Chapter 16 Section 1 by hmv21438


									Chapter 16 Section 1

In 1492, Columbus landed in the islands that are now called the West Indies, in the
Caribbean. He encountered the Taino people. They were friendly and generous toward
the Spanish. Friendly relations ended as Spanish conquistadors began to settle the islands
in the Caribbean. The Spanish seized the gold ornaments worn by the people and forced
them to pan for more gold. Spanish missionaries also force the Taino people to convert to
Christianity. European diseases like small pox and the measles also affected the people.
The natives had no immunity to these diseases and began to die off in the hundreds.

Spanish explorers sailed the coastal areas of the Americas in search of gold. One of t he
earliest explorers was Hernan Cortes. Cortes landed in Mexico in 1519 with about 600
men. He headed toward Tenochtitlan the capital of the Aztec Empire, with the help from
a young Indian woman named Malinche. The Spanish called her Mona Marina. Cortes
learned that the people they had conquered hated the Aztecs. Malinche helped Cortes set
up alliances with these tribes.

The Aztec leader Moctezuma learned of the Spanish presence and tried to discourage
their advances by sending gifts. Cortes continued on and in 1521 he entered the city along
with his allies and demolished it. The Spanish would soon build Mexico City on the same

To the south Francisco Pizarro, came in contact with the Inca Empire in Peru in 1532.
The Incas had come out of a civil war, which left the empire weak. Pizarro captured the
Inca leader Atahualpa during a great battle. He held the king ransom, but even when the
ransom had been paid Pizarro executed the king.

Spanish success in the Americas were due to 4 factors

   1.   Superior military equipment
   2.   Discontent of conquered Indian groups
   3.   Disease reducing the native population
   4.   Indians believed they were being punished by the gods

Section 2

In the 1500s, Spain claimed a vast empire stretching from California to South America.
In time, it divided these lands into five provinces. The most important were New Spain
and Peru. Spain was determined to maintain strict control over its empire. To achieve this
goal, the king set up the Council of the Indies to pass laws for the colonies. He also
appointed viceroys, or representatives who ruled in his name, in each province. The
Council of the Indies in Spain closely monitored these colonial officials to make sure
they did not assume too much authority.

To Spain, winning souls for Christianity was as important as gaining land. The Catholic
Church played a key role in the colonies, working with the government to convert Native
Americans to Christianity. Franciscan, Jesuit, and other missionaries baptized thousands
of Native Americans. In the frontier regions, they built mission churches and worked to
turn new converts into loyal subjects of the Catholic king of Spain. They forcibly
imposed European culture over the native culture.

To make the empire profitable, Spain controlled economic activities, especially trade.
Colonists could export raw materials only to Spain and buy only goods manufactured in
Spain. Sugar cane was introduced into the West Indies and elsewhere and quickly became
a profitable crop. The cane was refined into sugar, molasses, and rum. Sugar cane had to
be grown on plantations; labor for the plantations became a problem. Spanish monarchs
granted the conquistadors encomiendas, the right to demand labor tribute from the
natives. The natives resisted this forced labor and would runaway. Many were hunted and
killed for their resistance. Some priest, like Bartoloeme de las Casas, spoke out against
this practice. Spain passed the New Laws of the Indies in 1542, forbidding the
enslavement of the natives. The process only changed form or the law was never
enforced. Landowners would force natives into debt slavery called peons, so they would
still have enough workers for the fields.

To fill the labor shortage, Las Casas urged colonist to import workers from Africa. As the
demand for sugar cane increase, so did the importation of Africans.

In Spanish America, the mix of people gave rise to a new social structure.

   1.   Peninsulares-people born in Spain
   2.   Creoles-Europeans born in the Americas
   3.   Mestizos-people of mixed European and Indian descent
   4.   Mulattoes-people of European and African descent
   5.   natives & slaves-no rights, treated inhumanly

Spanish settlers preferred living in towns and cities. Colonial cities were centers of
government, commerce, and European culture. Around the central plaza, stood
government buildings and a Spanish style church. To meet the church’s need for an
educated clergy, the colonies built universities. The University of Mexico was established
in 1551. Women wishing an education might enter a convent, but were not allowed into
the universities. Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz though denied a university education learned
in a convent and won the reputation as one of the greatest Spanish poets.

