interact with
purpose of promoting not using                That said, there is one issue (more     customers regarding their concerns
animals for food) has been to raise        than any other we are faced with)          and expectations around a variety of
questions about how farmers care           that I feel that profit vs. optimum        issues - everything from quality
for their animals. Misinformation          care (within certain constraints) is       complaints to questions about egg
has been intentionally or ignorantly       on a collision course, and that is bird    nutrition, how to prepare eggs,
presented in many media forms to a         stocking density. There is no question     environmental concerns, what we feed
society which is largely urban and         that, up to a certain point (which         our chickens, how we care for them
not well informed of the facts.            varies between farm situations),           and so forth. This places us closer to
Pressure has been placed upon              there is more return on investment         the consumer than perhaps most
retailers of food to assure the            in going to higher stocking densities      farms are, and we frequently get to
humane treatment of the animals            for laying hens. In doing so,              deal with sensitive issues. It is very
utilized in the food they sell, or to      performance per hen declines which         important from a marketing
not sell food of animal origin at all.     in my mind is also indicative of bird      standpoint that our farm presents a
  As a result, we, who are the             well-being. In the past, the line which    positive image for the company.
caretakers of these animals, are being     I personally have refused to cross is         In providing what consumers
placed under a scrutiny in a way           a stocking density of less than 53 sq.     want, Wegmans works from three
that is relatively new to us. We are       in. per bird. In addition to the bird      basic principles. First, we give all
needing to re-evaluate every detail        performance correlation, I have            customers the very best we can from
of how we care for our animals, not        found in the many tours that I have        a quality and food safety standpoint.
only for appropriate ethical reasons       given to persons without poultry           For example, we set our check
(yes, I think that proper care of          backgrounds that the single most           detector for very low check tolerance,
animals - their welfare - is an ethical    common comment involving                   maintain all points of quality to the
one), but also for the marketability       negative perceptions that they have        degree that all our retail packs are
of our products. It is for these reasons   is the small amount of space that we       AA, have invested in a cooler that
                                                                                                    POULTRY POINTERS 5



permits very rapid cooling through       bird eggs, and eggs produced               in any housing system).
high air velocity at 40 degrees F,       without using animal origin feed              Induced molting is a practice that
regularly monitor each flock for         ingredients for those persons, who         we have generally not followed
Haugh units and specific gravities,      for personal reasons, do not want to       industry direction. The only times
use extensive vaccination programs       use our conventional eggs.                 that we use it is if we need to
to reduce the impact of respiratory         Using these principles, this is how     reschedule a flock because of
challenges, are in New York’s egg        we are approaching the animal              construction or a growing
quality assurance program, and           welfare issue. We have (as long as it      availability situation. There is no
vaccinate for SE even though we          has been in place) used UEP’s Animal       doubt in my mind that the way
have never had a positive test on the    Husbandry Guidelines for laying            molting is generally induced is
farm since we started testing eleven     flocks as our operational guideline.       stressful to the birds. Because of the
years ago. Those things cost us          We see the 2000 edition as a               image issues associated with that,
money to do, but we are committed        watershed-operating document for           we have very closely examined the
to not cutting corners in these areas.   our industry. We feel that it              economics around molting. I have a
Our customers expect nothing less        represents a careful study that            computer program which permits
from us. Our second principle is that    balances legitimate concerns with          me to analyze the net profits
science will prevail over the popular    science-based recommendations.             thoroughly. I have run hundreds of
sentiment of the moment if there is a    Wegmans feels that it is indefensible      scenarios which involve sequential
conflict between the two as long as      when interacting with our customers        flocks for a period of years,
there is a distinct advantage in         to not be able to honestly say that we     determining ROI on an average
staying with our current practice.       are following those guidelines. In         weekly basis. My analysis indicates
One example of this is the concern       fact, we feel so strongly about it that    that whether molting is economically
some customers have had over our         we will (as far as existing facilities     valuable or not depends primarily
usage of meat and bone meal. Unless      permit) be fully in compliance with        on two factors - market value of eggs,
science shows its usage in poultry       the UEP 2012 timeline goal by the          and bird productivity. The lower the
represents a food safety concern, we     end of 2002. We do so understanding        value of eggs, and the lower the rate
will still take advantage of its         the economic implications. I have          of production, the clearer the
benefits. The third principle we         examined UEP’s projected cost              advantage molting has from an
operate by is that we will give our      numbers, and have run my own               economic standpoint. Clearly, there
customers options if possible if they    profiles for our operation. While I        is no one standard answer for all
want alternatives to our primary         am not free to discuss our own             farms on this one. In our case, over
product. An example that bridges         estimated numbers, I feel that UEP is      the long haul, there is very little
both last principles was when            not far off - perhaps the real increased   economic advantage for the practice.
