CORNELL POULTRY POINTERS Cornell Cooperative Extension Vol. 52, No. 1, January 2002 Barb Smagner, Managing Editor MARK YOUR CALENDARS FOR THE 2002 CORNELL POULTRY CONFERENCE The 2002 Cornell Poultry Conference will be held June 19th at the Ramada Inn, Ithaca, NY. The pre-conference symposium entitled, “Managing modern layer strains for productivity and profitability - how a producer should decide strain selection.” Strains included are: DeKalb White, Shaver White, Bovans, Hy-Line W98 and ISA White. The Poultry Conference topics will include: Bio-terrorism and the poultry industry, industry consolidation - what is the outlook for small farm egg operations? What do they need to do to survive the difficult cycles? Animal welfare regulations in the European community: What are they, how did they come about, and what are the long-term implications? What was learned when an egg processing plant burned and there were 200,000 hens on production. Mycoplasma synoviae, avian influenza, virus-induced immunosuppression, nutritional problems on commercial pullet and egg laying farms. Investigation on egg cholesterol. Composing poultry manure at Adams’ Egg Farm in NYS. Pest management. CONTENTS 1) Mark your calendars for the 2002 Cornell Poultry Conference 2) Ezra Cornell: An excellent poultry breeder 3) Changing concepts for housing and equipment 6) Animal welfare activities 6) Developments in research 2 POULTRY POINTERS E. Rice was the first College worker, was primarily interested in breeding EZRA in the USA, to present a course fancy chickens, so that they would CORNELL: AN dedicated entirely to poultry (1891). He created the Department of be recognized at Exhibition Poultry Shows as being the best to meet the EXCELLENT Poultry Husbandry in 1907. A similar department had been established in specifications for the given breed and variety. These requirements POULTRY Ontario in 1894, and Professor W. R. were organized by The American Graham took control in 1899. Poultry Association, at a meeting in BREEDER This was before the science of Buffalo (February 1873). This Genetics (Mendelian) had become Association of people involved with Poultry breeding is an art and known. Gregor Mendel reported breeding chickens for, or judging science used by man to guide (1865) his observations, dealing with them at, Poultry Shows soon evolution, as used for all species of crosses of varieties of garden peas published the first “American domesticated animals, so that that differed in a variety of traits, to Standard of Excellence” in 1874. poultry could be better able to meet the Natural History Society of Brunn, Subsequently the revised editions the needs, desires, or interests of Austria, a city now known as Bruno were entitled “Standard of humans. in the Czech Republic. These findings Perfection”, dedicated to the Chickens were domesticated from were not brought to public scientific improvement of purebred domestic the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) knowledge until 1900. They were fowl. Ezra was also the president of about 4,000 years ago in India. There found and reported on by three the Cornell Incubator Company. is now evidence that domestication European plant breeders (de Vries A footnote, by the Editor, to the had also occurred 3,400+ years in Holland, von Tschermak in article on “Breeding White earlier in China. The evidence found Austria, and Correns in Germany). Leghorns” states: “The above article in China indicated that the Similar findings had already been was written by the late Ezra Cornell domesticated birds were larger than made and recorded in chickens by for the first edition of “The those in the south. They gave origin W. Bateson in England, who was Leghorns”, and being of such to what is now known as the Asiatic crossing fowls with different types instructive merit is reprinted in the Class of chickens, which includes of combs. His studies had started in present edition. As Mr. Cornell was the Brahmas, Cochins, and 1898 but were not officially reported one of the most careful, intelligent Langshans. Birds of this type until given at the Royal Society of and conscientious breeders of White produced brown-shell eggs and London Meeting in December 1901. Leghorns of his day, the advice on played a major role in the selective Had the findings of Mendel not been the correct mating of Single Comb breeding used to create the reported upon at that time, the basis White Leghorns so clearly presented American Class of chickens. Those of heredity, as already established in by him should prove not only of the Mediterranean Class animals (chickens), would likely interesting but valuable to all (Leghorns, Anconas, Minorcas) are have become known as Batesonian breeders of this popular variety”. smaller in size and produced white- Genetics. For the American Class, the shell eggs. These are likely to have Thanks for help from the Kroch Plymouth Rock and Dominique come from the domesticated Library, it was found that the Ezra breeds had been accepted by the population moved west from India. Cornell, who was breeding chickens American Poultry Association at its In a publication, “The Leghorns”, for exhibition purposes, was a first meeting in 1874 as already edited by J. H. Drevenstedt and grandson of the founder of the developed in the USA. In 1883 published in 1911, obtained by me University. He lived in Ithaca and another breed (Wyandotte, silver- in the mid-20’s while learning how had the “Valley View Farm” on the laced) was accepted. Attempts had to judge chickens in a 4-H club, there west-hill area, but died in 1902. Thus, been made to develop another breed were two articles by Ezra Cornell. essentially, all his work and that could be competitive with the These dealt with “Breeding White accomplishments had been done long existing Plymouth Rock, first Leghorns to