Random Drug Testing Questions by uji43842

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									Random Drug Testing Questions
1. Who is being randomly tested? (athletes, all extra curricular students and/or students that drive.

   School A                                All in-season athletes and student drivers wishing to park on school property.
   School B                                All extra curricular activities, parking permits, and athletes.
   School C                                Extra curricular activities, athletes, school parking permits and those that voluntarily consent.
   School D                                At our middle school, we only go with volunteers (about 75%). The high school includes the groups
                                           you listed above plus volunteers (again about 75%).
   School E                                Every student in athletics, extracurricular activities and drivers.
   School F                                All athletes, all co-curriculars, clubs, student council, key club, drama, kids that drive and
                                           volunteers.


2. What type of testing does your district use?

   School A                                Urine test.
   School B                                The GCMS urine test is used. They are looking to add the ETG alcohol test next year.
   School C                                Dipstick urine sample. If non-negative, the sample is sent to the lab for confirmation. All samples
                                           are sent out for alcohol test.
   School D                                Panel urine cup from American Bio-Medica for drugs – either an alcohol swab (again from
                                           American Bio-Medica) or the urine based EtG test (Western Slope Lab) for alcohol.
   School E                                The principal administers the test as the nurse’s case load is very high and the principal keeps the
                                           situation under clinical approach and not in the public eye. The SAC then does all follow-up with the
                                           student and family.

                                           A swab is initially placed in the mouth and then placed on a strip. The threshold level is set high as
                                           the test is not very expensive, i.e., $3.50 each. For students who test positive, they have to be
                                           heavy users. Light users may be able to go undetected. If a student tests positive, a more
                                           therapeutic approach is taken and the SAC is involved with counseling. Where recommended by
                                           the SAC, a student and parents may be recommended to an outpatient or in-patient facility at the
                                           expense of the parents, i.e., Robert Wood Johnson Hospital program.
   School F                                We use a urine test. I highly recommend the outfit we use - Sport Safe Inc. Based in Ohio. They
                                           manage everything in the program - we provide them the database with names of the students
                                           eligible for testing and they handle the rest. They use a 12 panel test that includes MDMA(ecstasy)
                                           and propoxyphene (oxycontin).
1. What is the cost of testing? What are ways you fund Random Drug Testing?

School A                               $30 per drug test. The drug tests are budgeted by the Board of Education and some funding is
                                       secured from ‘Drug Free Schools” program. $65 at the lab for positive confirmations.
School B                               $18 per negative test
                                       $43 per positive test
                                       It is funded by the regular budget
School C                               Dipstick testing ranges from $7 to $10, depending on cut-off level. Alcohol test is an additional $30
School D                               Our program is currently funded by a federal grant – 2005 until the beginning of next school year.
                                       The whole program costs about $35,000.00 a year. This includes everything we do including the
                                       RDT Supervisor’s salary. Needless to say, there are a host of ways to control costs.
School E                               Funding for the program ($3.50/test) comes from the general supplies budget at the high school.
                                       Additional money is added to the budget to cover the costs of the tests. In the case of School E
                                       with a student population of 1800 students, up to 10% of students are tested over a year. When
                                       calculating the cost, considerable attention must be given to the amount of time that is needed by
                                       personnel to administer the test, record the information, provide rights and associated information
                                       regarding the tests, SAC follow up which is considerable and the need to have a separate team
                                       apart from CST to monitor the random drug testing program, results and issues. As implemented,
                                       the Board and administration do not look at this as a gotcha, but as a means to provide a
                                       therapeutic solution to a student’s problem.
School F                               Through Sport Safe, we pay $27 per test. We test 200 students throughout the year (20% of our
                                       total enrollment - that's $5400). The entire project, including the SAC salary/benefits, testing
                                       materials, survey material, etc. is funded through a federal grant. See the Office of Safe and Drug
                                       Free Schools website.