environmental concerns about             cost of production may not be quite        With that being the case, I prefer to
polystyrene egg cartons was a hot        as high as they estimate.                  stay away from molting for image
topic. Our assessment was that there        I would like to comment on a few        purposes, at least at this point. When
was not sufficient legitimate            key issues that were examined in the       I last did molt a flock, however, I
scientific reason to change away from    recommendations. First, I see beak         tried a program that involved feed
those cartons (which had many            trimming, for the most part, a             restriction, but not total feed
positive benefits to us). As an          necessary procedure for the                withdrawal. While it took about one
alternative, we offered eggs on          foreseeable future for the well-being      week longer to get to zero
display in flats, providing empty        of the birds. I observe 7-10 day beak      production, the flock performed well
cartons that they could pack their       trimming, and see little evidence that     on its second cycle. If I molt again, I
own eggs into and return them in the     the bird suffers from the procedure.       will use that program, because the
future to re-use again themselves.       The birds will eat and drink               birds were clearly less stressed
That entirely defused the issue for      immediately after it is done, and          during the molt.
the small minority that was              continue doing so. If they will eat           Stocking density per bird is the
concerned about the issue while          feed which has sharp edges on the          adjustment that we are most focused
allowing the vast majority of our        ground corn in it, I question how          on at this point. At the end of this
product to be handled in what we         much pain they are experiencing.           year, our farm average stocking
felt was the best way. Now that this     Even if there is a bit of temporary        density for layers will be 65.5 sq. in.
seems to be a dead issue, we no          pain, it certainly is nothing compared     per bird. By the end of 2002, it will be
longer do so, and no one is expressing   to being attacked by an untrimmed          74 sq. in. per bird. This is new and
concern. We offer two nutritionally-     neighbor which has cannibalistic           uncharted territory for us. We
enhanced eggs, organic eggs, floor       instincts (and yes, that will happen       definitely will need to make some
6 POULTRY POINTERS



management adjustments, but if the          risk of finding ourselves being            auditing as part of a retailer’s
first flocks are any indication, I think    imposed with regulations that may          (supermarket’s or chain restaurant’s)
we are going to be pleasantly               have less to do with good science than     purchasing specifications so these
surprised with bird performance. I          with misguided zeal. Additionally, I       documents will need to be updated
think that UEP may be conservative          believe that the marketplace will insist   to be more quantitative. We
in what they are projecting for bird        that we respond. McDonald’s                anticipate that some of the
performance improvements. One of            requirements is evidence, and I            quantitative standards that will
the reasons I think this is that we         believe that many more will follow.        result from this process will have a
have historically had some flocks           If we are following recommended            significant impact on animal
that were housed at 60 sq. in. Our          guidelines, we will be in a much           production, but that the improved
numbers comparing 53 sq. in. vs. 60         better position to market our              welfare standards will benefit the
sq. in. show more advantage in that         product. It certainly looks risky in       industry and its public image in the
increased space than what UEP               making moves that will increase cost       long run. For example, the United
published. I have analyzed 75 flocks        of production, but I feel that in this     Egg Producers have accepted a
on our farm over a 10-year period           case, the risk takers will be rewarded.    higher square footage for caged
(45 flocks at 53 sq. in., 30 flocks at 60   Our company intends to lead the            layers. The actual numbers and how
sq. in.). 60 sq. in. out-produced 53        way.                                       they will be implemented are still
sq. in. by 7 eggs per hen housed to 75                                                 being discussed, but with many of
weeks. They ate only .1# per 100                                                       the supermarkets and chain
birds/day more, resulting in                                                           restaurants likely to require
improved feed conversion of .07#/                                                      adherence to the agreed upon
doz. eggs because of better                                                            numbers, the impact will be
production. Another interesting                                                        significant and the process will, of
thing that isn’t being talked about a       ANIMAL                                     necessity, have to proceed at a
lot, but maybe should be, is birds per
cage. We have some houses that have         WELFARE                                    reasonable pace.
