Improving Performance - Continuous Casting by gph47207

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									Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                     pyrotek

  Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                    pyrotek

                                         Page 2
                                           •	 Latest	Continuous	Casting	
                                              Technology	in	the	Modern	Casthouse	
                                              -	Improving	Performance	for	the	
                                           •	 Unique	Melt	Quality	Practices	for	
                                              Sheet	Casting

                                         Page 3
                                           •		Transfer	Launder	from	the	Filtration	
                                              Unit	to	the	Headbox/Tundish
                                           •	 Thermollite	Launders

                                         Page 4
                                           •	 Vacuum	Formed	Refractory	Ceramic	
                                              Fiber	Launders
                                           •	 Headboxes/Tundishes
                                           •	 Steady	Eddy

                                         Page 5
                                           •	 Metal	Temperature	Inside	the	Headbox	
                                              or	Tundish
                                           •	 SMT	Furnace

                                         Page 6
                                           •	 Tips	and	Component	Parts

                                         Page 7
                                           •	 Tip	Baffle	Designs

                                         Page 9
                                           •	 Graphite	Release	Agents
                                           •	 Technical	Assistance	in	Continuous	
                                              Sheet	Casting

                                         Page 10
                                           •	 Conclusion

                                         Page 11
                                           •		Pyrotek	Locations
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   Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                                                           pyrotek

                              iMPRoVing PERFoRMAnCE in
                        THE ConTinuouS SHEET CASTing PRoCESS
                     LATEST ConTinuouS                                  casting over conventional DC casting
                     CASTing TECHnoLogY in                              include the following:
                     THE MoDERn CASTHouSE                               •   Lowers capital investment cost
                     improving Performance For The                      •   Utilises less energy
                     Customer                                           •   Requires less labour
                                                                        •   Works well in smaller casting facilities
                     This is the fifth Pyrotek article in a series on
                     improving casthouse performance written            •   Avoids the need for a Hot Mill
                     for Aluminium international Today (AiT).           •   Provides a wide range of alloys and
                     The previous Pyrotek articles have included            widths
 Jonathan Prebble,
 Manager of          improving performance in: Furnace Melt
 Aluminium Process   Treatment; Casthouse Furnace Building and          In addition to twin roll casters, there are
 Technology          Repair; the Degassing Process; the Filtration      6 block casting machines in operation
                     Process, and Slab Casting Processes.               today, casting thin slab between 12-25
                     Please see the previous articles in the AiT        mm thick up to 860 mm wide. There are
                     Series at              also 12 belt casting machines currently in
                                                                        operation. These normally cast thin slab
                     This article brings us to the continuous           between 14-19 mm and a maximum of
                     sheet casting operation. It is advisable to        1930 mm wide. Hazelett has a current
                     review Pyrotek’s previous AIT articles on the      design up to 2300 mm wide. Wheel and belt
  Pyrotek has        techniques and equipment needed to meet            casters, known mainly as wire rod casters, can
                     the melt quality specifications required           also cast narrow strips up to 400 mm wide
 the expertise,      for the end product, preferably before             and 12-30 mm thick. Continuus Properzi
  technology,        continuing with this article.                      is a market leader with this type of process
                                                                        and has designs, which can produce up to
  experience         Continuous casting is the process of               21 mt/hour.
                     converting molten aluminium directly from
    and the          a furnace into a solid wide sheet. This            Twin roll casting incorporates two water-
                     article will mainly address the process of         cooled rolls and uses off-line rolling.
     global          twin roll casters, as this is by far the most      There are over 400 twin roll casters in
                     common type of continuous sheet casting            operation today, casting gauges from
  resources to       employed worldwide and shows the largest           3 mm up to 10 mm. The widest sheet width to
 maximize the        amount of market growth. The other forms           date is 2450 mm.
                     of continuous casting such as block casters,
 performance         belt casters and wheel and belt casters,           uniquE MELT quALiTY
                     have their own unique niche in aluminium           PRACTiCES FoR SHEET CASTing
     of your         production.                                        There are a couple of points to highlight
                                                                        in regard to sheet casting. Charges of solid
  continuous         Continuous sheet casting of aluminium began        remelt ingot and good clean scrap will
                     in the 1950’s and has become increasingly
 sheet casting       important in the aluminium industry. It has
                                                                        produce a cleaner melt than a charge of
                                                                        very oily light gauge scrap. Oily scrap and
                     gained the respect of aluminium producers
    systems.         worldwide. This sustained growth is due to
                                                                        light gauge scrap can increase the amount of
                                                                        oxides that are formed as well as hydrogen,
                     the economic advantages of the continuous          which is also absorbed during the melting
                     casting process when compared to the               process. Many producers of light gauge
                     conventional DC casting process. It is also        foil set an internal limit for the maximum
                     due to the improved sheet quality and the          percentage of scrap permitted in each
                     wide range of alloys that can be produced.         melting furnace charge to optimise metal
                     The economic advantages for continuous             quality.
Page 2
   Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                                                                   pyrotek