Standard Requirements” before genetics became a science. exhibited at America’s first poultry and “Buff Color Breeding Problems”. He was one of the first to graduate show, held at Boston, Massachusetts, Nothing in the publication provided from Cornell University in Electrical 1849. Several different types of any evidence who or where Ezra Engineering (1887) and soon had a chickens had been involved, starting Cornell was, except that he was position in New York (City) where in the 1860’s, in crosses that likely in central New York. he was exposed to the severe blizzard eventually gave rise to the type called Cornell University was founded of 1888 that led to a health problem. “Wyandotte”. Many breeders in in 1865 by an Ezra Cornell and in its Thus, he returned to Ithaca and New York State had made crosses Agricultural section Professor James became involved with chickens. He that involved Buff Cochins, Brahmas, POULTRY POINTERS 3 Spangled Hamburgs, Sebright later considered the Eastern Strain 1904. It also became one of the Bantams, and French Breda. of the Partridge Wyandotte. A very greatest of the domestic fowls; as Different types of comb were similar Western Strain had been egg producers there were none present: rose ex Hamburgs, pea ex developed in Wisconsin. They were better. They laid well, if not better, Brahmas, single ex Cochins as also accepted by the American Poultry than Single Comb White or Buff were feathered shank and yellow Association as one new variety in Leghorns. Their eggs were larger skin ex Brahmas and Cochins vs 1901. Ezra wanted the new variety to than those of Cochins and other white skin and black (blue) shanks be named as the Golden Penciled so Wyandottes. They also had ex Hamburgs. Thus a variety of that it would be similar to the name remarkable fertility. differences were initially present and of Silver Penciled that they were A quotation: “No one exhibitor at available for consideration by the using for another type he and G. H. the poultry shows in New York ever breeders. The Wyandotte, as finally Brackenbury had also created. The captured as many prizes and in some accepted, had to have rose comb, Silver Penciled variety was accepted instances his exhibits captured nearly yellow skin, and no feathers nor in 1902. As quoted on page 705: “The all first prizes.” Had Ezra survived, pigment on the shanks or toes. It’s Eastern Breeders, under the it is quite possible that he might name was proposed by F. A. leadership of Ezra Cornell, were loud have joined Professor Rice at the Houdlette, from Massachusetts, in their claim that the name be Poultry Department to teach because the new breed was created Golden Penciled Wyandotte.” students how to breed chickens. His in the area of New York and In both varieties the feather has proven procedure, that apparently Michigan originally controlled by three or more pencilings (black also included traits of importance to the Wyandotte Indians. pigment) that are distinct in sharp the developing poultry industry (egg The shape and size of the chicken contrast to the ground color, reddish production, egg size, and is what the American Poultry or silver. The pencilings are regular reproduction), was used by many Association uses to recognize a in shape, uniform in width, and breeders of commercial chicken breed. Within a breed there can be conform to the contour of the feather. during the early part of the 20th many differences in plumage color The pencilling came from the century. or pattern. A variety is issued by the Partridge Cochin. R. K. Cole American Poultry Association to The Eastern Strain of Partridge Department of Microbiology and recognize a specific color or pattern. Wyandottes had been developed in Immunology These are the traits used by the New York State by Brackenbury and College of Veterinary Medicine breeders to create true-breeding Cornell. In the process some birds Cornell University populations within a given breed that had some silver feather were that will be recognized as a variety. observed, so Ezra wanted to develop The number of varieties per breed, a Silver Penciled variety. He began that have been accepted by the by mapping out a plan for the crosses American Poultry Association, necessary to reach the objective. He varies from one (New Hampshires, kept detailed records of what was CHANGING Rhode Island Whites, Delawares) to involved. A quote from E. G. many (7 Plymouth Rocks, 9 Wyckoff: “The known ancestry CONCEPTS Wyandottes and Cochins, and 13 Old English Games). Breeders of bantam certainly adds flavor to the fancier’s enthusiasm, and the lineage of very FOR HOUSING breeds have, often, more varieties: 12 Modern Games, 13 Cochins, and few varieties can be so truly traced as that of the Silver Penciled AND 19 Old English Games. A variety Wyandotte”. E. G. Wyckoff had been intimately EQUIPMENT within a given breed may require a specific type of comb. In Leghorns, 6 associated with Ezra Cornell in (THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION of the 16 varieties have rose combs business enterprises and the poultry WAS PRESENTED AT THE PACIFIC but plumage color and pattern the industry for 6 years, including work EGG AND POULTRY ASSOCIATION same as for 6 of the single-comb on the Silver Penciled Wyandottes. CONFERENCE, MONTEREY, CA, varieties. Likewise, the two varieties Thus, he purchased the farm and all MAY 10, 2001, BY JOHN GINGERICH, of Rhode Island Reds vary only in the chickens. He was the one who got WEGMANS EGG FARM, WOLCOTT, type of comb. the American Poultry Association to NY.) In “The Poultry Book”, Vol. II: accept this type of a chicken as a new 699-701, 1904, there is a reprint of a variety in 1902. A hen from this In approaching this issue, I would letter from Ezra Cornell to T. E. Orr population won first prize at the like to start by sharing my