                                                                                                            J. M. Regenstein
had 6 birds per cage at 53 sq. in., and
others with 9 birds per cage at the
                                            ACTIVITIES                                           Department of Food Science
                                                                                                          Cornell University
same space per bird. The 6 bird cages
produced 6 eggs per bird to 75
weeks more than the 9 bird cages.           The Food Marketing Institute, the
   As new facilities are constructed,       major trade association of the
design issues will certainly be             supermarket industry, and the
impacted by these issues. Optimum           National Council of Chain
cage configuration, feeder space,
head space, cleanliness, and air
                                            Restaurants, a unit of the National
                                            Retail Federation, have created a
                                                                                       DEVELOPMENTS
quality will be driving forces in           professional third-party Animal            IN RESEARCH
design as well as environmental             Welfare Advisory Committee. This
impact issues. We have just                 committee of mainly academics, of          The following articles are extracts of
completed a new pullet house, and           which I am a member, is working            papers which were presented at the
the design we chose definitely              with the various production                annual meeting of the Poultry Science
included features to maximize bird          agriculture trade associations to          Association, July 2001, in Indianapolis.
comfort.                                    develop a set of guidelines for animal
   I believe that our industry is at a      welfare that can be quantitatively         * Kim and Lee (Chungnam University,
crossroads on the animal welfare            measured by independent third              South Korea) conducted an experiment
issue. UEP has taken outstanding            party auditors. Our first effort was       to determine the nutritional value of
leadership in commissioning an              to identify what such guidelines           high oil corn (HOC) as compared to
excellent study, and publishing             should look like and how the               normal corn in an experiment with
recommendations. If the industry            guideline should relate directly to        laying hens. The period of
acts upon these recommendations, I          the auditing function. Although most       experiment was 15 wk and ISA-
think that we have an excellent             production agriculture groups have         Brown layers were used in the
opportunity to be in a proactive            animal welfare guidelines, many of         experiment. The experimental diet
position. Failure to do so may help         the suggestions in the current             consisted of: 1) a corn-soy diet
to further radicalize and expand            documents are too general and do           containing normal corn, 2) a corn-
activism. There could be increased          not lend themselves to outside             soy diet in which the HOC was
                                                                                                   POULTRY POINTERS 7



substituted with normal corn, but        cracks were not influenced by dietary      control diet plus phytase and
the diets were maintained isocaloric,    treatments. Also, free access to           Eggshell-49. The control diet
and 3) a diet similar to treatment 2,    mussel shell did not have a beneficial     contained 0.17% NPP, 3.75% Ca, 51
but HOC was replaced on an equal         effect on performance and shell            ppm Mn, 60 ppm Zn and 8 ppm Cu.
