Integrating Measurement Verification in Existing Building

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Integrating Measurement Verification in Existing Building Powered By Docstoc
					Integrating Measurement & Verification in
Existing Building Commissioning Projects
IPMVP Options B and C


                                               David Jump, Ph.D., P.E.
                                                              Principal
                  Quantum Energy Services & Technologies, Inc. (QuEST)

                                                 www.quest-world.com


                                                                     1
Presentation Overview
   This presentation will discuss:
       Need for M&V in EBCx projects
       CCC‟s Verification of Savings Guideline
       M&V Methodology & Approach
       Overlap with EBCx projects
       Procedure
       Case Studies



                                                  2
Benefits of EBCx
   Indoor air quality
   Thermal comfort
   Equipment reliability
   Equipment Maintenance
   More…

   Most quantifiable benefit: Energy Savings

                                                3
Need for M&V in EBCx
   EBCx Energy Savings
       Typically ~5% of whole building energy use
           Cannot “see” at main meters
       Based on data collected before improvements
        made
           Called “ex-ante” savings estimates
           No standard calculation methodologies for ex-ante
            savings



                                                                4
  Ex-Ante Savings Calculations
                        A                                                     D
                Baseline Operation                                   Proposed Operation
                      w/ IGV                           w/o IGV, w/ VFD High Limit & w/ VFD Modulation

    Air     Speed      IGV       Power      Annual       Air      Speed         VFD    Power    Annual
 Volume               Power                 Energy    Volume      w/ VFD       Power   w/ VFD   Energy
Flow Rate             Ratio                  Use     Flow Rate   Modulation    Ratio Modulation   Use
  Profile            [Note 1]                          Profile                [Note 2]
    %         %         %            kW     kWh/Yr       %           %           %       kW     kWh/Yr
  100%      100%      109%           12.8      51      100%        89.3%        71%      9.1       36
   98%      100%      105%           12.3      74       98%        87.6%        68%      8.4       50
   96%      100%      102%           12.0      96       96%        85.9%        64%      7.7       62
   94%      100%       99%           11.6     267       94%        84.2%        63%      7.3      168
   92%      100%       96%           11.3     362       92%        82.6%        60%      6.8      218
   91%      100%       93%           10.9     436       91%        80.9%        57%      6.2      248
   89%      100%       90%           10.6     244       89%        79.2%        56%      5.9      136
   87%      100%       87%           10.2     602       87%        77.5%        53%      5.4      319
   85%      100%       85%           10.0     750       85%        75.8%        50%      5.0      375
   83%      100%       84%            9.9     782       83%        74.1%        49%      4.9      387
   81%      100%       83%            9.7    1,358      81%        72.5%        46%      4.5      630
   79%      100%       81%            9.5    1,055      79%        70.8%        44%      4.2      466
   77%      100%       80%            9.4     808       77%        69.1%        43%      4.0      344
   75%      100%       78%            9.2    1,003      75%        67.4%        40%      3.7      403
   74%      100%       77%            9.0     801       74%        65.7%        38%      3.4      303
   72%      100%       76%            8.9     454       72%        64.0%        37%      3.3      168
   70%      100%       74%            8.7     835       70%        62.3%        34%      3.0      288
   68%      100%       73%            8.6     774       68%        60.7%        32%      2.8      252
   66%      100%       73%            8.6     697       66%        59.0%        30%      2.6      211
   64%
   62%
            100%
            100%
                       71%
                       70%
                                      8.3
                                      8.2
                                             1,212
                                              869
                                                        64%
                                                        62%
                                                                   57.3%
                                                                   55.6%
                                                                                28%
                                                                                26%
                                                                                         2.3
                                                                                         2.1
                                                                                                  336
                                                                                                  223
                                                                                                         Savings = 24,379 – 7,603 =
   60%
   58%
            100%
            100%
                       69%
                       68%
                                      8.1
                                      8.0
                                             1,013
                                             1,048
                                                        60%
                                                        58%
                                                                   53.9%
                                                                   52.2%
                                                                                24%
                                                                                23%
                                                                                         1.9
                                                                                         1.8
                                                                                                  238
                                                                                                  236
                                                                                                             16,776 kWh annually
   57%      100%       67%            7.9     940       57%        50.5%        21%      1.7      202
   55%
   53%
            100%
            100%
                       66%
                       65%
                                      7.8
                                      7.6
                                              562
                                             1,284
                                                        55%
                                                        53%
                                                                   48.9%
                                                                   47.2%
                                                                                19%
                                                                                19%
                                                                                         1.5
                                                                                         1.4
                                                                                                  108
                                                                                                  237
                                                                                                                    (?)
   51%      100%       65%            7.6     958       51%        45.5%        17%      1.3      164
   50%      100%       65%            7.6    1,041      50%        44.7%        16%      1.2      164
   50%      100%       65%            7.6    1,467      50%        44.7%        16%      1.2      232
   50%      100%       65%            7.6     631       50%        44.7%        16%      1.2      100
   50%      100%       65%            7.6     509       50%        44.7%        16%      1.2       80
   50%      100%       65%            7.6     456       50%        44.7%        16%      1.2       72
   50%      100%       65%            7.6     319       50%        44.7%        16%      1.2       50
   50%      100%       65%            7.6     152       50%        44.7%        16%      1.2       24
   50%      100%       65%            7.6     122       50%        44.7%        16%      1.2       19
   50%      100%       65%            7.6     122       50%        44.7%        16%      1.2       19
   50%      100%       65%            7.6      84       50%        44.7%        16%      1.2       13                          5
   50%      100%       65%            7.6     122       50%        44.7%        16%      1.2       19
   50%      100%       65%            7.6      23       50%        44.7%        16%      1.2        4
                                     12.8   24,379                                       9.1     7,603
Data Requirements
   In example:
       Trends of fan power and weather required
         Sources:
             Building automation system
             Independent loggers
             Local weather stations
       Data preparation requirements:
         Merge data sets
         Prepare analysis „bins‟
       Analysis
         Model systems
         Make assumptions
         QA on result (“reasonableness”)
       Savings calculation effort takes time, focus, & resources
        away from commissioning the building!
                                                                    6
Need for M&V in EBCx
   Need confidence that savings are real
       Typ. project cost: $20k to $100k
       Owners
           Need assurance of return on investment
       Utility programs
           Need to justify expense of ratepayer moneys




