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					                       MISDEMEANORS
Chapter
  33                        AND
                        HIGH CRIMES




              The American Nation, 12e
          Mark C.Carnes    John A. Garraty
       THE ELECTION OF 1988
• Republicans nominated
  Vice President George
  H.W. Bush
• Democrats nominated
  Massachusetts governor
  Michael Dukakis
  – Tarnished by furlough
    program and Willie Horton
• Bush won 54% of the vote
  – 426 to 112 electoral votes
    CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
• Responding to widespread calls for a crackdown on
  crime, elected officials hired more police, passed
  tougher laws and built additional prisons
• Shift toward capital punishment
  – During 1960s only a handful of criminals were executed
  – 1972: Supreme Court ruled in Furman decision that jury-
    imposed capital punishment was racially biased and thus
    unconstitutional
  – Many states favored capital punishment statutes which
    then took decision out of hands of juries
  – Supreme Court upheld these laws and capital
    punishment, on hold since 1967, resumed in 1976
  – Since then nearly 1000 convicts have been executed
     CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
• State legislatures imposed tougher sentences and
  made it more difficult for prisoners to obtain parole
   – 1973: New York passed laws that mandated harsh
     sentences for repeat drug offenders
   – 1977: California replaced its parole system with
     mandatory sentencing, which denied convicts the
     prospect of early release
   – Ten other states adopted similar systems
   – Nationwide, the proportion of convicts serving long,
     mandatory sentences increased sharply
   – From 1984 to 1995, more inmates died of suicide than in
     fights with other inmates
CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
   • Nation’s prison population increased
     – 1973: federal and state prisons held
       about 10,000 convicts
     – 1990: number of prisoners exceeded
       750,000
     – 2004: 2 million
   • Required construction of a 1000-bed
     prison every week
     – 1995: states spent more on prisons than
       on higher education
     – Human Rights Watch reported the United
       States incarcerated more people than
       any country in the world except, perhaps,
       Communist China, which does not
       disclose that information
“CRACK” AND URBAN GANGS
• Several factors intensified the problem of
  violent crime, especially in the inner cities
  – Shift in drug use from marijuana in the 1960s
    to cocaine
  – Cocaine was more powerful and addictive but
    more expensive so few people could afford it
     • During the 1980s growers of coca leaves in Peru
       and Bolivia greatly expanded production
     • Drug traffickers in Colombia devised sophisticated
       systems to transport cocaine to U.S.
     • Price of cocaine dropped from $120 an ounce in
       1981 to $50 in 1988
“CRACK” AND URBAN GANGS
• Even more important was proliferation of a cocaine-based
  compound called ―crack‖ because it crackled when
  smoked
   – Sold in $10 vials
   – Gave an intense spasm of pleasure
• Lucrative crack trade led to bitter turf wars in the inner
  cities
   – ―drive-by shooting‖ entered the language
   – Survey of Los Angeles County in the 1990s found that more than
     150,000 young people belonged to 1000 gangs
   – In 1985, before crack, there were 147 murders in Washington,
     D.C. but in 1991 there were 482
   – Black on black murder became an important cause of death for
     young men in their 20s
   – By 2005, 20% of African American men in their 20s were in prison,
     or on probation, or on parole
         GEORGE H.W. BUSH AS
             PRESIDENT
• In 1989, Bush named a ―drug
  czar‖ to coordinate various
  bureaucracies, increased
  federal funding of local police,
  and spent $2.5 billion to stop
  the flow of illegal drugs into
  the nation
  – Had little overall effect
• Opposed gun control and
  abortion and called for a
  constitutional amendment to
  ban flag burning
THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM
     IN EASTERN EUROPE
• Reforms instituted by Gorbachev in Soviet Union
  led to demands from Eastern European satellites
  for similar liberalization
  – Gorbachev announced Soviet Union would not use
    force to keep communist governments in power in
    these nations
  – Swiftly the people of Poland, Hungary,
    Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, East Germany
    and the Baltics did away with the repressive regimes
     • Changes were peaceful except in Romania where the former
       dictator Nicolae Ceausescu was executed
• Soviet-style communism had been discredited,
  Warsaw Pact no longer existed and Cold War
  was over
THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM
     IN EASTERN EUROPE
• Bush expressed moral support for new
  governments and provided modest financial
  support in some instances
  – June 1990: Bush and Gorbachev signed agreements
    reducing American and Russian stockpiles of long-
    range nuclear missiles by 30% and eliminating
    chemical weapons
• 1989: Bush sent troops to Panama to overthrow
  General Manuel Noriega who refused to yield
  power when his figurehead presidential
  candidate lost the election
  – Noriega was under indictment in U.S. for drug
    trafficking
  – After temporarily taking refuge in the Vatican
    embassy, he surrendered and was taken to the U.S.
