Species Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning On the Importance of - PowerPoint by kse10139

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									Causes and consequences of biodiversity loss in
           Sierra Nevada streams




                    Bradley J. Cardinale
          University of California – Santa Barbara
      Department of Ecology, Evolution & Marine Biology
The best of times …




        Pre-industrial: >25%   Roman empire: 22 yrs
6.5 billion and climbing …
Higher “quality” of life …
Global warming …
Nutrient loading ...




                                            Species
                                            diversity
                                 Nutrient
                                 loading




Finn et al., BioScience (2003)
Invasive species ...




                                                         Species
                                                         diversity
                                              Invasive
                                              species



Vander Zanden, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (2005)
Species extinction ...




                                                                Productivity
                                                                               Species
                                                                               diversity




Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005)
Cardinale et al., Nature (2006), Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (2007)
Multiple stressors ...
                         Species
                         diversity
           Nutrient                  Invasive
           loading                   species
Multiple stressors ...
                         Species
                         diversity
           Nutrient                                  Invasive
           loading                                   species




                                     Gross & Cardinale, Am Nat (2007)
How does nutrient loading and species
diversity interact to affect productivity?




Cardinale et al., Ecology (just accepted)
                                                                  No. species
                                                                   in stream
                         30 – 140 species


                                                                  Δ Species
                                                                   diversity
                               Nutrient
                               loading


                           0   6e-8      6e-6       6e-4   6e-2
                  1e+2

                  1e+1         PO4
                               NO3
                  1e+0
Final supply rate
             -1   1e-1
  (mmoles d )
                  1e-2

                  1e-3

                  1e-4
                           0    1e-6     1e-4       1e-2   1e+0
                                       Initial, M
                                         No. species
                                          in stream



                                         Δ Species
                                          diversity
            Nutrient
            loading
                                  0.04




Nutrient loading, log10 (M NO3)
                                          No. species
                                           in stream



                                          Δ Species
Nutrient loading, log10 (M NO3)
                                           diversity
                                  -0.47
                   Nutrient
                   loading
                                  0.04
                                                       Relative abundance


                                                                            Relative abundance
Relative abundance




                     Nutrient loading, log10 (M NO3)                                             Nutrient loading, log10 (M NO3)
                                          No. species
                                           in stream
                                             0.38

                                                        R2 = 0.50
                                          Δ Species
Nutrient loading, log10 (M NO3)
                                           diversity
                                  -0.47
                   Nutrient
                   loading
                                  0.04
                   No. species
                    in stream
                      0.38


                   Δ Species
                    diversity
           -0.47
Nutrient
                      0.03
loading
           0.04



                                R2 = 0.25
         k        
        i  k j   (1   ) k j
                      ri
bi aii  aii
             a jj 
                              a jj
                                                                       Ian Carroll
Fitness differences




                                               Diversity effect size




                           Niche differences
                                     No. species
                                      in stream
                                        0.38

                                                   R2 = 0.50
                                     Δ Species
                                      diversity
                             -0.47
              Nutrient
                                        0.03
              loading
                             0.04



                                                  R2 = 0.25
2 = 4.4, df = 7, P = 0.73
How does nutrient loading and species
diversity interact to affect productivity?




                           Nutrient loading
Multiple stressors ...
                         Species
                         diversity
           Nutrient                  Invasive
           loading                   species
How do invasive species and species
diversity interact to affect productivity?
                            No. species
                             in stream
1 – 10 species herbivores


                            Δ Species
                             diversity
                                          Invasive
                                          species
No. fish visits
                  Electrified

                       Control

                   Observation time (min)




  No. fish
                   Electrified

                          Control

                  Time spent foraging (sec)
                            5

                                                  No Fish




Herbivore richness
                            4


                            3


                            2
                                                      Fish
                            1


                                 3   4     5      6      7
                                         Weeks
                            50
                                                 No Fish




Herbivore density (# m-2)
                            25


                                                      Fish

                            0
                                 3   4     5      6      7
                                         Weeks
              Algae (log10 mg chl-a cm-2)
          0
                                        1




Fish
No fish
                                                            fish 
                                                            algae




Invasive effect size
                                                            fish 
                                                            algae


                       1       3       5        7       9

                           Herbivore species richness
                                                                            fish 
                                                                            algae




                Invasive effect size
                                                                            fish 
                                                                            algae


                                       1       3       5        7       9

                                           Herbivore species richness
Carolyn Kurle
How do invasive species and species
diversity interact to affect productivity?




                          few species     many species

                              Diversity of invaded
                                  ecosystem
Conclusions ...
                     Species
                     diversity
          Nutrient               Invasive
          loading                species
State of the planet ...




     National Institute of Health   $28 billion yr-1

     NASA                           $16 billion yr-1

     National Science Foundation    $ 3 billion yr-1
        Environmental biology       $107 million
                                          Species
                                          diversity
                               Nutrient               Invasive
Margaret Palmer Walter Dodds                          species
Univ. Maryland  Kansas State   loading
Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Lab (SNARL)
Acknowledgements ...

Lab Members (current & past):
    Lindsey Albertson, Danuta Bennett, Marc Cadotte,
    Ian Carroll, Pascale Goertler, Josie Hardy, Lauren
    Koenig, Kristin Matulich, Ariel Miller, Rachel
    Shulman, J.J. Weis

Other Collaborators:
    Diane Srivastava, Univ. British Columbia
    Emmett Duffy, Virginia Inst. Marine Science
    Justin Wright, Duke Univ.
    Amy Downing, Ohio Wesleyan Univ.
    Mahesh Sankaran, Univ. Leeds
    Claire Jouseau, Columbia Univ.

 Funding:




 Talk available at www.lifesci.ucsb.edu/eemb/labs/cardinale/index.html

								
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