Settlers learned native aspects of the native culture, which created a culture unique to the
colonies. Things like architecture, farming and transportation were adopted by the
Europeans to fit the new world. Even religious practices were blended among the native
populations. They adopted Christianity, but blend their traditional native or African

A large area of South America remained outside the Spanish empire. By the Treaty of
Tordesillas in 1494, Portugal claimed Brazil. Portugal issued land grants to Portuguese
nobles, who agreed to develop the land and share the profits with the crown.
Brazil offered no immediate wealth from gold or silver. Early settlers clung to the coast,
where they cut and exported Brazilwood, used to produce a precious dye. They also
developed the plantation system of agriculture and herding. The natives and Africans
were forced to clear land for sugar plantations.

In the 1500s the wealth of the Americas helped to make Spain the most powerful country
in Europe. European nations challenged Spain’s power in various ways. To get around
trade laws smugglers traded with the colonies. Countries would encourage piracy of
Spanish ships. These privateers were required to turn over all captured goods in return
they were paid a bounty and usually given the ship they conquered. Queen Elizabeth
knighted Francis Drake for his actions as a privateer.

Section 3

By the early 1500s the French were fishing off the coast of Canada. In 1608 Samuel de
Champlain built the first French settlement in Quebec. French explorers and fur traders
traveled inland claiming vast territories for France. They claimed all of Canada and lands
down the Mississippi to the Gulf coast and westward to the mountains. In the late 1600s
Louis XIV set out to strengthen royal power and boost revenues from taxes, from his
colonies. He appointed officials to oversee justice and economic activities in New France.

The English built their first permanent colony at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. Its early
years were filled with disasters. In 1620, other English settlers, the Pilgrims landed at
Plymouth, Mass. They were seeking religious freedom, not economic gain. They signed
the Mayflower Compact, in which they set out guidelines for governing their colony.
Many Pilgrims died in the early years of the Plymouth colony. Local Indians taught them
how to grow corn and helped them survive in the new land.

In the 1600 and 1700s, the English established 13 colonies. Some colonies were set up
for profit while others were based on religious freedom. English monarchs asserted
control over the American colonies. They appointed royal governors to oversee colonial
affairs and had Parliament pass laws to regulate trade. The English colonies were allowed
a large degree of self-government. Each colony had its own representative assembly
elected by propertied men.

By the 1600s, Spain, France, England and the Netherlands were competing for colonies
and trade around the world. During the 1700s, Britain and France emerged as bitter rivals
for power around the world. In North America, the French and Indian War raged from
1754 to 1763. A worldwide struggle, known as the Seven Years’ War, erupted in Europe
in 1756, and spread to Asia and Africa. During the war, British soldiers and colonial
troops launched a series of campaigns against the French in Canada and on the Ohio
frontier. The 1763 Treaty of Paris officially ended the war. The treaty ensured British
dominance of North America. France ceded, gave up, Canada and its lands east of the
Mississippi River.
All European settlements had a profound impact on the Indians of North America.
Frequent clashes erupted as settlers moved into frontier areas. Wars were fought and the
settlers continued to push westward forcing the Indians off their lands. Besides warfare
the native population decreased because of the spread of European diseases. Though
settlers treated the Indians harshly, there were a few that were helpful in the survival of
the early colonies and westward expansion. Indian technology helped settlers survive
their early years.

Section 4

In the 1400s, Portuguese ships explored the coast of West Africa, looking for a sea route
to India. They built small forts along the coast to trade for gold, collect food and water,
and repair ships.

In the 1500s, Europeans began to view slaves as the most important item of African
Trade. The slave trade began in the 1500s, to fill the need for labor in Spanish colonies in
the Americas. In the next 300 years, it grew into a profitable business. European seldom
went into the interior to take part in slave raids. They relied on African rulers and traders
to seize captives in the interior and bring them to coastal trading post and fortresses. The
captives were exchanged for textiles, metalwork, rum, weapons, gunpowder and tobacco.

The Atlantic slave trade formed one part of a three-legged journey known as the
Triangular Trade. Europeans brought goods to Africa to trade for slaves; Slaves were
shipped to the Americas for sugar, molasses, and other goods. These goods were then
shipped to Europe or their colonies to be sold.

The slave travel became known as the Middle Passage. This trip was horrific for the
slaves. They were bound side by side in the hull of the ship. These ships were often
referred to as “floating coffins” because of the number of Africans that died on the
journey from disease or inhumane treatment.