    where he was tried, convicted and imprisoned
 THE COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM
      IN EASTERN EUROPE
• Latin Americans were concerned about U.S. action in
  Panama and by fact that more Panamanian civilians were
  killed and wounded than armed supporters of Noriega
• Summer 1991: civil war broke out in Yugoslavia as Croatia
  and Slovenia sought independence from the Serbian-
  dominated central government
   – Soon became religious war pitting Serb and Croatian Christians
     against Bosnian Muslims
• In Soviet Union, Gorbachev responded to demands for more
  local control of affairs by backing a draft treaty that would
  increase local autonomy and further privatize the Soviet
  economy
   – In August, before treaty ratification, hard line communists attempted a
     coup
   – Boris Yeltsin, the anticommunist president of the Russian Republic,
     defied the rebels and roused the people of Moscow
   – The coup collapsed, the Communist party was disbanded and the
     Soviet Union was replaced by a federation of states, led by Yeltsin
THE WAR IN THE PERSIAN GULF
 • Despite earlier aid to him, few in
   administration were fond of Iraqi dictator
   Saddam Hussein
   – For years had been crushing the Kurds, an
     ethnic minority in northern Iraq that sought
     independence
   – 1989: after Kurds assisted an Iranian
     advance, Saddam used chemical weapons on
     them, killing over 5000 civilians
      • U.S. lodged a protest
   – 1988: after Iran-Iraq War ended in stalemate,
     Saddam intensified war on Kurds
THE WAR IN THE PERSIAN GULF
• August 1990: Iraq invaded Kuwait hoping to
  add its oil reserves to those of Iraq thereby
  controlling about 25% of world total
  – Soldiers overran Kuwait swiftly and carried off
    everything not nailed down
  – Saddam annexed Kuwait and troops massed on
    the border with Saudi Arabia
  – Saudis and Kuwaitis turned to U.S. and the UN
    for help
     • UN applied trade sanctions
     • The U.S.—along with Great Britain, France, Italy,
       Egypt and Syria, at the invitation of Saudi Arabia,
       moved troops to Saudi bases
THE WAR IN THE PERSIAN GULF
• By November, Bush had increased the American
  troops in the area from 180,000 to 500,000
• Late November, UN authorized the use of force if
  Saddam did not withdraw from Kuwait by 15
  January 1991
  – Congress voted to use force
• 17 January, Americans unleashed massive air
  attack which lasted for a month and reduced much
  of Iraq to rubble
  – Iraqis fired a few missiles at Israel and Saudi Arabia and
    set the Kuwaiti oil wells on fire
THE WAR IN THE PERSIAN GULF
 • 23 February: Bush issued an ultimatum to pull
   out of Kuwait or face invasion
   – When Saddam ignored the deadline, more than
     200,000 UN troops attacked in Desert Storm
   – Between 24 and 27 February they retook Kuwait,
     killing tens of thousands of Iraqis and capturing
     even more
   – Bush then stopped the attack and Saddam agreed
     to UN terms
      • Reparations to Kuwait
      • UN inspectors to determine whether Iraq was developing
        atomic and biological weapons
      • ―No-fly‖ zones over Kurdish territory and other strategic
        areas
THE WAR IN THE PERSIAN GULF
 • Polls showed 90% of Americans
   approved Bush’s handling of war and
   overall performance as chief executive
 • Bush and others expected Saddam to be
   driven from power
   – When Kurds in north and pro-Iranian
     Muslims in south tried, Saddam used the
     remnants of the army to crush them
   – Refused repeatedly to carry out terms of UN
     agreement, particularly by hindering arms
     inspection
        THE DEFICIT WORSENS
• War only worsened deficit
• Congress refused to close local
  military bases or cut funding for
  favored defense contractors
• Also nearly impossible to
  reduce nonmilitary
  expenditures, especially
  Medicare and Social Security
• Deficit for 1992 hit $290 billion
   – Bush, who had promised ―no new
     taxes,‖ was forced to raise the top
     tax rate from 28% to 31% and
     levy higher taxes on gasoline,
     liquor, expensive automobiles and
     other luxuries
   LOOTING THE
SAVINGS AND LOANS
  • Another drain on the federal treasury resulted
    from demise of hundreds of federally insured
    savings and loan (S&L) institutions.