                                                                                                         has several
                                                                                                        DC casting
                                                                                                       lower capital
  Figure 1 - Schematic drawing of the typical continuous sheet casting layout
                                                                                                      less energy use,
Dwell or settling time in the holding furnace           THERMoLLiTE LAunDERS                          less labour, and
before starting to cast is essential in helping         Thermollite is a pre-formed,
to remove inclusions. The metal should                  insulating, phosphate bonded wollastonite      functionality
remain still and quiet for several hours,               refractory available in a density range of
allowing inclusions to settle to the bottom                                                              in smaller
                                                        30-45 lb/ft3 (480-640 Kg/m3). It has been
of the furnace. Charging from the melter
to the holder usually takes place about
                                                        specifically developed for direct contact          casting
                                                        with molten aluminium and its various
every 2-4 hours during continuous casting.
                                                        alloys. Thermollite provides the specific         facilities.
Although settling is very useful in removing
inclusions, additional melt treatment such              advantage of reducing heat loss in the
as in-line degassing and filtration, is often           melt transfer involving a low metal flow
required to remove inclusions caused by                 rate. Thermollite can also serve as an
such turbulence.                                        alternative to certain insulating, vacuum
                                                        formed refractory ceramic fiber launders.
TRAnSFER LAunDER FRoM                                   Although preheating is not necessary with
                                                        Thermollite, storage in a dry heated area
                                                        is recommended prior to use. Thermollite
HEADBox/TunDiSH                                         launders do not require a supporting steel
When the metal leaves the filtration unit, it           shell in most applications. It is reusable
needs to be clean and ready for the caster.
                                                        and resistant to thermal shock. Thermollite
Any turbulence in the melt after leaving the
                                                        can also be used in other applications
filtration unit will only cause more oxides and
                                                        including tundishes for horizontal casters.
hydrogen bubble formations. The material                                                              Luanne B. Short
used in this launder section should be cleaned          ZYP Boron Nitride Lubricoat® Blue is used     global Sales Manager -
properly after each use and should not contain          as the coating and can be reapplied after     Continuous Casting
any particulates that would support the                 each use as necessary. Customers who
formation of inclusions. This launder section           have switched to Thermollite report that
should be light in weight so operators can              they are very pleased with the quality of
easily move it in and out of place during start         the material and the life of the product.
up and shut down. It should also be insulated           All the inside corners in the launder have
to minimize melt temperature loss just prior            a radius design allowing them to be easily
to casting. Pyrotek has several recommended             cleaned between casts.
options for the launder sections used in
continuous casting.
                                                                                                                         Page 3
   Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                                                                    pyrotek

                                                                                                    temperature and head
                                                      Thermollite 37        Silica Bonded           level prior to releasing
                                                                                  RCF               metal into the casting
                             Density                 594 kg/m3             514 kg/m3                tip. Pyrotek vacuum
                                                     (37 lbs/ft3)          (32 lbs/ft3)             formed headboxes are
                             M.o.R.                  2.37 MPa              1.83 MPa                 a one-piece design to
                                                     345 lbs/in2           267 lbs/in2              prevent leakage.