                                                          7
“Confidence”
   Expressed as “Uncertainty”
       Less uncertainty = more confidence
   Ex-ante savings:
       No way to determine savings uncertainty
           e.g 16,776 kWh  ???
   Uncertainty may only be determined by:
       Calculations using measurements of energy use
        before and after ECM installed
       e.g. 16,776  839 kWh (10%)
                                                        8
Methodology Overview
   This methodology is based on:
       Continuously monitored building data
       Regression-based energy modeling
       Applied to:
           Whole building
           Building subsystems
   Written for integration in EBCx projects
       Large overlap between M&V and EBCx processes

                                                   9
Guideline - Contents
   Introduction
   General Description of M&V Process
   M&V Approach
                             How to design a
   Required Resources       good M&V Plan
   Analysis Methods
   Measurement and Verification Process
   Appendices
       A: Empirical Models
       B: Uncertainty Analysis
       C: Example M&V Plan
       D: Example Projects
                                               10
      Measurement & Verification -
       700


      Graphical Concept
       600                                                                  Adjusted Baseline


       500



       400
kWh




       300


                         Measured energy use
       200

              Baseline                                      Post-Installation
               Period                                            Period
       100



         0
                 5




                                  6




                                                 7




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        05




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              l-0




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        n-




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             Ju




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      Ja




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                                                                                         Ja
                                              kWh actual        kWh baseline
                                                                                                        11
M&V - Basic Equation

Energy Savings = Baseline Energy
          – Post-Installation Period Energy
          ± Adjustments

   Adjustments are:
     Routine Adjustments

     Non-Routine Adjustments



                                              12
Routine Adjustments

   Normal and expected variations in energy use
    due to operating conditions, normal productions,
    etc.


   Equation becomes:
    Energy Savings = Adjusted Baseline Energy
                  – Post-Installation Period Energy
                  ± Non-Routine Adjustments


                                                      13
Non-Routine Adjustments
   Energy use (or lack of) due to non-
    routine events, occupancy or equipment
    changes, etc.

   Examples:
       Tenant moving in or out of a space
       Chiller failure and replacement
       Major renovation project
       Etc.

                                             14
Focus of this Guideline
   Whole Building (IPMVP Option C)
       Short-term interval data from Utility or energy
        information systems (EIS)
       Meters connected to EMCS and trended
   Individual building systems (IPMVP Option B)
       EMCS trends
       Other energy information system data
       Temporary or permanently installed meters


