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					NRCMAP Perspective Plan
                                VISION - 2025




                          INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
         VISION - 2025




National Research Centre for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
                (Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
                    Boriavi, Anand 387 310 (Gujarat)
            Tel. : 91-268-2578602 • Fax: 91-268-2578601
      Email: director@nrc-map.org • Website: www.nrc-map.org




   INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
National Research Centre for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Boriavi, Anand 387 310 (Gujarat)
Tel. No.    : 91-268-2578602
Fax         : 91-268-2578601
Email       : director@nrc-map.org
Website     : www.nrc-map.org




Published by
Dr. Satyabrata Maiti
Director




Assisted by
Dr. Manish Das
Dr. Kunal Mandal
Dr. P. Manivel



Correct Citation
NRCMAP - Perspective Plan Vision 2025
National Research Centre for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Boriavi, Anand (Gujarat)




July 2007




Printed at:
Anand Press
Gamdi-Anand 388 001
Email: anandpress@gmail.com



                                             II
                                      CONTENTS

1.    Preamble                                                 1
2.    Mandate                                                  2
3.    Growth                                                   4
4.    Salient Research Achievements                            8
5.    Impact Assessment                                       17
6.    SWOT Analysis                                           21
7.    Perspectives                                            21
8.    Issues and Strategies                                   24
9.    Programmes and Projects                                 25
10.   Linkage and Co-ordination                               28
11.   Critical Inputs                                         29
12.   Risk Analysis                                           29
13.   Project Review, Reporting and Evaluation Arrangements   29
14.   Resource Generation                                     30
15.   Outputs                                                 30
16.   Outcome                                                 30
                                    FOREWORD

                              Indian agriculture must continuously evolve to remain ever
                     responsive to manage the change and to meet the growing and
                     diversified needs of different stakeholders in the entire production
                     to consumption chain. In order to capitalize on the opportunities
                     and to convert weaknesses into opportunities, we at the ICAR
                     attempted to visualize an alternate agricultural scenario from present
                     to twenty years hence. In this endeavour, an in-depth analysis of
                     the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) was
                     undertaken to place our research and technology development efforts
                     in perspective so that we succeed in our pursuit of doing better
than the best. Accordingly, the researchable issues are identified, strategies drawn and
programmes indicated to have commensurate projects and relevant activities coinciding
with the launch of the 11th Five Year Plan.

         India is known for its various traditional systems of medicine that have been
developed and practiced from time immemorial. A large number of traditional healing
systems such as Ayrveda, Sidda, Tribal medicine, folk medicine, etc. are widely practiced
in India for treatment of diseases. During the last two decades, there is a growing
interest and expanding market demand for plant based materials in the drugs, cosmetics
and flavouring materials. About 80 Medicinal and Aromatic plants are grown in India.
Besides, a number of forests based raw materials used in food, drugs and perfumery
industry. With a view to intensify such essential research efforts further, the ICAR has
established the National Research Centre for Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (NRC for
MAP) during the VIII Five Year Plan with the mandate to collect, identify and evaluate
germplasm and improvement of medicinal and aromatic plants that are therapeutically
important. The Institute through All India Coordinated Research Project has developed
27 varieties in medicinal plants and 7 varieties in aromatic plants, besides developing
cultivation technologies specific to various agro-climatic conditions.

        It is expectted that realizing the Vision embodied in the document would further
ensure that the NRC for MAP, Anand (Gujarat) continues to fulfill its mandate to make
Indian agriculture locally, regionally and globally competitive. The efforts and valuable
inputs provided by my colleagues at the ICAR Headquarters and by the Directorr and his
team at the Institute level for overan year to develop Vision 2025 deserve appreciation.




