Residential Traffic Control Policies and Measures by qjk18715


									                             Residential Traffic Control Policies and Measures
                  John J. Nitzel (M),* Frederick G. Schattner (A),** and John P.Mick, Jr., (A)***

                                                                            Traffic          (ADT)    of   greater   than     3,000     vehicles   per   day
The effect    of motor     vehicle    traffic      in residential           (vpd)     (l).
areas   has   received    relatively       little     attention   by
transportation    engineers.      Yet, in many communities         it       Collector.       For this     street    the ADT typically      ranges
is perceived    by residents      as a serious problem.          The        from 800 to 3,000       vpd (l).       Collectors  provide     access
techniques    used    to   mitigate      traffic       problems   in        to     neighborhood    traffic       generators   not     served    by
residential   areas are often inconsistent.             The results         arterials.
being   a rather     uneven     set   of      traffic    management
policies where ifi many instances the choices made are                      Local    (residential)               Street.      This  street   provides
based on who “screams the loudest”.                                         access   to abutting             residential     land  uses.   Typically,
                                                                            for this    street     the       ADT ranges     up to 1,000 vpd (l).
The purpose   of this paper is to review some of the
issues associated   with traffic management       in residen-               The neighborhood      traffic    control  problem    historically
tial areas and to develop a decision-making         framework               has occurred    in areas with street systems laid out in
and set of measures    that may be utilized     to establish                grid   patterns     (4)   but   in many     instances     includes
a uniform   set of traffic     controls   and policies    that              non-grid    systems     since   traffic    congestion     or   poor
can be implemented      in a consistent       and   effective               traffic   signal     progression     on arterials     has    caused
manner.   The   scope   of   this   study   was   limited   to              motorists   to utilize residential        streets.     The result
“passive  control   measures”    or those measures      which               is increased     vehicular    traffic    and potentially       high
require no physical modifications      or geometric changes                 operating   speeds     on residential    streets    ill equipped
to the street system.                                                       to accommodate    such conditions.

NETWORK    CONSIDERATIONS                                                   Many    neighborhood    traffic     problems    are   area-wide
                                                                            problems   rather than conditions      peculiar   to a single,
In most older,    established   communities,    the street                  limited    site    such  as   an   intersection     (5).    Some
system is laid out in a grid or rectangular        pattern.                 traffic problems     on residential    streets are symptomat-
In these communities,    there is little to distinguish                     ic of deeper problems      in urban transportation     and land
the type of route - major, collector,       local - except                  use policy    such as unbalanced      land development    which
the type of traffic controls employed and the physical                      can overtax the existing      transportation    network.    Such
improvements  provided.   If the community does not have                    problems will not diminish       unless there is a decrease
a street system plan and a continuing      street improve-                  in arterial    traffic volume or congestion,      and planning
ment program,   excess traffic    could eventually    flood                 controls are developed for the local streets (8).
all of the streets in the community    including residen-
tial streets (l).                                                           The basic     goal of traffic management          and control      of
                                                                            residential     streets    is the improvement      of living     and
When trying to resolve        these problems   and implement                environmental       conditions    in residential      areas.     The
solutions,     improvements    cannot be applied    in random               goal should not be to have a zero-sum              element,    which
fashion.     The key is traffic management.       The traffic               is someone      to be made       worse   off   so    others    could
management     plan,   utilizes    the concept  of a street                 benefit   (11). What should be the goal is a policy of
network    system,    and is critical     to a community    to              residential    traffic control which reduces non-local             or
preserve the integrity of the neighborhood,        reduce the               commuter    traffic     on neighborhood     residential     streets
potential    of traffic    accidents,  noise and air pollu-                 and   forces     or   encourages    traffic    to    stay   on   the
tion (2).                                                                   arterial road network (12).