     – Traditionally played an important role in nearly
       every community by providing home mortgages
  • 1980s: Congress permitted S&Ls to enter the
    more lucrative but riskier business of
    commercial loans and stock investments
     – Attracted swarm of aggressive investors who
       acquired S&Ls and invested company assets in
       high yield junk bonds and real estate deals
     – Often failed to generate steady income and, worse,
       were often worthless
  • October 1987: the stock market crashed and
    hundreds of S&Ls were plunged into
    bankruptcy
        LOOTING THE
     SAVINGS AND LOANS
• In 1988 Michael Milken was indicted on 98
  charges of fraud, stock manipulation, and
  insider trading
   – Pled guilty, agreed to pay $1.3 billion in
     compensation, and went to jail
   – His investment firm filed for bankruptcy
   – Junk bond market collapsed
• Still more S&Ls went under and the
  government—the taxpayers—were forced to
  cover their losses because they were federally
  insured
   – $5 billion reserve fund was quickly exhausted
   – 1991: Congress allocated $70 billion to close the
     failing S&Ls, liquidate their assets and pay off
     depositors (may have cost taxpayers as much as
     $500 billion)
   – Justice Department charged nearly 1000 people
WHITEWATER AND THE CLINTONS
• William (Bill) Clinton was caught in the S&L
  difficulties
  – 1977: Clinton and his wife, Hillary Rodham, joined
    with James McDougal, a banker, to secure a loan to
    build vacation homes in the Ozarks
  – The development, named Whitewater, became
    insolvent
     • McDougal covered the debts with a loan from a S&L he had
       acquired
     • 1989: the S&L failed, costing the federal government $60
       million to reimburse depositors
  – 1992: Federal investigators claimed the Clintons had
    been ―potential‖ beneficiaries of McDougal’s illegal
    activities
WHITEWATER AND THE CLINTONS
• The scandal emerged when Clinton, then
  governor of Arkansas, was campaigning for the
  Democratic presidential nomination
• Soon overshadowed by news that Clinton had
  engaged in an extramarital affair of several
  years with Gennifer Flowers
  – Clinton’s standing in the polls plummeted and he and
    his wife made an appearance on 60 Minutes to
    appeal to the American people for understanding
• He finished second in New Hampshire, won the
  Democratic nomination and named Albert Gore,
  senator from Tennessee, as his running mate
     THE ELECTION OF 1992
• Bush expected to be easily renominated but
  encountered stiff opposition within Republican
  party
  – Patrick Buchanan, outspoken conservative
• Ross Perot, billionaire Texan, then announced
  he would run as an independent
  – Declared both major parties were out of touch with
    ―the people‖
  – Promised to spend $100 million of his own money on
    his campaign
  – Platform had both liberal and conservative planks
     THE ELECTION OF 1992
• Polls showed Perot was popular in states Bush
  had been counting on and it seemed possible
  there might not be anyone with enough electoral
  votes to win
• Bush was renominated by the Republican
  convention
• Clinton accused Bush of failing to deal with the
  lingering economic recession and promised to
  undertake public works projects, to encourage
  private investment and to improve the nation’s
  education and health insurance systems
• 44 million people voted for Clinton, 38 million for
  Bush and 20 million for Perot
   – Clinton won with 370 electoral votes to Bush’s 168
        A NEW START: CLINTON
• Reasons for Clinton’s success
   – Intention to change health insurance and
     welfare systems and bring budget deficit
     under control
   – Solid knowledge of public issues and
     appearance of mastery and control
   – Willingness to reconcile differences
• Had promised to end ban on gays
  and lesbians in the military but settled
  for policy of ―don’t ask, don’t tell‖ after
  the Joint Chiefs and a number of
  influential members of Congress
  objected
       A NEW START: CLINTON
• July 1993: Clinton appointed Ruth Bader Ginsberg to the
  Supreme Court
   – Ginsberg was known to believe abortion to be constitutional
   – Clinton also indicated he would veto any bill limiting abortion rights
• Reversed important Bush policies by signing a revived family
  leave bill into law and authorizing the use of fetal tissue for
  research purposes
• Wanted to reduce the deficit by $500 billion over 5 years, half
  by spending cuts and half by new taxes
   – Since a number of Democrats refused to cooperate and the
     Republicans were firmly against it, Clinton was forced to accept
     changes
• Effort to reform health care never came up with a viable plan
  to take to Congress
• Whitewater scandal created public pressure which forced
  Attorney General Janet Reno to appoint a special prosecutor,
  Kenneth Starr, a Republican lawyer
            EMERGENCE OF THE
           REPUBLICAN MAJORITY
• Paula Corbin Jones, a State of Arkansas employee, charged
  that Clinton, while governor had asked her to engage in oral
  sex
   – Clinton’s attorney denied the accusation and sought to have the case
     dismissed on the grounds that a president could not be sued while in
     office but the case continued
• Republicans in 1994, led by congressman Newt Gingrich of
  Georgia, offered voters an ambitious program to stimulate the
  economy by reducing both the federal debt and the federal
  income tax
   – Would turn many of the function of the federal government over to the
     states or to private enterprise
   – Federally administered welfare programs were to be replaced by block
     grants to the states
   – Many environmental protection measures were to be repealed
• Republicans gained control of both houses of Congress and
  tried to pass their ―contract with America‖ in the 1995 budget
  which Clinton vetoed, leading to an impasse
   – The government shut down all but essential services, for a time
     THE ELECTION OF 1996
• Public blamed Congress, and especially
  Gingrich, for the shutdown and the president’s
  approval rating rose
  – Upturn during and after 1991 benefited Clinton
  – By 1996, unemployment was below 6% and inflation
    below 3%
  – Dow Jones industrial stock average soared above
    6000 (triple the average in 1987)
• Bob Dole from Kansas got the Republican
  nomination
• Clinton won with 379 to 159 electoral votes but
  the Republicans retained control of both houses
  of Congress
           A RACIAL DIVIDE
• 1990s saw the arrest of former football star
  O.J. Simpson for the murder of his estranged
  wife and a man, both of whom were white
  – After a tempestuous nine month trial, Simpson
    was acquitted
  – To many whites, Simpson was another violent
    black male
  – To many blacks, he was another wrongly
    accused black male
    • 85% of blacks but only 34% of whites agreed with the
      not guilty verdict
           A RACIAL DIVIDE
• 1992 Supreme Court Justice Thurgood
  Marshall observed that educated Americans
  of each race appeared to have ―given up on
  integration‖
  – After the Simpson trial, Louis Farrakhan, leader
    of the separatist Nation of Islam, called on
    African Americans to express their solidarity by
    participating in a ―Million Man March‖ on
    Washington, D.C.