                                       (MANGALA RAI)
                  Secretary, Department of Agricultural Research & Education
                                              and
                   Director General, Indial Council of Agricultural Research
             Dr. Rajendra Prasad Road, Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi - 110 001, India
March 2007
                                           PREFACE
       The use of plants for preparations of medicines and in health care is by and large the largest
use of plants in terms of the number of species specifically targeted. Plants provide the predominant
ingredients of medicines used in most traditional systems of healing and also have been the source
of inspiration for several major pharmaceutical drugs development.
        India is known for its various traditional system of medicines that have been developed and
practised from time immemorial. A large number of traditional healing systems such as Ayurveda,
Sidda, tribal medicines, folk medicines, etc are widely practised for treatments of very complex and
complicated diseases like cancers to simple requirement of primary health care. As per the WHO
estimate about 80 percent of the world population are depending greatly on these Traditional health
care systems for their primary health care needs. Modern medicines are yet to be accessible to mass
for various obvious reasons.
        The scale of trade in MAPs ranges from local to international. However, decision makers
usually have little awareness of the significance of trade and consumption of medicinal plants, or
of the problems of un-sustainability and sometimes harmful impacts on natural habitats of wild
collection. Hence, much of the trade is unrecorded or poorly documented in official statistics. India
being a front runner in use of medicinal and aromatic plants over centuries because of its strong
traditions of Indian System of Medicines (ISM) for health care and also large number of ISM, folklore
and tribal medicine practitioners, should come out with a benchmark standards for sustainable use of
biological diversity from the nature. That would save species from over exploitation and extinction
and conservation. Therefore, cultivation using Good Agricultural Practices is going to be order of
the future.
        Indian Council of agricultural Research rightly recognized the growth potential of this newly
emerging herbal sector because of revitalization of our traditional knowledge and created a National
Research Center for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants at Anand, Gujarat in 1992. In addition, the
All India Coordinated Research Project on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (renamed as All India
Networking Research Project on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants) is also contributing as outreach
programme of the NRC in State Agricultural Universities. Preparation of a perspective plan, Vision
2025 is a difficult task in this fast changing environment of modern science when developments
are happening in an exponential rate. However, we have tried our best to put the concerns related
to MAP in the perspective of Indian agriculture in this document. I wish that it would serve the
purpose for which this vision has been prepared and to fulfil the goal, required support will come
forth from the future policy makers.
       I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Mangala Rai, Director General,
ICAR and Secretary, DARE for his keen interest, support and guidance in drawing this vision
document. I am also thankful to Dr. Gautam Kalloo, Formerly Deputy Director General (Horticulture),
Dr. H. P. Singh, Deputy Director General (Horticulture) and Dr. K. V. Ramana, Assistant Director
General (Hort. II) for their guidance and critical input. My thanks are also due to Dr. Manish Das,
Senior Scientist (Plant Physiology), Dr. Kunal Mandal,Senior Scientist (Plant Pathology) and Dr.
P. Manivel, Principal Scientist (Plant Breeding) for their help in preparation and printing of this
document.
       Jai Hind!
                                                                                    Satyabrata Maiti
                                   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
        Activities of this NRC will include collection, maintenance and evaluation of germplasm,
carrying out basic research on the selected crops that will be useful to develop good agricultural
practices (GAP) and to co-ordinate research activities of AINP on M&AP and AINP on Betelvine.
        In India, about 70% people are depending on medicinal plants either directly or indirectly for
their primary health care. According to the estimate of WHO about 80% of the world’s population
will continue to rely on plant-based medicines for their health care. Selection of plant species for
immediate research attention has been prioritized and mandate crops are selected on the basis of
their therapeutic importance as well as internal and export demand in the country and their potential
for export.
       During last two decades there is a growing interest and expanding market demand for plant
based drug raw materials, used in drugs, pharmaceuticals and perfumery, cosmetics and for flavouring.
According to a recent estimate, the demand for plant based products is around and products in food,
flavour & cosmetics is around at global level. This enormous demand needs a very large amount of
diverse raw materials which has necessarily to come from farm sector so as to protect and conserve
the wild growing population of these valuable plant species. In India, we grow about 80 M&AP
as crops in the farm sector. These need further quality and yield improvement to maintain them
as competitive and remunerative. Similarly, a large number of plants from different countries have
been identified to produce high value dry and perfumery products. These need to be introduced in
farm sector so as to produce raw material and intermediary chemicals to continue to have large
share in the developing plant based product market in the world. With these objective in view,
the NACMAP propose short term research programmes of important medicinal and aromatic crops
and also identified a number of potential crops for introduction into commercial agriculture. In the
following pages details on different programmes, preamble, mandates, mandate crops, additional
crops, works proposed, growth, budget, salient research achievements, impact assessment, SWOT
analysis, future thrust areas, perspective, issues and strategies, time frame of different programmes,
funds and linkages, project review and resource generation have been proposed.
Different Programmes are as follows:
(i)    Assembling of germplasm
(ii)   Crop improvement
(iii) Development of GAP as crop production technology
(iv) Development of quick and efficient method for analysis of major chemical constituents.
     Standardization of analytical procedure for pesticide residue and heavy metals in the produce.
(v)    Development of post harvest technology to retain and improve quality of the raw material and
       processing.
(vi) In the long run, it is also proposed to work on value addition of the produce and effective
     utilization of by-products to improve upon overall profitability.
(vii) Seed production procedures have to be developed and standardized.
(viii) The NRC will work to develop closer linkages with user industries within country and outside,
       research institutions in the Government and corporate sectors and initiate training of scientific
       personnel at Institutes of excellence wherever available in the subject.
                                         1 PREAMBLE

1.1    Mission
        The National Research Centre for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (NRCMAP), Boriavi,
Anand, established in 992 has been working for sustainable production and utilization of major
agriculturally important medicinal and aromatic plants through research and development to meet the
present day demands and to address future national and international challenges.

1.2    Vision
        Basic health care in most of the developing countries is unfortunately either absent or not
sufficient at the most elementary level. According to the estimate of World Health Organization
(WHO), more than half of the world’s population does not have access to enough health care serives
and innovative alternate approaches that are needed to tackle the growing problem. Medicinal plants
provide an opportunity to millions to have access to low cost primary health care that is needed.
Many traditionally known plants are having astonishing medicinal value and these can be successfully
used to prevent and cure several human illness.
       Recently, renewed interest has been created for remedies of many devastating diseases such
as cancer, AIDS, etc. from traditional plant based medicinal plants. There is a new surge of demand
for medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) as raw drug which is steadily and constantly increasing
world wide.
         Commercial cultivation of MAPs is slowly but steadily expanding and gradually becoming
popular among farmers. Supply of MAP from natural forest is also gradually restricted. Consumers
of traditional drugs are increasingly becoming quality conscious. Under these conditions cultivation
is left as only solution of MAPs for steady and quality raw drug supply. This fact is slowly realized
by the industries and phenomenon of contract growing is surfacing in the national scenario.
        In 2025 population of India is predicted to cross 50 crores when the main challenge before
the country would be not only food and nutritional security. Hence, the programmes of agriculture
sector in general needs a clear vision to meet the challenges ahead, while addressing the present
day demand.
        The present situation on future challenges call for a systematic and continued accelerative
efforts in research of medicinal and aromatic plants directed towards sustainable quality production
for maintaining the socio-economic and ecological balance. In this endeavor, NRCMAP and its
outreach programme, All India Networking Project on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (AINRPMAP)
are marching towards targeted goal. The major areas in which the institute proposed to concentrate
are


               Management of genetic resources
               Development of improved cultivars
               Development of good agricultural practices (GAPs) including organic farming
               Biotechnology
               Water and soil management
               Secondary metabolites



                                                 
            Post harvest technology and value addition
            Production of quality planting material
            Transfer of technology
       The institute aims at achieving the future demand by working out innovative technologies
with the following commitments
              Health security to face the challenges of population growth
              Soil health and biosphere management for increased productivity
              Cope up with emerging challenges resultant of globalization