Street    Classification     and Problem    Identification                  A   key   element     to   formulating      residential     traffic
                                                                            control decisions      is the classification       of roads based
A functional      system   of streets  can provide    for a                 on   their    intended     use   by   vehicular     traffic     (9).
graduation  of    traffic flow from the movement   function                 Focusing        traffic         reduction        measures         on
to the access     function   (l). With respect to residen-                  “critical-volume     range”    streets    is a solid     principle
tial streets,     the range of street    types are briefly                  and is based upon the development           of a network     system
defined below.                                                              (5).    Evaluation   and implementation       of safety improve-
                                                                            ments on an area-wide         basis improves      the quality     of
Principal  Arterial.  The principal  arterial   expedites                   the   arterial     network     and   discourages     the   use    of
movement  of traffic between relatively   distant points                    residential    area streets, for through travel.
in a community and typically carries an Average Daily

* Associate                                             ** Traffic   Engineer                        *** Project Manager
  Tornrose, Campbell        & Associates,    Inc.          Village   of Skokie                           CRSS, Inc.
  Chicago, Illinois,        U.S.A.                         Skokie,   Illinois,    U.S.A.                 Chicago, Illinois,           U.S.A.

                                              lTE1988    Compendium     ofTechnicalPapers/217
                                                                         be more applicable     to traffic conditions      in residential
                                                                         areas   (20).   Also, more criteria       should be developed
Solutions                                                                which provides     effective   and uniform     traffic    control
                                                                         policies   in residential    areas.    The following    sections
Jurisdictions    should have a functional            classification      discuss crite~ia     that might be applied for a range of
system   which   designates    the purpose        of each street.        traffic    control    measures.      The    least    restrictive
This   leads   to   proper    road   safety        planning    which     measure will be discussed      first.
benefits   residential    traffic  control,        and strengthens
the   hierarchical     structure   of   the        street    system,     No Control
enforces   its use, and should raise the           general quality
of the routes in a logical faction.                                      Few references      outline criteria     for intersections     with
                                                                         no control     even though    it is utilized      for a substan-
TRAFFIC     MANAGEMENT   AND CONTROL   MEASURES                          tial portion      of the residential       intersections    in the
                                                                         United    States.     In some areas      of the United      States
Considerations                                                           there    is a philosophy        that   intersections      must   be
                                                                         controlled    by signs, regardless      of conditions.      Such a
To implement    an effective     strategy  of properly manag-            policy    can    result    in over-use      of   traffic   control
ing traffic    in residential      areas it is important       to        devices,     increased    vehicle    operating     costs,   and    a
identify criteria     which can be used to systematically                disrespect,     in general,    for traffic      control   devices,
evaluate the problem.       Criteria,   to be readily usable,            which   can    lead   to increased      non-compliance,     and    a
should   be   easily    quantified     and   collected.      Five        possible increase in accidents.
factors,  or measures      of effectiveness,     were   selected
to evaluate    traffic problems in residential        areas and          It is evident that confusion prevails     as to whether   no
are discussed    below:                                                  control at an intersection     is appropriate.    There are
                                                                         no guidelines   in the MUTCD.      The result is   policies
Network   Considerations.      The  function   and   use of a            based on little research    and based more on    subjective
street, must be identified       before appropriate     control          judgement.    The following   section  outlines  guidelines
measures    can   be   effective.      The   control    measure          that may be used to determine      if no control is appro-
adopted  must   be based    on its effect     on the overall             priate.
network,   adjacent   intersections    and streets,   and upon
local demands of the intersection.                                       Network Considerations.      No Control may be used at the
                                                                         intersection   of local streets.     A street classified as
Traffic   Volume.     A study    conducted   by the   Federal            collector,   or higher, should be given priority over an
Highway   Administration    (5) indicates     that  perceived            intersecting   local street.
traffic   problems   in residential    areas varies  directly
with traffic volumes and that heavy traffic negatively                   Traffic    Volume.      Little    volume    criteria     for   the
affects   the residents’    perception    of the street    and           installation     of    No   Control     are    available     (19).
neighborhood.                                                            However,   for the installation      of Yield sign control at
                                                                         intersections,    minimum approach volumes of 750 (25) to
Accident    History.      A  knowledge    of    the    types     and     2000 vehicles    (21) per day are recommended.           Based on
circumstances    of accidents    occurring     is important        in    this information,     a total intersection       volume of 1500
the selection      of control   measures.     Number     of acci-        vehicles   per day could       represent    the maximum     volume
dents,   can be readily      used to evaluate       an existing          for no control.
situation.      In   some   communities    the    rate     quality
control   method has been utilized     since   this    compares          Accident   History.     Little data are available          concern-
both frequency   of accidents and traffic    exposure.                   ing acceptable      accident    criteria     for    a No    Control
                                                                         situation.      Possible    countermeasures       to   reduce    the
Sight     Distance.      The relative      risk  of a right      angle   existing hazard without       installing    sign control should
collision      at an intersection       is based primarily      on the   always be a first step.        If sight distance       is poor and
ability     of approaching     vehicles     on collision    course to    can be improved       then   the accident       hazard    might   be
take evasive        action.     The capability        of taking   this   reduced    significantly      with    no   control     needed.     A
evasive action is a function            of available     intersection    pattern    of   two   or   more     accidents     susceptible     to
sight distance,        approach   speed, pavement condition        and   correction    by more strict       control   probably     indicates
approach grade.                                                          that    No Control   is not effective       and merits     investi-
Speed Patterns.      Studies have shown that increases         in
speed   can   reduce   neighborhood    quality    and   property         Sight Distance and Speed Patterns.    Poor sight distance
values   (2).    Vehicle   approach   speed   is an important            on any approach creates a hazardous situation.     For all
means   of   assessing    what   controls    are   appropriate.          approaches   of an uncontrolled   intersection   the safe
Excessive   speed    can be reduced     and more    effectively          approach speed should exceed the posted speed limit.
controlled    if traffic    control  measures    are uniformly
installed.                                                               Table 1 summarizes    criteria or measures   of effective-
                                                                         ness that could be used to evaluate      if no control   is
Manual on Uniform      Traffic Control  Devices for Streets              adequate.    If any of the criteria     is not   satisfied
and   Highways     (MUTCD).    Specific   criteria   for   the           than further control may be necessary     if less restric-
installation     of traffic    control  measures   for   urban           tive corrections   such as improvement  of sight distance
residential    intersections   and roadways  are not includ-             has failed, or is not possible.
ed in the MUTCD, or other national policy manuals.
                                                                         Yield   Control
The MUTCD has no warrants for low volume intersections
and does not define what a low volume       entails   (19).              Yield signs require a motorist    by statute to yield to
The MUTCD does contain   some general criteria    for stop               motorists  on other  streets,  stopping   only  if neces-
and   yield    .       Some   transportation     engineers               sary.   A  Yield sign should be installed    at an inter-
believe that ~~~n~UTCD criteria needs to be modified     to              section where an engineering  study indicates the