   2 different approaches, 1 method
                                                          15
M&V Process                                              EBCx Process                 (Guideline p.2)
                                                         Scope of Cx Activity
                                                            Identify purpose/goals of Cx activity
                                                            Describe roles of involved parties
   Baseline Period                                          Identify systems included in Cx process
      Define Scope of M&V Activity                      Planning Phase
      Identify purpose/goals of M&V activity               Establish bldg. requirements
      Identify affected systems                            Review available info./ visit site / interview
      Design the M&V Process                                operators
            Assess Project & Source of Savings             Develop EBCx Plan
            Define Approach                                Document operation conditions
      Add points & collect data                         Investigation Phase
            Energy and indep. variable (OAT, etc.)         Identify current building needs
            Bldg. level: gas pulse, steam meter, etc.      Facility performance analysis
            Systems: Chiller kW, other var. loads          Diagnostic monitoring
      Document the baseline                                System testing
            Equipment inventory and operations             Create list of findings
            Develop baseline energy model               Implementation Phase
            Assess baseline model                          Prioritize recommendations
      Finalize and Document the M&V Plan                   Install/Implement recommendations
                                                            Commission Recommendations
                                                            Document improved performance
                                                         Turnover Phase
                                                            Update building documentation
                                                            Develop final report
                                                            Update Systems Manual
                                                            Plan ongoing commissioning
                                                            Provide Training
                                                         Persistence Phase
                                                            Monitor and track energy use
                                                            Monitor and track non-energy metrics
                                                            Trend key system parameters
                                                            Document changes
                                                                                                              16
                                                            Implement persistence strategies
 M&V
 Approach                 Gas Meter



                                             DHW
                                                                  Hot Water Plant
                                                                                    Chilled Water Plant
                                                                                                             MCC




    Select
     measurement                                                          VSD

                                                                                         Air Handling Unit

     boundary
                                                                 VSD




                          L

                          P                        Men   Women




    Option C - Whole
     Building
                          L

                          P

    Option B: Retrofit
     Isolation (HVAC
     Systems)             L

                          P




(Guideline p.9)           L
                                                                                          kWh Meter
                          P


                              Lighting and
                               Plug Load
                                                                                                                   17
  Retrofit Isolation                                    CW
                                                       Pump

                                                              Cooling Tower
                                                                                    SCHW
                                                                                    Pumps

     Defining Systems - by                                       Chiller

      „Services‟ provided                                  PCHW
                                                           Pump


            Chilled water system:
                Chiller, CHW pumps, etc.


            Air handling system:
                Supply fan, return fan,                                               VSD
                                                                                             CHW

                 exhaust fan


             Hot water system:
                                                                              VSD
         
                Boiler, HW pumps
                                            Boiler
                                                     VSD




(Guideline p.14)                                                                                   18
    Data Sources
                                            Utility websites, e.g. PG&E‟s Interact
   Whole-Building Meters                   Resource
       Electric – 15 minute interval       http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/ener
                                            gysavingsrebates/demandresponse/to
        data                                ols/
                                            e,g, PG&E‟s Business Tools
       Monthly Gas & Electric data
                                            http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/
                                            myaccount/analysis/


       Interval Gas Data (Pulse Counter)
           Bolt-on pulse meter
           Face plate replacement




                                                                                     19
Data Sources
   Water flow meters
       Portable ultrasonic
       Insertion-paddlewheel




   BTU meters

                                20
Data Sources
   Weather
       PG&E‟s Interact website provides cleaned
        weather data on hourly basis
       Other Sources:
           www.gard.com/weather/index.htm
           www.weatherunderground.com
           Take particular note of
            http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/cfm/
            weather_data.cfm
               which gives sources for weather data in a variety of formats,
                including real-time data.

                                                                           21
Data Sources
   For Option B Retrofit Isolation Approach
          e.g. HVAC Systems
            Air and
                                                                                                          Outside Air
            Water
                                                                                                           Damper
            Vapor

                                                                                        AHU
                                                                                       Supply                                          Return Air
                                                                                        Fan                                               Fan
                      Water                           Water                Water

           Cooling                       C                                                                         Air
            Tower                                                                                                         Return Air
     Air     Mix                  HX   Chiller   HX     Pri. CHW     Sec. CHW          HX    AHU                           Damper
                                                         pump          pump                 Cooling
                                                                                             Coil
                         P                V              P                         P                                                                          Air

                      Condenser
                        water
                        pump                                                                Air
                                                                   Water
                                                                                             AHU
                                                                                       HX   Heating
                                                                                             Coil
                                                                                                                                 Air
                                                        Boiler         P
                                                                                                           VAV box                                  Fan-powered
                                                                                                          with reheat                                 VAV box
                                                                                                  Water
                                                                   Water
                                                                                                                         HX




                                                                                                                                            Room
                                                                                                                                                                    22
Data Sources
   HVAC Systems
       Cooling Tower Fans
       Chillers
       CDW & CHW Pumps
       AHU Fans
       Constant load
       Variable load

   Equipment Power
       “Spot” measurements
       Power logging instruments
       Convert feedback status signals
        to power/energy
           Proxy variables

                                          23
Proxy Variables                           (Guideline p.21)


   Generates energy variables (kWh, kW,
    therms, etc.) from:
       Feedback status signals trended in EMCS
           Constant load / constant speed equipment
               on/off status, etc.
           Variable load / variable speed equipment
               VFD speed, amps, etc.
       Independently measured or logged data
           kWh, kW
           Hot and chilled water flow, etc.