personal concerning the Golden Penciled type, Madison Garden Poultry Show in 4 POULTRY POINTERS views on animal welfare issues that that UEP commissioned a Scientific give the chickens. The reality is that our industry is working at currently. Advisory Committee for Animal we also deal in perceptions, and those I was born and raised on a dairy Welfare, and in response to the perceptions affect our futures. farm, learning to care for animals at recommendations given by that I would next like to talk about the a very young age. I transitioned into committee, has released its 2000 company I work for - its core values, poultry when I finished school, and edition of Animal Husbandry and the foundational principles have been associated with this Guidelines for U.S. Egg Laying which are guiding the way we are industry for over 32 years. There Flocks. responding to these issues. has never been a time since I was a Antagonists of animal agriculture Wegmans Egg Farm is a division of child - even when I was in school - have tried to paint the picture that Wegmans Food Markets - a privately that I have not been responsible for advanced farming (a more held regional supermarket chain the care of production animals. I appropriate phrase than “factory with 60 stores in New York, was brought up having impressed farming” which activists have tried Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. upon me that the care of animals to impose upon us) cares only about Wegmans operates its own egg farm and the land was an honorable profits, and that profits are inherently in order to ensure that it is providing profession. I still consider it a sacred opposed to proper care of animals. its customers with the best possible trust. Those of us who care for those consistent quality product. Wegmans Until recent years, our society animals know that viewpoint is is a premier grocery merchandiser overwhelmingly accepted that overwhelmingly distorted. Yes, who goes to great lengths to provide farmers predominately behaved sadly, there have been a few outstanding customer service, which with an acceptable level of integrity operators who have treated their includes variety, prepared foods, in how they cared for their animals, animals badly, but few of them stay quality, food safety, how to prepare and showed little concern about how in business long. Animals are foods at home, and being responsive their food was being produced. productive in direct relationship to to customer needs and wants. Of However, persons with a whole the quality of their care, and only course, this all functions in a cost different philosophical perspective highly productive animals are competitive marketplace. regarding the role of animals in profitable. Advanced farming makes In helping to facilitate these goals, relationship to humans have become use of an ever-increasing body of Wegmans encourages customers to increasingly activist in promoting knowledge to increase animal well- communicate with the company their agenda for animal rights. One being, productivity, and profitability throughitsConsumerAffairsDepartment. of their tactics (with the underlying in direct relationship to each other. As a result, we frequently interact with purpose of promoting not using That said, there is one issue (more customers regarding their concerns animals for food) has been to raise than any other we are faced with) and expectations around a variety of questions about how farmers care that I feel that profit vs. optimum issues - everything from quality for their animals. Misinformation care (within certain constraints) is complaints to questions about egg has been intentionally or ignorantly on a collision course, and that is bird nutrition, how to prepare eggs, presented in many media forms to a stocking density. There is no question environmental concerns, what we feed society which is largely urban and that, up to a certain point (which our chickens, how we care for them not well informed of the facts. varies between farm situations), and so forth. This places us closer to Pressure has been placed upon there is more return on investment the consumer than perhaps most retailers of food to assure the in going to higher stocking densities farms are, and we frequently get to humane treatment of the animals for laying hens. In doing so, deal with sensitive issues. It is very utilized in the food they sell, or to performance per hen declines which important from a marketing not sell food of animal origin at all. in my mind is also indicative of bird standpoint that our farm presents a As a result, we, who are the well-being. In the past, the line which positive image for the company. caretakers of these animals, are being I personally have refused to cross is In providing what consumers placed under a scrutiny in a way a stocking density of less than 53 sq. want, Wegmans works from three that is relatively new to us. We are in. per bird. In addition to the bird basic principles. First, we give all needing to re-evaluate every detail performance correlation, I have customers the very best we can from of how we care for our animals, not found in the many tours that I have a quality and food safety standpoint. only for appropriate ethical reasons given to persons without poultry For example, we set our check (yes, I think that proper care of backgrounds that the single most detector for very low check tolerance, animals - their welfare - is an ethical common comment involving maintain all points of quality to the one), but also for the marketability negative perceptions that they have degree that all our retail packs are of our products. It is for these reasons is the small amount of space that we AA, have invested in a cooler that POULTRY POINTERS 5 permits very rapid cooling through bird eggs, and eggs produced in any housing system). high