Building Change Towards a Communications Strategy

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					                         Building Change:
                Towards a Communications Strategy
    A synthesis of a TICW-paper by Adam Burke, for the CP-TING project of ILO in China

                                     By Jenny Zhao


This report is a synthesis of a paper that outlines a communication strategy for the ILO-
IPEC’s Greater Mekong Sub-Regional Project to Combat Trafficking in Children and
Women (TICW project), but applied in the context of the ILO China project to Prevent
Trafficking IN Girls and young women (CP-TING project). It aims to help national and
provincial project staff and partners build long-term change by communicating more

The CP-TING project plans to move from pilot projects increasingly towards
mainstreaming into policy and practice. This shift requires an understanding of how
change takes place – how policy is formed, and what different groups in a country can
influence events. This understanding then translates into action – using information to
make a case for change, working with media to raise awareness, and forming
relationships with government, unions, employers, donors, projects and NGOs.

Sections 2-6 provide ideas, guidance and case studies on using communications
strategically to make a lasting impact. Sections 7-8 include specific information on the
national China programme and specific learning from Yunnan Province (under the TICW


A key question for the CP-TING project will be how it will move from the first “pilot”
period into expansion over the next two years. How will the project build on good
experience to date? How will it work with government, trade unions, NGOs, employers
and other development agencies to achieve its goals? How can it make a sustainable

In order to build lasting change, effective communication is essential. Communication
must fit logically with the project’s overall approach and must be planned strategically.
The following is a guide to developing a strategic approach to communications.

Clear objectives: Before looking into more specific details about communication
methods or approaches, communication must begin with a clear strategic approach.
This requires having a good idea of what you want to achieve and deciding WHY you
want to communicate, WHAT you want to say, and WHO you should say it to.

Reach widely: Communicating with enough people to make a real difference is the key.
In most cases, project staff will not have the time, skills or money to do this alone.
Therefore, it is necessary to look at who is capable of reaching a large audience and find
a delivery mechanism that works. Often that mechanism is the government, with reach
and access to a range of services, but it may also be an organization that works with
mass media or a network with a large reach.

Look to the future: Good development work is about long-term change and
empowering other organizations to work more effectively. This means thinking broadly
about how change in future is likely to take place. How can a temporary project achieve
permanent change?
   • Other organizations will be around for longer than the project – work with them to
       encourage change that they will then carry out.
   • To create lasting change, small initiatives must be like sparks that start a fire.

“Is it in my interest?” People rarely do things that aren’t in their interest, especially at
work. To get change in other organizations, it is necessary to change the incentives that
people face. This may be achieved in different ways:
      • Training or skills transfer to build understanding.
      • Providing new information that makes people aware of a problem, or shows
          what they could do to prevent it.
      • Changing the policy of an organization so that staff members are rewarded for
          implementing new approaches.
      • Increasing public or other pressure for change.
      • Finding and building common ground – areas where your interests overlap with
          their interests. For example, the government may not be interested in
          trafficking unless it obstructs existing government objectives like migration,
          rural development, child protection, universal education or crime prevention. If
          there is no common ground with a potential partner, and it can’t be built up over
          time, then it is likely that collaboration will not be effective – find another partner.

                                         Figure 1
                  What’s in my interest? Why poverty reduction happens

Academic experts have studied what motivates senior policymakers to help reduce poverty.
Sometimes there may be ideological or moral reasons, but often it is much more practical:

-   In Britain, the government improved urban slums one hundred years ago because it was
    worried about the spread of infectious diseases. And social programmes were launched
    because the army was worried that youths were so malnourished that they could not become
    effective soldiers.
-   The Thai government increased spending on the rural poor in the 1960s and 1970s because
    it was worried about the threat of rural violence and unrest unless conditions improved.

For child trafficking, what will government respond to? Why should policies change – what threat
does trafficking represent to government aims? What messages, people or organizations will
encourage senior officials to change policies?


This section looks at using communications and other methods to mainstream issues
into government policy and practice. It includes key points on building commitment and
finding entry points, as well as suggestions for working with non-governmental partners.