                                                             24
Proxy Variables
   Example of constant and variable load feedback
    signals on EMCS
            120                                                                                     5

            100
                                                                                                    4

             80
                                                                                                    3
             60
                                                                                                    2
             40

                                                                                                    1
             20

               0                                                                                    0
                8




                               8




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              00




                             00




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            /2




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                                                                                          29
       3/




                      3/




                                   3/




                                                3/




                                                             3/




                                                                          3/




                    MU.AH4.RET INLET VANE %OPEN              MU.AH1.RAF.STATUS ON/OFF  3/
                                                                                                        25
Proxy Variables
   For ON/OFF status points
       Make “spot” measurements of kW
           Multiple measurements and take average
       kW = kWmeasured * STATUS
   For variable speed/load signals
       Short term logging of equipment kW
       Corresponding trended load data from EMCS
       Develop relationship between kW and load

                                                     26
Proxy Variables
   VFD Speed for kW

                      35

                      30

                      25
       AHU-1 Fan kW




                      20

                      15

                      10

                      5

                      0
                           0   20   40          60           80           100   120
                                         AHU-1 Fan Speed %

                                             Actual    Cubic polynomial
                                                                                      27
Required Resources - Data
   Gather physical information, within the
    measurement boundary, for the baseline
    period:
       Energy data (kWh, kW, therms, etc.)
           Assure sensors are calibrated
       Independent variables: Ambient temperature,
        occupied hours, etc.
       Static Factors:
           Equipment inventory, building characteristics   Should be in
                                                            EBCx
           Occupancy, operational schedules
                                                            documentation
           Operating procedures, set points
                                                                      28
Amount of Data                                (Guideline p.34)


   Interval Data (Whole Building and Systems):
       Issue needs more research (ASHRAE research topic)
       General guidance:
           Enough to cover a “cycle” of operation (IPMVP requires
            data through one cycle)
               Constant load equipment: spot measurement
               Variable load equipment: through range of its operation
                 Chilled water system: entire cooling season
               Building – one year, or half year from coldest to warmest
                months
           Enough to capture 80 or 90% of range of data
           Data collected in season when ECMs have most impact
                                                                            29
Preparing Data                          (Guideline p.25)


   Different sources
       Whole building electric – short term interval data
       Local airport or NOAA weather file
       Energy information system
       Energy management and control system
   Different types
       COV, analog, digital, “categorical”, etc.
   Different time intervals
       5-min (e.g. EMCS trend)
       15 min (utility whole-building kWh)
       Hourly (NOAA weather)

                                                             30
Preparing Data
   Methods require all data to be on common
    time interval
       Called “analysis time interval”
       Guideline recommends:
           Hourly
           Daily




                                               31
Useful Data Preparation
Software Tools
   Universal Translator
       Merges and aligns multiple data sets to same time stamp
       Interpolates between points, etc.
       Much more!
       Free from www.utonline.org


   Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM) Tool
       Sets up categorical variables for weekdays, weekends, etc.
       Much more!
       Excel add-in
       Free from www.cacx.org
                                                                  32
Important!
   In almost all cases, after the ECM has been
    installed, you cannot go back and re-create the
    baseline. It no longer exists!

   It is very important to properly define and
    document all baseline conditions before the
    ECM is implemented.




                                                      33
Short Term Interval Methods
   Empirical energy use models               (Guideline p.29)

       E = F (xi)
       Statistical regressions
       Models are built directly from data


   Can determine best model type and fit
   Can calculate model uncertainty


                                                            34
Energy Modeling




                                                                                        Energy use
                          Energy use
                                        C                                                                               B1

                                                                                                      C

                                                   Ambient Temp                                                Ambient Temp


                                            1-parameter model                                        2-parameter model

                                                  B1                                                                    B1
                          Energy use




                                                                                        Energy use
                                        C                                                             C
                                                           B2                                                     B2

                                                  Ambient Temp                                                 Ambient Temp

                     3-parameter model (heating)                                              3-parameter model (cooling)




                     B1                                                                                                                         B1




                                                                                                                              Energy use
    Energy use




                                                                  Energy use




                                                                               C                                                                                B2
                                             B2                                                           B2
                 C
                                                                                   B1                                                       C
                                       B3                                                        B3                                                  B3   B4
                     Ambient Temp                                                  Ambient Temp                                                  Ambient Temp