                                        2 MANDATE

            Develop appropriate production, protection and processing technologies for important
             medicinal and aromatic plants through basic, strategic and applied research.
            Germplasm enhancement of various medicinal and aromatic plants.
            Production of parental lines and breeders’ stock.
            Act as a National Repository for the genetic resources of some important medicinal
             and aromatic plants.
            Coordinate research under the All India Coordinated Research Project on Medicinal
             & Aromatic Plants and Betelvine.
            Act as an Information Data Bank on medicinal and aromatic plants.
            Transfer of technologies developed by the NRCMAP to the farmers through cooperation
             with the developmental agencies.
      To begin with, following mandate crops will be addressed in due course of time.
            Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.)
            Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.)
            Aswagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal)
            Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) *
            Guggal (Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari)
            Aloe (Aloe barbadensis Mill.)
            Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau &Fernandes.)
            Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Nees ex. Steud Wats.)
            Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii Stapf. Var. motia)
      * Instead of this crop Gilo (Tinospora cordifolia) will be taken up from XI plan onwards




                                                 2
1                          6




    M
    A
    N
2
    D                      7


    A
    T
    E


    C
3                          8




    R
    O
    P
    S
4                          9




        .   Isabgol
        2.   Senna
        .   Aswagandha
        .   Gilo
        5.   Guggal
        6.   Aloe
        7.   Safed musli
        8.   Lemongrass
5       9.   Palmarosa
    
                                          3 GROWTH

A. National Research Centre for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (NRCMAP)
        National Research Centre for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants was established by the Indian
Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) to conduct research on various aspects of agriculturally
important medicinal plants. NRCMAP was established on November 2, 992 in a 20.2 hectare
irrigated land at Boriavi in Anand district of Gujarat. A sum of Rs. 2.5 crores was sanctioned for
VIII Plan period. A total of 15 scientific personnel in addition to the Director was created to boost
research on improvement and cultivation of various medicinal and aromatic plants. In IX plan Rs.
5.97 crores and in X plan 0.95 crores were spent by this centre for undertaking research and
development activities. At present 2 scientists (including Director) as against the 25 sanctioned
posts of different disciplines are undertaking a systematic multidisciplinary research approach to
solve the problems in the nine mandatory MAPs.
        Besides, the headquarters of two outreach programmes viz., All India Networking Project
on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (AINRPMAP) and on Betelvine (AINRPB) are also housed in the
NRCMAP and the Director of NRCMAP is the Project Coordinator of both the projects. Presently
there are ten centres in SAUs under AINRPMAP and nine centres in SAUs under AINRPB excluding
IIHR centre for betelvine breeding. Now in XI plan both these two out reach programmes have been
merged together.

B. Outreach Programmes
All India Networking Research Project on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (AINRPMAP): The
ICAR sanctioned a small scheme to work on over two dozen important medicinal and aromatic plants
during Fourth Five Year Plan period. Two centers, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
and Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore were identified for this purpose. A small
base on medicinal plants was created through a cess fund scheme at division of Plant Introduction
IARI and a Ford Foundation supported scheme on Dioscorea spp. at IIHR, which was later moved
to its present location at NRC for Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Boriavi, Anand (Gujarat) during
March 1995. In the begining the project had five co-ordinating centers located in Delhi and one each
in the states of Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. During the subsequent
plan periods of Fifth, Sixth and Seventh four new centers were started one each in the States of
Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. However, during the Eighth Plan period, two
new centers were started one each in the states of Haryana (Hisar) and Maharashtra (Akola) making
to eleven coordinating centers. In X Plan Indore centre of JNKVV has been dropped for poor
performance and two new centers one at Uttaranchal and one at North Bengal have been approved
and started functioning.
All India Networking Research Project on Betelvine (AINRPB): The All India Coordinated
Research Project on Betelvine was started in the year 98 initially with 6 Centers i.e., Dharwad
(UAS), Bhubaneshwar (OUAT), Chinthalapudi (APAU), Vellore (TNAU, Coimbatore), Jabalpur
(JNKVV, Jabalpur) and Rahuri (MPKVV, Rahuri). The project was initially funded from cess funds
of ICAR with a total allocation of Rs.26.25 lakhs spread over three years. Subsequently, three more
centers, Kalyani (BCKV, Kalyani), Jorhat (AAU, Jorhat) and Hessarghatta (IIHR, Bangalore) were
added in the year 98 with an additional grant of Rs. 0.25 lakhs. In subsequent years Rahuri
Centre has been shifted to Sangli and Vellore to Sirugamani and UAS Dharwad center has been
closed. During VII Plan a new center at Pusa under RAU has been sanctioned with effect from
April, 988. Later a Cooperating center at NBRI, Lucknow have been sanctioned with an out-lay
of Rs. 2.0 lakhs during 989-90 and it is continuing in subsequent years. IX Plan expenditure was


                                                 
Rs. 75.05 lakhs. In X Plan NBRI centre has been closed and two new centers one at Islampur under
RAU and IIHR have been approved and functioned with a total expenditure of Rs. 345 lakhs.

3.1     Infrastructure

3.1.1   Land
       The NRCMAP at Boriavi has 20.2 ha irrigated land. It also has an another farm of 9.8
ha at Lambhvel, which is about 3 km away from the main institute and is used as field gene bank
and a part for residential complex.

3.1.2   Buildings
        Over a period of time spanning more than 10 years the institute has created excellent facilities
of laboratory buildings, farm, stuctures, equipments, library and other technical facilities for the
smooth progress in research activities. The laboratory phase of main building was inaugurated in
April, 2005. The research infrastructures and equipments were installed in this wing to cater the
medicinal and aromatic plant research. The Institute has also established well-equipped Plant Breeding,
Plant Physiology, Plant Pathology, Organic Chemistry and Biotechnology laboratories besides other
infrastructures like central instrument facility, ARIS cell, a library, conference room, auditorium,
herbal garden, arboretum, etc. A total of nine laboratories for different disciplines are currently
undertaking various basic, strategic and applied research on MAPs. The area under buildings is .8
ha in Boriavi main farm and 5.8 ha in Lambhvel farm.

3.1.3   Equipments
       The institute has strengthened research activities with several sophisticated equipments for
various laboratories to contemporary research needs of various research programmes. Sophisticated
instrumentation is in place for extractioin and analysis of MAPs including genetics, pathological,
and biochemical research. Polyhouses and net houses have been installed for propagation of planting
material and other experiments.