Building relationships with government: Communication with government is about
building ownership, strengthening capacity, and developing partnership – with the aim of
improving policy and implementation. Some key lessons on building relationships with
government are as follows:
      • Be useful to others. If the project makes people’s lives harder, it will not get far.
          Government staff may need help translating documents, reporting on
          international conventions, developing approaches in unfamiliar areas, dealing
          with difficult donors or NGOs, or accessing accurate information. This may
          involve work that seems to fall outside the project’s main areas, but it can help
          build good relationships.
      • Choose the right partners. Although the Ministry of Labour may be central to
          ILO project relationships, that does not preclude other approaches or
          partnerships. Some ILO projects have kept the Ministry of Labour as the key
          official contact but actually concentrated on other parts of government.
      • Show, don’t tell. Government, large donors, and other partners will not change
          policy just because you tell them they should. Accurate information, and
          explanation of why it is relevant to their interests, will be more successful.
      • Process, not just output. Communication itself is a process that can build
          involvement, and participation is critical. Where possible, involve government
          staff in information, research or communication work, so that they then feel
          involved in using the outputs.
      • Use pilots effectively. In order to influence legislation, pilot projects need to be
          communicated to various departments and levels of government. Pilots should
          be designed as advocacy tools that fit into a broader change strategy. How will
          the information be collected and communicated? Who is it necessary to
          convince, and how will a pilot achieve this?

Look for the open door: Where are the openings? What areas of work is government
already interested in, or will it be interested in? What really motivates government?
Without this kind of entry point, it is hard to start. Work based on this kind of common
ground can be more lasting than temporary relationships based on the interest of just
one well-meaning official.

For example, in China, concern about the problems linked to internal migration has
generated widespread government interest in trafficking. This enables bodies like the
All-China Women’s Federation to get involved, and creates an incentive for provincial or
county engagement. By following the trends and using the space that is open to action,
the project can launch initiatives with partners on the ground, and link it to policy change
higher up. Donors are also responding to similar concerns – funding being made
available for work in China is partly the result of appealing to concerns over internal
migration as a poverty issue. Communications strategies should be tailored around
these openings.

Tactics for building government commitment:
     • Where to start? The right starting point depends on existing personal contacts
         or steering committee contacts, other ongoing initiatives and major events like
         international days.       Communication material that explains the project’s
         relevance may help create an opening.
     • Listen to what partners want. Find out what incentives people are working
         under, what they are rewarded for by their organizations, and what
         organizations’ policy objectives are. Try to find the common ground between
         their aims and your aims.
     • Use ILO and UN contacts. It may be beneficial to share contacts, skills and
         access to partners with other ILO and UN projects. ILO and UN country
         representatives may also have higher-level contacts that can be used
         effectively, and may be able to push government to action around convention
     • Work at different levels of government. Working on national policy is hard
         unless there are concrete examples of action to look at, and work on a local
         scale will be difficult to replicate without careful work at the national or
         provincial level. It is critical to establish linkages between pilots on the ground,
         provincial authorities, and national policy.

Working outside government: It is possible to get to government indirectly by working
with organizations that have an impact on policymaking. And sometimes, it may be
appropriate to work entirely outside of government. For instance, you can work directly
with the public by trying to incorporate trafficking messages into popular TV shows. You
may also be able to access a large number of people by working with employers, worker
groups, NGOs, donor projects, networks and other IPEC, ILO or UN initiatives. If you
are working outside of government, you must ensure that the delivery mechanism is big
enough. Initiatives must meet at least one of the following criteria:
      • Very well targeted at the critical people or issues.
      • Catalytic: stimulating change like the spark that starts a fire.
      • Able to reach a large number of people, perhaps through networking or use of
          outreach or mass media.
      • Well coordinated with other initiatives so that CP-TING work fits into a larger
      • Focused on building long-term sustainable capacity that will make a difference
          in the future.

Capacity building: Organizations such as government agencies and NGOs will exist
long after a time-bound project like CP-TING ends. CP-TING can make a sustainable
difference by building the capacity of these organizations. This should be, and is, a key
aspect of the project’s work. The same concept applies to building support across IPEC
and ILO: if trafficking can be taken on as a key theme outside CP-TING, then others will
do the work of the project for you, now and after you are gone.

Good capacity building allows the recipient to develop its own sustainable strategy, and
provides support to strengthen weaknesses rather than trying to change the organization.
Long-term funding is also essential for good capacity building – if CP-TING funding has
to stop, then there should be plans for funding by partner agencies themselves, and/or
the government.

                                        Figure 2
                Shared commitment – finding common ground, entry points

Research shows that development work carried out by international agencies is far more likely to
work when there are shared aims or common ground: when domestic groups within or outside
government want to achieve the same thing as the international agency. Where domestic will
does not exist, it is very hard to create shared objectives from nothing.