    • 16 October 1995: the demonstration attracted 500,000
      marchers
            A RACIAL DIVIDE
• Persistence of inequality was one reason for the
  new separatism
  – 1972: Incomes of black families were one-third less than
    those of white families
  – 1992: The statistic was virtually unchanged
• The leading sectors of the economy—technology
  and information services—placed a premium on
  education
  – Math and reading scores of 17-year-old African American
    students rose relative to those of white students in the
    1980s
  – But black test scores after 1988 fell sharply
               A RACIAL DIVIDE
• Significant casualty of the changing tone of race
  relations was ―affirmative action‖ which gave minorities
  preference in hiring and college admission
  – Initially justified on the grounds that the legacy of slavery
    and the persistence of racism put blacks at an unfair
    disadvantage in finding jobs or gaining admission to college
  – Affirmative action programs spread in the 1970s and 1980s
  – July 1995: Regents of the University of California ordered an
    end to affirmative action
     • Led to protests throughout system
     • Following year California voters approved Proposition 209, abolished
       racial and gender preferences in all government hiring and education
     • U.S Supreme Court let the law stand and other state passed similar
       laws
            A RACIAL DIVIDE
• Opinion polls indicated that attitudes about race were
  becoming more complicated and ambivalent
• By an overwhelming majority, whites endorsed the
  gains of the civil rights movement
  – In 1964, only 1 in 5 whites lived near a black neighborhood
  – By 1994, 3 in 5 whites did
  – In a 1968 Gallup poll, only 17% of whites and 48% of
    blacks approved of interracial marriages
  – By 1994, the figure was 45% of whites and 68% of blacks
• Many observed that even when blacks and whites
  attended the same schools, learned the same songs,
  rooted for the same teams, they often attended
  different classrooms, sat at separate tables in the
  cafeteria and cheered from voluntarily segregated
  sections of the bleachers
           VIOLENCE AND
         POPULAR CULTURE
• Many people were concerned about the violence
  in popular culture
• The most violent film of the 1930s, Public
  Enemy, and the 1974 vigilante fantasy Death
  Wish had body counts that topped out at 8
  – Three movies of the late 1980s—Robocop, Die Hard,
    Rambo III—each had a death tally of 60 or more,
    nearly one every two minutes
  – Trend culminated in the unimaginably violent Natural
    Born Killers (1994)
• TV networks crammed violent shows into prime
  time
  – 1991: survey found that by the age of 18, the average
    viewer had witnessed some 40,000 murders on TV
     VIOLENCE AND POPULAR
           CULTURE
• 1981 Music Television (MTV) was launched
  featuring pop song videos
  – Within three years, 24 million watched every day
  – Michael Jackson’s Thriller transformed the genre as
    pop music acquired a harder beat and more explicit
    lyrics
• 1988 American Academy of Pediatrics
  expressed concern that the average teen-ager
  spent more than two hours a day watching rock
  videos, over half of which featured violence and
  three-fourths of which contained sexually
  suggestive material
           VIOLENCE AND
         POPULAR CULTURE
• ―Rap‖ emerged from the ghetto and spread
  by means of radio, cassettes and CDs
  – Consisted of unpredictably metered lyrics set
    against an exaggeratedly heavy downbeat
  – Rap performers conveyed, in words and
    gestures, an attitude of defiant, raw rage
    against whatever challenged their sense of
    manhood
  – Appeal of rap spread beyond black audiences
    and led to white rappers like Eminem, whose
    lyrics reveled in being offensive and whose
    contempt knew no bounds
             VIOLENCE AND
           POPULAR CULTURE
• Violation of social norms had long been part of
  adolescence
  – Most consumers of pop violence in the 1990s and early
    years of the 2000s, had little difficulty distinguishing
    between cultural fantasies and everyday life
  – But for those who had grown up in the ghettos, the
    culture of violence seemed to legitimate the meanness
    of everyday life
  – Moreover, violence and criminality were becoming so
    much a part of popular culture that some adolescents
    retreated to wholly imaginative worlds conjured by
    movies, video and computer games, TV and pop music
                VIOLENCE AND
              POPULAR CULTURE
A few went so far as to act out destructive fantasies
• 1 October 1997: A 16-year-old boy stabbed his mother, shot
   and killed two students and wounded seven others at his high
   school in Pearl, Mississippi
• Over the next 18 months a spate of similar shootings in West
   Paducah, Kentucky; Jonesboro, Arkansas; and Springfield,
   Oregon, left 5 dead and 23 wounded
• 20 April 1999: Two teenagers went on a rampage with
   automatic weapons at Columbine High School in Littleton,
   Colorado, killing 12 students and a teacher and wounding 30
   others before killing themselves
   – Turned out to be a replay of a 1995 movie Basketball Diaries
• A month after the Columbine shooting, a 15-year-old shot six
  students at a high school in Conyers, Georgia
         CLINTON IMPEACHED
• January 1998: a judge ordered Clinton to testify in
  the lawsuit Paula Corbin Jones had filed against him
  – To strengthen her case, Jones sought to show Clinton had
    a history of womanizing and so she subpoenaed a former
    White House intern, Monica Lewinsky
  – Clinton and Lewinsky both denied an affair, which Clinton