3.1.4   Labour and Irrigation
       Labour and irrigation facilities are ensured for both farms of the institute. Main farm at
Boriavi and additional farm at Lambhvel are having strong wall fencing and each one has a 15 HP
submersible bore well which supplies sufficient water to the entire experimental plots. The main
farm has pond size of 0.6 ha (5 x 68 m) for harvesting and storing of rain water.

3.2     Budget
         A total of Rs. 7.99 crores has been utilized in Medicinal and Aromatic plant research
at NRCMAP, Anand from VIII Plan period to the end of X plane period. The year wise budget
utilization is given below
                                                                           (Rs. crores)
                             Non Plan                   Plan
                                                                              Total
           Plan period      NRCMAP NRCMAP AINRPMAP AINRPB
          VIII plan             0.0         0.5          2.70           *           .26
          IX Plan               .9         5.97          .9          .75        .75
          X Plan                .22        0.95          7.8          .5        22.98
* Note: AINRPB was attached with NRCMAP from IX plan


                                                    5
                                   Expenditure during IX Plan
                                                                                                      (Rs. in lakh)
Year                      1997-98     1998-99        1999-2000        2000-2001           2001-2002       Total
NRCMAP-Non-Plan            .86          9.28          2.5             6.57            5.99        8.85
NRCMAP-Plan                6.87          50.00          57.00            29.97          22.6        597.5
AINRPMAP-Plan              57.60          79.0          80.00             2.00          00.00        9.6
AINRPB-Plan                5.          6.96          79.2             99.            80.00        75.05
Total                     163.77      210.27             348.36            388.98          439.60       1550.88

                     Expenditure during X Plan under NRCMAP (Plan)
                                                                                                      (Rs. in lakh)
Budget Head                   2002-03         2003-04        2004-05        2005-06       2006-07        Total
Pay & Allowances                      0.00           2.07           2.77           .78        6.2         5.8
T.A.                                  .00           5.00           5.50           6.00        6.20         26.70
Recurring Contingencies              20.0          20.96          29.59       52.8         6.2        87.0
Equipment                            87.5          6.85          89.56      87.         7.80        500.8
Works                                82.          8.60          5.2       52.87         78.6        9.8
Library                               0.76           .52           .           6.08        .6         6.6
Total                               195.00         175.00         185.00      310.00        230.45       1095.45

                   Expenditure during X Plan under NRCMAP (Non-Plan)
                                                                                                      (Rs. in lakh)
Budget Head               2002-03          2003-04       2004-05      2005-06        2006-07           Total
Pay & Allowances               5.          5.20         6.5           68.5         65.5       0.97
T.A.                               0.85           .0        .20           .50          .50         6.5
Recurring Contingencies        .05          .50         6.90           20.72         20.02        8.9
Equipment                          0.60           .05        0.0           0.8          0.0         2.57
Works                              0.00           .2        .00          .8         .00        26.2
Total                          63.83          74.09         83.65          102.75         97.98       422.30

                   Expenditure during X Plan under AINRPMAP (Plan)
                                                                                                      (Rs. in lakh)
Budget Head                   2002-03         2003-04        2004-05        2005-06       2006-07        Total
Pay & Allowances                    56.28         6.28         .20      .2        20.62        678.80
T.A.                                  .2           .87           2.2           2.50        .         0.8
Recurring Contingencies               8.0          .85          .66       8.08         8.0          7.29
Equipment                             0.00          5.00           0.9           0.00        0.9         6.87
Total                               165.80         148.00         159.00      165.00        143.00        780.80


                                                     6
                        Expenditure during X Plan under AINRPB (Plan)
                                                                                        (Rs. in lakh)
 Budget Head                       2002-03   2003-04   2004-05   2005-06     2006-07       Total
 Pay & Allowances                    5.7    .5     60.98      79.88      50.2       278.6
 T.A.                                0.8     .08       .7       .62         .80       6.70
 Recurring Contingencies             .70     8.08       8.65      .50      .28        8.2
 Equipment                           0.00     .      0.00       0.00         0.60      .9
 Total                               51.00    62.00     71.00      95.00      66.00       345.00

                       Headwise allocation and Expenditure during 2007-08
                                                                      (Rs. in lakh)
             Head/Sub-Head                              Allocation for 2007-08
             NRCMAP Plan
             Pay & Allowances                                        8.00
             T.A.                                                    8.00
             H.R.D.                                                  .00
             Recurring Contingencies                                92.00
             Equipments                                             5.00
             Works                                                  0.00
             Library                                                 7.00
             Furniture & Fixture                                    0.00
             Other                                                   .00
             NRCMAP Non-Plan
             Pay & Allowances                                       75.00
             T.A.                                                    .50
             O.T.A.                                                  0.0
             Contigencies                                           2.0
             Works                                                   2.00
             AINRPs
             AINRPMAP                                               110.00
             AINRPB                                                 90.00


3.3 Manpower
        NRCMAP has been sanctioned with sufficient full time resource personnel, technical,
administrative and supporting staff during various plan periods. The cadre strength is presented in
the table below.


                                                7
 A. NRCMAP
           Sr.No.      Category          Cadre strength approved by                  No.of posts filled
                                          X Plan SFC for Institute                   as on .7.2007
                      Scientific                    25                                     
           2           Technical                     20                                     2
                      Administrative                                                     08
                      Supporting                                                         
           5           Auxiliary                     --                                      -
                       Total                         89                                     42

 B. AINRPMAP/AINRPB
           Sr.      Category                     AINRPMAP                                  AINRPB
           No.                         No. of posts      No. of posts          No. of posts      No. of posts
                                     sanctioned in X        filled           sanctioned in X        filled
                                           Plan         as on .7.07              Plan         as on .7.07
                   Scientific                                                  27                25
           2        Technical                                                   0                0
                   Administrative         07                     07                08                08
                   Supporting             27                     27                27                27
                    Total                 111                     111               65                63


                            4 SALIENT RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS
4.1     Improvement of Medicinal and Aromatic plants

4.1.1   Genetic resources
       Following MAPs germplasm have been collected from various region of the country,
conserved over a period 7 years, evaluation and characterization has been undertaken according to
the mandates of the Institute.