International pressure can create some open doors or entry points – like the US Department of
Labour 3-tiered classification of countries according to action on trafficking. But such efforts to
force lasting change from the outside normally fail. Even powerful organizations like the IMF
rarely achieve much unless there are domestic interests also pushing for the same economic
reforms. One example comes from the education system in Thailand: experts in the UN and
elsewhere have been trying to encourage more vocational training and a more relevant
curriculum for over 40 years, but the problem of low skill levels remains. The problem will remain
unless influential people decide that it is in their interest to change the current system.

Work on trafficking needs to “open doors” or find entry points – where policies, actions or
attitudes can change. There are various ways of doing this, and different solutions may work in
different places:
- Long-term capacity building at different levels.
- Making the linkages between pilot projects and policy change.
- Looking for issues that are of interest to policy makers.
- Extensive advocacy and awareness raising at different levels.

                                        Figure 3
                   Communications efforts outside government: PADETC

PADETC is a training center in Lao PDR promoting participatory processes for sustainable
development. PADETC works on training and supporting youth leaders, and media and
communications for development issues. They have won international awards for their work.

Most of PADETC’s work is focused at the grassroots level. Their communication work focuses on
generating awareness through participatory drama and video in villages. Other media work is
designed to help make the existing Lao media more relevant and responsive to the needs of its
audience, and to promote public participation in media programmes.

PADETC has developed a tried and tested way of working, which focuses on local action and
impact, but tries to build change from beneath. PADETC works by starting with a small action,
and gradually building up. They do not engage in advocacy work directly. Instead, they let local
government officials take up ideas that PADETC generates. They find the “internal local change
agents” and work with them. PADETC keeps a low profile, generating impact through its work
rather than through publicity.

PADETC finds that working directly with central government is too hard – they say more projects
should follow their approach and work outside government or at the local level. For example,
while efforts to change the school curriculum have not worked, extra-curricular activities in
schools have been very successful. Even if efforts to work directly with central government
succeed, they can be counterproductive if government then tries to do too much, too fast.

TICW provides some funding, and experience of trafficking – a new area of work for PADETC.
For TICW this presents the possibilities of working with an experienced and good quality NGO. It
complements the main project focus on government agencies, and enables more direct reach to
the mass population with media messages as well as direct outreach to villages.

See for more information.


In many cases, people already have too much information, and simply producing more
will make no difference. To be effective, information must be produced and presented
strategically. This type of information can be tool for building change.

What’s the problem? If the scale or type of problem is not clear, then policymakers may
not be impressed. One key task is to demonstrate what the problem is. This involves:
     • Baseline work. Surveys, national statistics, sample studies and participatory
         research can all help build up a clear picture. This is important not just for
         project planning, but for making the message clear. Without this, it is unlikely
         that action will follow.
     • Showing impact of trafficking on other problems. Many people may not be
         concerned about trafficking itself, so you must show why it is important. What
         impact does it have on perpetuating poverty, supporting illegal business or
         furthering crime? How is it linked to illegal migration, health problems and
         HIV/AIDS? What will combating trafficking do to help solve these problems?

What level? Different people have different needs – local government may need more
local information than the statistics that the national government wants. People in
villages might not want statistics at all, but rather information about the risks of trafficking
and how to avoid them. A communications strategy should look at what needs are at
different levels.

Participation: Producing resources together is a good way to build involvement. It also
ensures that the resource will be useful. Try to involve stakeholders in deciding what
information will be produced and in the process of producing it.

Presentation: Just providing information is not enough. Information needs to be
presented so that people are interested, understand it, and respect it. Good information
is clear, easy to remember, accurate, relevant, and credible. Think from the perspective
of the audience:
      • Don’t rely entirely on technical information, and if specialists and experts are
           used, the information they present should not be too obscure.
      • List the main points. What do you need to say, and what information will have
           the greatest impact? Don’t bother with the rest unless it makes the main points
           more impressive.
      • Use images and statistics that stick in the mind. People are likely to remember
           graphs, pictures, photos, diagrams, and striking statistics.
      • Use the local language.
      • The appearance and packaging of the materials is also important.

