CHAPTER 2 Seeking Guidance

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CHAPTER 2 Seeking Guidance Powered By Docstoc
					   CHAPTER 2
Seeking Guidance
  • Pages 43 - 67
         Theories of Growth and
             Development
• Describe growth and development and
  factors thought to stimulate growth
  – Theories are complementary, not
    contradictory
  – Each contributes important information on different parts of children’s growth

• Theories grouped according to what is
  considered the primary source of growth
  – Environment – nurture
  – Child’s internal qualities – nature
• Parents’ role differs
       External Stimulation…
         Learning Theories
• Identify specific forms of environmental
  stimulation
  – Parents have important and active role
• Pavlov – late 19th, early 20th century
  – Classical conditioning
• American – Skinner
  – Focused on positive and negative
    consequences
    • Rewards; material objects, privileges
    • Social; personal attention (important)
       External Stimulation…
         Learning Theories
• Social learning
  – Observation and imitation
• Bandura
  – Child is an active learner
  – Chooses goals and reflects on performance
• Box 2-1, p. 45
• What Learning Theories Help Parents
  Understand p. 46
       External Stimulation…
           Lev Vygotsky
• “…knowledge, thought, mental process…
  rest on social interactions with
  knowledgeable partners.” p. 46
• Social interaction
  – Passes on knowledge
  – Stimulates child to learn that knowledge
       External Stimulation…
           Lev Vygotsky
• ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development)
  – Child goes beyond natural level of
    performance with social interaction
  – Adult teaching has greatest impact on the
    area of potential
• “Language is the forerunner of thinking.”
  p. 45
• Box 2-2, p. 47
• What Vygotsky’s Theory…p. 47
            Stage Theories
• Focus on internal qualities
  – Instinctual impulses
  – Patterns of growth
  – Ways of thinking about the world
        Stage Theories…
    Freud and Psychoanalysis
• Focused on children’s impulses
  – Survival
  – Sexual impulses
• Sources of gratification
• Need to tame those impulses
  – Conform to parents’ and society’s demands
           Stage Theories…
               Freud…
• 5 stages - named after area of body that
  was the primary source of stimulation
  and gratification
  – 1. oral 2. anal 3. phallic
  – 4. latency 5. genital
• Emphasized to parents need for
  appropriate gratification of child’s natural
  impulses
• Box 2-3, p. 49
• What Freud’s Theory…p.48
            Stage Theory…
                Piaget
• Focused on intellectual development
• Children’s thinking
  – Is different than adults
  – Goes through a series of predictable stages
  – Is actively constructing knowledge
• Assimilation – taking in and organizing
  information into schemas
• Accommodation – changing schemes to
  accommodate new information
             Stage Theory…
                 Piaget
• Four sequential stages
• Sensorimotor ; birth – 2
  – Focus on own body’s perceptions and action
• Preoperational; 2-7
  – Representational (symbolic) thought
  – Focus of attention still on sensory features of
    experience
            Stage Theory…
                Piaget
• Concrete Operation; 7-12
  – Think more logically
  – Not so focused on appearance of object
• Formal Operations; 12-adulthood
  – Abstract thought
  – Understand thoughts, reactions of others
• Box 2-4, p. 52
• What Piaget’s Theory… p. 51
           Stage Theory…
            Arnold Gesell
• Growth in all areas involved an unfolding
  of inborn biological patterns
• Interactions with parents stimulated
  social development
• Parents provided appropriate experience
  so “growth” could occur as naturally as
  possible
           Stage Theory…
               Gesell
• Believed that there is an inborn tendency
  for optimum development
• Created “portraits” of children’s behavior
  at regular intervals
• Box 2-5, p. 53
• What Gesell’s Theory... P. 52,53
Theories that Emphasize Both…
  Erikson’s Lifespan Theory
• Strong belief in importance of cultural
  and social influences on growth
• 8 stages covered a lifetime
• A developmental turning point in each
  stage
• Need both positive and negative
  experiences – mostly positive
• Later experiences can change earlier
  tendency
Theories that Emphasize Both…
            Erikson
• Erikson’s Eight Stages of Life
  – Table 2-1, p.54
  – Explanation of stages, p. 54, 55
• Box 2-6, p. 56
• What Erikson’s Theory… p. 55
Theories that Emphasize Both…
      Attachment Theory
• John Bowlby – attachment is
  – “an enduring affectional tie that unites one
    person to another over time and across
    space.” p. 56
• Applies to
  – Early child-parent relationships
  – Child-parent relationships throughout life
  – Relationships to significant others
Theories that Emphasize Both…
          Attachment
• Types of attachments
  – Secure; 60-70% in USA
  – Insecure
    • Anxious-avoidant; 20%
    • Anxious-resistant; 10-20%
    • Disorganized (disoriented)
      – 13% in low-risk families
      – 82% in abusive families
Theories that Emphasize Both…
          Attachment
• Basis for internal working-model of how
  people relate to each other
• Benefit of secure attachments go into the
  future
• Box 2-7, p. 59
• What Attachment Theory…p. 58
           Systems Theory
• Emphasizes the many parts of an
  organism that influence each other in
  important ways
  – No one more important than others
  – The effect of any given event depends on the
    rest of the system
• Recent research supports the systems
  approach
• Developmental action at any level of the
  system can restrict development
       Systems Theory…
    Evolutionary Dev. Theory
• Looks at how genetic heritage influences
  present behavior
• Darwin’s concepts of
  – Natural selection; “survival of the fittest”
  – Reproductive fitness; “passing on genes”
• Importance of genes as well as
  environment in human behavior
  – Fathers expected to take a more active role
    in the home because mother work outside
    the home
       Systems Theory…
    Evolutionary Dev. Theory
• Modules – specialized abilities that are
  adaptive and passed on through genes
  – Language
  – Attachment
  – Play
    • Childhood behavior that helps children either
      survive or develop skills needed in adulthood
       Systems Theory…
    Evolutionary Dev. Theory
• Beliefs about origin of family
  – Tribes required organized cooperative
    behavior
  – Child born in less mature state
    • Extended period of dependency
    • Heavy parental investment in children
  – Consequences for society
• What Evolutionary Developmental…p. 63
           Systems Theory…
             Bioecological
• Urie Bronfenbrenner (died 2005)
• Ecology – “environments that human
  beings encounter in daily life…” p. 63
• Processes
  – Child’s daily interaction with people, symbols,
    objects
• Person
  – Characteristics of the individual
           Systems Theory…
             Bioecological
• Context – child’s environment
  – Microsystem -
    • Child has direct interaction
  – Mesosystem –
    • Interaction of 2 microsystems
  – Exosystem
    • influences with no direct contact
  – Macrosystem
    • Culture
          Systems Theory…
            Bioecological
• Time
  – Regularity and stability of interactions and
    systems
  – Timing of events
  – Historic period
• What Bioecological Theory…p. 65