US GHG Emissions

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					                                                                                            10/2/2009




                                                                  APWA
                                                          September 2009

                                                 Linda Marabian, P.E.
                                                    City of San Diego




            US GHG Emissions
                                2007
                                            Residential
    Transportation                             17%
         28%




                                                      Commercial
                                                         18%




                        Industrial
                           37%

                                               Source: EIA, Emissions of GHG in US 2006, 
                                                       Nov. 2007




            US GHG Emissions
                                2007
        Non‐Surface          Freight/Rail
       Transportation             2%        Passenger Rail 
            15%                                & Buses
                                                 1%
Heavy Vehicles
    17%

     Light Duty 
      Vehicles
        65%




                                               Source: EIA, Emissions of GHG in US 2006, 
                                                       Nov. 2007




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                                                            10/2/2009




                            Policies
                                  AB 32


                                  SB 375


                                Sustainable
                               Communities


                            Smart Growth Areas


                             City of San Diego
                               General Plan


                             Mobility Element




               Mobility Element
                                 Mobility 
                                 Action 
                                  Plan


                                   Multi‐        Roadway 
Pedestrian     Bicycle 
                                modal Level       Design 
Master Plan   Master Plan
                                 of Service      Manual




                     4‐lane Major




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                                                                     10/2/2009




               4‐lane Urban Major




              4‐lane Urban Collector




                Mobility Element
                              Mobility 
                              Action 
                               Plan


                                Multi‐      Roadway       Trip 
Pedestrian      Bicycle 
                             modal Level     Design    Generation 
Master Plan    Master Plan
                              of Service    Manual       Rates




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                      Resources
City of San Diego’s Main Website
 www.sandiego.gov

City of San Diego’s General Plan (includes Mobility Element & Mobility 
Action Plan)
 www.sandiego.gov/planning/genplan/index.shtml

City of San Diego s Transportation Library (includes Bicycle Master 
City of San Diego’s Transportation Library (includes Bicycle Master 
Plan, Street Design Manual, Trip General Manual, & Traffic Impact 
Study Manual)
 www.sandiego.gov/planning/programs/transportation/index.shtml

Contact me:
 Linda Marabian, P.E.
 City of San Diego
 1010 2nd Ave, MS 609
 San Diego, CA 92101
 (619)533‐3082
 LMarabian@sandiego.gov




                                                                                 4
 California’s Blueprint Planning
 to Address Greenhouse Gases
 APWA Congress
 September 14, 2009

 Don Bachman, PE
 Deputy Executive Director
 Transportation Agency for Monterey County




Why are we talking about this?

 Public Policy: GHG=Bad
 New California climate change legislation
 Federal legislation coming
 Changes transportation funding priorities




Landmark State Legislation
 Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006
 (AB 32)

 C lif i S t i bl Communities and
 California Sustainable C      iti d
 Climate Protection Act (SB 375)




                                             1
What AB 32 Does


• Emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2020
• Executive Order: 80% below 1990 levels
    by 2050
• California Air Resources Board lead agency
• All plans required to assess impacts




Magnitude of the Challenge:
California’
California’s GHG Goals
                                             ARB Emissions Inventory
                       700
                                                      ~169 MMT CO2e Reduction
                       600
                             1990 Emission
                                Baseline
                       500
                 ons
  (CO2 Equivalent t)
 Million Metric To




                       400

                       300
                                                                              80% Reduction
                                                                              ~341 MMT CO2e
                       200

                       100

                        0
                             1990        2000          2004            2020         2050
                                                       Year




Greenhouse Gases
                                                          Similar to Kyoto
                                                          Treaty
                                                              Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
                                                              Methane (CH4)
                                                              M th
                                                              Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
                                                              Sulfur Hexaflouride
                                                              HFC’s
                                                              PFC’s




                                                                                              2
Transportation GHG Emissions
California: 2020

                                     Other
                                 Transportation
                                      3%