air velocity at 40 degrees F, without using animal origin feed Induced molting is a practice that regularly monitor each flock for ingredients for those persons, who we have generally not followed Haugh units and specific gravities, for personal reasons, do not want to industry direction. The only times use extensive vaccination programs use our conventional eggs. that we use it is if we need to to reduce the impact of respiratory Using these principles, this is how reschedule a flock because of challenges, are in New York’s egg we are approaching the animal construction or a growing quality assurance program, and welfare issue. We have (as long as it availability situation. There is no vaccinate for SE even though we has been in place) used UEP’s Animal doubt in my mind that the way have never had a positive test on the Husbandry Guidelines for laying molting is generally induced is farm since we started testing eleven flocks as our operational guideline. stressful to the birds. Because of the years ago. Those things cost us We see the 2000 edition as a image issues associated with that, money to do, but we are committed watershed-operating document for we have very closely examined the to not cutting corners in these areas. our industry. We feel that it economics around molting. I have a Our customers expect nothing less represents a careful study that computer program which permits from us. Our second principle is that balances legitimate concerns with me to analyze the net profits science will prevail over the popular science-based recommendations. thoroughly. I have run hundreds of sentiment of the moment if there is a Wegmans feels that it is indefensible scenarios which involve sequential conflict between the two as long as when interacting with our customers flocks for a period of years, there is a distinct advantage in to not be able to honestly say that we determining ROI on an average staying with our current practice. are following those guidelines. In weekly basis. My analysis indicates One example of this is the concern fact, we feel so strongly about it that that whether molting is economically some customers have had over our we will (as far as existing facilities valuable or not depends primarily usage of meat and bone meal. Unless permit) be fully in compliance with on two factors - market value of eggs, science shows its usage in poultry the UEP 2012 timeline goal by the and bird productivity. The lower the represents a food safety concern, we end of 2002. We do so understanding value of eggs, and the lower the rate will still take advantage of its the economic implications. I have of production, the clearer the benefits. The third principle we examined UEP’s projected cost advantage molting has from an operate by is that we will give our numbers, and have run my own economic standpoint. Clearly, there customers options if possible if they profiles for our operation. While I is no one standard answer for all want alternatives to our primary am not free to discuss our own farms on this one. In our case, over product. An example that bridges estimated numbers, I feel that UEP is the long haul, there is very little both last principles was when not far off - perhaps the real increased economic advantage for the practice. environmental concerns about cost of production may not be quite With that being the case, I prefer to polystyrene egg cartons was a hot as high as they estimate. stay away from molting for image topic. Our assessment was that there I would like to comment on a few purposes, at least at this point. When was not sufficient legitimate key issues that were examined in the I last did molt a flock, however, I scientific reason to change away from recommendations. First, I see beak tried a program that involved feed those cartons (which had many trimming, for the most part, a restriction, but not total feed positive benefits to us). As an necessary procedure for the withdrawal. While it took about one alternative, we offered eggs on foreseeable future for the well-being week longer to get to zero display in flats, providing empty of the birds. I observe 7-10 day beak production, the flock performed well cartons that they could pack their trimming, and see little evidence that on its second cycle. If I molt again, I own eggs into and return them in the the bird suffers from the procedure. will use that program, because the future to re-use again themselves. The birds will eat and drink birds were clearly less stressed That entirely defused the issue for immediately after it is done, and during the molt. the small minority that was continue doing so. If they will eat Stocking density per bird is the concerned about the issue while feed which has sharp edges on the adjustment that we are most focused allowing the vast majority of our ground corn in it, I question how on at this point. At the end of this product to be handled in what we much pain they are experiencing. year, our farm average stocking felt was the best way. Now that this Even if there is a bit of temporary density for layers will be 65.5 sq. in. seems to be a dead issue, we no pain, it certainly is nothing compared per bird. By the end of 2002, it will be longer do so, and no one is expressing to being attacked by an untrimmed 74 sq. in. per bird. This is new and concern. We offer two nutritionally- neighbor which has cannibalistic uncharted territory for us. We enhanced eggs, organic eggs, floor instincts (and yes, that will happen definitely will need to make some 6 POULTRY POINTERS management adjustments, but if the risk of finding ourselves being auditing as part of a retailer’s first flocks are any indication, I think imposed with regulations that may (supermarket’s or chain restaurant’s) we are going to be pleasantly have less to do with good science than purchasing