A. Germplasm status of NRCMAP field gene bank

 Sl. No.       Plant                            Total       Sl. No.                 Plant                  Total
 .            Aloe spp.                        5          9.          Evolvulus alsinoides               
 2.            Andrographis paniculata          59          0.         Phyllanthus spp.                  
 .            Asparagus spp.                   6          .         Tinospora cordifolia              8
 .            Cassia angustifolia              5           2.         Tribulus terrestris                7
 5.            Chlorophytum borivilianum        5          .         Urgenia indica                    6
 6.            Commiphora spp.                  67          .         Withania somnifera                
 7.            Cymbopogon flexuosus                       5.         Plantago spp.                      8
 8.            Datura spp                       2           Total                                         386


                                                        8
B. Elite germplasm developed and registered with NBPGR, New Delhi




                                               Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum): INGR
                                               No.04113. Fleshy roots are long (>0 cm) with
                                               blunt end and dark colour, individual fleshy roots are
                                               arranged compactly in the bunch (converged type).




 Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum): INGR
 No.04114. Fleshy roots are short (<0 cm) with
 blunt end and light colour, individual fleshy roots
 are arranged in wide angles from the axis (diverged
 type) and with excellent storage quality.




                                             Aloe (Aloe barbadensis): INGR 06023.
                                             Superior gel rich clone (29.8 g/ plant).




           Aloe (Aloe barbadensis): INGR 06024.
           Superior aloin-A rich clone (26.%).




                                                Gilo      (Tinospora
                                                cordifolia): INGR
                                                06025 - High starch
                                                containing     clone
                                                (.2%).




                 Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata):
                 INGR 070 -Compact plant type with
                 high andrographolide content




                                                   9
C. Germplasm maintained at different centres of AINRPMAP

        Crop          Centre            No. of                 Crop           Centre       No. of
                                      Accessions                                         Accessions
 Aswagandha         Mandsaur                            Geranium          Bangalore        
                    Udaipur                                               Udaipur           6
 Isabgol            Anand                7               Liquorice         Hisar            5
                    Hisar                8                                 Anand            5
 Guggal             Anand                               Safed musli       Anand            20
                    Udaipur              6                                 Mandsaur         2
 Asparagus          Anand                 9               Kalmegh           Trichur          6
 Patchouli          Bangalore                            Valeriana         Solan            0
                    Udaipur               
 Vetiver            Trichur              7               Heracleum         Solan            0
 Guduchi            Trichur              2               Mentha            Solan            9
 Ocimum             Hisar                2               Henbane           Solan            
 Long pepper        Trichur              67               Lemon grass       Trichur          20
 Kacholam           Trichur              2               Silibum           Anand            0
 Mucuna             Solan                 7               Khasi kateri      Bangalore        7
 Gentiana           Solan                               Periwinkle        Bangalore        8
 Jasmine            Bangalore            0              Coleus            Bangalore        
 Indigofera         Trichur               2               Matricaria        Solan            
 Aloe               Anand                2               Opium poppy       Faizabad         58
                    Trichur               6                                 Mandsaur         90
                    Udaipur               5                                 Udaipur          80


4.1.2   Improved varieties

              NRCMAP facilitated for releasing following varieties in the AINRP on MAP

 Sl                                                                                         Year of
        Variety                Crop                       Developed by
 No                                                                                         release
 Medicinal plants
       Anand Late             Cassia angustifolia        AICRP on MAP, Gujarat Agricultural 989
        Selection              Vahl. (Senna)              University, Anand
 2.     Prabhat                Catharanthus roseus        AINRPMAP, Hisar                   2002
                               (Periwinkle)
 .     Jawahar Safed          Chlorophytum               AINRPMAP, Mandsaur                200
        musli 05              borivilianum (Safed
                               musli)



                                                     0
Sl                                                                                                Year of
     Variety              Crop                          Developed by
No                                                                                                release
.   FB(C)-              Diascoria floribunda          Indian Institute   of      Horticulture 97
                          Mart. & Gal. (Yam)            Bangalore
5.   Arka Upakar                                        Indian Institute of Horticulture, 980
                                                        Bangalore
6    D 76                 Digitalis lanata Ehrh.        AICRP on MAP, Y.S.Parmar                  99
                          (Foxglove)                    University of Horticulture and
                                                        Forestry, Nauni Solan
7    H 47-3               Glaucium flavum               AICRP on MAP, Y.S.Parmar                  99
                          (Yellow Horned                University of Horticulture and
                          Poppy)                        Forestry, Nauni Solan
8    Haryana              Glycyrrhiza glabra L.          AICRP on MAP, CCS Hariyana               989
     Mulhatti-           (Liquorice)                   Agricultural University, Hisar
9    HMI-80-1             Hyoscyamus muticus            AICRP on MAP,              College   of -
                          L. (Egyptian Henbane)         Agriculture, Indore
0   GA                  Lepidium sativum L.           AICRP MAP, Gujarat Agricultural 998
                          (Cress)                       University, Anand
   RI-                 Rauvolfia serpentine          AICRP on MAP,              College   of -
                          Benth. Ex Kurz.               Agriculture, Indore
                          (Sarpagandha)
2   Jawahar Aphim        Papaver somniferum            AICRP on MAP, College                of   98
     6                   L. (Opium Poppy)              Agriculture, Mandsaur
   Kirtiman                                           AICRP on MAP, ND University               990
                                                        of Agriculture and Technology,
                                                        Faizabad
   Jawahar Opium                                      AICRP on MAP, College                of   997
     59                                                Agriculture, Mandsaur
5   Jawahar Opium                                      AICRP on MAP, College                of   998
     50                                                Agriculture, Mandsaur
6   Chetak Aphim                                       AICRP on         MAP,        Rajasthan 99
                                                        Agricultural University,
                                                        Udaipur
7   Trishna                                            NBPGR, New Delhi                          -
8   Viswam               Piper longum L. (Long         AICRP on MAP,              College   of   996
                          Pepper)                       Horticulture, Trichur
9   Gujarat Isabgol-    Plantago ovata Forsk.         AICRP on MAP, Gujarat Agricultural        976
                          (Isabgol)                     University, Anand
20   Gujarat Isabgol-2                                  AICRP on MAP, Gujarat Agricultural        98
                                                        University, Anand