              Electric Power 23%                          T          i
                                                          Transportation
                                                                  36%
                Industrial 18%                  Others
                                                 15%



                             Agriculture
                             & Forestry
                                  5%


   *Preliminary ARB GHG Projections for 2020; Other Transportation: trains, planes, ships




Transportation GHG Reductions

                        Vehicle                                            Vehicle
                                                    Fuels
                      Technology                                            Use

      p
 Transp.                    GHG                      GHG
  GHG =                     Mile            ,       Gallon             ,
                                                                              VMT



                                                                           Transp. &
                     Clean Car                 Low-Carbon
                                                                           Land Use
                    Regulations               Fuel Standard
                                                                           Strategies




On-Road Transportation Sources
On-
California: 2020


  Passenger Vehicles
 ~ 160 MMTCO2E
                                                         Passenger
                                                          Vehicles
                                                            76%

  Heavy-Duty Vehicles                                                         Heavy

  ~ 50 MMTCO2E
                                                                               Duty
                                                                             Vehicles
                                                                               24%




                                                *Preliminary ARB GHG Projections for 2020




                                                                                            3
Purpose of SB 375
Implements AB 32
for transportation.
Reduces emissions
by reduction in VMT
Targets automobiles
and light trucks




Agency Roles

  California Air Resources Board

  Metropolitan Planning Organization

  Land Use Agencies




The SB 375 “Blueprint” Process
 Targets to Regions by Sept 2010
 Regions develop “Sustainable Communities
 Strategy”
 Identify transportation network
 Regional Transportation Plan includes
 Strategy
 Plan must be internally consistent




                                            4
Sustainable Communities Strategy

 Specific forecasted development pattern

 Uses “current planning assumptions”

 Must quantify emission reductions
 Must meet the target if feasible
 General plans need not conform to strategy




Potential SCS Results
                     Transit and
                     multimodal corridors
                     Increased density
                     Transit Oriented
                     Development
                     Multi-use land use
                     planning
                     Shorter trips




                 Alternative Planning
                 Strategies
                  If target not reached region
                  adopts “Alternative
                  Planning Strategy”
                  Not based on current
                  planning assumptions
                  May have alternative
                  growth pattern
                  Not part of RTP




                                                 5
Plan Approval

   Region adopts Sustainable Communities
   Strategy or Alternative Planning
   Strategy

   Air Board approves or disapproves – but
   cannot direct changes




How it Comes Home
Transportation Funding
Priorities
  Financial priorities need to be
  consistent with strategy
  Would favor infill over sprawl
  Funding shift from highways
  to transit, etc
  Incentive to VMT reduction




Other Incentives

  California Environmental Quality Act
  process streamlining

  Projects consistent with strategies that
  meet emission reduction targets




                                             6
California Environmental
Quality Act?

 California’s Environmental Law

         p          p       p j
 Reviews public and private projects

 Overlaps NEPA

 Significant processes




SB 375 Exemptions
• Projects in approved local tax measures

• Projects in adopted Transportation
 Improvement P
 I         t Program




Long-Range Benefits




   Source: Median VMT impact values from over 20 modeling studies
   reviewed by UC Berkeley’s Transportation Sustainability Research Center




                                                                             7
Challenges

 Short timelines

 Emission modeling is uncertain

 Funding for process is scarce

 Requires collaboration of multiple
 jurisdictions




Status

 Regional targets underway

 Local agency outreach by regions

 Developing policies and process

 Model development




Stay Tuned

 Emission Targets – September 2010

 Strategy Development by Regions

 Adoption of Regional Transportation
 Plans

 Funding Priorities




                                       8
Questions?




             9
   SB375:
   Integrated Planning
   Underway in the
   Sacramento Region

American Public Works
Association

Don Bachman spoke for
Matt Carpenter
Sacramento Area Council of
Governments (SACOG)