   4-parameter model (heating)                                     4-parameter model (cooling)                                             5-parameter model         35
Modeling Examples
                                                                              Electrical Demand vs. Ambient Temperature
                                                   800

                                                   700




               Electrical Demand [kW]
                                                   600

                                                   500

                                                   400

                                                   300

                                                   200
                                                                                                                                         kW (post)
                                                                            y = 9.622x - 212.35                                          Post Fit
                                                   100
                                                                                R2 = 0.7869
                                                              0
                                                                  40               50                60           70                80               90
                                                                                           Ambient Temperature, deg F
                                                                             Hutchison Hot Water Use vs. Ambient Temperature
                                                              2000

                                                              1800

                                                              1600

                                        Hot Water Use [MBH]   1400

                                                              1200                                                                          HHW MBH
                                                              1000                                                                          Curve Fit
                                                                                                                                            Actual Post
                                                              800

                                                              600

                                                              400

                                                              200

                                                                   0
                                                                       40         50         60           70       80          90           100           110
                                                                                                  Ambient Temperature, deg F                         36
Developing Models
   General Procedure
       Plot data
       Select model type (1-P, 2-P, 3-P Cooling, etc.)
       Select change point
       Perform regressions (averages where needed)
       Calculate CV & NMBE
       Adjust change point
       Perform new regressions
       Calculate CV & NMBE, compare with run #1
       Iterate to lowest CV & NMBE
   Can develop in spreadsheets using macros
                                                          37
Assess Baseline Model
   Develop different energy use models
   Select model that best fits data (low NMBE, CV)
   Run uncertainty assessment
       Determines if model can determine savings within reasonable
        uncertainty
       May need to select alternate approach
   Finalize approach
   Decide how long to measure in post-installation period
    (Reporting Period)
   Document in M&V Plan


                                                                      38
Uncertainty Assessment                             (Guideline p.61)



   Purpose: To determine if model will be able to
    distinguish savings from the model‟s uncertainty
   Reference: ASHRAE Guideline 14 Annex B
       Appendix B in Verifying Savings in EBCx Guideline
   Procedure:
       Gather data
       Develop model
       Estimate expected savings
       Calculate fractional savings uncertainty
       Compare with savings estimate


                                                                      39
Uncertainty Assessment
   ASHRAE G14, Annex B, Eqn. B-15
     Uncertainty in Fractional Savings, Esave,m/Esave,m
     For “weather models with correlated residuals”
         Each point has a relationship with the previous point
         Potential when time unit is short (e.g. daily or hourly)

                                                      1/ 2
                                    n    2 1
                          1.26  CV  1   
          E save,m                  n'  n'  m 
                      t
           E save,m                      F


                                                                     40
Useful Software
   QuEST Change-Point Model Spreadsheets
       www.quest-world.com
       Excel-based
   Energy Explorer
       Automatically determines best fit of change-point models to
        data, makes charts, calculates savings, uncertainty, etc.
       Source: Prof. Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton
   ASHRAE Inverse Modeling Toolkit (RP1050)
       Purchase with Research Project 1050
       DOS-based, source and executable files
       Includes test data sets

                                                                  41
Spreadsheet Demonstration

   Linear and change-point models




                                     42
Post Installation Model
        Similar to baseline model
         Developed from post-installation data


        Two Uses:
    1.    Annualizing Energy Savings
    2.    Savings Persistence/Performance Tracking
            Example in Case Study



                                                     43
Annualizing Savings
   Use when less than one year of data
       Baseline or Post-Installation


   Use baseline and post-installation models
    with independent variables
       TMY weather data
       Other variables

   Difference is annual savings
                                                44
Case Studies
   UC Berkeley
       Soda Hall
         Computer Science Building

         109,000 ft2

   UC Davis
       Shields Library
         400,070 ft2

         Undergraduate library




                                      45
Soda Hall
   UC Berkeley‟s Computer Science Department (24/7 operation)

   109,000 ft2

   Central Plant (2 - 215 ton chillers & associated equipment)

   Steam to hot water heating

   3 Main VAV AHUs,
     AHU1 serves building core,

     AHUs 3 and 4 serve the perimeter, with hot water reheat




                                                                  46
Soda Hall EBCx Findings
                                                                                                Savings

               Measure                                        Implementation      Energy,       Energy,       Dollars,             Payback,
System                              Description                                                                          Cost, $
                 No.                                               Date           kWh/yr         lbs/yr         $/yr                  yr
                         Resume supply air temperature
                         reset control and return                10/25/2006        129,800      266,250       $19,004    $1,550      0.1
              AHU1-2     economizer to normal operation
 AHU-1