    restated to TV cameras after the information was leaked
  – Hillary Clinton denounced the charges as part of a right
    wing conspiracy
• Lewinsky had been confiding in Linda Tripp, a former
  White House employee, and Tripp had secretly
  taped some 20 hours of their conversations
  – She turned these tapes over to special prosecutor Kenneth
    Starr
       CLINTON IMPEACHED
• In the Tripp tapes, Lewinsky provided intimate
  details of sexual encounters with Clinton, making
  it appear Clinton and Lewinsky had lied under
  oath
  – Starr threatened to indict Lewinsky for perjury
  – In return for immunity, she repudiated her earlier
    testimony and admitted engaging in sexual relations
    with the president and being encouraged by him and
    his aides to provide false testimony
• When called to testify before the Starr grand jury
  in August, Clinton admitted to ―inappropriate
  intimate contact‖ but stated he had not had sex
  according to his definition
  – More legalisms followed
       CLINTON IMPEACHED
• Clinton’s testimony infuriated Starr who made
  public Lewinsky’s humiliatingly detailed
  testimony and announced that Clinton’s
  deceptive testimony warranted consideration by
  the House of Representatives for impeachment
  – Throughout this, opinion polls suggested two in three
    Americans approved of Clinton’s performance as
    president
  – Most Americans blamed the scandal on the intrusive
    Starr as much as on Clinton
• In the November election, Republicans nearly
  lost their majority in the House
         CLINTON IMPEACHED
• Republican leaders in the House impeached Clinton
  on the grounds that he had committed perjury and had
  obstructed justice by inducing Lewinsky and others to
  give false testimony in the Jones case
  – The vote closely followed party lines
• The impeachment trial began in January 1999 with
  Chief Justice William Rehnquist presiding
  – Republicans numbered 55, enough to control the
    proceedings but 12 short of the two-thirds needed to convict
  – Democrats, while publicly critical of Clinton’s behavior,
    maintained that his indiscretions did not constitute ―high
    crimes and misdemeanors‖ as defined by the Constitution
  – Article accusing Clinton of perjury was defeated 55 to 45; the
    obstruction of justice charge was defeated with a vote of 50
    to 50
               CLINTON’S LEGACY
• One reason Clinton survived was the health
  of the economy
• Until the final months, the Clinton years
  coincided with the longest economic boom
  in the nation’s history
• Clinton deserves much of the credit—by
  reducing the federal deficit, interest rates
  came down, spurring investment and
  economic growth
   – By August 1998, unemployment had fallen to
     4.8%, the lowest level since the 1960s
   – Inflation was a minor 1%, the lowest since the
     1950s
   – In 1998, the federal government had its first
     surplus since 1969
   – In the 2000 fiscal year, the surplus hit $237 billion
              CLINTON’S LEGACY
• Clinton also promoted the globalization of the
  economy
   – Successfully promoted the North American Free Trade
     Agreement to reduce tariff barriers
      • Congress approved in 1993
• During the last half of the 1990s, the U.S. led all
  industrial nations in the rate of growth of its real gross
  national product
• New global economy harmed many
   – Union leaders complained that their members could not
     compete against convict or sweatshop labor in foreign
     countries
   – Others complained the emphasis on worldwide economic
     growth was generating an environmental calamity
      • International protests against the World Trade Organization
        culminated in the disruption of the 2000 meeting in Seattle, when
        thousands of protestors went on a rampage
              CLINTON’S LEGACY
Clinton’s record in foreign affairs was mixed
• 1993: failed to assemble an international force to prevent
   ―ethnic cleansing‖ by Serbian troops against Muslims in
   Bosnia
• Same year a U.S. initiative in Somalia, an African nation
   wracked by civil war and famine, ended in failure when a
   Somali warlord ambushed and killed 15 American
   commandos
• 1999: Clinton proposed a NATO effort to prevent
   Yugoslavian General Slobodan Milosevic from crushing the
   predominantly Muslim province of Kosovo, which was
   attempting to secede
   – After several months of intense NATO bombing of Serbia, Milosevic
     withdrew from Kosovo
   – Within a year, he was forced from office and into prison, awaiting trial
     for war crimes before a UN tribunal
            THE ECONOMIC BOOM
             AND THE INTERNET
• Significant part of the prosperity of the
  1990s came from new technologies
  such as cellular phones and genetic
  engineering, but especially from the
  development of the Internet
   – Developed in the 1970s by U.S. military
     and academic institutions to coordinate
     research, the Internet lacked a common
     language
   – Early 1990s, Tim Berners-Lee, a British
     physicist working at a research institute
     in Switzerland, devised software that
     became the ―grammar‖ of the Internet
   – With this language, the Internet became
     the World Wide Web (WWW)
   – The number of websites increased
     exponentially
THE ECONOMIC BOOM
 AND THE INTERNET
     • In 1995, Bill Gates’s Microsoft
       entered the picture with its
       Windows operating system,
       which made the computer easy
       to use
       – It competed with Netscape by
         creating a web browser—Microsoft
         Internet Explorer—and embedded
         it in its software in the Windows 95
         bundle