                                                   
 Sl                                                                                         Year of
         Variety             Crop                          Developed by
 No                                                                                         release
 2      Haryana Isabgol-    Plantago ovata Forsk.         AICRP on MAP, CCS Hariyana       989
         5                   (Isabgol)                     Agricultural University, Hisar
 22      Jawahar Isabgol-                                 AICRP on M&AP, Mandsaur          996
 2      NH 88-12            Solanum laciniatum            AICRP on MAP, Y.S. Parmar        99
                             Act.                          University of Horticulture and
                                                           Forestry, Nauni Solan
 2      Arka Sanjeevani     Solanum viarum Dunal          Indian Institute of Horticultural 989
                             Syn. S. khasianum             Research, Bangalore
 25      Arka Mahima         Clarke. (Khasi Kateri)        Indian Institute of Horticultural 992
                                                           Research, Bangalore
 26      Jawahar Asgand-     Withania somnifera            AICRP on MAP, Mandsaur           989
         20                  Dunal (Ashwagandha)
 27      Jawahar Asgand-                                   AICRP on MAP, Mandsaur           998
         
 Aromatic Plants
        NLG-8              Cymbopogon flexuosus          AICRP on MAP, ND University      99
                             Nees ex. Steud Wats.          of Agriculture and Technology,
                             (Lemon Grass)                 Faizabad
 2       Rosha Grass-9      C. martinii Stapf.Var.        AICRP on MAP, CCS Haryana 989
                             motia (Palmarosa)             Agricultural University, Hisar
        CI-80-68                                          AICRP on MAP, Indore             -
        Arka Surabhi        Jasminum                      Indian Institute of Horticultural 99
                             grandiflorum L.               Research, Bangalore
                             (Jasmine)
 5       Punjab              Mentha spicata L.             AICRP on MAP, Y.S. Parmar        99
         Spearmint-         (Spearmint)                   University of Horticulture and
                                                           Forestry, Nauni, Solan
 6       Dalhousi Clone      Valeriana jatamansi           AICRP on MAP, Y.S. Parmar        99
                             DC. (Mushakbala)              University of Horticulture and
                                                           Forestry, Nauni, Solan
 7       Hyb-8               Vetiveria zizanioides         NBPGR, New Delhi                 -
                             (L) Nash. (Vetiver)

4.1.3     Other achievements in crop improvement by NRCMAP and AINRPMAP

       Medicinal Germplasm has been explored under NATP on plant biodiversity.

       A field Gene bank of endangered medicinal plants of tropical and subtropical region was
        established at NRCMAP which has now a total of 86 germplasm conserved consisting of 5
        species.


                                                      2
       In safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum), a wide spectrum of variability was observed in
        terms of fasciculated root. A clone was identified with multiplication ratio of 1:14.

       Morphological and biochemical characterization have been done in two species of Safed musli
        viz. Chlorophytum borivilianum, and Chlorophytum tuberosum. Chlorophytum borivilianum
        contains higher amount of saponin (%) and sapogenin (0.8%) as compared to Chlorophytum
        tuberosum (.6% and 0.05%, respectively).

       In Chlorophytum borivilianum, somatic ploidy level differences have been observed, however,
        plant morphology of the species is the same as originally described.

       In Chlorophytum borivilianum a new chromosome number, 2n= x=28 was reported.

       In Aloe barbadensis, complete analysis of reproductive biology and pollination have been done
        and it has been established that it is the bird known as Sun bird (Nectarinia asiatica var.
        asiatica) which is commonly responsible for cross pollination.

       In Commiphora wightii (Guggal), two different species have been identified viz. C. wightii and
        C. stocksiana and their distinguishing characters have been recorded.

       In Sacred lotus, the national flower of India (Nelumbo nucifera), 2 accessions from different
        districts of Kerela and Tamil Nadu have been collected showing wide variability in flower
        colour, petal number, presence of transitional whorls, carpels in the torus.

       Reproductive biology of Convolvulus microphyllus has been done which would be helpful for
        crop improvement.
       In Opium poppy, Faizabad centre of AINRPMAP has shown about 104% latex yield increase in
        hybrid opium poppy developed by crossing inbred lines (ND-20 x NOP-4) suggesting that the
        current yield barrier could be removed and making available hybrid varieties for cultivation.
       Reproductive biology of Indian Gentian (Gentiana kurroo) in detail has been worked out.
        Higher fruit set has been observed in open pollination (80.57%) compared to the controlled
        selfing (7.25%).

       A total number of 267 germplasm of Betelvine have been collected at different centres of
        All India Networking Research Project on Betelvine out of which 259 germplasm have been
        maintained and 20 numbers have been catalogued.

       Few hybrids have been developed in Betelvine under the AINRP on Betelvine and they have
        been tested for their performances at different centres (Hybrid Production).

4.1.4     Biotechnological approaches for improvement of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
          From our well established biotechnology laboratory the following findings were made.

       In Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum), a tissue culture method has been developed for
        its large-scale multiplication and conservation.



                                                   
       In Aloe barbadensis, a tissue culture protocol has been developed for its large scale multiplication.

       An efficient protocol for production of synthetic seeds in Aloe has been developed.
       Chemical finger printing of Guggal for major sterols has been standardized.

       In vitro multiplication of Sarpagandha (Rauvolfia serpentina) has been developed by Hisar
        Centre of AINRPMAP for the micro-propagation and conservation of this valuable threatened
        plant species.