                             Temperature Rating:                                                    The material is the
    Customers        - Continuous use        850°C (1560°F) 1090°C (2000°F)                         same as that used for
                     - Maximum Service 1000°C (1830°F) 1260°C (2300°F)                              the vacuum formed
    who have                                                                                        launders. There are two
                    L.o.i. 900°C (1650°F) 0.55%                    0.74%
   switched to      Thermal Conductivity:                                                           basic headbox designs,
                    - Btu-in/ft2/hr          1.12 @ 1000°F         1.08 @ 1000°F                    one for vertical casters
   Thermollite                               1.30 @ 1500°F         1.62 @ 1500°F                    and one for tilt casters.
 report they are - W/(m*K)                   0.16 @ 540°C          0.16 @ 540°C                     On      both     designs,
                                             0.19 @ 815°C          0.24 @ 815°C                     variations in height
   very pleased     Shrinkage                                                                       and     wall    thickness
                     - at 400°C (750°F)      0.11%                 0.33%                            are      available     to
     with the        - at 730°C (1350°F) 0.80%                     0.33%                            accommodate customer
  quality of the Figure 2 - Thermollite comparative engineering properties                          requirements. Feed holes
                                                                                                    and drain holes can be
  material and VACuuM FoRMED REFRACToRY                                                             precision drilled either

  the life of the CERAMiC FiBER LAunDERS
                  Vacuum formed launders
     product.     are pre-formed by Pyrotek to
                              the customer’s specifications
                              and are reusable. These vacuum formed
                              shapes are manufactured from high purity
                              alumino-silicate fibers in a one-piece
                              design that eliminates metal leakage.
                              These ceramic fibers are formed together
                                                  with      a    special
                                                  bonding process to
                                                                                 Figure 4 - Typical headbox
                                                  create a smooth,
                                                  homogeneous,                 at the Pyrotek factory or on-site at the
                                                  finished       surface       customer. ZYP Boron Nitride Lubricoat ®
                                                  that is resistant to         Blue is again used as a protective
                                                  thermal shock. They          coating and is applied by Pyrotek prior
                                                  also have a low              to shipping. Headboxes and tundishes
                                                  thermal conductivity         should be recoated as necessary with
                                                  that    requires    no       the same product after each use.
                                                  pre-heating        and
         Figure 3 - Vaccum formed launder         are reusable with            STEADY EDDY
                                                  proper treatment for         This level control unit in the
                              multiple casting campaigns.                      headbox maintains the proper headlevel
                                                                               without causing turbulence in the metal.
                          HEADBoxES/TunDiSHES                                  Any metal turbulence in the headbox will
                          Tilt casters, vertical casters                       affect the cast sheet surface. Pyrotek supplies
                          and some horizontal casters utilise a                the complete unit with the float and plug.
                          headbox system. This simple design                   These units should typically last for years
                          allows metal to be run-off into a sow                with proper handling and maintenance,
                          mold in order to obtain the proper melt              but the float and graphite plug are generally
Page 4
   Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                                                            pyrotek

replaced after each use. The graphite plug
should be coated with ZYP Boron Nitride
Lubricoat® Blue to prevent sticking in the
feed hole from the launder.

                                                 Figure 5 - Typical Tilt Caster Headbox

 Figure 7 - Steady Eddy

The target start-up metal temperature
inside the headbox ranges from
710–730°C, depending on several
conditions including the alloy and cast
width. After the metal has reached the
desired temperature and headlevel, the
metal is released into the tip to rapidly
flood the tip. The temperature in the
headbox is then slowly decreased to the
lowest operating temperature consistent
with good sheet surface finish and casting
speed. In order to reach this desired            Figure 6 - Typical Vertical Caster Headbox
temperature at start up, there are many      Benefits of the SMT Furnace include:
controls that can be implemented in the
transfer system. Launder covers, both        •     Reduction in premature casting
heated and unheated, can be used to                aborts due to tip failure generated by
prevent excessive heat loss on the surface         temperature fluctuations within the
of the metal. Heated lids in the degassing         tip
chamber and filter box can also help         •     More consistent cast product
to reduce heat loss. Proper designs and            thickness
correct materials used in the transfer       •     Less critical furnace control
system can further reduce heat loss.
                                             •     Lower furnace temperatures resulting
SMT FuRnACE                                        in a reduction of oxide formation,
Pyrotek has recently introduced the Stable         hydrogen absorption, and energy costs
Metal Temperature (SMT) furnace. This        •     Reduced refractory wear
molten metal stabilization system accepts    •     Furnace temperature fluctuation
the inevitable temperature variations                                                           Wayne Bost
                                                   security                                     Technical Service
arising from long casting campaigns
                                             •     Faster cold-rolling due to more              Manager, Continuous
from the holding furnaces. The system                                                           Casting
is designed to modify the fluctuating              consistent sheet thickness
incoming molten aluminium and deliver        The SMT Furnace is positioned after the filter
to the head box a flow of precisely          box and before the final launder leading
controlled molten aluminium temperature      to the headbox/tundish. It is constructed
ranges.                                      utilising state of the art casting materials and
                                             techniques to produce a monolithic body
                                                                                                                  Page 5
   Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                                                         pyrotek