weight basis with normal corn and,       quality.                                   Feed intake during the period of
consequently, it contained a higher         *Faria et al. (Faculdade de Zootecnia   experiment (52 wk) were not
energy value. Two metabolism             e Engenharia de Alimentos, SP, Brazil)     influenced by diets, but it was
studies were conducted with              conducted an experiment to                 linearly influenced by the age of
roosters and laying hens to              determine the effect of vitamin D and      housing. Hens housed at 16, 17, and
determine the energy content of          vitamin C on performance and shell         18 wk of age consumed 104, 105, and
HOC. The HOC used in this study          quality of laying hens.             The    107 g feed/day, respectively. Egg
had 94% more oil than the normal         experiment involved a 2 X 3 factorial      production during 52 wk of the
corn (6.6% as fed-basis). The GE         arrangement of the treatments with         experiment (average = 81.5%) was
(gross energy), AMEn (apparent           two sources of vitamin D [vitamin          not influenced by the age of housing
metabolizable energy), and TME           D3 vs Hy-D (25-OH-D3)] each at 2,756       or diets. Housing at 17 wk of age (as
(true metabolizable energy) of HOC       IU/kg diet and three sources of            compared to 15 and 16 wk) increased
were 5.7-7.7% higher than the normal     vitamin C (0, 100, and 200 ppm).           egg weight (61.6, 60.5, 60.4 g,
corn. Performance including the          Babcock B-300, at 23 wk of age, were       respectively), but reduced the
physical quality of eggs were not        fed the experimental diets for 12 wk.      average percent shell (8.93 vs 9.18
influenced by the type of diets used,    Feed intake, egg production, egg           and 9.12%, respectively). Phytase
probably because the control diet        weight and egg mass were not               significantly increased the breaking
already had sufficient nutrients for     influenced by dietary treatments.          strength of the humerus, but not the
maximum performance.              The    Feed conversion was improved in            tibia measured after 45 wk of
polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg       the presence of Hy-D when vitamin          production. The results indicated
yolk from hens fed HOC were higher       C was not added to the diets. Haugh        that early photostimulation decreases
than the normal corn.                    units and yolk index were not              egg weight and feed intake, and
   *Ruedi et al. (Swiss Poultry          influenced by the treatments, but          increases percent shell. Additionally,
Husbandry School, Switzerland)           the presence of interaction indicated      the level of NPP, Mn, Zn, and Cu in
conducted a 2 X 2 factorial              that albumen percent and yolk              the control diet were adequate to
experiment with laying hens to           percent were increased with 200 ppm        support the performance. However,
determine the effect of Eggshell-49      vitamin C. Percent shell and blood         increasing the breaking strength of
and mussel shell on performance of       total and ionic calcium were not           the humerus indicated that the level
laying hens. Eggshell-49 was used        influenced by treatments. It was           of P was marginal for maintaining
at 0 or 1 kg per ton feed and hens had   concluded that with young laying           bone strength.
no access to mussel shell or they had    hens, feed conversion can be                  *Cormier et al. (Universite Laval,
access to mussel shell on an ad          improved by Hy-D and the inclusion         Quebec, Canada) conducted an
libitum basis during the afternoon       of vitamin C was not beneficial.           experiment to determine the effect
hours. Experiments involved two             Ao et al. (University of Kentucky)      of linear increase in dietary protein
phases with phase 1 from 49 to 60 wk     conducted an experiment to                 level on performance, carcass yield
of age and phase 2 from 61 to 68 wk      determine the effect of supplementing      and health of ostriches. Sixty-four
of age. White Lohmann hens were          a low-P diet with Alltech phytase and      unsexed ostriches were used in this
used as the experimental animal. The     Eggshell-49 (an organic source of Mn,      study. The birds were fed four
feed contained 3.75% Ca during           4.5 ppm; Zn, 7.5 ppm, and Cu, 1            protein sequences from 2 to 10
phase 1 and 3.9% Ca during phase 2.      ppm) and the age of hens at                months of age. The protein
Egg production and feed consumption      photostimulation on egg production         treatments involved: 1) starter diets
were not influenced by treatment         performance. Hy-Line pullets               which contained 18 to 23% protein
during the entire experiment.            (brown egg layers) were subjected          and were used during 2 to 4 months
However, mortality for the entire        to photostimulation at 16, 17, and 18      of age, 2) grower diets which