2. How often do you administer the random testing (i.e.,. once a month, quarterly, etc.)?

School A                               Every week, drug tests are conducted.
School B                               It varies … sometimes 2-3 in one week other times once/per week or every other week.
School C                               Randomly. One to two a day, whenever decided to test students. Looking to test 10% of available
                                       the population. They do not group the 10 students per month all together on the same day. A list is
                                       generated per month to decide who is to be tested.
School D                               We usually test at least once a week – but avoid situations which could disrupt any phase of school
                                       activities such as exams. It is critical that the students believe any day could be a testing day.
School E                               The test is administered monthly and about 10% of the student population are tested for the
                                       primary reason that the testing costs money and personnel time is consumed with dialogue with
                                       parents and students tested, communications and exclosures provided and follow up determined.
School F                               Because we test 200 students, the dates are spread throughout the year, roughly 14-15 per testing
                                       date. Roughly 2 times per month, with some dates varying.
3. How are the individuals selected randomly to be tested (i.e., computer program)?

School A                              The Assistant Superintendent’s office generates a random list of students to be tested.
School B                              Excel Number Generator .. .no cost! Students are given a number and the Excel program randomly
                                      selects for you.
School C                              Selected randomly. On a periodic basis during the course of the school year, the ID numbers of all
                                      students who have submitted their consent forms will be placed in a pool from which the Substance
                                      Awareness Coordinator (hereafter SAC) will randomly draw the numbers of a minimum of 10
                                      percent the high school annually for alcohol and drug testing. The SAC will match the ID number
                                      with the name of those students who will be tested and will make a courtesy call to the
                                      parents/guardians informing them of the random selection. If the parents/guardians are not
                                      available, a courtesy message will be left, if possible. The SAC will ensure the presence of a
                                      consent form, which is secured in the nurse’s office file prior to any immediately notified, and test
                                      the same day. Any student who refuses to be tested, deliberately avoids testing, or has a confirmed
                                      positive test result, will be in violation of the School District Random Drug and Alcohol Testing
                                      Policy.
School D                              Randomly assigned numbers randomly pulled by computer program
School E                              The selection is completely random and is based on an Excel spreadsheet that is programmed to
                                      do a random sort.

School F                              As I mentioned with Sport Safe, they apply randomizing software to the database (it can be sent to
                                      them in Excel format) and tell us who we are to test. We do not select the names. Sport Safe also
                                      contracts with a collector to come to our school and collect the samples. Every sample collected is
                                      lab analyzed, which is great especially when you encounter a positive. Recent state code indicates
                                      that schools must have positive tests lab tested and read my an MRO Medical Review Officer.
                                      Sport Safe provides this in the cost per test. Some schools get test kits cheap and then have to
                                      pay for MRO/lab testing additional when a positive is encountered. Test kits that are read by the
                                      school officials (and the urine is therefore collected by school officials) have a much greater chance
                                      of giving a false positive or false negative. The lab route eliminates all of that margin of error – the
                                      school is not involved in that process.
4. What are the consequences if an individual tests positive?