                                               lTE1988 Compendium ofTechnicalPapers/218
problem        can     be     corrected           by     a    Yield     sign      (1,    30).         The      Accident     History.      Properly     installed     two-way    stop
use       of   Yield        control       is     appropriate            if:                                     control, can reduce accidents        by up to 45 percent (45).
                                                                                                               When used     in a pattern      throughout      an entire    defined
Network  Considerations.             Yield   control      should      be used                                  neighborhood,          -               control     could    decrease
at the    intersection           of    local/local       streets        or lo-                                 ‘accidents by uptw~ow~; p~~~~nt         (44, 45).      Two-way   stop
cal/collector        streets.      Adjacent     area controls            should                                control should be investigated           when a site with yield
be reviewed.         Alternate      control      should be considered                                          control    has more than three accidents            per year (46).
if a protected           street,        i.e.   collector         street,      is                               However, many stop signs could be removed and replaced
created.                                                                                                       with    yield   signs    based   upon     available    intersection
                                                                                                               sight distance     (36).
Traffic        Volume.    A range    of                        1500      vehicles      to         3000
vehicles        per day is appropriate                          for     Yield    Control          (21,          Sight  Distance    and Speed     Patterns.      A   safe approach
25).                                                                                                            speed  less   then    10 mph     warrants     the    placement  of
                                                                                                                two-way stop sign control.
Accident   History.  A history     of two accidents   per year
over a three year period       is the recommended     criteria                                                  Research   has indicated    that at unwarranted      locations,
for use of Yield     control.    These   accidents  should   be                                                 and isolated     intersections,   two-way    stop control   does
correctable    based on Yield     control   such as    right   -                                                not   reduce   traffic    volume   (37,    43).    Some   public
angle accidents or turn related accidents.                                                                      officials   see this traffic control device as a means to
                                                                                                                restrict   heavy   traffic   but no such success       has been
Sight   Oistance   and Speed    Patterns.    Available   sight                                                  noted   in residential     areas.    Table    1 summarizes   the
distance and speed patterns are important in evaluating                                                         criteria which might be used to evaluate          the need for
the need for appropriate     control.   The MUTCO recommends                                                    Stop control.
a minimum    safe approch speed of greater       than 10 mph.
The upper    speed   range where     a Yield   sign might   be                                                 Multi-Way   Stop     Control
necessary   is the posted    speed limit.    For example,   if
the posted speed limit for a residential         street is 25                                                  Multi-Way    Stop    Control   represents     one of the most
mph, and the safe approach       speed is between the range                                                    restrictive    passive    control    measures   available.     The
of 10 to 24 mph for any approach,       then a Yield sign is                                                   MUTCD and other references       (15, 23) recommend their use
recommended.     See references    26 and 27 for methods    of                                                 as a safety      measure   after    less restrictive     measures
evaluating   intersection   sight distance.       See Table 1                                                  have been tried unsuccessfully.          Multi-way   stops should
for a summary of criteria.                                                                                     primarily    be used where        the volume     of traffic     on
                                                                                                               intersecting    roadways is approximately       equal (29).    The
Two-Way        Stop Control                                                                                    following    guidelines     are available      to evaluate     the
                                                                                                               installation    of Multi-Way    Stops.
The basic purpose of stop control is to assign right of
way at intersections    where less restrictive        control is                                               Network Considerations.       Multi-Way Stop Control may be
not effective.     According    to the MUTCD,      two-way   stop                                              appropriate     at   the   intersection   of two   collector
control may be warranted     at an intersection        where one                                               streets   since    in some    instances the use of lesser
or more of these conditions      exist (17):      1) The inter-                                                control may result in delays, and/or poor intersection
section of a less important       street with a main street                                                    control.
and the normal     right-of-way     rule is ineffective;       2)
!4hen a street enters a through highway or street;            and                                              Traffic   Volume.    The MUTCD     specifies    that Multi-Way
3) An intersection    where a combination       of high speed,                                                 Stops   are warranted     if the     total   vehicular   volume
restricted   view and serious accident       history indicates                                                 entering   the   intersection    averages    500 vehicles    per
a need     for stop   control.      Following    is additional                                                 hour and the combined      vehicular    and pedestrian   volume
information   and guidelines   pertaining    to Condition 3 as                                                 from the minor street or highway must average at least
applied to residential    street systems.                                                                      200 units per hour for eight hours of an average day.