specifications so these surprised with bird performance. I with misguided zeal. Additionally, I documents will need to be updated think that UEP may be conservative believe that the marketplace will insist to be more quantitative. We in what they are projecting for bird that we respond. McDonald’s anticipate that some of the performance improvements. One of requirements is evidence, and I quantitative standards that will the reasons I think this is that we believe that many more will follow. result from this process will have a have historically had some flocks If we are following recommended significant impact on animal that were housed at 60 sq. in. Our guidelines, we will be in a much production, but that the improved numbers comparing 53 sq. in. vs. 60 better position to market our welfare standards will benefit the sq. in. show more advantage in that product. It certainly looks risky in industry and its public image in the increased space than what UEP making moves that will increase cost long run. For example, the United published. I have analyzed 75 flocks of production, but I feel that in this Egg Producers have accepted a on our farm over a 10-year period case, the risk takers will be rewarded. higher square footage for caged (45 flocks at 53 sq. in., 30 flocks at 60 Our company intends to lead the layers. The actual numbers and how sq. in.). 60 sq. in. out-produced 53 way. they will be implemented are still sq. in. by 7 eggs per hen housed to 75 being discussed, but with many of weeks. They ate only .1# per 100 the supermarkets and chain birds/day more, resulting in restaurants likely to require improved feed conversion of .07#/ adherence to the agreed upon doz. eggs because of better numbers, the impact will be production. Another interesting significant and the process will, of thing that isn’t being talked about a ANIMAL necessity, have to proceed at a lot, but maybe should be, is birds per cage. We have some houses that have WELFARE reasonable pace. J. M. Regenstein had 6 birds per cage at 53 sq. in., and others with 9 birds per cage at the ACTIVITIES Department of Food Science Cornell University same space per bird. The 6 bird cages produced 6 eggs per bird to 75 weeks more than the 9 bird cages. The Food Marketing Institute, the As new facilities are constructed, major trade association of the design issues will certainly be supermarket industry, and the impacted by these issues. Optimum National Council of Chain cage configuration, feeder space, head space, cleanliness, and air Restaurants, a unit of the National Retail Federation, have created a DEVELOPMENTS quality will be driving forces in professional third-party Animal IN RESEARCH design as well as environmental Welfare Advisory Committee. This impact issues. We have just committee of mainly academics, of The following articles are extracts of completed a new pullet house, and which I am a member, is working papers which were presented at the the design we chose definitely with the various production annual meeting of the Poultry Science included features to maximize bird agriculture trade associations to Association, July 2001, in Indianapolis. comfort. develop a set of guidelines for animal I believe that our industry is at a welfare that can be quantitatively * Kim and Lee (Chungnam University, crossroads on the animal welfare measured by independent third South Korea) conducted an experiment issue. UEP has taken outstanding party auditors. Our first effort was to determine the nutritional value of leadership in commissioning an to identify what such guidelines high oil corn (HOC) as compared to excellent study, and publishing should look like and how the normal corn in an experiment with recommendations. If the industry guideline should relate directly to laying hens. The period of acts upon these recommendations, I the auditing function. Although most experiment was 15 wk and ISA- think that we have an excellent production agriculture groups have Brown layers were used in the opportunity to be in a proactive animal welfare guidelines, many of experiment. The experimental diet position. Failure to do so may help the suggestions in the current consisted of: 1) a corn-soy diet to further radicalize and expand documents are too general and do containing normal corn, 2) a corn- activism. There could be increased not lend themselves to outside soy diet in which the HOC was POULTRY POINTERS 7 substituted with normal corn, but cracks were not influenced by dietary control diet plus phytase and the diets were maintained isocaloric, treatments. Also, free access to Eggshell-49. The control diet and 3) a diet similar to treatment 2, mussel shell did not have a beneficial contained 0.17% NPP, 3.75% Ca, 51 but HOC was replaced on an equal effect on performance and shell ppm Mn, 60 ppm Zn and 8 ppm Cu. weight basis with normal corn and, quality. Feed intake during the period of consequently, it contained a higher *Faria et al. (Faculdade de Zootecnia experiment (52 wk) were not energy value. Two metabolism e Engenharia de Alimentos, SP, Brazil) influenced by diets, but it was studies were conducted with conducted an experiment to linearly influenced by the age of roosters and laying hens to determine the effect of vitamin D and housing. Hens housed at 16, 17, and determine the energy content of vitamin C on performance and shell 18 wk of age consumed 104, 105, and HOC. The HOC used in this study quality of laying hens. The 107 g feed/day, respectively. Egg had 94% more oil than the normal experiment involved a 2 X 3 factorial production during 52 wk of the corn (6.6% as fed-basis). The GE arrangement of the treatments with experiment (average = 81.5%) was (gross energy), AMEn (apparent two sources of vitamin D [vitamin not influenced by the age of housing metabolizable energy), and TME D3 vs Hy-D (25-OH-D3)] each