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Name the main parts of the urinary system

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					1.     Define the term excretion, and list the function of
             each of the major excretory organs.


• 1 : the act or process of excreting

• 2 : something eliminated by the process of excretion
  that is composed chiefly of urine or sweat in mammals.
• It may include products of protein degradation (as urea
  or uric acid),
• Is distinguished from waste materials (as feces) that
  have merely passed into or through the alimentary canal
  without being incorporated into the body proper
• a waste product (as urine, feces, or vomit) eliminated
  from an animal body
  What is Metabolic Waste ?¿?
• me-tab-o-lism \ma'tab-e-liz-em\ n the sum total of the
  chemical reactions that keep an organism alive

         METABOLIC WASTE                 A BY-PRODUCT OF ....



               water                dehydration synthesis & respiration



           carbon dioxide                   cellular respiration



               salts                          neutralization



               urea                  protein metabolism, deamination
Processes Within
      Processes Continued
• 1. THE PROCESS BY WHICH METABOLIC
  WASTES ARE REMOVED FROM THE BODY
  IS CALLED EXCRETION.

• 2. METABOLIC WASTES INCLUDE EXCESS
  WATER AND SALTS, CARBON DIOXIDE
  FROM CELLULAR RESPIRATION,
  NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS FROM THE
  BREAKDOWN OF PROTEINS, AND UREA.
THE SKIN, LUNGS, AND KIDNEYS-ALONG
WITH THEIR ASSOCIATED ORGANS-MAKE UP
THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM.

The SKIN excretes excess water and salts, and a small
amount of urea.

 The KIDNEYS excrete the Nitrogenous Wastes, the
excretion of Water is necessary to dissolve wastes and
is closely regulated by the Kidneys, the Main Organ of
the Urinary system.

The LUNGS excrete most of the carbon dioxide
                Kidneys
• The main organ within the excretory
  system is the kidneys.

• We have Two bean-shaped Kidneys, one
  on each side of the spinal cord near the
  lower back, one behind the Stomach the
  other behind the Liver.
        Kidneys continued…
• Together, the two kidneys regulate the
  Chemical Composition of Blood.

• Two Blood Vessels Enter and Leave each
  Kidney.
• The Renal Artery Enters each Kidney and
  the Renal Vein Exists each Kidney.
      Kidneys Continued more…
•   3. A Third Vessel, the URETER, leaves each Kidney carrying fluid to the
    URINARY BLADDER.

•   4. Waste-laden Blood Enters the Kidney through the Renal Artery. Excess
    water, Urea, and other waste products are removed from the blood and are
    collected in the URETER. The most common mammalian metabolic waste
    is UREA. The Filtered Blood exits through the Renal Vein.

•   5. UREA is a Nitrogenous product made by the Liver. Nitrogenous Wastes
    are initially brought to the Liver as AMMONIA, a Chemical Compound of
    Nitrogen so Toxic that it could not remain in the body without harming cells.

•   6. The Liver Removes Ammonia from the blood and converts it to the less
    harmful substance Urea. The Urea enters the Bloodstream and is then
    removed by the Kidneys.
Functioning
                         Lungs
Lungs: The lungs cause the
reaction that provides energy for
your body for cellular activities .
When respiration occurs carbon
dioxide is release from the body .
As the carbon dioxide
accumulates in body cells, it
eventually diffuses out of the
cells & into the bloodstream,
which eventually circulates to the
lungs.
                                     Skin
Skin: The skin itself sweats as
you know , but when you sweat
the skin releases metabolic
wastes water, salts, & urea. After
water diffuses within your body
the begin to go into the sweet
glands And then, when body
temperature rises, the fluid
(sweat) is released from the
gland, travels through the tube
(duct), & reaches the skin
surface through openings called
pores.
                      Urinary System
Urinary System: The urinary
system (pictured here) is composed
of two kidneys, two tubes called
ureters, one urinary bladder, and
another tube called the urethra.
Like the other organs, the urinary
system releases water salts and
urea. The ureters are simply tubes
that carry urine from the kidneys to
the urinary bladder. The bladder
temporarily stores urine. And the
urethra is the tube through which
urine leaves the body.
    Identify the major parts of the kidney.
•    #1 - the CORTEX.
     This layer is jam-packed with lots & lots of
     those nephrons that I just mentioned.
     We'll get to the specifics on those in just a
     second.
     Think of the cortex as the filtering layer of
     the kidney.
•
•    #2 - the MEDULLA.
     The middle layer. Think of it as the
     collecting layer.
     Tubes carrying filtered wastes travel from
     the cortex, through the medulla towards
     the pelvis.