                         capable of up to 4 years service life. The    liquid state during breaks in casting. There
                         system boasts many technical and safety       is no need to drain the system other than
                         features and complies to CE regulations.      to carry out specific line maintenance.
                         High performance insulation technology
                         ensures heat loss is kept to an absolute      Energy is provided by two SiC electric
                         minimum and therefore temperature             resistant heaters,    one being inserted
                         stability is improved.                        into each of the Sialon heater protection
                                                                       tubes. Temperature measurement of
                                                                       the molten aluminium is provided
                         A pneumatically operated lid gives            through a thermocouple placed inside a
                         access to the molten metal chamber            Sialon thermocouple protection sheath
                         while an electrically actuated security       strategically placed within the molten
                         pin ensures security of the lid and           metal chamber. The output from the
                         operators. Air lock refractory sections       thermocouple provides the necessary data
 Mark Vincent,           at the inlet and outlet ensures heat loss
 European Development                                                  for the manipulation of the energy required
 and Project Manager
                         is again kept to an absolute minimum          to maintain a tight molten metal output
                         through the surface layers.                   temperature range. The energy control is
                                                                       manipulated by the use of two SCR units
                         Two     heater    protection   tubes          and PID control algorithms.
                         manufactured from Sialon are mounted
                         horizontally and provide efficient            A pilot unit has been in use for over 2
                         heat dissipation for the heating              years. The metal temperature deviations in
                         elements within. Because the Sialon           various locations along the transfer system
                         heater protection tubes are mounted                         were greatly reduced by
                                                                                     the implementation of the
                                                                                     SMT furnace, providing a
                                                                                     stable metal temperature in
                                                                                     the headbox. The pilot SMT
                                                                                     Furnace is performing as
                                                                                     designed and is successfully
                                                                                     holding       the       metal
                                                                                     temperature in the headbox
                                                                                     at ± 1°C.

                                                                                     TiPS AnD
                                                                                     CoMPonEnT PARTS
                                                                                      The tip is the most critical
                                                                                      component in the casting
                                                                                      process. NECO, now part
                                                                                      of the Pyrotek family, began
                                                                                      producing ceramic fiber tips
         Figure 8 - Schematic of the SMT Furnace PiD & SCR operation                  in 1982. NECO material is
                                                                                      produced with practically
                                                                                      “shot free” alumino-silicate
                         horizontally and not vertically, hot spots    fibers bonded with a colloidal silica
                         and cold spots are eliminated. The Sialon     binder. The NECO material is soft on the
                         tubes are constantly submerged under          inside for the proper insulating properties
                         the molten aluminium even when the            and hard on the outside for dimensional
                         system is not in casting mode. This gives     stability. The NECO tip material quickly
                         a tremendous technical advantage in that      replaced maranite tips, which were the
                         oxide generation is omitted and metal         industry norm at the time. The initial NECO
                         quality is assured. Indeed, the capacity      tips were made by joining tip sections
                         of the system is generally around 240         together to obtain the proper width. As
                         kg in the static condition, the molten        the industry changed to wider widths
                         aluminium being maintained in the             and thinner gauges, the NECO material
                                                                       has been designed to be wider and more
Page 6
  Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                                                             pyrotek