Network Considerations.     Two-Way   Stop sign control can                                                    Accident   History.    According   to the MUTCD   if five or
be used at the intersection        of local/local    streets,                                                  more accidents    in a 12-month period, the type which are
local/collector   streets,    or   local/arterial    streets.                                                  susceptible   to correction    by a multi-way  stop control,
The use of two-way     stop control    at appropriate    loca-                                                 occur, then installation     may be warranted.
tions can reinforce the street hierarchy.
                                                                                                               Sight    Distance   and   Speed   Limit.     Inadequate    sight
Traffic Volume.   A range of 3,000 to 8,000                                       vehicles            per      distance     for two or more intersecting       approaches   can
day for intersection  volume is typical.                                                                       warrant    the installation    of Multi-Way     Stop to reduce
Traffic          Network                       Traffic           Acc{dent           Sight Distance *
                                                                                                               hazard.     Table 1 summarizes   the criteria     identified   to
Control          Function                      VO1ume             History            - Minimum S.A. S.         evaluate the need for multi-stop       control.    Satisfaction
                                                                                                               of any one of the criteria is needed to warrant instal-
No Control       Local lLocal                  <1500 vpd          O-Z accidents     Posted Speed               lation if less restrictive      measures prove to be inade-
                                               intersection       per year          Limit - all
                                               volume                                                          quate.