•    #3 - the PELVIS.
     This is the area where all of the collecting
     tubules come together
     & connect with the ureter (which is
     structure #4).
     The ureter transports the wastes (urine) to
     the urinary bladder.
       Why Do Kidneys Fail
Why do kidneys fail?
Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons,
 causing them to lose their filtering
 capacity.
Damage to the nephrons may happen
 quickly, often as the result of injury or
 poisoning.
Most kidney diseases attack both kidneys
 simultaneously.
Why do kidneys fail continued…
• The two most common causes of kidney
  disease are diabetes and high blood
  pressure. If your family has a history of
  any kind of kidney problems, you may be
  at risk for kidney disease.
Nephron: the working units of the kidney that
 remove waste and extra fluids from the
 blood
            STRUCTURE
• Located inside kidney
• About 1 million nephrons per kidney
                  FUNCTION
• Filters waste out of body
  – Chemical Exchange happens
     • Water and wastes leave body
        – Also known as urine
Bowman’s Capsule:
Blood filters through the
Double-Walled Chamber
walls

Glomerulus:
 Capillary network within
Assists with the filtering in
 Bowman’s Capsule
the Bowman’s Capsule

Proximal Tubule:
Fluid enters and reabsorbs
 Carpeted with microvilli and
 stuffed amino acids, salt,
glucose,with mitochondria
and uric acid
Loop of Henle:
Fluid flows through here,
 Makes the turn and returns
while water continues to
 to the Distal Tubule
leave through osmosis
Distal Tubule:
More sodium is reclaimed
Coiled and surrounded by
while traveling through here
capillaries

Collecting Duct:
Where urine Pelvis of
Leads to the flows to the
bladder
Kidney
   Re-absorption,
      Filtration,
and Tubular Secretion
            Re-absorption
The body produces some thing of a different
  structure that has to undergo lysis and
  assimilation
-Lysis – destruction of bacteria
-Assimilation – putting the nutrients in the
  right tissues in your body
                 Filtration
  Filtration occurs in
the glomerulus of the
nephron, where plasma
is forced by blood
pressure into the
glomerulus capsule.
          Tubular Secretion
• Occurs in the renal tubule.

• Water, glucose, amino acids and essential
  ions move from the filtrate back into the
  blood by passive AND active transport.

The cells in the tubules remove different
 ions and molecules and deposit in the fluid
 in the tubules.
How does it relate to homeostasis?


Tubular secretion is very important
 in maintaining the pH levels of the
 blood
Name the main parts of the
    urinary system.
                         Kidneys
Structure: the kidneys are two
   small organs

located near the vertebral
   column in your

lower back. The left kidney
  lies a little higher

than the right kidney.
                  Kidneys
Function: To separate
urea, mineral salts,
toxins, and other
 waste products from
 the blood. They
conserve water,
salts, and electrolytes.
             Two Ureters
Structure: The tubes
  leading from the
  kidneys to the
  bladder.
              Two Ureters
Function: Urine flows down partly by gravity,

but mainly by waves of contractions which

pass several times per minute through the

muscle layers of the urethral walls.
              Two Ureters
Function: Each ureter enters the bladder
through a tunnel in the bladder wall, which is
angled to prevent the urine from running
back into the ureter when the bladder
contracts.
                       Bladder
Structure: The
  bladder is a
  hollow,
  muscular,
  balloon shaped
  organ that lies in
  your pelvis.
                Bladder
Function: The bladder's main function is to
store and release urine. The feeling to
urinate increase as your bladder increases.
When that happens, the nerves from the
bladder tell the brain to empty out because
it’s full.
                 Urethra
Structure:
  Tube leading
  from the
  bladder to
  the exterior
  of the body
                 Urethra
Function: The urethra is a tube that

conveys urine from the urinary bladder to

the outside of the body.
          HOMEOSTASIS
• Waste Filtration System
• Waste Removal
• Poison Filtration
                 DEBREIF
• Excretion is the getting filtering out of any
  waste products in your body.

• The skin, lungs and kidneys make up the
  excretory system.

• Metabolic waste is the aftermath of any
  given product, such as water.
                De-brief
• Nephrons- Filters water and wastes into
  urine. They are also located outside the
  kidney.

• The main parts of the kidney are the
  CORTEX, MEDULLA and PELVIS.
                 De-brief
• Re-absorption is when bacteria is killed
  and nutrients are absorbed in the right
  tissues.

• Filtration is when plasma is forced into the
  glomurulus capsule by blood pressure.
                De-brief
• Kidneys separate different minerals, urea,
  and different toxins.

• Ureters are tubes leasing from the kidneys
  to the bladder. Urine flows through them.
                 De-brief
• Bladder is a hollow organ which holds the
  urine. It is located in the pelvis.

• Urethra is the tube leading from the
  bladder to the exterior of the body.
                 Sources
• http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/urinary.ht
  ml
• http://www.faqs.org/health/Body-by-
  Design-V2/The-Urinary-System.html
• http://www.mamashealth.com/organs/kidn
  ey.asp
• http://www.innerbody.com/image/urinov.ht
  ml
                     Sources
• http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/yourkidneys/
• www.diatxzn.com/Terminology/
• http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/nephr
  on.JPG
• http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/K
  /Kidney.html