                                                                 10/25/2006        34,308                     $4,460     $7,000      1.6
              AHU1-3     Repair/replace VFDs in return fans

                         Reduce high minimum VAV box
                                                                  3/9/2006         46,300       119,300       $6,973     $15,250     2.2
              AHU1-4     damper position

              AHU3-2 &   Option 2: Reduce high minimum            3/9/2006         30,600       2,328,100     $22,603    $17,250     0.8
              AHU4-2     VAV box damper position
                         Re-establish scheduled fan
 AHUs 3 & 4




                         operation and VAV AHU-3
                         (includes repair/replace VFD on
                         return fan EF-17), AHU-4 (includes
                         repair/replace VFDs on supply SF-       10/25/2006        242,000                    $31,460    $14,000     0.4
                         18 and return EF-19 fans, and
              AHU3-3 &   elimination of low VFD speed
              AHU4-3     setting during the day)
                                       Total                                       483,008      2,713,650     $84,500    $55,050     0.7
                                                              Percentage
                                                                                     10%          51%          14%
                                                              Savings
                                                                   Utility Data    Steam          5,325,717     lbs
                                                                                  Electricity    4,871,678     kWhr
                                                                                     Cost         $621,575

                                                                                                                                              47
M&V Approach for Soda Hall
   Resources:
       Whole-building electric and steam meters present
       EMS that trends all points at 1 min (COV) intervals
       8-month history of data
   RCx measures in AHU and Chilled Water Systems
       Electric and steam savings
   Very high EUI – unsure if can discern savings at whole
    building level
   M&V Approach:
       Option B – applied at systems level (electric only)
       Option C – whole building level (electric and steam)

                                                               48
Baseline Model: Soda Hall
        Total Building Electric   Building Steam




        Peak Period Electric      HVAC System Electric




                                                          49
                                                                                                         Daily kWh Use
                                      2/
                                         9/2




                                                    0
                                                        500
                                                                                         1,000
                                                                                                 1,500
                                                                                                           2,000
                                                                                                                   2,500
                                                                                                                           3,000
                                                                                                                                   3,500
                                                                                                                                           4,000
                                                                                                                                                                   4,500
                                             00
                                    2/
                                       1        6
                                         1/
                                            20
                                    2/         0
                                       13 6
                                          /2
                                             00
                                    2/
                                       15 6
                                          /2
                                             00
                                    2/
                                       17 6
                                          /2
                                             00
                                    2/
                                       19 6
                                          /2
                                             00
                                    2/
                                       21 6
                                          /2
                                             00
                                    2/
                                       23 6
                                                                                                                                                                           Systems

                                          /2
                                             00
                                    2/
                                       25 6
                                          /2




                                                              Baseline Period
                                             00
                                    2/
                                       27 6
                                          /2
                                             00
                                                6
                                                                                                                                           Baseline Model:




                                      3/
                                                                                                                                           RMSE = 136 kWh




                                         1/
                                           20
                                              06




                            Break
                             Date
                                      3/
                                                                                                                                           kWh = 79.9*OAT + 1129




                                         3/
                                           20
                                              06
                                      3/
                                         5/
                                           20
                                              06
                                      3/
                                         7/
                                           20
                                   10         06
                                      /3




     HVAC Daily kWh Usage
                                         1/
                                           20
                                    11        06
                                        /2
                                          /2
                                             00




                            Date
                                    11          6
                                        /4
                                          /2
                                             00
                                    11          6
                                        /6




     Baseline
                                          /2
                                             00
                                    11          6
                                        /8
                                          /2
                                   11        00
                                      /1        6
                                                                                                                                                                           Soda Hall M&V: HVAC




                                         0/
                                           20
                                   11         06
                                      /1
                                         2/
                                           20
                                   11         06
                                      /1
                                         4/
                                           20
                                   11         06
                                      /1
                                         6/
     Post-Install Model



                                           20
                                   11         06
                                      /1
                                         8/
                                           20
                                   11         06
                                                              Post-Installation Period




                                      /2
                                         0/
                                           20
                                   11         06
                                      /2
                                         2/
                                           20
                                   11         06
                                      /2
                                         4/
                                           20
                                   11         06
                                      /2
                                         6/
                                                                                                                                           RMSE = 213 kWh




                                           20
                                                                                                                                           Post-Install Model:




                                   11         06
                                      /2
                                                                                                                                           kWh = 44.1*OAT - 336




                                         8/
                                           20
50




                                              06
Soda Hall: Estimated vs.
Verified Savings


                      Estimated                    Verified Savings**
    Source
                      Savings*            Whole Building         HVAC System
kWh                     483,008                216,716               462,472
kW                         -                     22                    50
Lbs. Steam             2,713,650               854,407
* based on eQUEST model
** based on baseline and post-installation measurements and TMY OAT data