Timing: Just printing a report is usually not enough – it may need presentations,
workshops, and a launch event to garner media coverage. Think about what time is
right, and when people will want to listen. Take advantage of special events,
international days, and high-profile visitors, and stage events when people are not too

                                          Figure 4
                              Promoting Responses To HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS responses have benefited from carefully planned information strategies. Steps taken to
demonstrate the importance of HIV/AIDS include:

-   Good baseline data collection.
-   Presentation of key facts to opinion-makers: use of any media and information resources
    that work to present the case to government.
-   Care over presentation. One NGO specializes in producing materials, often short slide
    presentations for meetings, that show exactly what the problem is, what will happen if it is left
    alone, and how it will affect key policy targets of government. It has been very effective.
-   Using people with HIV/AIDS as advocates. In some places, this has also been very effective.
    Also, using international important figures to promote change.
-   Coordination. UNAIDS has done a lot here, as well as NGOs. This means sharing skills –
    each organization does what it can do best, not what other organizations should be doing.
-   Clear and simple suggestions for action. Listing the most important things government can
    do, using international experience. For HIV/AIDS, clear messages on condom use and
    promotion can be very effective. Targeting interventions at the key problem areas makes
    action look possible.
-   Action. Especially support to local organizations to build capacity.
-   Sitting back and letting others do the work. Unless government feels it owns an activity, it will
    not go ahead. This means accepting different standards and ways of working.

Campaigning on HIV/AIDS has been effective in many countries. How can trafficking projects
learn from this? What are the main differences between HIV/AIDS and trafficking work, and what
do the two fields have in common?


This section includes tips on working with the media and an 8-step model for planning
media work.

Clear objectives: Stick to clearly defined aims and fit your work with media into the
overall approach. Avoid “background noise,” which is unnecessary information that
interferes with the main message. For example, many communication efforts spend too
long telling people unnecessary information about the project itself. This may seem
important to you, but probably is not important to them.

Follow a strategy, but react to media interest too: Try to plan media and
communication carefully and be pro-active in seeking media coverage when you think it

will be useful. However, you may need to respond to unexpected media interest, so be
prepared to take advantage of any unexpected opportunities.

Capacity building: In the long run, it will be up to project partners rather than CP-TING
itself to build relationships with the media. You can build their capacity by giving them
information about working with media, organizing trainings and workshops, and
introducing them to journalists.

Monitoring: Make sure that you can check whether the communication took place and
reached the target audience. Can you be confident that material really passed through
the delivery system? Often leaflets are left in offices, videos are not shown, programs
are not broadcast, etc. You will need to think about this in advance and have a way of
checking what happens. For mass media, you may need professional help to monitor
TV or radio broadcasts if there is wide coverage.

Know when to get help: The CP-TING project will rarely have the time or expertise to
do all of its media work on its own. It is recommended that you partner with an agency
or department that has a lot of experience in this area or seek professional expertise.

Keep costs down: Don’t try to cut essential preparation costs, but do economize to the
extent that is possible. Only use costly media (like TV) if you are certain it is the right
thing to do, or if you do not have to pay. Sometimes free air time for TV and radio can
obtained by working with government departments or finding private sponsorship from
corporations. Also, consider less expensive options for production and packaging.

Make sure messages don’t go wrong: Media efforts may portray trafficking in a very
negative or sensationalist manner, and may have unintended consequences. For
example, messages about the dangers of trafficking can increase children’s fear of the
world outside their village. Victims are sometimes criminalized, and information about
HIV/AIDS can cause women in the sex trade to be further stigmatized and discriminated
against. These problems should be anticipated and carefully addressed in advance.
Positive messages that explain what action is possible are generally better than
messages that just explain the dangers.

Planning media interventions

                                       Figure 5
              Planning media interventions: 8 steps before you even start

                                                                   NOW BEGIN!!

                                                                         8. Test first

                                                                   7. Make materials

                                                           6. Plan

                                                5. Select your media,
                                                define clear messages

                                    4. What organization will you work with for
                                    the communications initiative?

                            3. What are the information needs of the audience?

                     2. How should partners like government,
                     NGOs, UN, or children take part?

             1. START…What aim – to change WHO, and HOW?

   1. What is your aim? Know who you want to communicate with and what you want
      to achieve through using media, whether it is policy change, greater awareness,
      or behavioral change. The focus of your message should be clear and the target
      audience should be defined.
   2. How should partners like government, NGOs, the UN or children participate?
      Information or media work can build good alliances with partners if they take part
      too. Participation also makes it easier to test and get feedback later.
   3. What are the information needs of the audience? Many campaigns get it wrong
      by telling people what they already know, or giving information that may be
      interesting but will not lead to any changes. Determining the information needs
      of the audience requires research, including fieldwork, questionnaires, and
      meetings or workshops.
   4. What organizations will you work with? It is very hard to do media work alone.
      Collaborating with UN agencies, donors, NGOs, consultants and commercial
      agencies can make the task easier and bring down costs.
   5. Select your media and define clear messages. This normally requires specialist
      input. Look at successful examples from elsewhere, especially in your region