       – Netscape and other service
         providers protested that Microsoft
         was threatening to monopolize
         Internet access
  THE ECONOMIC BOOM AND THE
          INTERNET
• In 1995, Jeff Bezos’s Internet company
  designed to sell books, Amazon.com,
  made its first sale
   – Within six years its annual sales
     approached $3 billion and its stock soared
   – Bezos became one of the richest men in
     the nation
• Others thought they could do the same
  with products fro pet food to
  pornography
   – Many start up companies consisted of little
     more than the hopes of the founders
   – ―Venture capitalists‖ poured billions into
     emerging ―dot-coms‖
         THE ECONOMIC BOOM
          AND THE INTERNET
• In 1999, some 200 Internet companies ―went public,‖
  selling shares in the major stock exchanges
   – Raised $20 billion easily
   – NASDAQ, the exchange which specialized in tech
     companies, had its index more than double between
     October 1999 and March 2000
   – Prices of dot-com stocks kept climbing though few
     companies generated profits and some lacked revenue all
     together
• Spring 2000: A selling wave hit tech stocks and
  spilled over to other companies
   – Stock prices plummeted with the NASDAQ loosing nearly
     half its value in six months
   – In all, some $2 trillion in stocks and stock funds disappeared
     THE 2000 ELECTION:
George W. Bush Wins by One Vote
• During the 2000 campaign, Vice President Al
  Gore, tried to prove his indispensability to
  Clinton, whose administration was credited with
  the economic growth of the 1990s, but distance
  himself from the scandals
  – Raised money for the Democratic party but did not
    mention Clinton
  – Gore ran afoul of election laws by soliciting funds in
    inappropriate places while Clinton devoted his
    energies to his wife’s successful campaign to
    represent New York in the Senate
  – Gore became the Democratic nominee and chose
    Senator Joseph Lieberman, an orthodox Jew from
    Connecticut as his running mate
     THE 2000 ELECTION:
George W. Bush Wins by One Vote
• The Republican nominee was George W. Bush, son of
  former president Bush, who selected the defense
  secretary from his father’s administration, Richard
  Cheney, as his running mate
• Consumer activist and environmentalist Ralph Nader
  also entered the race on the Green party ticket
• Main issue was what to do with the federal surplus of $1
  trillion within five years
   – Bush wanted a substantial tax cut
   – Gore wanted to increase spending on education and shore up
     the social security system
• Gore seemed stiff, though knowledgeable while Bush
  ambushed the English language
   – Candidates spent a record $1 billion to get their messages to the
     voters
     THE 2000 ELECTION:
George W. Bush Wins by One Vote
• On election night, it appeared at midnight that Bush
  had 246 electoral votes and Gore 267 with 270 votes
  to win and Florida, with 25 votes, undecided
  – Bush had a lead in Florida of 1784 out of nearly 6 million
    votes cast
  – After a machine recount, Bush’s lead was reduced to
    several hundred votes with Democrats complaining that a
    punch-card ballot was confusing and that machines
    routinely failed to count them correctly
     • Gore’s lawyers demanded several predominantly Democratic
       counties be recounted by hand
     • Republicans claimed could not change voting procedures after the
       election
     • Yet when overseas absentee ballots came pouring in, many from
       military personnel, Republicans demanded technical rules, such as
       requiring the ballots be postmarked on or before election day be
       waived
     THE 2000 ELECTION:
George W. Bush Wins by One Vote
  • Entire election wound up in the courts
     – 12 December 2000: the Supreme Court
       ruled, 5 to 4, that the selective hand counts
       violated the Constitution’s guarantee of equal
       protection
     – Bush was the winner
  • Nationwide, Gore received 51 million
    votes to Bush’s 50.5 million
     – Nader received 3 million


2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000
    TERRORISM INTENSIFIES
• In the wake of the Cold War, many military dictators who
  had been kept afloat by the U.S. or the Soviets found
  themselves having to seek the support of the people in
  order to stay in power
• In many Arab nations, rulers cultivated popular support
  by denouncing Israel, which refused to return Palestinian
  land seized in the 1967 war
   – U.S. encouraged Israel to trade land for peace but few Israelis
     believed the promises of Arab leaders who routinely called for
     the destruction of Israel and had trained and funded terrorism
   – American leaders called on Arab leaders to show their good faith
     by putting an end to terrorism, then Israel would return some
     land
   – Yet Arab leaders, whose countries were often mired in poverty,
     knew that they could garner popular support by denouncing
     Israel
   TERRORISM INTENSIFIES
• Since the U.S. heavily supported Israel, Arab
  rage focused on the United States and American
  soldiers serving abroad as well
• Several dozen separate terrorist organizations
  were behind the attacks on American targets
  – 1998: Osama bin Laden, the son of a Saudi oil
    billionaire, published a fatwa—a religious edict—to
    Islamic peoples throughout the world to ―kill
    Americans and their allies, both civil and military….‖
  – Bin Laden was protected by an extremist Islamic
    group, the Taliban, which ruled Afghanistan
  – Six months later, bin Laden’s organization—al-
    Qaeda—had perpetrated bombings of the U.S.