experiment was reduced by adding         wk of age. The four dietary                contained 14 to 18% protein and were
Eggshell-49 (3.2 vs 1.8%). Eggshell-     treatments used consisted of the           used from 4 to 7 months of age, and
49 changed the egg size distribution.    control diet which was not                 3) finisher diets which contained 12
Eggshell-49 reduced the proportion       supplemented with phytase or               to 15% protein and were used from 7
of large-sized eggs and increased        Eggshell-49, the control diet plus         to 10 months of age. With the
the proportion of small-sized eggs.      11,500 ptu phytase per kg diet, the        exception of protein, each series of
Egg shell quality and percentage         control diet plus Eggshell-49, or the      diet contained equal quantities of
8 POULTRY POINTERS



the fiber, energy, methionine, and           level.                                     egg mass. Additionally, similar to
lysine. Body weight, feed efficiency,          *With public concern regarding the       the results of the first experiment,
and feed intake were measured                use of antibiotics in poultry diets, the   the concentration of Lactobacillus
throughout the trial. Live weight            willingness for use of probiotics by       spp. in the ileum of probiotic-fed
(LW), carcass yield (YC), viscera            the industry are increasing. However,      groups significantly were greater
weight, heart and liver weights, and         sufficient information should become       and the NH3 emission released from
meat yield, meat cuts yields, and            available so that the industry becomes     the fecal was significantly lower. The
meat pH and color were also                  convinced that a particular probiotic      results of a second experiment with
measured at the end of the                   or a combination of certain probiotics,    laying hens also indicated that a
experiment. Mean live BW and                 in fact, provide beneficial effect on      concentration of 104 cfu/g feed was
carcass weight were 95.15 and 55.83          performance. Kim et al. (Chonbuk           as effective as a concentration of 107
kg, respectively. Adjusted daily gain        National University, Republic of           cfu/g feed.
was 310 g and feed efficiency (kg            Korea) conducted an experiment to            *The objectives of another
weight over kg feed) was 0.16. Total         determine the influence of                 experiment by the same investigators
meat cuts yield was 40.56% of the            Lactobacillus, live yeast (Y), and its     (Kim et al., Chonbuk National
carcass. The results suggested that          mixture (L + Y) on the performance and     University, Republic of Korea) was
growing ostriches can perform                intestinal microflora of laying hens.      to determine the effect of feeding
equally well across a wide range of          Two hundred-forty ISA-Brown hens           various Lactobacillus isolated from
dietary protein without a negative           were fed six treatments. The six           broilers and laying hens on fecal
impact on performance, carcass yield         treatments consisted of: 1) a control      noxious gas and performance of
and health.                                  group (without probiotics), 2) the         broilers. Broilers were fed control,
   *Kamyab and Nikkhah (University           control plus Pichia farinosa (Y), 3)       Lactobacillus crispatus avibro 1
of Tehran, Iran) conducted an                Lactobacillus crispatus avihen 1 (LC),     (LRB), Lactobacillus reuteri avibro 2
experiment to determine the effect           4) Lactobacillus crispatus avihen 2        (LRB), Lactobacillus crispatus avihen
of protein and energy levels on              (LV) isolated from hen=s cecum, 5)         1 (LCH), Lactobacillus crispatus
performance of Hy-Line W-36. The             LC + Y, and 6) LV + Y. The probiotics      avihen 2 (LRH) at the level of 104 and
experiment involved three levels of          were used at 0.3% from 21 to 30 wk of      107 cfu/g feed for 5 wk. Broiler
energy (2,770, 2,880, and 2,900 kcal         age. Various indices of production         performance and intestinal
ME/kg) and four levels of protein            performance were periodically              microflora were measured on a
(14, 15, 16, and 17%) in a 3 X 4 factorial   measured during the course of the          weekly basis. Nutrient digestibility
arrangement of the treatments. The           experiment. Intestinal microflora and      and fecal NH 3 emission were
experimental period was from 27 to           fecal NH3 emissions were examined          measured at the end of the
40 wk of age. Egg production was not         at the end of the experiment. Egg          experiment. Weight gain of chickens
influenced by dietary protein, energy        production and daily egg mass were         fed Lactobacillus tend to increase
or their interaction. Increasing the         significantly higher due to receiving      and were significantly heavier than
dietary protein tended to increase the       either microorganisms or their             the control group at 5 wk of age.