School A                              Students who test positive receive a one-year suspension from all sports and activities. This
                                      includes walking at graduation, prom, sports and parking.
School B                              Contact parents
                                      Loss of parking privileges
                                      Loss of extra curricular participation
                                      Follow-up with licensed substance abuse counselor (6 sessions)
                                      2nd time = further consequences… a copy of the policy will be sent
School C                              The SAC shall contact the parents and shall recommend that a medical examination be conducted.
                                      The student shall have a minimum of 2 sessions with the SAC, one of which must occur during the
                                      first week following the confirmed positive test results. The need for further intervention will be
                                      determined by the SAC with the student, parent and any other health professionals deemed
                                      necessary to determine treatment. The student may be required to attend prevention/education
                                      programs or sign into and complete a drug/alcohol out-patient rehabilitation program and continue
                                      an aftercare program with the high school SAC. Attendance in the rehabilitation program must
                                      begin within one week of parent notification of a confirmed positive test result. An information
                                      release form must be available to the SAC. The parent(s) is/are responsible for the cost of the
                                      rehabilitation program. The student will lose the privilege of an athletic or co-curricular activity for
                                      30 calendar days and parking for 30 calendar days. At least one week before the conclusion of the
                                      removal period, the student will be requested, following the same procedures as outlined above,
                                      and upon submission of a drug and alcohol specimen below specified levels, as confirmed by the
                                      laboratory in a timely manner, may be reinstated in athletics, co-curricular activities or parking
                                      privileges. In no case shall the student be reinstated prior to the 30-day removal period.
School D                              Look for the details in the policy booklet – first offense at the HS and you’re out of activities for 30
                                      days
School E                              1st – removed from school –mandatory medical exam – 5 after school counseling sessions at cost
                                      to the parents – suspended from athletics, extracurriculars and driving privileges

                                      See student handbook policy for subsequent occurrences..

School F                              State code indicates that RDT interventions are not academically punitive - no school
                                      suspensions. The student must be medically cleared to return to school (as in current 18A regs).
                                      The student is suspended from all sports & activities for minimum of three weeks, must provide a
                                      clean screen to return, 5 SAC sessions and also be evaluated for treatment.
5. Have you needed to add more staff as a result of random testing? If so, what positions have been added?

School A                              No
School B                              No
School C                              Yes, one SAC per school
School D                              I am a retired 35 year veteran of our district and was involved with the RDT Program set-up from
                                      the beginning. My retirement coincided with starting the program so the grant covers the cost of a
                                      director and my tester (local person with drug lab experience). Other districts do the personnel
                                      things differently – i.e., the nurse as tester. Our situation is probably as close to ideal as you can
                                      get because the time spent with RDT does not pull from other responsibilities nor does it send
                                      mixed messages to students/parents about roles (SAC as the person responsible for the RDT
                                      Program).
School E                              No additional staff was added, but additional staffing is a must to be effective based on workload.
                                      Need to add more staff: SAC
                                                                   Clerk – clerical work associated solely with
                                                                   random testing
                                                                    Nurse
                                                                   Athletic secretary is very much involved – Release Time
School F                              Don't try to do this without a SAC.


6. Do you have any data to show that the testing is making a difference?

School A                              A ‘Drug-Free Schools Report’ is completed to demonstrate the difference made when randomly
                                      drug testing students.
School B                              See www.studentsdrugtesting.org The students were given a baseline survey and when the testing
                                      started the survey showed that the numbers decrease. They had 3 positives the first year and 0
                                      positives since. During the litigation, the students were given the survey and it showed that use
                                      went up.
School C                              None at this time
School D                              Unfortunately, I only have the comparison of the first year American Drug and Alcohol Survey to
                                      year two – we just administered year three and are awaiting results. However, from year one to
                                      year two, we did see an appreciable drop in Junior/Senior alcohol usage. The best district to cite for
                                      longer term impact is School B because they have more years of data.
School E                              No. We are not testing the kids who are frequently using drugs – users do not get involved in
                                      extracurriculars and in most cases, few students drive because of the geographic location of the
                                      school. However, school policy does permit the administration to address students who are
                                      suspected of being under the influence which is separate from random drug testing.
School F                              Visit studentdrugtesting.org where one can read of other schools' successes as well. We are
                                      required through the grant to administer a student drug/alcohol use survey annually that had
                                      indicated a decrease in use. We also collect our police departments' juvenile arrest records to
                                      indicate trends. Our arrests have come down over the years. This is our third year of testing.
7. How was the notification process done to make parents aware of the random drug testing process? What time of year did
   notifications take place?

School A                              Student handbook, Back To School Night, parent meetings for athletes, contracts.