dimensionally stable along the orifice            The vertical caster tips are designed
end. The widest tip currently produced            as a “T-Type” shape with a round
is 2400 mm. There are also three tip radii        counter-sunk feed tube hole on
currently available for the different roll        one side of the assembled tip for
diameters (see figure 10).                        metal entry. The feed tube hole
                                                  matches the dimensions of the
Each NECO tip is custom designed for              end user’s round feed tube. The
each casting operation. The tip width is
                                                  interior baffle design distributes
determined by the sheet width, taking
                                                  the molten metal across the width
into consideration the lateral spread of
                                                  of the tip for uniform temperature
the metal as it exits the tip and flows
out on the angle of the end dam. The              distribution. The tip sections are
lateral spread will depend on the caster          lined with Fiberfrax paper, not
set up, headlevel in the head box, and            only to prevent the aluminium
alloy. The tip height is determined by the        from attacking the silica in the Figure 9 - nECo Tip for
tip base, the distance from the feed tube         tip material, but also for thermal continuous casting
and the initial set back from the roll gap.       properties and sheet surface
Using the start up setting of the roll gap,       quality. The tip section radius is
the overall orifice end thickness of the          matched to the roll diameter.
assembled tip is calculated to be as close
to the rolls as possible, without touching        The tilt caster tips are designed
                                                                                    Casting Tips

them at all. The roll gap determines the          with a baffle that is “dog house”
sheet gauge, not the orifice opening of           shaped. The center baffle is placed
the tip. The thickness of the inside parts        38.1-50.8 mm above the metal entry
inside the tip determines
the orifice opening.

Since the NECO tip
has a silica binder, it is
important to prevent the
aluminium from attacking
the silica on the surface.
Protection is in the form
of a Fiberfrax paper lining
or a protective coating.
Pyrotek recommends the
use of a Fiberfrax paper
lining for tips that feed
through a feed tube, and
of a ZYP Boron Nitride
Lubricoat ® coating for tips
that feed metal into the tip
using a tundish.               Figure 10 - Continuous casting tip diagram

TiP BAFFLE DESignS                                point. The distance or spacing between
Pyrotek can design a tip custom-made for          the center baffle and the next baffle is
the end user. This design depends on many         critical. Each space between the baffles
factors including:                                thereafter increases in width. The spacing
• Type of caster                                  forces the hot aluminium to flow out to
• Roll diameter                                   the edges of the tip for more uniform
• Width of cast sheet                             temperature distribution inside the tip.
• Gauge of cast sheet                             The width of the baffle is dependent
• Tip table dimensions                            on the tip width and metal spacing.
• Feed opening dimensions                         Pyrotek can also produce completely
• Alloy                                           assembled tips according to the end
                                                  user’s confidential design.
                                                                                                                  Page 7
  Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                                                           pyrotek

                  The horizontal tips use various designs                precise orifice opening of the tip across
                  and radii, but should be coated with ZYP               the full width of the tip.
                  Boron Nitride Lubricoat ® Blue. If the
                  caster tip is fed by a wide tundish, the               At this point, it is appropriate to mention
                  metal distribution takes place outside of              that tip assembly is a learned art. Careful
                  the tip. In this case, the spacers inside              calculations and attention to details are
                  the tip are required only to maintain                  necessary. If the tip is not assembled
 The tip is the   the precise and uniform orifice opening                properly, restricted metal flow will
                  across the width of the tip, as well as                result in a forced shut down. This is
  most critical   prevent leakage on the edges of the tip.               wasted time and lost profit for end users.
   component      The fewer spacers used inside the tip                  Continuous casters are more profitable
                  will result in better heat distribution and            when they run continuously.
 in the casting   metal flow. Pyrotek provides the NECO
                  tip material for the tip sections and the              Some end users, such as Norandal in
     process.     machined calcium silicate boards for the               Salisbury, North Carolina, USA, have
   nECo, the      inside parts. The end risers are machined              an up-to-date tip shop, a controlled
                  to conform to the inside profile of the tip            environment for tip storage, and well-
     industry     sections to prevent leakage and to give                trained personnel in tip assembly. This
                  the precise orifice opening required by                end user purchases tip sections and
  standard for
                  the end user. The machined boards are                  components parts from Pyrotek and they
  casting tips,   also used for the spacers to maintain the              assemble their tips in-house.

   now part of    ZYP Boron Nitride Lubricoat® is a registered trademark of ZYP Coatings Inc.

   the Pyrotek
 family, began
 ceramic fiber
  tips in 1982.