egg weight with values of 57.1, 58.3,        combination than the control group.        Feed intake and feed conversion
and 58.5 g for 14, 15, and 17% protein.      Egg weight and feed intake were not        were not different between the
Feed intake was significantly reduced        influenced by treatments. Feed             Lactobacillus-fed groups and the
with increasing the dietary energy           conversion was significantly               control group. The total Lactobacillus
level. Feed intake per dozen of egg          improved in groups fed Y, YC, Y +          of ileum of birds fed various
was 2.5 g lower with increasing the          LC compared with other treatments.         Lactobacillus was significantly
dietary energy level. Economic               Eggshell quality was similar in all        higher at 5 wk of age, but was not
analysis showed that returns were            the strains except Y-fed treatment.        significantly different in the cecum.
less with 2,900 kcal/kg and tended to        Total Lactobacillus spp. and               The total number of yeast was
reduce with increasing the protein           anaerobes of ilium seem to increase        significantly increased from 3 wk of
content of diets. Body weight was not        greater than in LV, LV + Y, LC + Y         age in the ileum and cecum, whereas
influenced by the energy levels, but it      than other treatments. Fecal NH3           the total number of anaerobic in both
was affected by the protein levels.          emission was significantly lower in        sections of intestine started
Albumen quality, cracked and soft shell      LV, LV + Y and LC + Y than other           increasing from one wk of age. Litter
were not influenced by dietary               treatments. The results of a second        moisture of birds fed Lactobacillus
treatments. Maximum egg production,          experiment by the same investigators       was varied from 27-30%, but was
feed efficiency and lowest feed cost         confirmed the results of the first         38.3% for the birds of the control
which belonged to the diet contained         experiment and the use of probiotics       group. Fecal NH3 gas emission was
2,800 kcal ME/kg and 14% protein             increased egg production and daily         significantly decreased in groups fed
                                                                                                  POULTRY POINTERS 9



Lactobacillus. Dry matter Ca, P and      poultry diets.                           than the other groups. The duodenum
protein, fat and ash digestibility       Comments: Because in contrast to         weight (% of BW) of birds on a high-
tended to be higher in Lactobacillus-    antibiotics, the problem of resistance   energy diet was greater than those
fed group. The investigators             does not seem to be a public concern,    on low-energy diets. The villi of the
concluded that feeding various           investigation in the area of the         group fed diets without the enzyme
Lactobacillus improved performance       probiotics should receive serious        complex were shorter and more
and reduced fecal noxious gas. The       consideration for improving the          thickened than those fed the enzyme
results also indicated that the          productivity of various classes of       complex regardless of the energy
optimum Lactobacillus number             poultry. The results of the above        content of the diets. The investigators
seems to be higher than 104/g feed.      experiments are very promising with      concluded that the enzyme complex
  *In a subsequent study, the same       regard to increased egg production       increased the energy utilization,
group of investigators (Kim et al.,      and egg mass in layers and increasing    reduced the abdominal fat and
Chonbuk National University,             weight gain, nutrient digestibility      increased intestinal development.