School B                              Started in September with Newsletter, hosted public forum in October, had a few follow up
                                      meetings before proposing to BOE, BOE approved in May, Implemented in September 1 year after
                                      start of process.
School C                              Letter sent home after approval at Board of Education meeting. Held series of public information
                                      sessions prior to building policy.
School D                              We started with presentations at public BOE meeting during 2004/05 school year and moved on to
                                      a community survey testing the scope of public support for an RDT Program. Later in that spring
                                      we held a community forum. It is very important to involve the community in the process of program
                                      need and development.
School E                              Most communication goes out around the start of the school year or in August for those who are
                                      interested in participating in an extracurricular activity or who may want to drive. Others get
                                      involved in the process later when ready to participate in an activity, i.e. wrestling. On average,
                                      90% of students under the random drug testing umbrella complete paper work in September.
                                      Regarding types of communications that go home, the principal sends a letter home and requests
                                      that a detailed permission form be returned. A copy of the Board policy is attached in the letter and
                                      posted on the website.
School F                              You must educate your community and parents about the plan to implement testing and field any
                                      questions/concerns. Educate them about the deterrence and intervention purpose of the program.
                                      If students must choose between being on a team and using, testing will give them another reason
                                      to refuse drugs. Also, a student that rolls the dice and uses knowing they could be tested, likely
                                      has a problem. This is a non-punitive, non-legal means to intervene with that student. When
                                      parents get a phone call indicating that their student tested drug free - they are thrilled. It opens a
                                      dialogue with parents and their students. What time of year did notifications take place? We have
                                      made our consent forms for testing part of the sports physical packet and send the forms for extra
                                      curriculars with the summer mailings.

8. How is data collected and who collects it?

School A                              Administrators collect and share the data.
School B                              Vice Principal sends out survey
School C                              -
School D                              The RDT Supervisor handles all the program data/records – which is a significant pile of paper. The
                                      initial set up work was done primarily by a group of three – HS Principal, MS Principal and I (at that
                                      time a district discipline area supervisor)
School E                              Assigned clerk collects forms, arranges for testing and coordinates eligibility with athletic secretary.
                                      No information is shared with anyone in the district regarding names, who tested positive and what
                                      interventions were provided. For a Board report by the principal, the principal simply notes that a
                                      certain number of random drug tests were administered that month.
School F                              see #9 above.
9. What was the process and length of time it took to prepare for the launch of random testing?

School A                               Quick process. Do your research, get the B.O.E. on board, allow board attorney to review new
                                       policy.
School B                               One year
School C                               The policy was approved in November and was implemented in September of the following year.
                                       Information was reviewed and disseminated a year prior to the November Board of Education
                                       meeting.
School D                               About a year before we did actual testing – but that time frame can be shortened now because you
                                       have clearer models to follow. That said – remember the time which can be consumed to make
                                       BOE presentations and complete the community involvement activities noted above.
School E                               The process took about a year to develop starting with the development of a Board policy, first,
                                       second and third readings at the Board level with comment from public in attendance at the Board
                                       meetings, and finally implementation. No additional meetings were held with parents or students. If
                                       had to do over again, these meetings would have been very helpful.
School F                               One year from start to finish. Start with a task force to investigate the options. DO A SURVEY
                                       NOW to establish an epirical need for testing. Collect arrest records and compare them to county
                                       and national norms. For the survey, I recommend the American Drug and Alcohol Survey done by
                                       Rocky Mountain Behavioral Science - Patti Waters is the director. Google the website which has
                                       links to the federal websites which have produced a pamphlet for schools 'what you need to know
                                       about implementing student drug testing in your school' - it is on the Office of National Drug Control
                                       Policy website.