at 2,756 or diets. Housing at 17 wk of age (as (true metabolizable energy) of HOC IU/kg diet and three sources of compared to 15 and 16 wk) increased were 5.7-7.7% higher than the normal vitamin C (0, 100, and 200 ppm). egg weight (61.6, 60.5, 60.4 g, corn. Performance including the Babcock B-300, at 23 wk of age, were respectively), but reduced the physical quality of eggs were not fed the experimental diets for 12 wk. average percent shell (8.93 vs 9.18 influenced by the type of diets used, Feed intake, egg production, egg and 9.12%, respectively). Phytase probably because the control diet weight and egg mass were not significantly increased the breaking already had sufficient nutrients for influenced by dietary treatments. strength of the humerus, but not the maximum performance. The Feed conversion was improved in tibia measured after 45 wk of polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg the presence of Hy-D when vitamin production. The results indicated yolk from hens fed HOC were higher C was not added to the diets. Haugh that early photostimulation decreases than the normal corn. units and yolk index were not egg weight and feed intake, and *Ruedi et al. (Swiss Poultry influenced by the treatments, but increases percent shell. Additionally, Husbandry School, Switzerland) the presence of interaction indicated the level of NPP, Mn, Zn, and Cu in conducted a 2 X 2 factorial that albumen percent and yolk the control diet were adequate to experiment with laying hens to percent were increased with 200 ppm support the performance. However, determine the effect of Eggshell-49 vitamin C. Percent shell and blood increasing the breaking strength of and mussel shell on performance of total and ionic calcium were not the humerus indicated that the level laying hens. Eggshell-49 was used influenced by treatments. It was of P was marginal for maintaining at 0 or 1 kg per ton feed and hens had concluded that with young laying bone strength. no access to mussel shell or they had hens, feed conversion can be *Cormier et al. (Universite Laval, access to mussel shell on an ad improved by Hy-D and the inclusion Quebec, Canada) conducted an libitum basis during the afternoon of vitamin C was not beneficial. experiment to determine the effect hours. Experiments involved two Ao et al. (University of Kentucky) of linear increase in dietary protein phases with phase 1 from 49 to 60 wk conducted an experiment to level on performance, carcass yield of age and phase 2 from 61 to 68 wk determine the effect of supplementing and health of ostriches. Sixty-four of age. White Lohmann hens were a low-P diet with Alltech phytase and unsexed ostriches were used in this used as the experimental animal. The Eggshell-49 (an organic source of Mn, study. The birds were fed four feed contained 3.75% Ca during 4.5 ppm; Zn, 7.5 ppm, and Cu, 1 protein sequences from 2 to 10 phase 1 and 3.9% Ca during phase 2. ppm) and the age of hens at months of age. The protein Egg production and feed consumption photostimulation on egg production treatments involved: 1) starter diets were not influenced by treatment performance. Hy-Line pullets which contained 18 to 23% protein during the entire experiment. (brown egg layers) were subjected and were used during 2 to 4 months However, mortality for the entire to photostimulation at 16, 17, and 18 of age, 2) grower diets which experiment was reduced by adding wk of age. The four dietary contained 14 to 18% protein and were Eggshell-49 (3.2 vs 1.8%). Eggshell- treatments used consisted of the used from 4 to 7 months of age, and 49 changed the egg size distribution. control diet which was not 3) finisher diets which contained 12 Eggshell-49 reduced the proportion supplemented with phytase or to 15% protein and were used from 7 of large-sized eggs and increased Eggshell-49, the control diet plus to 10 months of age. With the the proportion of small-sized eggs. 11,500 ptu phytase per kg diet, the exception of protein, each series of Egg shell quality and percentage control diet plus Eggshell-49, or the diet contained equal quantities of 8 POULTRY POINTERS the fiber, energy, methionine, and level. egg mass. Additionally, similar to lysine. Body weight, feed efficiency, *With public concern regarding the the results of the first experiment, and feed intake were measured use of antibiotics in poultry diets, the the concentration of Lactobacillus throughout the trial. Live weight willingness for use of probiotics by spp. in the ileum of probiotic-fed (LW), carcass yield (YC), viscera the industry are increasing. However, groups significantly were greater weight, heart and liver weights, and sufficient information should become and the NH3 emission released from meat yield, meat cuts yields, and available so that the industry becomes the fecal was significantly lower. The meat pH and color were also convinced that a particular probiotic results of a second experiment with measured at the end of the or a combination of certain probiotics, laying hens also indicated that a experiment. Mean live BW and in fact, provide beneficial effect on concentration of 104 cfu/g feed was carcass weight were 95.15 and 55.83 performance. Kim et al. (Chonbuk as effective as a concentration of 107 kg, respectively. Adjusted daily gain National University, Republic of cfu/g feed. was 310 g and feed efficiency (kg Korea) conducted an experiment to *The objectives of another weight over kg feed) was 0.16. Total determine the influence of experiment by the same investigators meat cuts yield was 40.56% of the Lactobacillus, live yeast (Y), and its (Kim et al., Chonbuk National carcass. The results suggested that mixture (L + Y) on the performance and University, Republic of Korea) was growing ostriches can perform intestinal microflora of laying hens. to determine the effect of feeding