Yield          1) Local/Collector              1,500-3,000        Pattern ~ 2       ~ 10 mph
               2) Local/Local                                     per year in
                                                                                                               Street   Usage   Control
                                                                  3 years

Two-uay        1) Local/Local                  23,000             ~ 3 per           <   10 mph                 The goal of neighborhood       traffic   management   policies
               2) Local fCollector                                year with                                    for residential   street usage is to improve the residen-
               3) COllectOrlCOl lectOr                            pattern
                                                                                                               tial environment    by directly   affecting    traffic and 1)
Multi-Way      1) Collector/Collector          See Text           ~ 5 per           < 10 mph                   PUSH   traffic   outside   a neighborhood      by restricting
                                               or MUTCO           year with         Highly restric-                                                   and 2) PULL     through
                                                                  pattern           ted visibility
                                                                                                               access   or egress    to an area;
                                                                                    on opposing                traffic outside a neighborhood       by improving   operations
                                                                                    approaches                 on the surrounding    arterials.
* Safe Approach Speed - S.A. S
                                                                                                               Problems  Associated  with  Street  Usage.   Generally,
               TABLE 1 - SUWdARY OF TRAFFIC             CONTROL VS.   CRITERIA
                                                                                                               there are three tyoes of oroblems that can be associat-

                                                                       lTE1988Compandium                    ofTWhnicalPapar.s/219
ed with   street   usage in residential      areas.    These are:             ing intersection    control, minimal traffic control
composition     of traffic, speed of traffic, and volume of                   signage,    and   minimal    driver    frustration     by
the traffic.       Pertaining    to volume,    based on studie<               locating stop signs at every other intersection        in
conducted,     there are acceptable      levels of residential                a given    direction.      In addition,    the   use   of
traffic before a problem         is perceived     to occur.     The           alternate  two-way stop signs in a residential       area
maximum   desirable     ADT for residential       streets   ranges            can help define the residential     area.
from 1,000 to 3,000 vehicles per day (3, 17).             Research
has   indicated     that   there   are specific      points   when      5.    Peripheral        Strategies:         This     strategy       at-
problems occur.      The different    levels have been defined                tempts       to      deter     non-local       traffic       from
as follows.                                                                   entering      secondary       residential      streets      along
                                                                              the    periphery       of   a    neighborhood.        The    con-
On an hourly basis, peak hour volumes of 250 vehicles                         trols     used     include     “Do   Not    Enter”     and    “No
per hour     to 400     vehicles     per   hour   are    considered           Left    or    Right     Turn”    (33).     To    be   effective
disruptive   to the residential       environment     (32).    Also,          and       self-enforcing,           peripheral          controls
200 vehicles     per hour in one direction         has been found             should     be   limited     to   intersection      of a local
excessive    for a residential         street.      Even   with   an          street       with      an     adjacent      major       arterial
ADT at a low level of 800, if a majority of the traffic                       street.        Peripheral      controls     should      not    be
is through,     residents    could    complain    (6).    A simple            used    where     the    service    level    of   an    adjacent
technique    is available      to determine      the appropriate              intersection       on   the major      highway     system    will
volume   of local traffic        which    should    occur    on the           deteriorate      beyond level “E” (12).
street    using     standard     trip    generation      data    for
residential    areas.    An average value of ten trips per              Effects.   Passive controls  are most effective  in areas
household    is used     for    most   typical     low to medium        where general respect for all types of traffic control
density areas.      The traffic generated based on residen-             is   high,  a   reasonable  expectation  of   enforcement