        Sacramento Area
           Council of
          Governments


    6 counties

    22 cities

    2.2 million people




                             1
Information-
Information-driven planning




Base Case
Scenario:
(MEPLAN -    Alternative         Regional
Land         Scenarios:          Transportation:
Economics)   (PLACE3S -          (Activity-Based
             Relative impacts)   Travel Model)




Citizen Input: Workshops at
the County & Regional
Scale




                                                   2
Elected Officials
Workshops




Key Regional
Planning Efforts


• Blueprint growth strategy, 2004
• New Metropolitan Transportation Plan
  (MTP2035), 2008
                                  gy,
• Rural-Urban Connections Strategy, launched in
  2008




                                                  3
  Blueprint: How to
  Best Manage
  Growth?




Blueprint: Seven
principles of smart
growth




                      4
Blueprint
Base
Case


Urban
Footprint
— 2050




Blueprint
Preferred
Scenario


Urban
Footprint
— 2050




            5
Blueprint:
Less Urban Land




Blueprint:
Less Farmland
Conversion




                  6
 Expanding urban
 core plus small
 satellite cities




MTP 2035: Next
Step in Blueprint




   A Corridor at the Start Sacramento
Hurley Way and Fulton Avenue, of the
   MTP Planning Process…
County
  Source: UrbanAdvantage




                                        7
MTP 2035: Next
Step in Blueprint




   Future Potential of the Corridor
   Source: UrbanAdvantage




 Shorter Trips to
 Serve Future Land
 Uses
      g                greatest for
• budget % increase is g
  bike/pedestrian and Blueprint supportive
  programs (AQ, community design, etc.)
• increased $ support for road maintenance &
  transit operations




                                               8
 Cost-
 Cost-Effective
 Solutions with Good
 Performance Benefit

E      ith Fi    i lC      t i t     T d Off
Even with Financial Constraints & Trade-Offs…
     MTP2035 vehicle travel measures per
     household improve from today
      eg) Congested Vehicle Miles of Travel per
      household is significantly lower than previous
      non-green MTP




Cost-Effective
Cost-
Solutions with Good
Performance Benefit




                                                       9
  Emphasis on Transit

• New Transit
  Options
  O ti
• 62% of local bus
  routes with 30min
  or better service
  (vs. 8% in 2005)
• 58% of
  Environmental
  Justice households
  living within ¼ of a
  15min transit line
  (vs. 21% in 2005)




  Emphasis on Transit

      035 a s t O e ted
MTP 2035 Transit Oriented
Development Opportunities




                            10
Emphasis on Transit




Emphasis on Transit




                      11
  Roads Strategy

• complete arterial grids for local trips and strategic
  freeway improvements for longer distance travel
• focus on cost-effective operational improvements
  (eg. ITS) and fixing critical bottlenecks (eg.
  interchanges)




                                                          12
Connecting
Climate Change to
Blueprint & MTP

                   Land Use &
                 Transportation


     MTP              EIR           Air Quality
  Investment       Mitigation     Transportation
   Priorities      Measures          Control
                                    Measures


                Greenhouse Gas
                   Emissions




California Climate
Change
Requirements

• AB32 – 1990 GHG levels by 2020
• Executive Order – 80% reduction by 2050
• California Environmental Quality Act
  (CEQA) – plans and projects required to
  assess GHG i        t (Attorney General
                impacts (Att      G     l
  actively enforcing)




                                                   13
Transportation & Land
Use Sector Produces
Vehicle Miles Traveled
• Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) is an important,
  but not the only, component of Greenhouse Gas
  emissions
• Vehicle Types and Fuel Technologies are the
  other two components




Green Solutions:
Transportation
Investments & GHG




                                                  14
Green Solutions:
Transportation
Policies & GHG
• Condition funds on green construction practices
• Develop regional climate action plan
• Create alternative fuel vehicle and infrastructure
  toolkit
• Regional parking policy
• Program to reduce GHG emissions for school
  trips
• “Complete Streets” policy
• Rural-Urban Connections strategy




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