equally well across a wide range of Two hundred-forty ISA-Brown hens various Lactobacillus isolated from dietary protein without a negative were fed six treatments. The six broilers and laying hens on fecal impact on performance, carcass yield treatments consisted of: 1) a control noxious gas and performance of and health. group (without probiotics), 2) the broilers. Broilers were fed control, *Kamyab and Nikkhah (University control plus Pichia farinosa (Y), 3) Lactobacillus crispatus avibro 1 of Tehran, Iran) conducted an Lactobacillus crispatus avihen 1 (LC), (LRB), Lactobacillus reuteri avibro 2 experiment to determine the effect 4) Lactobacillus crispatus avihen 2 (LRB), Lactobacillus crispatus avihen of protein and energy levels on (LV) isolated from hen=s cecum, 5) 1 (LCH), Lactobacillus crispatus performance of Hy-Line W-36. The LC + Y, and 6) LV + Y. The probiotics avihen 2 (LRH) at the level of 104 and experiment involved three levels of were used at 0.3% from 21 to 30 wk of 107 cfu/g feed for 5 wk. Broiler energy (2,770, 2,880, and 2,900 kcal age. Various indices of production performance and intestinal ME/kg) and four levels of protein performance were periodically microflora were measured on a (14, 15, 16, and 17%) in a 3 X 4 factorial measured during the course of the weekly basis. Nutrient digestibility arrangement of the treatments. The experiment. Intestinal microflora and and fecal NH 3 emission were experimental period was from 27 to fecal NH3 emissions were examined measured at the end of the 40 wk of age. Egg production was not at the end of the experiment. Egg experiment. Weight gain of chickens influenced by dietary protein, energy production and daily egg mass were fed Lactobacillus tend to increase or their interaction. Increasing the significantly higher due to receiving and were significantly heavier than dietary protein tended to increase the either microorganisms or their the control group at 5 wk of age. egg weight with values of 57.1, 58.3, combination than the control group. Feed intake and feed conversion and 58.5 g for 14, 15, and 17% protein. Egg weight and feed intake were not were not different between the Feed intake was significantly reduced influenced by treatments. Feed Lactobacillus-fed groups and the with increasing the dietary energy conversion was significantly control group. The total Lactobacillus level. Feed intake per dozen of egg improved in groups fed Y, YC, Y + of ileum of birds fed various was 2.5 g lower with increasing the LC compared with other treatments. Lactobacillus was significantly dietary energy level. Economic Eggshell quality was similar in all higher at 5 wk of age, but was not analysis showed that returns were the strains except Y-fed treatment. significantly different in the cecum. less with 2,900 kcal/kg and tended to Total Lactobacillus spp. and The total number of yeast was reduce with increasing the protein anaerobes of ilium seem to increase significantly increased from 3 wk of content of diets. Body weight was not greater than in LV, LV + Y, LC + Y age in the ileum and cecum, whereas influenced by the energy levels, but it than other treatments. Fecal NH3 the total number of anaerobic in both was affected by the protein levels. emission was significantly lower in sections of intestine started Albumen quality, cracked and soft shell LV, LV + Y and LC + Y than other increasing from one wk of age. Litter were not influenced by dietary treatments. The results of a second moisture of birds fed Lactobacillus treatments. Maximum egg production, experiment by the same investigators was varied from 27-30%, but was feed efficiency and lowest feed cost confirmed the results of the first 38.3% for the birds of the control which belonged to the diet contained experiment and the use of probiotics group. Fecal NH3 gas emission was 2,800 kcal ME/kg and 14% protein increased egg production and daily significantly decreased in groups fed POULTRY POINTERS 9 Lactobacillus. Dry matter Ca, P and poultry diets. than the other groups. The duodenum protein, fat and ash digestibility Comments: Because in contrast to weight (% of BW) of birds on a high- tended to be higher in Lactobacillus- antibiotics, the problem of resistance energy diet was greater than those fed group. The investigators does not seem to be a public concern, on low-energy diets. The villi of the concluded that feeding various investigation in the area of the group fed diets without the enzyme Lactobacillus improved performance probiotics should receive serious complex were shorter and more and reduced fecal noxious gas. The consideration for improving the thickened than those fed the enzyme results also indicated that the productivity of various classes of complex regardless of the energy optimum Lactobacillus number poultry. The results of the above content of the diets. The investigators seems to be higher than 104/g feed. experiments are very promising with concluded that the enzyme complex *In a subsequent study, the same regard to increased egg production increased the energy utilization, group of investigators (Kim et al., and egg mass in layers and increasing reduced the abdominal fat and Chonbuk National University, weight gain, nutrient digestibility increased intestinal development. Republic of Korea) studied the effect and reducing moisture content of *Ahmad et al. (Tuskegee of two types of Lactobacilli and fecal material and fecal NH3 emission University and Auburn University) Virginiamycin on performance, due to use of probiotics. (K. conducted an experiment to nutrient digestibility and intestinal Keshavarz) determine the effect of Allzyme microflora of broiler chicks. Day-old *Although many enzyme or phytase on performance of laying chicks were fed six treatments for 5 enzyme complexes are available that hens. The experiment consisted