    embassies in Nairobi and Dar es-Salaam in Africa
          SEPTEMBER 11, 2001
• At 8:40 on the morning of
  September 11, 2001, Madeline
  Amy Sweeney, a flight attendant
  on American Airlines flight 11,
  placed a call on her cell phone
  to inform her supervisor in
  Boston that 4 Arab men had
  slashed the throats of two
  attendants, forced their way into
  the cockpit and taken over the
  plane
  – She provided their seat numbers
  – When asked if she knew where
    they were headed, she looked out
    the window and realized they were
    headed for the World Trade Center
       SEPTEMBER 11, 2001
• The Boeing 767 was traveling at 500 miles
  per hour at 8:46 when it slammed into the
  96th floor of the north tower, causing a
  fireball to engulf 8 or 9 floors
• Fifteen minutes later a second jet plowed
  into the 80th floor of the south tower
  – 50,000 people worked in the World Trade
    Center
  – As thousands fled, hundreds of firefighters
    charged up the stairs to try to rescue those who
    were trapped
        SEPTEMBER 11, 2001
• At 9:30 the White House received word that
  another hijacked airliner was barreling toward
  Washington, D.C.
  – Secret Service agents rushed Cheney to an emergency
    command bunker below the White House
• At 9:35 the airliner plunged into the Pentagon and
  burst into flames
  – Cheney telephoned Bush, who was in Florida, to tell him
    the nation was under attack
  – Bush authorized the Air Force to shoot down any other
    hijacked airliners
• A few minutes later a fourth hijacked airliner
  plowed into a field in Pennsylvania after
  passengers had declared their intention—by cell
  phone—to retake the plane
        SEPTEMBER 11, 2001
• At 9:59, the south tower of the World Trade center
  collapsed followed by the north tower half an hour
  later
  – Nearly 3000 lay dead in the rubble, including the Fire
    Chief and 350 firemen
  – Several hundred more perished at the Pentagon and
    the crash of the airliner in Pennsylvania
• Teams of four or five Arabic speaking men had
  hijacked each of the planes
  – Several of the hijackers were quickly linked to al-Qaeda
    and Osama bin Laden, who had previously been
    indicted (but not captured) for the 1998 bombing of the
    U.S. embassies in East Africa and the 2000 attack on
    the USS Cole
  – Bin Laden operated with impunity in Afghanistan
       SEPTEMBER 11, 2001
• That evening, President Bush assured Americans
  that the terrorists would be found and made to pay
  for their attacks and that any government
  harboring them would be held equally responsible
  – Bin Laden, in a video recording, denied involvement in
    the attacks but praised those who had carried them out
• Several weeks later, Bush declared that bin Laden
  would be taken ―dead or alive‖ and offered $25
  million for his death or capture
  – Within the United States, thousands of Arabs were
    rounded up and detained
  – Those with visa and immigration violations were
    imprisoned
         SEPTEMBER 11, 2001
• Several letters addressed to government
  officials included threatening messages and
  anthrax, which could prove fatal if touched or
  inhaled
  – Thousands of government employees took
    antibiotics as a precaution
  – Some spores had seeped out and half a dozen
    postal workers and mail recipients died
• Bush created the Cabinet position of Office of
  Homeland Security and named Pennsylvania
  Governor Tom Ridge to direct it
        AMERICA FIGHTS BACK:
          War in Afghanistan
• Bin Laden was in Afghanistan protected by the
  Taliban
  – Taliban had fought the Soviet invasion in the 1980s, inflicting
    heavy losses with weapons and support from the U.S.
• Source of the anthrax letters was problematic
• Bush’s secretary of state, Colin Powell, maintained
  that U.S. troops should only be deployed when their
  political objective was clear, military advantage
  overwhelming and means of disengaging secure—
  Powell Doctrine
  – Powell urged many European, Asian and Islamic states to
    crack down on terrorist cells in their countries and to provide
    assistance in the U.S. military campaign against the Taliban
  – Persuaded anti-Taliban forces in Afghanistan to join forces to
    topple the regime
       AMERICA FIGHTS BACK:
         War in Afghanistan
• 20 September: Bush ordered the Taliban to turn
  over bin Laden and top al-Qaeda leaders
  – When the Taliban refused, Bush unleashed missiles and
    warplanes against Taliban installations and defenses
  – Taliban forces hunkered in bunkers to withstand
    bombings and fought off attacks by anti-Taliban forces
  – Small teams of American soldiers with hand-held
    computers and satellite-linked navigational devices,
    joined with anti-Taliban contingents, marking Taliban
    positions with laser spotters and communicating with high
    altitude bombers which dropped electronically guided
    bombs from 30,000 feet
  – Taliban soldiers fled or switched sides
  – Taliban were driven from power with the loss of only one
    U.S. soldier to enemy fire (a few U.S. soldiers and
    hundreds of civilians were killed by errant bombs)
      THE SECOND IRAQ WAR
• January 2002: After the Taliban had been crushed, Bush
  declared the U.S. would take ―preemptive actions‖ against
  regimes that threatened it
   – Identified Iran, Iraq and North Korea as an axis of evil
   – Immediately after September 11, he initiated plans to attack Iraq
• Secretary of State Powell advised Bush not to attack Iraq
   – If Saddam were driven from power, U.S. would be left with Iraq and