Republic of Korea) studied the effect    and reducing moisture content of           *Ahmad et al. (Tuskegee
of two types of Lactobacilli and         fecal material and fecal NH3 emission    University and Auburn University)
Virginiamycin on performance,            due to use of probiotics. (K.            conducted an experiment to
nutrient digestibility and intestinal    Keshavarz)                               determine the effect of Allzyme
microflora of broiler chicks. Day-old      *Although many enzyme or               phytase on performance of laying
chicks were fed six treatments for 5     enzyme complexes are available that      hens. The experiment consisted of a
wk. The treatments included: 1) the      successfully can help increase the       2 X 3 factorial arrangement of the
control, 2) control plus 0.5%            digestibility of barley or wheat-type    treatments with two levels of lysine
Virginiamycin (VM), 3) Lactobacillus     diets, still, no enzyme or enzyme        (0.83 and 0.92%) and three levels of
crispatus (LC), 4) Lactobacillus         complexes are available to improve       NPP (0.4%, 0.1%, and 0.1% plus
reuteri (LR), 5) LC plus VM, and 6)      the digestibility of corn-soy diet.      11,400 units/kg diet Allzyme
LR plus VM which were                    Kang et al. (Konkuk University)          phytase). Bovans hens, 40 wk old,
incorporated into the diets. Weight      reported the results of an experiment    were used in this experiment. The
gain of groups fed Lactobacillus or      on the use of an enzyme complex          results indicated that reducing the
Virginiamycin was significantly          with the commercial name of              lysine level from 0.92 to 0.83%
greater than the control. Feed           Endopowr which contained alpha-          significantly reduced the egg weight
conversion was lower for these           galactosidase, galactomannanase,         and feed consumption, but did not
groups than the control. Feed intake     and alpha amylase, and was claimed       drop egg production. Reducing the
was significantly increased in the       that specially is formulated to be       NPP from 0.4 to 0.1% reduced the
supplemental groups than the             useful for corn-soy type diets. The      egg production, egg weight, and feed
control. Digestibility of protein Ca     experiment was conducted with 3-         consumption. Supplying phytase to
and P were increased alone or            d-old broilers. The four experimental    the negative control diet with 0.1%
combined Lactobacillus treatments.       diets in a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement   NPP significantly increased the egg
However, fat, dry matter and ash         consisted of two levels of energy        production, egg weight and feed
digestibility were not influenced by     2980 and 3100 TME kcal/kg and two        consumption and these traits were
treatments. Feeding Lacobacilli          levels of enzyme supplementation         comparable to the positive control.
tended to increase the concentration     of 0 and 0.1%. There were no             Feed efficiency of the negative
of Lacobacillus spp. in ileum at one     differences in feed intake or feed       control plus phytase was even better
and 3 wk of age and showed a             conversion. The body weight gain of      than the positive control. The
significantly higher level in cecum      the low energy group plus enzyme         investigators concluded that
than the control at 5 wk of age. Total   was significantly increased indicating   Allzyme phytase supplementation
yeast was not different at 1 and 3 wk    that the enzyme complex increased        reversed all the adverse effects of the
of age between treatments. The ileal     the energy utilization of this diet      phosphorus-deficient diet and
and cecal anaerobes started to           greatly. However, the body weight        further improved the feed efficiency.
increase from the first week of age.     gain of the group containing the           *Kamberi et al. (University of
Fecal NH3 gas tended to decrease in      higher energy level was not increased    Prishtina, Kosova, University of
Lactobacillus treatments compared        by the enzyme complex. The enzyme        Georgia, and University of Sarajevo,
to that of the other treatments. The     supplementation slightly reduced the     Bosnia and Herzegovina) conducted
results of this experiment were          abdominal fat. The relative intestinal   a 2 X 2 factorial experiment to
consistent with their previous           length (cm/BW) was lower in birds        determine the effect of adding
reports concerning the beneficial        fed the low-energy diet and was not      phytase (BASF) to corn-soybean
effect of including Lactobacillus in     supplemented with enzyme complex         laying diets with different NPP on
10 POULTRY POINTERS



performance of laying hens. The
period of experiment was for 8 wk
and Hysex Brown laying hens were
used in their experiment. The diets
consisted of 0.12 and 0.42% NPP
each with 0 or 600 units phytase/kg
diet. The performance of hens fed
0.12% NPP plus phytase was very
similar to groups fed 0.44% NPP
without phytase for egg production
(96 vs 93%), egg weight (63 vs 63 g),
shell weight (6.3 vs 6.4 g), and feed
intake (106 vs 105 g/hen/day). Hens
fed the diets with 0.12 and 0.44%
NPP utilized only 10.6 and 7.95% of
the phytate P, respectively. When
600 units phytase was added to the
diets, phytate P utilization increased
to 41.02 and 33.45%, respectively.
Both the level of NPP and phytase
significantly affected phytate P
utilization (their interaction was not
significant). The investigators
concluded that corn and soybean
meal diets contained 0.18 to 0.22%
phytate P that can be made partially
available by adding phytase to the
diet.
                          K. Keshavarz
        Department of Animal Science
                     Cornell University




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