4.2       Management of Medicinal and Aromatic plants

4.2.1     Production and protection technologies
       Improved cultivation practices have been worked out in the following crops: Isabgol, Senna,
        Steroidal yam, Periwinkle, Aswagandha, Henbane, Rauvlofia, Safed musli, Kalmegh, Mints,
        Lemongrass, Palmorosa, Java citronella, Rosegeranium, Vetiver, Jasmine, Celery, Anise and
        Opium poppy.
       Use of bio-fertilizers has been demonstrated to cut down chemical N dependence in Opium
        poppy, Palmarosa, Vetiver and Henbane crops.
       Cropping system research has been initiated in Vetiver, Palmarosa, Safed musli, Opium poppy,
        Isabgol, Kalmegh, Senna, Rauvolifia, etc. Intercropping in Vetiver, Palmarosa, Rauvolifia and
        Periwinkle and growing of Patchouli in partial shade under coconut plantations have been
        demonstrated.
       Studies on post harvest processing and shelf life has been carried out to monitor and check the
        losses in quality of produce.
       Studies revealed that in Gymnema sylvestre (Madhunashini), semi hard wood laterals
        characterized by 50% browning of the stem, was excellent for vegetative propagation.
       Riboflavin, a cheap vitamine source was found to be effective in increasing rooting in cuttings
        of Gymnema.
       In Chlorophytum borivilianum, in a study it has been established that removal of inflorescence
        increased the number of fleshy root and as a result 41% increase in yield has been recorded
        compared to non-topped plants.
       In Chlorophytum borivilianum, chemical finger printing has been done to characterize qualitative
        comparison of the saponin profiles by HPTLC. It was found that two saponin fractions were
        prominent in two species of Chlorophytum.
       In safed musli, it was established that harvesting should be done according to the usage of the
        fleshy root. And for drug purposes, early harvesting should be practised to avoid loss in active
        principle. Whereas, fleshy roots meant for propagation should be harvested later to avoid loss
        due to drying.
       In Aloe barbadensis, the methanolic solution of dried exudates has been analysed with a reverse
        phase HPLC. The method developed allowed easy quantification of aloin from the crude drug
        sample by measuring the peak area.



                                                      
   A new leaf rot disease of Aloe has been recorded for the first time in India by NRCMAP.
    The causal organism has been isolated and found to be a soft rot bacterium (Pectobacterium
    chrysanthemi).
   Screening method for resistance against soft rot of Aloe has been established by doing artificial
    inoculation technique.
   In Commiphora wightii (Guggal), a very easy and effective air layering technique has been
    developed and demonstrated. Also, a simple hard wood cutting technique has been developed
    through which the rooting and new flashes of leaves were observed after 7-10 days of
    planting.
   In Gentiana kurroo (Indian Gentian), commonly known as karu or kutiki, Solan centre of
    AINRPMAP has successfully domesticated and standardized propagation techniques for large
    scale cultivation.
   Cultivation of Muskdana (Abelmoschus moschatus) proved to be a better option as rainfed crop
    in the shallow black soils of Malwa plateau of Madhya Pradesh.
   Cultivation of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) has been successfully grown as rainfed crop
    in medium black soil of Indore region.
   Cultivation of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) has also been recommended during kharif
    as profitable crop which has yielded highest biomass (4017 kg/ha) of good quality (1.95%
    andrographoloid) at Anand condition.
   In Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata), it has been established that application of castor cake
    to provide 0 kg /ha Nitrogen could produce the highest herbage yield (70 kg/ha) and 96.8
    kg/ha of Andrographoloid yield.
   In Glory lily (Gloriosa superba), controlled selfing between different flowers of the same plant
    increases fruit setting percentage. This method has also increased seed yield and colchicine
    content (0.80%).
   In Arjuna (Terminilia arjuna), an important medicinal tree, a successful air layering technique
    has been developed by application of IBA (6000 ppm) which has increased number of primary
    and secondary roots per layer as well as mean length of longest root.
   In Opium poppy, a study to determine the dynamics of morphine content in the flower petals
    of the variety Chetak revealed that petals contained lowest morphine (0.26%) at bud opening
    stage.
   In Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), it has been established that inorganic fertilizers affect
    alkaloid content suggesting that to what extent application of inorganic fertilisers affect quality
    of the produce which is very important in medicinal plants.
   In Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), an introduced medicinal plant in India, it has been established
    that thin (0.-0.5 cm dia) roots of two year old crop contained more than 9% glycyrrhizic acid
    compared to 5%, in such roots of one year old crop.
   In Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), it was further revealed that the thinner roots contained more
    glycyrrhizic acid compared to the thick roots of same age of crop.



                                                 5
     Floral diversity of Sankhpushpi (Convolvulus microphyllus) has been studied which revealed
      that natural population included plants of different flower types and a range of colour shades
      starting from white, light pink to deep pink could be observed.
     Forecasting system for downy mildew of Isabgol has been developed.
     Extraction and estimation of podophyllotoxin (active principle of Podophyllum) has been done.
      It was separated from the mixture of lignans extracted by soxhelating the rootstock (roots and
      rhizomes) in methanol followed by acidification and TLC.
     In Valeriana jatamansi, the phenomenon of gynodioecium i.e. occurrence of hermaphrodite and
      female flowers on different plants have been observed.
     Integrated crop management of Betelvine for various centres have been studied in relation
      to optimum plant population, irrigation requirements, application of bio control agents and
      fertilizers for various agro-climatic regions.
     Management of phytophthora foot rot of Betelvine through integrated disease management has
      been studied and package developed for different agri-ecological regions.
     The Betelvine germplasm has been screened for various pests resistance and field resistant has
      been catalogued.