10. What if a student or parent refuses to give permission for the random drug test?

School A                               Students may not participate in sports or parking if they refuse to enroll in the program.
School B                               All extra curricular and parking privileges are removed
School C                               Treated as if a positive test.
School D                               Student cannot participate in athletics, activities, or park on campus – those components are not
                                       part of the core educational opportunity each student has by law (privileges not rights as per both
                                       federal and state supreme court decisions).
School E                               The student does not participate in any extracurricular activities and does not receive permission to
                                       receive parking privileges.
School F                               They cannot participate in said activity - it should have been voted into policy.
11. If student is absent, what is the procedure to test this student? Pick another student? Alternative list?

School A                                Another student is selected. The absent student is not tested upon return to school.
School B                                If a student is absent, he takes it the next day he is in school and if a student is taking a test, he will
                                        be called down after class
School C                                Any participant unable to produce an adequate specimen during the collection process will be
                                        recalled for testing later that day. If the student is still unable to produce a specimen on the initial
                                        day, on the next day on which testing is available. In the event that the student cannot produce a
                                        urine specimen on the next testing day, the school nurse and/or SAC will determine with the input
                                        of the parent/guardian whether the student is physically incapable of producing a urine specimen or
                                        if the student is refusing through non-compliance. Refusal to produce a urine specimen through
                                        non-compliance will be considered a withdrawal of consent, which is equivalent to removal from all
                                        extracurricular activities, athletics and parking privileges for 365 days. Any attempt by a participant
                                        to tamper or interfere with the specimen collection process will deem and constitute the specimen
                                        as confirmed positive.
School D                                A list comprised of more students than can feasibly be tested is pulled because of potential for
                                        absences, field trips, class situations you do not want to interrupt, etc.
School E                                The original list is the only list. If a student is absent, the next day the student returns he/she is
                                        tested.
School F                                If a student is absent, they are placed on the list for the next testing date.

12. What is the role of the SAC, Guidance Dept., Nurse and Administration in this process?

School A                                S.A.C. – Counseling, Guidance – Minimal, Nurse – Tester, Administration – inform students.
School B                                Vice Principal oversees the program
                                        Nurse administers the test
                                        Guidance department ensures that counseling is provided
School C                                On a periodic basis, during the course of the school year, the ID numbers of all students who have
                                        submitted their consent forms will be placed in a pool from which the Substance Awareness
                                        Coordinator (hereafter SAC) will randomly draw the numbers of a minimum of 10 percent the high
                                        school annually for alcohol and drug testing. The SAC will match the ID number with the name of
                                        those students who will be tested and will make a courtesy call to the parents/guardians informing
                                        them of the random selection. If the parents/guardians are not available, a courtesy message will
                                        be left, if possible. The SAC will ensure the presence of a consent form, which is secured in the
                                        nurse’s office file prior to any immediately notified, and test the same day. Any student who refuses
                                        to be tested, deliberately avoids testing, or has a confirmed positive test result, will be in violation of
                                        the School C School District Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Policy. The student selected for
                                        testing shall complete a specimen control form, which bears an assigned identification number.
                                        This identification number shall be the means for identifying the specimens by all laboratory
                                        personnel. Only the SAC and school nurse shall know the assigned number for each student
                                        selected for testing. If the student selected appears to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol,
                                        those behavioral symptoms will be documented by the nurse prior to the collection of the sample.
School D                                Nurse and Guidance staff – none.
                                        SAC – only after a positive test is identified. However, the SAC and RDT Supervisor are in constant
                                      communication to make the whole process work as smoothly as possible.
                                      Administration – are kept up to data on all RDT activities but have nothing to do with who is tested
                                      and only get names when there is a positive result. Administration is given a bi-monthly report of
                                      the program and updates as activities take place.
School E                              The SAC is considered the follow up and go to person once a positive drug test is discovered.
                                      Parent meetings, student counseling sessions and medical care are all issues addressed. The
                                      guidance department coordinates counseling services with the SAC. A nurse should be dedicated
                                      to this process, but in this particular case, the nurse had a heavy caseload and could be of
                                      assistance.

