Chapter Section Outline II Greek Philosophy and History A
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Chapter 5 Section 2 Outline II. Greek Philosophy and History A. Greek Philosophers • ____________ – “love of wisdom” • Greek philosophy led to the study of ___________, political science, science, and ___________. • ____________ – Greek thinkers who believed the human mind could understand everything • __________– taught that the universe followed the same laws that governed music and numbers. o Believed that all relationships in the world could be expressed in ____________. o ____________ ____________ -- a way to determine the length of the sides of triangle 1. Who Were the Sophists? a. Sophists – professional ____________ in ancient Greece. i. Made a living by traveling from city to city ____________ others ii. Believed students should use their time to ____________ themselves iii. Taught students how to win an ____________ and make political ____________ iv. Did not believe ____________ and ____________ influenced people v. Rejected idea of ____________ and ____________ vi. Right for one person might be wrong for another. 2. The Ideas of Socrates a. A critic of the ____________ b. He was an ____________ sculptor whose true love was philosophy. c. We learn about him from the writings of his ____________. d. Believed in ____________ truth and that all real knowledge was within each person. e. ____________ ____________ – asking pointed questions to force pupils to use their reason and see things for themselves. f. Athenian leaders considered the Socratic method a ____________ to their power after the ____________ War. i. Tradition of questioning leaders and speaking freely was over. ii. No longer trusted open ____________. iii. Leaders accused Socrates of teaching young Athenians to rebel 1. A leader found Socrates guilty and sentenced him to ____________. 2. Socrates could have fled the city, but argued that he had lived under the city’s laws and he would obey them. 3. He drank poison to carry out the ____________ decision. 3. The Ideas of Plato a. ____________ of Socrates. b. We were able to learn about Plato because his writing did survive. i. ____________ – explains Plato’s ideas about government. 1. He did not believe ____________ was a good system of government. 2. Did not think rule by the people produced fair or sensible __________. 3. He believed people belonged in 3 groups. a. Top group – ____________– ruled by using logic and wisdom. b. Second group – ___________– defended the state from attack. c. Third Group – Rest of the people – driven by ____________ -- Produced the food, clothing and shelter 4. He believed men and ____________ should have the same opportunities for jobs and education. 4. Who Was Aristotle? a. Plato established the ____________ in Athens. b. Plato’s best student was ____________. i. Aristotle wrote more than __________books (government, planets, stars, etc.) ii. Opened his own school in 335 B.C. called ____________. 1. Taught “____________ ___________” – do nothing in excess. 2. Urged people to use their ____________ to make observations. 3. First to group observations according to their similarities and differences. 4. Made generalizations based on groups of facts iii. Wrote about government – compared ______different governments for the best form. 1. Aristotle divided governments into three types in his book Politics. a. Rule by one person -- Monarch or ____________ b. Rule by a few people – ____________ or Aristocracy c. Rule by many people – ____________ 2. Aristotle’s conclusions a. Rule by few meant ruled by the ____________. b. Democracies were run by the ____________. 3. Aristotle decided the best government would be a ____________ of the two. a. Europeans and Americans were shaped by ____________ ideas. b. Founders of the U.S. ____________ tried to create a balance. B. Greek Historians • Most places in Ancient Greece did not write ____________ • Legends and myths explained the past. • Herodotus wrote the history of the Persian Wars in 435 B.C. He tried to separate fact from ____________. Researched, checked sources, asked questions and tried to be as accurate as possible. Known as the “____________ ____________ ____________” • Thucydides is considered the greatest historian of the ancient world He fought in the ____________ War and was exiled after losing a battle. He wrote ____________ ____________ ____________ while in exile. Stressed importance of having ____________ facts.