Some African leaders tried to slow down the trans Atlantic trade or tried to stop it. An
early voice raised against the slave trade was that of Affonso I, ruler of Kongo in west-
central Africa. In 1505, he called on the Portuguese to help him develop Kongo as a
modern Christian state. In the late 1700s, another African ruler, the almamy of Futa Toro
in northern Senegal, tried to halt slave trade in his lands. In 1788, he forbade anyone to
transport slaves through Futa Toro for sale aboard. The sea captains and local chiefs
protested and demanded the law be repealed, the almamy refused.

It is believed that 11 million slaves were sent to the Americas, it is also thought that about
2 million died on the voyages. Slave trade had a mixed impact in Africa. Rulers that were
involved became rich, those who protested slavery suffered economically. It also caused
warfare in Africa between kingdoms. Rulers would war against neighboring tribes to
acquire captives to sell in coastal markets.
Among the largest states that rose in West Africa in the 1600 and 1700s were Oyo,
Bornu, and Dahomey. Another state, the Asante Kingdom emerged in the area occupied
by modern Ghana.

In the late 1600s, an able military leader, Osei Tutu, won control of the trading city of
Kumasi. He then conquered neighboring people and organized the Asante Kingdom.
Official were chosen by merit rather than birth, would supervise the bureaucracy. They
managed the royal monopolies over gold mining and slave trade.

In the 1700s and 1800s, an Islamic revival spread across West Africa. It began among the
Fulani people in Northern Nigeria. The scholar and preacher Usman dan Fodio
denounced the corruption of local Hausa rulers. He called for social and religious reform
demanding the establishment of an Islamic government. He encouraged the Fulani people
to revolt against their leaders during the early 1800s. Usman and his successors were able
to set up a powerful Islamic state in Nigeria.

 Over time Bantu-speaking people had migrated into southern Africa. In 1652, Dutch
immigrants also arrived in the region. They built Cape Town to supply ships sailing to or
from the East Indies. Dutch farmers called Boers, settled near Cape Town. The Boers
held to a Calvinist belief that they were the elect, or chosen of God. In the 1700s, Boer
herders and ivory hunters began to push north from the Cape colony. As they did, they
battle several African kingdoms.

The Zulus had migrated into southern Africa in the 1500s. In the early 1800s, they
emerged as a major force under a ruthless and brilliant leader named Shaka. Between
1818 and 1828, Shaka waged war relentless war and conquered many nearby peoples. He
absorbed their young men and women into Zulu regiments.

In 1815, the Cape Colony passed from the Dutch to the British. Many Boers resented
British laws that abolished slavery, or otherwise interfered in their lives. This will
eventually lead to what becomes known as the Boer Wars.

Section 5

By the 1700s, the sharing of food between continents contributed to a worldwide
population growth. The agricultural production from the farmlands of the Americas was a
key source. Named for Christopher Columbus, the trade from the Americas was called
the Columbian Exchange. Millions of people migrated to the America, and millions more
were shipped to the Americas. The vast movement of people led to the sharing of
cultures, which lead to the development of the America cultures.

The opening of direct links with Asia, Africa and the Americas had far reaching
economic consequences.

In the early modern age, prices began to rise in parts of Europe. The economic cycle that
involves the rise in prices linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available is
called inflation. As populations grew, the demand for goods and services rose. The
increased flow of silver and gold, sparked inflation. The increase in money and the
scarcity of goods prices increased.

Expanded trade and the push for overseas empires spurred the growth of European
capitalism, the investment of money to make a profit. Entrepreneurs, rich merchants,
organized, managed and assumed the risk of doing business. Early capitalist discovered
new ways to create wealth. During the Middle Ages, banks sprang up, allowing wealthy
merchants to lend money at interest. The joint stock company, also developed in the late
medieval times, grew in importance. It allowed people to pool large amounts of capital
needed for overseas ventures.

European merchants enjoyed the benefits of the commercial revolution. In fierce
competition for trade and empire, they adopted a new economic policy known as
mercantilism, aimed at strengthening their national economies. Under these policies, it is
said that colonies were set up for the benefit of the parent country. Colonies were to
provide raw materials (could not set up their own industries) for the parent country, the
colonies were to buy goods provided by the parent country (could not trade directly with
a foreign power), and goods could only be shipped to the parent country on ships owned
by the colony or the parent country only. To further increase their wealth governments
created monopolies in certain industries, and imposed tariffs on foreign goods.

How did these economic changes affect Europe?

   1. Merchants acquired more wealth from oversea ventures
   2. Inflation created poverty and discontent
   3. Merchant class grew more powerful politically

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