                                      This process takes a lot of time and more than anyone realizes. Appropriate personnel should be
                                      in place to properly administer the program. School E does not have the appropriate personnel
                                      needed to run this program given the size population of the school.
School F                              SAC is important. He manages the interventions and answers parent, student and staff questions,
                                      etc. Your SAC should become an expert in testing. There are lots of records to be kept in tracking
                                      students that have signed up, comparing with the AD about athletes having forms in, etc. Other
                                      staff can assist the SAC in this process - the nurse should NOT be doing the testing. Try to
                                      outsource that as much as possible. The nurse will be seen as a 'bad guy'.

13. When setting up the program, how long did the attorney review process take?

School A                              The process was not long.
School B                              90 days
                                      Attorney DE, the President of the Drug Free Schools Coalition, will do it at no cost … he works for
                                      the Whitehouse and has been on the frontlines for implementing drug testing at the national level
School C                              Before the Board of Education meeting that approved the policy, the lawyer had reviewed the
                                      policy.
School D                              Too long – but that was a local problem. This is a legal ‘no brainer’ if you follow in the footsteps of
                                      existing successful programs.
School E                              This process took place during the time when the policy was being written.
School F                              Not long - there is state supreme court ruling and precedents on RDT thanks to
                                      School B's case in July 2004.

14. When having parent information sessions, was the computer software program demonstrated?

School A                              No
School B                              Yes. The excel number generator was used in the demonstration.
School C                              Yes. There were many questions regarding this area and the process was reviewed with the
                                      parents.
School D                              We held the pre-testing community forum and present program updates at both BOE meeting and
                                      at other anti-drug/alcohol programs. I’ve offered to demonstrate the selection process on numerous
                                      occasions but I have always been successful just explaining it.
School E                              NA – no parent information sessions were held.
School F                              We didn't use it.
15. Who is the Medical Review Officer (MRO) in your building and how are staff trained and roles defined?

School A                                Positive tests in the nurse’s offices are sent to a lab for confirmation. At the lab, a Medical Review
                                        Officer (MRO) will examine the sample.
School B                                MRO is contracted with the lab service.

School C                                The MRO is out of Philadelphia and is not the school doctor. Their philosophy was the school
                                        doctor was a conflict of interest. The roles were defined by confidentiality and a need to know
                                        basis. The staff involved were trained as to the new policy.
School D                                We contract with a doctor who specialized in MRO work. The lab sends him tests results if we have
                                        a non-negative and he sends me a secure mail report.
School E                                No MRO is assigned.
School F                                Sport Safe


16. Do you test for alcohol, and if yes, what is the procedure that is followed?

School A                                No
School B                                Not yet… planning on adding ETG test next year
School C                                Yes. A urine sample is taken and sent out for testing.
School D                                Yes – all swabs at first but now have moved to 1 out of every 2 students doing an EtG test (more
                                        demanding urine based alcohol test). You need to spend much more time with me to understand
                                        the details about EtG testing – and why we moved away from just oral swabs.
School E                                Yes, we test for alcohol and we use the same swab ( see response to question #2). If student
                                        tests positive, then the district policy is followed. See attachment.
School F                                There is alcohol tested in the urine sample. It has a 24 hour metabolite testing window.
                                        Very hard to test for.
17. If a sample comes back positive, what are the procedures? MRO? Sent to lab to confirm?