tial use of streets to observed volume can be compared                  exi sts, or where there is little driver resentment     of
to determine     the volume     of through     traffic    and if a      the specific device.
problem exists (5).
                                                                        One-Way     Streets
Types of Passive,  Neighborhood    Traffic  Controls.   The
function of passive   control   devices   is to command  or             There are two ways that one-way streets can be used to
advise.  Following are examples of five types:                          deter through traffic in a residential        area.    A one-way
                                                                        couple,    usually    intended    to increase    capacity,    can
1.    Access    Regulations      “Not A Thru        Street”,    “Dead   allow better street operation.           A one-way   network   of
      End”, “Local Access Only” etc. signs all have been                streets and street segments         can make travel through a
      used as regulatory         or warning      signs in various       defined     neighborhood     extremely    difficult,     if   not
      traffic situations       (5).   The “Dead End” and “Not A         impossible    (12).    Generally,   two-way streets should be
      Thru Street” type of signs can be posted on local                 made one-way only under the following conditions           (30):
      streets    at the intersection        with an arterial       or
      collector    to discourage      traffic    from using them,       1.   If it can be shown that a specific traffic problem
      even though the streets          are actually     continuous.          will be relieved    by the proposed     one-way   street
      However,    chicanery    of this type undermines        driver         system.    Examples    are:   eliminating    “cut-thru”
      confidence     in traffic      signs    and should     not   be        traffic   problems    and   turning    conflicts    with
      attempted    (3).    However,     “Local Traffic Only” and             through traffic on major streets.
      “Local    Access     Only”    types    of   signs    could   be
      effective       in     reducing      traffic      volume     on   2.   Parallel streets of suitable width, preferably   not
      residential       streets,      but    enforcement       is   a        more than a block apart, are available.     A group
      controversial      issue and there is no documentation                 of narrow   streets   can be converted  to one-way
      to their success (5).                                                  pairs   to permit   parking and better  accommodate
2.    Truck    Regulations.       Truck     routes    and    truck
      route   signing    is a well       established     practice       3.    Safe   transition    to    two-way       operation      can   be
      both   for   neighborhood     protection     and   to    keep           provided    at   the   end    points       of   the     one-way
      trucks   on streets     with    sufficient    strength     to           sections.
      accommodate     them   (5).     Al SO , weight      restric-
      tions   that prohibit     the use of a street          based      4.    A thorough     traffic   study  shows   that  the total
      on a existing       problem    is recommended       as long             advantage-s   outweigh    the disadvantages    and that
      as there are alternative      routes.                                   one-way   operation    is more   desirable   than  other
3.    Odd   Speed   Limit  and       Slow  Signs.   “Slow”,       “5
      MPH”,   etc.,  are types       of signage   that   do      not    One-way    streets     can     benefit     both  motorists    and
      reduce volume or speed.                                           pedestrians    reducing    the number     of vehicle-pedestrian
                                                                        conflicts   (30), and improving         the driver’s    field   of
4.    Stop   Signs     and    Regulatory      Speed   Limit   Signs.    vision and ability to react at intersection           approaches
      The effect      of measures       such as stop signs        and   due to fewer conflicts.         One-way streets have no impact
      speed    limit    signs     is mediocre.        Studies   show    on emergency     vehicle    access   but will cause delay and
      that    stop    signs     are    not   effeciive     as  speed    re-routing   of service vehicles       (48,50).
      control     devices       except     within     approximately
      200   feet    of    the    intersection      (2).    In fact,     Traffic volumes   in a residential  area usually decrease
      there     have     been     documented      situations    that    10 to 15 percent    when  a complete   system   of one-way
      midblock       speeds      have      increased      in   these    streets,  a one-way maze, is implemented    (51).    Traffic
      circumstances.                                                    volumes  could decrease  20 to 30 percent on the street
                                                                        that has been changed to one-way operation     (37).
      The use of alternate  two-way stopspacesign control
      is an attempt to address these problems by provid-                Depending     upon the scope    of work,    accident    hazard   could