      and sector. Learn from recent experience and think widely – the most obvious
      media are not always the most effective.
   6. Plan coordinated timing. How do your communications fit in with other efforts
      that are going on? Is it possible to come up with a common approach or convey
      similar messages? People often react well to hearing the same message from
      more than one source. And shared policy advocacy can be much more effective
      if carefully planned.
   7. Make materials. This should only be done once all the previous steps are clear.
      Producing materials generally needs professional help, but remember that more
      professional or expensive materials are not necessarily the best. Also, don’t
      forget about communication through meetings, presentations, and workshops;
      sometimes communication does not need extra resources or materials.
   8. Test first. Testing allows for participatory feedback, reveals problems, and
      avoids many pitfalls. Testing involves participation – asking people what they
      think of materials, or what impact the message has. Remember that different
      people interpret messages differently, so you need to be careful about testing
      with the right audience. Think about whether you are aiming for women or men,
      literate or illiterate people, younger or older children, minorities who speak
      different languages, etc.

                                              Figure 6
            Selecting media: sample list of appropriate media for child labour initiatives

Children                       Other children                  Drama
                               Teachers                        Posters
                                                               School Workbooks
Communities                    Health Workers                  Posters in Clinics
                               Teachers                        Drama
Government                     Radio                           Broadcast interviews with children
Businesses                     Internet                        E-mails with link to web-page
                               Chambers of Commerce,           Meetings
                               Newspapers                      Sponsored advertisements
Trade Unions                   Video                           Video at union meetings
                               Meetings                        Brief presentation along with the video
Donors                         Printed media                   Brochures or leaflets for important
                               E-mail                          meeting
                                                               Regular e-mail updates

                                         Figure 7
                                Using media - TICW in China

TICW in China has found that their efforts to get media coverage have helped the project to
expand to more provinces. Awareness of the project, and more importantly of the ideas that the
project is promoting, has been built by efforts to gain coverage on TV, radio and in newspapers.
Senior and middle-level officials, whose decisions are important for TICW’s efforts to scale up
and for other work on trafficking, have been effectively reached as well as millions of other

The Provincial Programme Coordinator’s past media experience helped here – for other
countries, it may be easier to work with partners in or outside government to get media attention.

Key points:

-   Appeal to journalists’ interests. Find out what these are if you are not sure.
-   Hold workshops for media to attend
-   Invite media to join field visits, monitoring, etc.
-   Show a positive picture, but keep to the truth – don’t try to hide reality.
-   Coordinate efforts so that coverage is expanded. Think about what time journalists are likely
    to respond – when trafficking is in the news already for example.
-   Evaluate successes to find out what approach works best.


Without support, small organizations often have little power. Networks with many
members can allow organizations to reach beyond a small “pilot” area, facilitate resource
sharing, work with government at different levels, attract media attention, and advocate
for policy change. Networks can exist across NGOs, community groups, or government
departments, and they can span a few small districts or an entire continent.

Starting networks: Most networks start with a small group of committed people working
together. A network may be the outcome of a workshop, or may just grow over time as
people share ideas or activities. To start a network, think about what you or others
would find useful, and consult potential members to find out what they want and whether
they are willing to contribute time and resources. Good ways to start may include a
small workshop, carrying out one joint activity, a newsletter or a regular e-mail update.

Building and sustaining networks: Networks need to grow over time, changing to suit
members’ needs. Funding can help, allowing for full-time support, production of
materials, meetings, visits, training, etc. However, too much financial support can make
a network too independent of its members. It is important that members rather than
funders make the decisions about what the network should do. At times, sustainability is
not possible – when members no longer find networks useful, they have lost their value
and sometimes should be allowed to collapse.

Partnerships and coordination: Many projects fail to work well with other organizations.
Will collaboration create a better output? Committees, workshops, common agendas,
platforms of action, etc. can be valuable in building change if they are executed well.
Think about areas where the objectives of different projects overlap, potential benefits of
collaboration, and efficient ways of dividing up tasks.