School A                             Positive test in the nurse’s offices are sent to a lab for confirmation. At the lab, a Medical Review Officer will
                                     examine the sample.
School B                             Send to lab and wait for confirmation from contracted MRO
                                     SAC calls them down and according to 18:A, they must be seen by a doctor.
                                     Must be cleared by a doctor before returning
School C                             If the initial test result is non-negative, the parent/guardians of the student will be contacted by the school
                                     nurse. If the student appeared to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol, procedures will revert to the
                                     School C District Substance Abuse Policy with the exception of the suspension from school and police
                                     notification provisions. If there were no observable sign of drug or alcohol use as set forth in the first
                                     paragraph of Section C, the SAC will provide appropriate counseling and assess whether the student is
                                     able to return to his or her assigned class. The nurse will transfer a portion of the specimen into a specimen
                                     bottle supplied to the school by a federal certified laboratory, viewed by the student. The nurse will cap the
                                     bottle and place a tamper-evident seal on the top. The student will place his/her ID number on the tamper-
                                     evident seal on the top. The student will place his/her ID number on the tamper-evident label/seal, certifying
                                     that the specimen was collected from him/her. The federally approved laboratory will consult with and guide
                                     the school nurse in the collection of specimens in accordance with Federal Substance Abuse and Mental
                                     Health Services (SAMHSA) standards. Any information transmitted to a federally approved laboratory for
                                     testing or processing will not contain any personally identifiable information. The federally approved
                                     laboratory will contact the medical Review Officer (MRO) in the event of a non-negative result who in turn
                                     will contact the school nurse to obtain the telephone number of the parent/guardians to determine if the
                                     student was taking medications, which could have affected non-negative findings. Once a final
                                     determination is made by the MRO, communication of the findings will be made to the school nurse. The
                                     nurse will contact the parents if the finding is negative. The SAC will contact the parents if the finding is
                                     confirmed positive. Specimens will be kept by the testing facility for at least ninety (90) calendar days
                                     pending a request for retesting of a specimen if an appeal occurs.
School D                             Non-negative in school goes to a lab that sends results to an MRO for review – then it is determined to be
                                     either negative or positive. In 2 ½ years, the program has generated 6 positives and about 20 non-
                                     negatives ultimately determined to be negative because students were on drug prescriptions that set off the
                                     test.
School E                             The strip tells whether or not a test is positive. No MRO is involved. Where challenged, the parents are
                                     able to go to a lab to have the child tested. Most of the time, the parents pay for the lab work when they
                                     challenge the results.
School F                             Sport Safe notifies the parents first - the MRO speaks directly to them to answer any questions they may
                                     have. When we are notified of the positive, the parent has been told FIRST which again takes the pressure
                                     off of us and there is no room to further dispute the accuracy of the test as the MRO has handled all of that.
18. How do you deal with false-positive tests?

School A                               The lab must confirm positive tests. The nanogram level is presently set at 50. They are hoping to
                                       lower the threshold for a positive result.
School B                               No such thing… we call them inconclusive
                                       This is a result of faulty test, damaged cup, or student was taking a prescribed or over the counter
                                       meds
School C                               The MRO evaluates the result of the test. If the MRO concludes the results are non-negative, then
                                       the result is non-negative.
School D                               First – call them non-negatives. See above answer - #19.
School E                               We send students out to get tested in an outside lab facility at the expense of the school district.
School F                               Don’t get them - Sport Safe.

19. What do you test for?

School A                               It’s a traditional 10-point screen
School B                               Narcotics, barbiturates, THC, amphetamines, LSD and ecstasy
School C                               The usual top six
School D                               Everything but steroids and tobacco – the former is often a question about why not. Answer is
                                       based on the number of steroids which are out there and the need to do all steroid testing in labs.
School E                               We test for alcohol and THC.
School F                               12 panel test - not sure off the top of my head. MJ, amphetamine, methamphet, MDMA,
                                       opiates, cocaine, PCP, benzo's, barbiturates, propoxyphene and alcohol.


20. How do you verify/calibrate machines, testing equipment?

School A                               Not done
School B                               No calibration necessary for urine test
School C                               The urine samples are sent out so no calibration is needed
School D                               Verification comes via the lab/MRO process noted above. All of the equipment comes from the
                                       company ready to use/read.
School E                               The district uses the swab and test strip. No other calibrations are done as the test is quite simple.
                                       When in doubt, a student can go to a lab for a urine test to confirm.
School F                               Sport Safe does it all.
21. How are the results reported each year?