                                                                               51
Shields Library
   UC Davis Undergraduate Library

   400,072 ft2

   Chilled Water and Steam provided by campus central plant
     2 CHW service entrances, variable volume

     2 HW service entrances



   11 AHU, 3 VAV, 8 CAV

   5 electric meters



                                                               52
Shields Library RCx Findings
    System          Description of Deficiencies/Findings
                    • Excessive fan speed due to failure to meet static pressure set point
    AC01 & AC02     • Economizer malfunction
                    • Simultaneous heating and cooling in air stream
    AC21, AC25,
                    • Economizer Repair
    AC25, AC51,
                    • Economizer Control Optimization
    AC53, AC54,
                    • Supply Air Temperature Reset with Occupancy Schedule
    AH1, AH2, AH3

                    • Chilled water supply temp set point reset
    CHW & HW
                    • Chilled water pump lockout
    Pumps
                    • Reset CHW EOL pressure set point




   • Savings: no estimates prior to measure implementation

                                                                                             53
M&V Approach for Shields
Library
   Assessment:
     Whole-building meters present:

       5 electric meters

       2 CHW meters (installed as part of project)

       3 HW meters (installed as part of project)

     EMS that trends all points at 5 min intervals

     RCx measures in AHU, CHW and HW pumps

       Electric, chilled water, and hot water savings

   M&V Approach:
     Option C – whole building level




                                                         54
Shields Library: M&V Models
                8,000
                        Electric                                                                                                  500
                                                                                                                                             Chilled Water
                                                                                                                                  450
                7,000
                                                                                                                                  400
                6,000
                                                                                                                                  350




                                                                                                                   Tons Per Day
Daily kWh Use




                5,000                                                                                                             300

                4,000                                                                                                             250
                                                                                                                                  200
                3,000
                                                                                                                                  150
                2,000
                                                                                                                                  100
                1,000                                                                                                              50

                  -                                                                                                                0
                        10    20       30       40                   50            60        70         80                              40            50         60         70          80        90        100      110
                                                     OAT                                                                                                                    OAT (Deg F)
                                                                                                                                                EXP CHW    EXP CHW Model         Post EXP CHW   Post EXP CHW Model
                             Baseline Model   Baseline Data                   Post Model     Post Data


                                                                     800

                                                                     700

                                                                     600

                                Steam
                                                      MBTU per Day




                                                                     500

                                                                     400

                                                                     300

                                                                     200

                                                                     100

                                                                          0
                                                                              40        50         60        70                    80            90        100        110                                            55
                                                                                                             OAT (Deg F)

                                                                                             HHW   HHW Model      HHW Post                   HHW Post Model
                                                                                                 Daily kWh Use
                            1/
                              4/
                                   20




                                          0
                                              1,000
                                                                                 2,000
                                                                                         3,000
                                                                                                      4,000
                                                                                                                 5,000
                                                                                                                         6,000
                                                                                                                                 7,000
                                                                                                                                                      8,000
                            1/       07
                              7/
                                 2
                           1/ 00
                             10 7
                               /2
                           1/ 00
                             13 7
                               /2
                           1/ 00
                             16 7
                               /2
                           1/ 00
                             19 7
                               /2
                           1/ 00
                             22 7
                               /2
                           1/ 00
                             25 7
                               /2
                           1/ 00
                             28 7
                               /2




                                                      Baseline Period
                           1/ 00
                             31 7
                                                                                                                                                              Meter Savings




                               /2
                                   0
                            2/ 07
                              3/
                                 20
                            4/ 07
                              1/
                                 20
                            4/ 07
                              4/
                                 20
                            4/ 07
                              7/
                                 2
                           4/ 00
                             10 7
                               /2
                           4/ 00
                             13 7




                    Date
                               /2




Daily kWh Usage
                           4/ 00
                             16 7
                               /2
                           4/ 00
                             19 7
                               /2
                           4/ 00
                             22 7
                               /2




Baseline
                           4/ 00
                             25 7
                                                                                                                                         R2 = .7




                               /2
                           4/ 00
                             28 7
                               /2
                                   0
                                                                                                                                         RMSE = 10%




                  Date
                  Break     5/ 07
                                                                                                                                         Baseline Model:




                              1/
                                                                                                                                                              Shields Library: 480V Electric




                                 20
                            5/ 07
                              4/
                                 20
                            5/ 07
                              7/
                                 2
                                                      Post-Installation Period