                                               lTE1988 Compendium ofTechnicalPapere/220
be decreased.     A one-way street maze used in a defined                                                       Enforcement
neighborhood    could generally    decrease   total accidents
by as much as 30 percent.        On long contiguous    one-way                                                  The   enforcement     function   is an     integral    part    of
streets    the    accident    rate   may    increase.    Speed                                                  achieving    public   compliance  with   traffic    regulations
generally    increases   three   to five mph,     if no other                                                   and is a vital part of residential         traffic management
control devices are installed      (5).                                                                         (18).   The initial aspect of any enforcement        program is
                                                                                                                to make    sure that a proper      ordinance    is in effect.
Pavement             Markings                                                                                   Municipalities    have the authority     to adopt ordinances
                                                                                                                for control of traffic on their street systems.            Since
Pavement markings       used for residential     traffic control                                                ordinances    cannot   conflict  with   state   regulations     a
do    not    have   a   high  success    rate    but   many  have                                               review of the state vehicle code is necessary.
applications      in selected    situations.      The MUTCD   and
Traffic Control Device Handbook(36)          give guidelines  for                                               With various     traffic    control    devices   being   used  to
the installation      of pavement markings.                                                                     control residential      traffic the right of access issue
                                                                                                                has emerged.     Courts have been consistent       on this issue
Network              Considerations.       There    is   little  specific                                       (6).   Unless    access to the property        in question    has
criteria               concerning     the    application     of  pavement                                       been denied completely,       the inconvenience     suffered  has
markings              but any     use of    pavement   markings,   should                                       not   been    considered     sufficient     to   challenge    the
be based             on a consistent    pattern.                                                                diversion,     and     the     court    has    considered     the
                                                                                                                inconvenience     “an incidental     result of a lawful act”
Traffic Volume.     Modified  crosswalk markings   could be                                                     (39).
installed  at loc?tions with significant    traffic and/or
pedestrian  volumes    beyond the area norm    is the only                                                      The U.S. Supreme      Court has also removed any standing
available volume related criteria (18).                                                                         that the injured party has been denied equal protection
                                                                                                                as provided    in the 14th Amendment      of the Constitution,
Accident History.       Little data are available concerning                                                    by   stating     “A    community    may    al so  decide     that
acceptable     criteria    for   the   placement    of   pavement                                               restrictions     on   the   flow  of    outside   traffic    into
markings.     At stop controlled     intersections,    stop lines                                               particular   residential    areas would enhance the quality
could be used if it is important          to accurately     locate                                              of life,    thereby    reducing  noise, traffic     hazard,   and
where vehicles are required to stop, or if the accident                                                         litter.”      By     definition,     discrimination      against
history    implies   a need to emphasize         the stop sign.                                                 non-residents    would inhere in such restrictions        (40).
Crosswalks    should be marked at locations where there is
substantial     conflict    between   vehicle    and pedestrian                                                 While the court decisions        appear to clearly uphold the
movement    but driver     reaction    rates   are not usually                                                  authority      of     1ocal    jurisdictions       to    undertake
affected    and accident     rates for pedestrian       accidents                                               neighborhood     traffic management,       it is based upon the
are not reduced (18).                                                                                           equal   rights    issue and is not to be interpreted               as
                                                                                                                providing     blanket    power   for   a community      to    direct
Sight Distance.    Curb painting                                    (yellow paint)  can be                      traffic seemingly at will.         Residential    traffic control
utilized  to delineate   parking                                   prohibitions   if sight                      management    must use actions,      plans or devices that are
distance  is inadequate.   There                                   is no documentation  of                      thought    out,    reasonable,    consistent,     amd justified.
its effect.                                                                                                     Impacts assessed      for enforcement     must be non-contested
                                                                                                                (37).    Following    are factors which have been developed
Speed Patterns.     Modified   edgelines   attempt to modify                                                    as being important to the courts in determining             whether
driver   behavior.     Experiments    with   these    types   of                                                the exercise      of police power for residential           traffic
devices have been quite limited.       Longitudinal    pavement                                                 control management       was reasonable      and valid    (6):     1)
markings   combined   with   raised   pavement    markings    to                                                Evidence    of Need for Action       -- Harm to Residents;         2)
create an impression     of a narrow street had no affect                                                       Traffic    Survey;     3) Alternatives      Considered     or   Less
on the speed patterns.                                                                                          Restrictive      Measures     Adopted;     4)   Consequences       to
                                                                                                                Outside   Area;     5) Emergency     Vehicles;    and   6) Public
The use of various         types of pavement       markings   alone                                             Hearings.
will not result in outstanding           success.    However,  they
can serve     to convey     certain    regulations    and warnings                                              Numerous   studies    have shown that if a speed limit is
that   could not otherwise        be made as understandable        to                                           acceptable   to the typical      driver, enforcement    will be
the motorist.       They can be used to advise        the motorist                                              easier.    Police enforcement     appears to be most suitable
without   diverting    attention    from the roadway.                                                           for   treating     particular    problem   sites,   and    other
                                                                                                                methods to generally      reduce urban driving speeds should
Speed        Limits                                                                                             be investigated     (41).