School A                                Drug Free Schools Report
School B                                Results are published in monthly newsletters example: 16 students were tested and none tested
                                        positive
School C                                In summary form through a monthly report and year end report to the Board of Education
School D                                Which results? I give the superintendent and BOE ongoing updates. The most important report of
                                        results is tied to the annual administration of the student American Drug and alcohol survey.
School E                                Results never go to the Board, but in the principal reports to the Board a statement may be found
                                        such as “10 students were tested” and no more is mentioned.
School F                                We submit our data to our community task force which meets quarterly now - used to meet
                                        monthly when we started.


22. If a regional school district, do all sending school districts need to approve?

School A                                Not regional
School B                                No, but there is a person from each sending district that sits on the board
School C                                Not a regional system. Both High School policies match for the district
School D                                I’m not sure here – again School B is a good source because they are regional and we are not.
School E                                N/A
School F                                They did when the BOE voted it in.


23. What are the three top reasons why parents would not want the random testing?

School A                                Information prior to introduction is essential. Parents complained until they realized the benefits of
                                        such a program.
School B                                Afraid
                                        Don’t understand
                                        Rights are being violated
School C                                    a. Drinking alcohol on Saturday night is ok and they do not want to get their child in trouble
                                                with this policy
                                            b. Children will be unfairly targeted
                                            c. If children are caught they will have a black mark in the community
School D                                We’ve never had serious parental opposition but three that have popped up the most are (1) civil
                                        rights violation, (2) not the schools job, and (3) cost.

School E                                The only one that can be considered is that some parents who do not understand the process think
                                        that the principal is drawing blood from kids. Obviously with a follow up conversation, the issue
                                        was cleared up.
School F                                Mostly they confuse the intervention & deterrence aspect with 'picking on the good kids'
                                          the ones involved in sports, etc. Research indicates that athletes, students in clubs etc are
                                          just as likely to use as kids who are not. The US court ruled on the constitutionality - it is
                                          legal to test kids involved in things to ensure their safety. Parents also are afraid that this
                                          will be a part of the students' permanent record - it's not. Any SAC will tell you that fed law
                                          requires all drug/alcohol records to be kept separate from other records - only accessible to
                                          SAC & who else needs to know only for the safety of the child. Also, parents are worried
                                          about false positives, the poppy seed myths, etc - that's why we send all urine to the lab.




24. Why did your district decide to offer random drug testing?

   School A                               Community and Drug Alliance worked together with the school district.
   School B                               To help minimize the students from using
   School C                               Deterrent
   School D                               Because we decided to take a more aggressive stance against drug/alcohol usage. Our
                                          problem is no worse than other similar districts, however, we were helped along in terms of
                                          getting community/BOE support by the occurrence of several local tragedies (death and
                                          permanent disability associated with drug usage).
   School E                               We followed the trend at the time of progressive school districts.
   School F                               We had an administration and BOE at the time that were very concerned with the students
                                          being involved with drugs as well as the arrests in the community. All of our surveys indicated
                                          our kids were using at rates higher than national averages by far. This scared us and we
                                          moved forward. We are very proactive - tired of being reactive after hearing stories of
                                          students perishing.

25. Is there anything else that you would like to add that I may not have addressed?

   School A                               -
   School B                               Make sure that the policy is non-punitive and insures confidentiality.
   School C                               -
   School D                               -
   School E                               Yes, don’t expect the data to leave your building, but look at the testing as a therapeutic
                                          solution to national problem.
                                          .
                                          Furthermore, you need to have procedures in place to address students who are in need of
                                          help. A process needs to be in place to make sure that a student and family receives good
                                          information and that the student may return to school and be involved once again. In order for
                                          the program to work effectively and properly, appropriate funding and appropriate personnel
                                          must be in place. If you do not have both, do not launch the program.
   School F                               -

								
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