Page 8
  Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                                                                        pyrotek

                                                       and delivery tank should be agitated at
                                                       all times during use. Due to the
                                                       casthouse environment, it is           NEKOTE
                                                                                              RELEASE AGENTS

                                                       important to keep the diluted
                                                       tanks covered to prevent debris
                                                       from entering the tank, which could clog
                                                       the spray nozzles.

                                                       N e k o t e - 3 5 T
                                                       concentrate       may
                                                       become thixotropic
 Figure 11 - Tip component parts                       over a period of
                                                       time. A thixotropic                                    PYRoTEK’S
gRAPHiTE RELEASE AgEnTS                                solution holds the
Pyrotek offers three different                                                                                   MiSSion
                                                       solid particles in a
Nekote products to prevent the                         gel form to prevent                                     “Providing
aluminium sheet from sticking                          settling. The operator
to the roll shell. All three products are              should shake the jug                                     innovative
exceptionally well dispersed with ultra                to release the gel
fine graphite particles suspended in water.            and the product will
Figure 13 shows the typical technical data
for the three types of Nekote products.
                                                       return to the original    Figure 12 - nekote-35        to customer
                                                       liquid and pourable
                                                       form.                                                       needs
Pyrotek has a recommended dilution
ratio of 1 part Nekote to 220 parts water.             Nekote-35XL is the newest generation of                   utilizing
The concentration of graphite depends on               graphite release agents because the graphite
many different factors of caster operation.                                                                     our global
                                                       particles stay in suspension much longer
If sticking occurs using the recommended               than Nekote-35 and without becoming                     resources.”
ratio, the operator should first try opening           thixotropic like Nekote-35T.
the spray nozzles before decreasing the
dilution ratio.                                        TECHniCAL ASSiSTAnCE in
                                                       ConTinuouS SHEET CASTing
It is important to vigorously shake the                Pyrotek has well trained sales engineers
container of concentrate prior to mixing               world-wide in continuous sheet casting.
it with water. It is recommended to begin

                                        nekote-35        nekote-35xL        nekote-35T        iSo Procedure
   Solids, wt%                          22.0 ± 0.5       22.0 ± 0.5         24.0 ± 0.5        CW 8224
   pH                                   9.5 ± 0.5        9.5 ± 0.5          9.5 ± 0.5         CW 8216
   Viscosity, cPs1                      25               75                 200               CW 8220
   Particle Size, Median2,µm            1.40 ± 0.25      1.40 ± 0.15        1.40 ± 0.15       CW 8226
   Particle Size, Max2, µm              15               10                 10                CW 8226
       Brookfield Model LVT II - Average calculated on batches prepared since 2004
       Viscosity measured on samples that brought directly from production then stored for one hour at 77ºF
       #2 Spindle at 60 RPM at 77°F
       Horiba LA 500 Particle Size Analyzer

  Figure 13 - Typical properties of nekote products

                                                       Pyrotek also has designated product
the mixer or    agitator in the tank of water          specialists in all areas of sheet casting, as
and slowly       pouring the concentrated              well as a professional technical services
Nekote into     the vortex of the mixer to             consulting team. On-site technical assistance
gain a good     dispersion. The mixing tank            is available for casthouse operations.
                                                                                                                        Page 9
   Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                                                     pyrotek

                       ConCLuSion                                     group. Unique new equipment has been
                       Continuous sheet casting is a growing          designed and developed for the specific
                       and important segment of the aluminium         needs for continuous sheet casting.
                       industry. Metal quality is dictated by the
                       end product. Excellent thin gauge foil            Continuous sheet casting
                       quality is achievable by using the correct      is a growing and important
     Pyrotek           products and equipment and by following
                                                                        segment of the aluminium
                       predetermined production procedures.
     has well                                                                   industry.
  trained sales        Pyrotek is aware of the growth in continuous
                                                                      These new developments evolve not
                       sheet casting and is responding to the
  engineers in         needs of this industry segment. Innovative     only from Pyrotek’s R&D group, but from
                       and improved products and materials            partnerships with customers - providing
   continuous          have been developed, while other new           innovative solutions and continuously
      sheet            potential materials are being tested by        improving materials, products, equipment
                       the Pyrotek Research and Development           and global expertise.
    casting in
    as well as