of a wk. The treatments included: 1) the successfully can help increase the 2 X 3 factorial arrangement of the control, 2) control plus 0.5% digestibility of barley or wheat-type treatments with two levels of lysine Virginiamycin (VM), 3) Lactobacillus diets, still, no enzyme or enzyme (0.83 and 0.92%) and three levels of crispatus (LC), 4) Lactobacillus complexes are available to improve NPP (0.4%, 0.1%, and 0.1% plus reuteri (LR), 5) LC plus VM, and 6) the digestibility of corn-soy diet. 11,400 units/kg diet Allzyme LR plus VM which were Kang et al. (Konkuk University) phytase). Bovans hens, 40 wk old, incorporated into the diets. Weight reported the results of an experiment were used in this experiment. The gain of groups fed Lactobacillus or on the use of an enzyme complex results indicated that reducing the Virginiamycin was significantly with the commercial name of lysine level from 0.92 to 0.83% greater than the control. Feed Endopowr which contained alpha- significantly reduced the egg weight conversion was lower for these galactosidase, galactomannanase, and feed consumption, but did not groups than the control. Feed intake and alpha amylase, and was claimed drop egg production. Reducing the was significantly increased in the that specially is formulated to be NPP from 0.4 to 0.1% reduced the supplemental groups than the useful for corn-soy type diets. The egg production, egg weight, and feed control. Digestibility of protein Ca experiment was conducted with 3- consumption. Supplying phytase to and P were increased alone or d-old broilers. The four experimental the negative control diet with 0.1% combined Lactobacillus treatments. diets in a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement NPP significantly increased the egg However, fat, dry matter and ash consisted of two levels of energy production, egg weight and feed digestibility were not influenced by 2980 and 3100 TME kcal/kg and two consumption and these traits were treatments. Feeding Lacobacilli levels of enzyme supplementation comparable to the positive control. tended to increase the concentration of 0 and 0.1%. There were no Feed efficiency of the negative of Lacobacillus spp. in ileum at one differences in feed intake or feed control plus phytase was even better and 3 wk of age and showed a conversion. The body weight gain of than the positive control. The significantly higher level in cecum the low energy group plus enzyme investigators concluded that than the control at 5 wk of age. Total was significantly increased indicating Allzyme phytase supplementation yeast was not different at 1 and 3 wk that the enzyme complex increased reversed all the adverse effects of the of age between treatments. The ileal the energy utilization of this diet phosphorus-deficient diet and and cecal anaerobes started to greatly. However, the body weight further improved the feed efficiency. increase from the first week of age. gain of the group containing the *Kamberi et al. (University of Fecal NH3 gas tended to decrease in higher energy level was not increased Prishtina, Kosova, University of Lactobacillus treatments compared by the enzyme complex. The enzyme Georgia, and University of Sarajevo, to that of the other treatments. The supplementation slightly reduced the Bosnia and Herzegovina) conducted results of this experiment were abdominal fat. The relative intestinal a 2 X 2 factorial experiment to consistent with their previous length (cm/BW) was lower in birds determine the effect of adding reports concerning the beneficial fed the low-energy diet and was not phytase (BASF) to corn-soybean effect of including Lactobacillus in supplemented with enzyme complex laying diets with different NPP on 10 POULTRY POINTERS performance of laying hens. The period of experiment was for 8 wk and Hysex Brown laying hens were used in their experiment. The diets consisted of 0.12 and 0.42% NPP each with 0 or 600 units phytase/kg diet. The performance of hens fed 0.12% NPP plus phytase was very similar to groups fed 0.44% NPP without phytase for egg production (96 vs 93%), egg weight (63 vs 63 g), shell weight (6.3 vs 6.4 g), and feed intake (106 vs 105 g/hen/day). Hens fed the diets with 0.12 and 0.44% NPP utilized only 10.6 and 7.95% of the phytate P, respectively. When 600 units phytase was added to the diets, phytate P utilization increased to 41.02 and 33.45%, respectively. Both the level of NPP and phytase significantly affected phytate P utilization (their interaction was not significant). The investigators concluded that corn and soybean meal diets contained 0.18 to 0.22% phytate P that can be made partially available by adding phytase to the diet. K. Keshavarz Department of Animal Science Cornell University This publication is issued to further Cooperative Extension work mandated by acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. It was produced with the cooperation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; Cornell Cooperative Extension; and College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Human Ecology, and College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University. Cornell Cooperative Extension Cooperative Extension provides equal program and employment opportunities. D. Merrill Ewert, Director. Alternative formats of this publication are available on request to persons with disabilities who cannot use the printed format. For information call or write the Office of the Director, Cornell Cooperative Extension, 365 Roberts Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (607-255-2237). This information is presented with the understanding that no product discrimination is intended and no endorsement of any product mentioned or criticism of unnamed products is implied.
Pages to are hidden for
"CORNELL POULTRY POINTERS - PDF"Please download to view full document