Speed limit   signs used in a residential      area have no                                                     One such method is the use of neighborhood          residents to
impact on the street hierarchy or the use of the street                                                         supplement   an enforcement     program.    A majority      of the
system  (37).    Studies have    shown  that   posted  speed                                                    speeding   citations   issued    in residential     areas go to
limits on the perimeter    of defined    neighborhood  areas                                                    residents   in the immediate area.       A program identifying
did not result    in a speed reduction.       In some cases                                                     the   owners   of   alleged    speeding    vehicles     utilizing
overall speeds increased    (49).   Speed limit signs have                                                      license plate number reports can be somewhat successful
no        impact          on      traffic           volumes        (37,43,             49).           Various   in controlling     speeds.      For this    type    of    program,
communities                    have          attempted        to         reduce               residential       neighborhood   residents    report license plate numbers of
traffic            with        speed        limit    signs,    with          minimal            success.        alleged speeders    to the Police Department.          The Police
                                                                                                                Department    locates    the   vehicle    owner,    through     the
Accident   rates may increase   if an inappropriate    speed                                                    Secretary of State’s records, and writes to the vehicle
limit is posted to deter non-local    traffic.    Accidents                                                     owner requesting    safer driving practices and compliance
seem to increase as the speed differential      between the                                                     with local traffic ordinances       (42).
posted    limit   and the  desired   speed   by   motorists
increases   (37).

                                                                             ITE 1988 Compendium of Technical Papers/221
Conclusion                                                                  18.    Manual    on Uniform       Traffic      Control      Devices    for
                                                                                   Streets      and     Highways,        U.S.      Department        of
As traffic      engineers,      we have    a responsibility         to             Trans~ortation      FHWA. 1980.
preserve      the   integrity      and   quality   of      life     of      19.    Stockton, W.R., Brackett,          R.Q.,    and MOunee, J.M.,
residential      areas.       The   demand     for this       service              stop , Yield,       and No Control          at Intersections,
and    for    improved      residential    traffic    control       is             Report No. FHWA-RD-81/084,          U.S. DOT, FHWA. 1981.
growing.                                                                    20.    Welke, R.C., and Keim, W~A., “Residential                  Traffic
                                                                                   Controls”,       Compendium       of      Technical        Papers,
To respond to these valid issues and needs, this study                             Institute of Transportation           Engineers,      46th Annual
evaluated   available    “passive    control     measures”.                        Meeting,    1976.
Typically, this type of improvement   measure can be more                   21.    ITE Technical      Council Committee         4-A, “Yield Sign
readily field implemented,   and positive   results can be                         Usage and Application”,        ITE Journal, 1978.
obtained.                                                                   22.    Upchurch,    Jonathan,    E., Development        of An Improved
                                                                                   Warrant    For Use of Stop           and Yield        Control    at
The results   of the research      indicate that the key and                       Four-Legged     Intersections,     University       of Maryland,
beginning to successful     residential     traffic control     is                 1982.
the existence    of a hierarchy      classification     of roads            23.    Technical    Committee,     San Francisco         Bay Area,      An
(street   network    system)     in   a   given    jurisdiction                    Evaluation    of Unwarranted      Stop Signs, ITE, 1979.—
followed  by the implementation        of appropriate     passive           24.    Anaheim,      California,       “stop       Sign      -    Counci 1
control measures.     All of these measures        and concerns                    Resolution”,      Resolution     No.     77-R-471.      Excerpted
are   associated    with     our    primary     responsibility;                    from Reference 23.
providing for the safe and efficient         movement   of goods            25.    Concord,      California,       “stop        Sign      Warrants”,
and people -- while preserving        the proper residential                       Excerpted from Reference 23.
quality of life of local neighborhoods.                                     26.    Northwestern        University,         Traffic        Institute,
                                                                                   “Critical    Approach    Speed”, Available         in Manual of
                            Bibliography                                           Traffic Engineering       Studies, ITE 1976.
                                                                            “27.   AAA Method,     reported    in reference        29 and Traffic
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                                            lTE1988 Compendium ofTechnicalPapam/223

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