 Burtay Çalli,
 European Continuous
 Casting Consultant

Page 10
 Improving Performance - Continuous Casting                                                                                pyrotek

         PYRoTEK’S MAJoR LoCATionS                                                                                  Pyrotek is
ASiA                                    EuRoPE                              SouTH AMERiCA                           unique in
CHINA, Shenzhen                         CZECH REPUBLIC, Blansko             BRASIL, São Paulo
Phone: (86) 755-26632324                Phone: (420) (0) 516-527-111        Phone: (55) (0)11-4786-5233           its ability to
e-mail:           e-mail:        e-mail:
                                                                                                                  provide the
INDIA, Pune                             GERMANY, Grevenbroich               VENEZUELA, Puerto Ordaz
Phone: (91) 21-375-6800                 Phone: (49) (0)2182-8-10-20         Phone: (58) 286-994 1894
e-mail:               e-mail:   e-mail:     of innovative
INDONESIA, Jakarta                      SWEDEN, Ed                          u.S.A.                               technologies,
Phone: (62) 21-563-8507                 Phone: (46) (0) 534-62000           CALIFORNIA, Cerritos
e-mail:            e-mail:             Phone: (562) 623-0085
                                                                            e-mail:           expertise
JAPAN, Kobe                             SWITZERLAND, Sierre
Phone: (81) (0)78-265-5590              Phone: (41) (0)27-455-82-64         INDIANA, Columbia City                and a global
e-mail:               e-mail:         Phone: (260) 248-4141
                                                                            e-mail:     perspective.
KOREA, Daegu                            UNITED KINGDOM, Milton
Phone: 82 (0)53-523-5202                Keynes                              INDIANA, Evansville
e-mail:              Phone: (44) (0)1 908-561155         Phone: (812) 867-6343
                                        e-mail:   e-mail:
MALAYSIA, Kuala-Lumpur
Phone: (603) 5631-3096                  MExiCo                              NEW YORK, Canastota
e-mail:        MEXICO, Santa Catarina              Phone: (315) 697-8410                   CORPORATE
                                        Phone: (52) 81-8336-9117            e-mail:            OFFICE
TAIWAN, Kaohsiung City
Phone: (886) 7-224-8222                 e-mail:                                             9503 East Montgomery Avenue
                                                                    NEW YORK, Elmsford                            Spokane Valley, WA 99206
e-mail:                                         Phone: (914) 345-4740
                                        MiDDLE EAST                                                                 Phone: (509) 926-6212
THAILAND, Bangkok                       UNITED ARAB EMIRATES, Dubai e-mail:                    Fax: (509) 927-2408
Phone: (66) (0) 2 361-4870              Phone: (971) (0)4-883-77-00 NORTH CAROLINA, Salisbury
e-mail:            e-mail:  Phone: (704) 642-1993
AuSTRALiA                               nEW ZEALAnD
AUSTRALIA (ANZ HEADQUARTERS) NEW ZEALAND, Auckland                          OHIO, Solon                                   Visit
Phone: (61) (0)2 9631-1333   Phone: (64) (0)9 272-2056                      Phone: (440) 349-8800
e-mail:  e-mail:                  e-mail:                 Pyrotek
CAnADA                                  RuSSiA/CiS                          PENNSYLVANIA, Carlisle                      online
QUEBEC, Drummondville                   RUSSIA/CIS, Moscow                  Phone: (717) 249-2075
Phone: (819) 477-0734                   Phone: (7) 095-230-71-63            e-mail:                   at
e-mail:      e-mail:
                                                                            WASHINGTON, Spokane Valley
                                        SouTH AFRiCA                        Phone: (509) 926-6211
                                        REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA,           e-mail:
                                        Richards Bay
                                        Phone: (27) (0)35 7974039           WISCONSIN, Waukesha
                                        e-mail:    Phone: (262) 524-9095

            This supplement can also be viewed at
                                   Read other supplements in this series:
  Explore the many filtration solutions to improve your melt quality at
Learn more about improving performance in your furnace operations at
     Improve your furnace melt treatment process with information at
              Find out about solutions for the degassing process at
     Investigate how to improve your slab casting processes at

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Improving Performance - Continuous Casting      pyrotek

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