                                           Figure 8
                                    Networking case studies

A) Linking a network with mass media: National Network on Violence Against Women is a South
African group that links small NGOs across the country. It has a small full-time central organizing
unit, and many member organizations. Tasks are shared around member organizations.

The network has enabled mass media initiatives on preventing violence against women to reach
a larger audience. Television and radio programmes produced by another NGO called Soul City
presented issues about domestic and other violence in a very popular TV and radio soap opera.
This linked with the network to provide on-the-ground responses and telephone hotline facilities.
Without the network, the mass media work would have been weaker. And without the mass
media initiative, the network would have found life harder.

This example may be hard to copy, but could give some useful ideas. Look on the internet at for more information.

B) International experience-sharing: Asian Coalition for Housing Rights (ACHR) is an Asia-wide
network trying to support local groups that work with poor urban communities. It has a small
center, and depends on its member institutions as well as a few committed activists. ACHR uses
a range of media including e-mail and the internet, video, and leaflets. But its training and lesson-
learning are its most valuable work, sharing positive experiences across countries. It
encourages NGOs to get involved with governments as well as working with poor communities
directly. A network of this sort is hard to keep going, as key members move on over time.


Whenever possible, information production and planning of media initiatives should
occur locally. There is a limit to what can be done in Beijing versus in the provinces.
The main roles of the joint national project management office (JNPO) in Beijing are
backstopping the efforts of the provincial project offices and mainstreaming trafficking
issues into IPEC and the ILO.

Support for provincial project offices: The main tasks for the JNPO are demand-
focused – empowering provincial project offices to move forward with their initiatives and
providing back-up. Provincial project offices need support from Beijing in the following
      • Support for provincial and lower level strategic planning processes, and
         developing incentive structures that ensure that the planned approach is
      • Assistance in provincially-led information production or conversion of global or
         national products into products that can be used for provincial and lower level
      • Keeping provincial and lower level staff informed of national, sub-regional or
         international events and other advocacy opportunities that may serve as entry
      • Advice on media relations. The JNPO can assist the provincial project offices
         in working with the media.          However, remember that really effective
         communications are done by partners, not CP-TING, so the long-term aim
         should be to build others’ capacity to work with media.
      • Facilitating collaboration with other UN agencies working in the country.
      • Enabling intra-project communication and learning. PPCs, other CP-TING staff,
         and partners in different provinces would benefit from more exchanges of
         experience, and the Beijing office can help facilitate this.

Putting this into practice: There are specific actions that the JNPO can take to ensure
relevant and appropriate communications work in each of the five provinces:
    •    Encourage work on communications issues by including strategic
         communications planning in work plans for PPCs and colleagues, discussing
         communications issues in CP-TING meetings, etc.
    •    Offer back-stopping services.
    •    Monitor progress against a set of indicators (e.g. evidence of development of
         strategy, or clear indications of how existing strategy caters to communication
    •    Support and test the transition from pilots to full action.
    •    Ensure that PPCs and other staff have time to prioritize these issues.
    •    Ensure that PPCs have budgets for translation, appropriate local materials
         production, and possible employment of local specialists or consultants.

Sustainability and information needs within IPEC and ILO: The project has already
made progress here, but it can do more to support the mainstreaming of trafficking
concerns into the ILO. What information will help the project support the work of IPEC
and ILO, and then encourage trafficking issues to be mainstreamed across the board?
The JNPO can promote sustainability through the following actions:
     • Meet internal information needs. Media relations departments in Geneva are
        interested in life stories, positive photos, and especially examples of where ILO
        interventions have made a difference. People have also expressed an interest
        in project updates and background material in the form of short, easy-to-read
     • Promote trafficking issues as part of the child labour agenda. This is more
        important than promoting CP-TING itself. Beijing can do a lot of this work to
        free up PPCs to focus on provincial and lower level issues.
     • Work with other IPEC projects. This will involve finding common ground where
        cross-project collaboration will be beneficial.
     • Look for internal spaces or openings – for example, ILO work on Social
        Dialogue in Geneva and ILO work on PRSPs.


Following learning from Yunnan, CP-TING project staff and partners should further
systematize information production and networking, and rely less on personal contacts.
It could also benefit from networking, information exchange and increased cooperation
with other ILO work. Key communications issues should be analyzed: how information
from pilots will be used on a wider scale, what information people across government
want to know and how to present it, how to ensure continued media attention on a wider
scale, how to mainstream trafficking concerns into other fields like HIV/AIDS or primary
education over time, and how to ensure that work on a wider scale does not suffer from
“quality dilution.”

