Cognitive Neuropsychology and Neuroimaging Techniques by hft13158

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									    Cognitive
Neuropsychology
and Neuroimaging
   Techniques
   Danielle Osborne and Anthony Ryals
       Western Oregon University
   Cognitive
Neuropsychology
   What is Neuropsychology?
• Traditionally defined, neuropsychology is
  the study of brain-behavior relationships.
• Pathology
    What is Neuropsychology?
• Study of both healthy and damaged brain
  systems.
• Biological causes of behaviors
• From creative genius to mental illness
• Personality




                          Right-Hemisphere Stroke
     Examples of Neurological diagnosis

• Dementias
• Alcohol and Drug
  Psychoses
• Mental Retardation
• Stroke
• Diseases of the CNS
  (Alzheimer’s,
  Huntington’s,
  Parkinson’s, Multiple
  Sclerosis, Epilepsy)

                          Alzheimer’s Disease
    EEG (Electroencephalogram)
• EEG-
  Electroencephalogram
• electrodes placed on the
  scalp detect and
  measure patterns of
  electrical activity
  emanating from the
  brain.
• often combined with
  other imaging
  techniques
 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
• Enhances or depresses
  activity in a specific area
  of the brain.
• The magnetic field
  produces electrical
  currents in tissue. Allows
  the stimulation of neurons
  during their refractory
  period.
• Studies in the treatment
  of depression
       CAT (Computerized Axial
            Tomography
• Computer analysis of
  brain structure
• detection of tumors,
  brain aneurysms, or
  strokes
• An X-Ray!
• Cross sections,
  possibly of multiple
  angles
CAT Scan of Stroke
          PET (Positron Emission
              Tomography)
• “Labels” specific drugs
  or natural body
  compounds like glucose
  with small amounts of
  radioactivity
• can show blood flow,
  oxygen and glucose
  metabolism, and drug
  concentrations in the
  tissues of the working
  brain
  SPECT-Single Photon Emission
     Computed Tomography
• Similar to PET, uses radioactive tracers to
  construct two- or three-dimensional
  images of active brain regions.
• More limited than PET in the kinds of brain
  activity they can monitor.
• Much less expensive than PET
• Used in drug abuse research
               SPECT




Normal Brain           Meth Brain
     MRI (Magnetic Resonance
            Imaging)
• It uses incredibly powerful magnets that
  can be tens of thousands of times more
  powerful than the Earth’s gravitational
  field.

• Computer Enhancement to give three
  dimensional images with exposure to
  radiation
MRI-Brain Cancer
      fMRI (Functional Magnetic
        Resonance Imaging)
• Demonstrates physical changes (as in
  blood flow) in the brain and mental
  functioning (performing cognitive tasks)
  over time.
• Can produce images of brain activity as
  fast as every second.
• Cutting-edge research.
MRI




fMRI

								
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