                           5/ 00
                             10 7
                               /2
                           5/ 00
                             13 7
                               /2
                           5/ 00
                             16 7
                               /2
                           5/ 00
                             19 7
                               /2
                                   00
                                      7
                    56
                                                                                                      Daily CHW Use (Ton-hrs)
                            8/
                              11




                                           0
                                                                          1,000
                                                                                              2,000
                                                                                                           3,000
                                                                                                                     4,000
                                                                                                                                5,000
                                                                                                                                                   6,000
                                                                                                                                                           7,000
                            8/ /20
                              12 07
                            8/ /20
                              13 07
                            8/ /20
                              14 07
                            8/ /20
                              15 07
                            8/ /20
                              16 07
                                                                                                                                                                   Savings

                            8/ /20
                              17 07
                            8/ /20
                              18 07
                            8/ /20
                              19 07
                            8/ /20
                              20 07
                            8/ /20
                              21 07
                            8/ /20
                              22 07
                            8/ /20
                              23 07
                            8/ /20
                              24 07
                            8/ /20
                              25 07




                                                                            Baseline Period
                            8/ /20
                              26 07
                            8/ /20
                              27 07
                            8/ /20
                              28 07
                            8/ /20
                              29 07
                                 /2




                    Date

Daily CHW Usage
                             9/ 00
                                6/ 7
                                  2
                             9/ 00
                                7/ 7
                                  2
                             9/ 00
                           10 8/2 7
                             /2 00
                           10 4/2 7




Baseline
                             /2 00
                           10 5/2 7
                             /2 00
                           10 6/2 7
                             /2 00
                           10 7/2 7
                             /2 00
                           10 8/2 7
                             /2 00
                                9 7
                            11 /20
                               /1 07
                            11 /20
                               /2 07
                            11 /20
                               /3 07
                                                                                                                                                                   Shields Library: Chilled Water




                            11 /20
                                                                                                                                 R2 = .8




                               /4 07
                            11 /20
                  Date




                               /5 07
                  Break
                                                                                                                                 RMSE = 26%




                            11 /20
                               /6 07
                                                                                                                                 Baseline Model:




                                               Post-Installation Period




                                 /2
                                    00
                                       7
           57
                                                                                                                Daily HW Use (MBH)




                                       0
                                                                                                                            10,000
                                                                                                                                     12,000
                                                                                                                                              14,000
                                                                                                                                                        16,000
                                                                                                                                                                         18,000




                                                                      2,000
                                                                                                4,000
                                                                                                        6,000
                                                                                                                    8,000
                           8/10/2007
                           8/11/2007
                           8/12/2007
                           8/13/2007
                           8/14/2007
                           8/15/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                  Savings

                           8/16/2007
                           8/17/2007
                           8/18/2007
                           8/19/2007
                           8/20/2007
                           8/21/2007
                           8/22/2007
                           8/23/2007




                                                                              Baseline Period
                           8/24/2007
                           8/25/2007
                           8/26/2007
                           8/27/2007




                   Date

Daily HW Usage
                           8/28/2007
                           8/29/2007
                            9/6/2007
                            9/7/2007




Baseline
                            9/8/2007
                          10/24/2007
                          10/25/2007
                          10/26/2007
                          10/27/2007
                          10/28/2007
                                                                                                                                                                                  Shields Library: Hot Water




                          10/29/2007
                           11/1/2007
                                                                                                                                                       R2 = .7




                           11/2/2007
                           11/3/2007
                 Date
                                                                                                                                                       RMSE = 5%




                 Break
                                           Post-Installation Period




                           11/4/2007
                                                                                                                                                       Baseline Model:




                           11/5/2007
                           11/6/2007
                  58
Costs
                        Metering    MBCx Agent     In-House
         Building                                                    Total
                         Costs        Costs          Costs
      Soda Hall       $     4,442   $   62,160   $      51,087   $    117,689
      Tan Hall        $    22,573   $   53,000   $      15,300   $     90,873
      Shields Library $    26,000   $   96,795   $      57,757   $    180,552

   Including all costs, project remains cost-effective:
     Soda Hall: 1.7 year payback            Evaluated project realization
     Tan Hall: 0.7 year payback             rates: 105% electric, 106% gas
     Shields Library: 1.0 year payback
   Added costs of metering hardware and software did not
    overburden project‟s costs
   In private sector – metering costs lower
     Existing electric meters
     Sophisticated BAS systems

   MBCx approach should be viable
                                                                                59
Questions?




             60
Future Work
   QuEST
       M&V Tool for Universal Translator
       Additional M&V Guidelines from CCC
           Option A
           Option B – component based
           Option D – simulations
           Non-IPMVP adherent methods
   ASHRAE TRFP

                                             61