     the following disarray
   – Cheney, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and others insisted
     Iraqis would welcome liberation and embrace democracy and a free
     Iraq would stimulate democratic reforms throughout the Middle East
• Joint Chiefs of Staff proposed an invasion of half a million
  troops
   – Rumsfeld insisted on a smaller, faster, cheaper force of 125,000
   – Spring 2002: CIA agents were spirited into Iraq and airplanes and
     soldiers were deployed to Kuwait
   – Bush denied he had any plans to attack Iraq
     THE SECOND IRAQ WAR
• In September, Bush sought congressional
  support, stating that the Iraqi leader had
  weapons of mass destruction
  – Congress voted overwhelmingly in favor of war
    appropriations
  – Bush called on the UN to join in the attack
• Following the Iran-Iraq War, UN inspectors
  had destroyed thousands of tons of chemical
  weapons
  – In recent years these inspectors had found little
    further evidence of these weapons
    THE SECOND IRAQ WAR
• Powell presented ―evidence‖ to the UN that
  Saddam had been building and stockpiling
  weapons of mass destruction that the UN
  inspectors had not found
  – UN Security Council order Saddam to cooperate
    with UN inspectors and warned of serious
    consequences if he did not comply
  – After several months, Bush grew impatient with
    the slow pace of the inspections
  – When the Security Council refused to take
    action, Bush formed a coalition—Great Britain,
    Italy, Spain and a few other countries—to oust
    Saddam
    THE SECOND IRAQ WAR
• 20 March 2003: American missiles and
  bombs—in the Shock and Awe campaign—
  pounded Saddam’s defenses
  – Two armored columns roared across the Kuwaiti
    border into Iraq
  – British forces moved along the coast toward the
    oil port of Basra
  – TV reporters provided live coverage
  – Iraqi resistance was disorganized and ineffective
  – American forces advanced half way to Baghdad
    the first night
       THE SECOND IRAQ WAR
• 4 April: U.S. Army seized the Baghdad International
  Airport
• The next morning, 800 American soldiers in tanks
  and armored vehicles blasted their way into
  downtown Baghdad
  –   Some Iraqis poured into the streets to celebrate
  –   Others looted offices, museums, stores, and hospitals
  –   Saddam disappeared and his government evaporated
  –   By mid-April, the Pentagon declared major combat
      operations had come to an end
• Iraq was in chaos and there were too few U.S.
  soldiers to preserve order
  – Islamic radicals joined with Saddam supporters to attack
    occupation forces
    THE ELECTION OF 2004
• The war became the main issue of the election
  campaign
• Democratic candidate Howard Dean of Vermont
  leapt ahead in the polls by denouncing the war
  – Proved adept at using the Internet to raise funds and
    recruit supporters
  – Called for national health insurance and legal
    recognition of marriage for gays and lesbians
• December 2003: American soldiers captured
  Saddam and Bush’s approval rating soared
  – Democrats started looking for an alternative to ultra-
    liberal Dean
     THE ELECTION OF 2004
• By January, Senator John Kerry of
  Massachusetts was gaining in the polls and, by
  April, was the Democratic nominee
  – Chose Senator John Edwards of North Carolina as
    his running mate
• In Iraq the situation deteriorated as 60 Minutes
  revealed American captors had tortured Iraqi
  captives in the Abu Ghraib prison
  – Casualties mounted
  – Cost of the occupation was spiraling upward
  – No Iraqi weapons of mass destruction had been
    found
    THE ELECTION OF 2004
• At the Democratic Convention in July,
  Kerry emphasized his military service in
  Vietnam
  – Contrast to Bush who had served in the
    National Guard in Alabama and Texas during
    the war
  – Criticized Bush for attacking Iraq before
    capturing bin Laden and for starting the war
    with insufficient international support and
    insufficient troops to maintain order and
    rebuild Iraq
        THE ELECTION OF 2004
• Bush mobilized conservatives and religious fundamentalists
  by proposing a constitutional amendment that would define
  marriage as the union between a man and a woman
   – Kerry endorsed gay rights but endlessly qualified previous
     statements on same-sex marriage
• Bush’s campaign attacked Kerry’s war record
   – Some Vietnam veterans seized on the fact that in 1971 Kerry had
     told a congressional committee that the Vietnam war was wrong and
     immoral
   – Republicans also portrayed Kerry as opportunistic and Bush
     accused him of flip-flopping
• More than 12 million new voters came to the polls for one of
  the most divisive elections in recent history
   – Kerry received 57 million votes but Bush got 60 million and won with
     286 electoral votes to 252
THE IMPONDERABLE FUTURE

• In Iraq, bombings rocked police stations
  and public squares and smoldering
  tensions between rival Muslim groups
  threatened to break into civil war
• By early 2005, over 1400 American
  soldiers had been killed, 10 times more
  than had died fighting to topple Saddam’s
  regime
• The federal deficit approached half a
  trillion dollars
                WEBSITES
• Desert Storm
http://www.desert-storm.com
• Investigating the President: The Trial
http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/resources/1998/l
  ewinsky
• Kosovo
http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1998/10/kosovo
• Oklahoma City Bombing
http://www.cnn.com/US/9703/okc.trial

				
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