Building trafficking concerns into government policy or actions: In Yunnan, broad
participation has helped bring many stakeholders from steering committees and
elsewhere into the project. A variety of steps were taken, including: publicizing the
project, collecting baseline data, documenting pilot projects, participatory monitoring and

evaluation, study tours, and assisting government agencies in developing holistic anti-
trafficking plans. CP-TING should devise a plan to ensure continued stakeholder

Future steps:
     • Identify and fill the research gaps in trafficking, labour migration, labour
        exploitation and their responses. Research the demand side of trafficking and
        propose solutions.
     • Carry out research, mobilization, awareness raising and information exchange
        for attitude changes.
     • Move direct cooperation at county level to prefecture level.
     • Invite non-project partners to take part in Project Stakeholder Ownership
        Exercise Meeting.
     • Share local experience with the national level.
     • Develop Provincial Holistic Plan to Combat Trafficking.
     • Continue cooperating with media and updating the information network.

Areas in which support is wanted:
    • Information and network advocacy tools.
    • Filling gaps and technical support in research.
    • Questionnaire design for baseline data and survey.
    • Support from JNPO on sharing information and learning from the experiences
         of other project provinces and relevant international organizations in combating

Multi-sectoral working: A multi-sectoral approach is difficult to achieve in China, but it
seems to have succeeded in Yunnan. Well-targeted interventions have both raised
awareness of the issue and provided practical lessons to address trafficking. Strong
links have been established between policy, practical approaches and resource
allocation at the local level. The CP-TING project should work to mainstream anti-
trafficking measures into the activities of other sectors such as basic education,
HIV/AIDS, livelihood projects and corporate social responsibility.

Making a clear case for action: A relatively high level of commitment already exists in
China, but it is still important to show the urgency of the trafficking problem. Continued
involvement of media will be valuable, as well as efforts to inform policymakers directly.
As part of its advocacy strategy, the CP-TING project should consider what material
would help demonstrate how trafficking is a problem. The following questions should be
     • What is the scale of the problem and what is the impact on poverty?
     • What are the links between trafficking – i.e. its specific effects on groups of
        people – on achievement of the Millennium Development Goals?
     • How are processes of social and economic change in China creating an
        environment in which poor and marginalized people are vulnerable to
        exploitation (trafficking), and how can public policy address this?

Pilots: Pilot projects are an effective advocacy tool in China, but they are often designed
and implemented without enough early attention to how lessons will be collected and
disseminated. A communications strategy should be an integral part of the design and
implementation of pilot projects. There should be early consideration of how to

document experiences and expose key people to pilots in order to ensure

Partners: The project should continue its strong focus on the process of building
partnerships. The following is a list of partners from the work in Yunnan:
     • All-China Women’s Federation: to gain the commitment of national authorities.
     • Yunnan Women’s Federation: to provide direct assistance on gender equality
     • Public Security Department: to improve the police’s capability to crack down on
     • Civil Affairs Department: to provide assistance in women and children’s social
     • Education Department: to improve education quality and incorporate gender
         and trafficking issues into local schools’ curriculum.
     • Public Health Department: to provide assistance in maternal health care,
         primary health care and HIV/AIDS prevention.
     • Agricultural Department: to provide assistance in agriculture skills training.
     • Labour Department: to provide assistance in transmitting knowledge of labour
     • Justice Department: to provide assistance in raising legal awareness.
     • Yunnan Academy of Social Science and Yunnan Statistics Bureau: to be
         responsible for monitoring and evaluation.
     • Yunnan Industry and Commerce Federation: to provide credit and skills in
     • Kunming Railway Station: to prevent trafficking in the railway transportation
     • Financial Department: to support the project with financial contributions.
     • NGOs: Yunnan Women Theory Society, Reproduction and Health Society,
         Demography Institute of Yunnan University.
     • Employers’ associations: Yunnan Entrepreneur Association, Yunnan Industry
         & Commerce Federation, enterprise sponsorship, small entrepreneurs
         cooperating with social researchers to offer training for target group.
     • Media: Xinhua News Agency, CCTV, People’s Daily; media at the provincial,
         prefectural and county levels
     • Mass population: demand side, awareness raising, mass influencing.