4.3     Achievement in information management
     NRCMAP was the first in launching independent website (URL: www.nrc-map.org) in the
      middle of the year 2000. The site contains information on mandate crops, objectives,
      outreach programmes, services, research projects, research achievements on crop improvement,
      crop production and crop protection, varieties/germplasm, publications, market intelligence,
      farmers gallery, members, organization structure etc. Expenditure is posted in the website
      everyday.
     Developed a software package entitled “Medicinal and Aromatic Plants References Information
      System” to keep track of references data on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. The system
      facilitates the storage, maintenance and retrieval of references information on medicinal and
      aromatic crops in an electronic format.
     Developed a software package entitled “Traders information system in medicinal & aromatic
      plants” for storing a trader’s database in the electronic format. With the help of this user-
      friendly software package, they can retrieve the available market information as per their
      requirements.
     Developed a web based software package entitled “Digital Photo Library of Medicinal &
      Aromatic Plants” to create a digital photo library of medicinal plant species in a systematic
      manner so as to remove confusion and ambiguity in identification by common man. A number
      of high-resolution photographs of medicinal and aromatic plant species were collected from all
      over the country and stored in the database.
     Developed a software package entitled “Institute Inward Outward Letter Monitoring System”
      for monitoring of letters received by the institute and marked to different employees for taking
      action. In most of the cases, it is very difficult to keep track of such letters once it is marked,
      unless the person to whom it was marked report back. To over come this situation we have


                                                   6
      developed the software by using it we can easily keep track on letters and know which letter
      is laying with whom, who has not reported back about the action.
     Developing a software package entitled “Digital Herbarium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
      in India”. It depicts the plants with vivid colour photographs and technical information such as
      common name (in English, Hindi and Sanskrit), plant distribution, habit, plant part used and
      different medicinal uses thereof, etc..
     Developed a first version of compact disk entitled “Institute Inward Outward Letter Monitoring
      System (IIOLMS)” for monitoring of letters received by the institute and marked to different
      employees for taking action. The copies of the CD were distributed to ICAR institutions and
      resources were generated through this distribution.
     The first Digital Herbarium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India has been developed:
      Now-a-days digitalized information plays a major role in database management. The Digital
      Herbarium is an eco-friendly method of maintaining the records of medicinal and aromatic
      plants. NRCMAP has developed and launched a web based software package entitled
      “Digital Herbarium of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India”. This Digital Herbarium is an
      authenticated collection of high resolution images of medicinal and aromatic plant specimens
      with their associated taxonomic data, which is easily accessible to the public.

4.4     Trainings conducted
     Two training programmes were conducted at NRCMAP on Digital photo library during first
      quarter of 200. An introduction to photography, problems in photography, introduction to
      digital photography, an insight of digital photography and practical on understanding of digital
      camera and photography, concept and structure of Digital Photo Library and practical session
      of software development were trained.

4.5     Publications
a.    Annual Reports :     Published annual reports of 999-2000, 2000-0, 200-02, 2002-0,
                           200-0, 200-05 and 2005-06.
b.    Newsletters    :     Published newsletters till 2006 end at halfyearly interval.
c.    Technical Bulletins: Published eight technical bulletins/extension bulletins on different
                           medicinal and aromatic crops.
d.    Research Papers:     80


                                  5 IMPACT ASSESSMENT
5.1     Growth
        Growth potential of medicinal plants cultivation in the country is tremendous, provided
appropriate linkages are developed between various Government institutions, NGOs and industries
interested in cultivating and utilizing medicinal plants.
       This is feasible, considering the fact that research on medicinal plants has come a long
way during last 0 years with creation of All India Coordinated Research Project on Medicinal
and Aromatic Plants and with establishment of NRC for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Because
of the vast network of R & D institutions of ICAR, SAUs and Ministry of Agriculture in the
country, NRCMAP is uniquely placed and can play a vital role to cater the needs of individuals and
organizations interested in cultivating and utilizing this group of plants.


                                                  7
       However, it must be realised that contribution of NRCMAP cannot be measured on the basis
of hectarage under which this group of crops are/will be cultivated. Because they deal with the
health care and growth will be as per requirements of the industries.

5.1.1   Therapeutic impact
        It is time, we begin to realise that there is enough evidence to show that herbal medicines are
safe, are of low cost, can contribute greatly to health and will help lower our health care expenditure.
Increasing numbers of enlighten persons, both from industrially advanced countries and from
developing countries are drawn to natural unpatentable medicines derived from plant parts, minerals
and fungi. There is strong consumer interest in nonprescription pills, powders, tonics, topical oils
and creams. Plant based aromachemicals have more demand than synthetics now-a-days.

5.1.2   Impact on availability of quality raw material
       Raw materials of many medicinal plants are in short supply with the result that spurious
plant drugs are often used as substitute. Availability of clean, good-quality material harvested at
appropriate physiological maturity is envisaged.

5.1.3   Impact on conservation of endangered species
       Many therapeutically important medicinal plants are endangered and requires systematic
conservation efforts. Cultivation efforts will bring the endangered species in ex situ conservation.

5.1.4   Impact on market
       Market of medicinal plants is highly secretive, selective and erratic. This can be regularised
only when availability of good quality raw material can be ensured through development of agro-
technology using Good Agricultural Practices.

5.1.5   Impact on import/export
        It will be possible to decrease import (e.g. Liquorice, Hing, Lavender, Rose, Geranium,
Davana, Patchouli, Pipermint, Spearmint, Guggal, Ginseng) and increase export of medicinal plant
extracts (e.g. Liquorice, Senna, Periwinkle) and raw material (e.g. Isabgol, Senna, Opium poppy,
Periwinkle, Mentha, Lemon grass, Cinchona, Ipecac, Palmarosa, Celery seed, Basil, Jasmine).

5.2     Input/output assessment:
       Many of the medicinal plants which need attention of agricultural scientists are either at plant
introduction stage or are yet to get attention of agricultural scientists.

5.3.    Gap and short comings
        5.3.1   The apparent advantage of allopathy over traditional systems of medicine (which use
                more plant products) often result only from the disproportionate research attention it
                has been given. Many indigenous medicinal plants possess considerable merit but were
                disregarded during the colonial era and still continues to remain in the same position.
                Furthermore as some of the indigenous scientists are trained in the institutions of
                temperate zone countries and many scientists have similar training in institutions of
                our own country, often indigenous demand for traditional food as well as medicinal
                crops have declined. Because of these factors, the potential of most of the indigenous
                medicinal plants have never been fully explored.

                                                  8
5.3.2   The great surge of public interest in the use of plants as medicines has been based on
        the assumption that the plants will be available on a continuing basis. However, no
        concerted effort has been made to ensure this, in the face of the threats of increasing
        demand, a vastly increasing human population and extensive destruction of plant-rich
        habitats such as the tropical forests.
        Today many medicinal plants face extinction or severe genetic loss, but detailed
        information is lacking. For most of the endangered medicinal plants species no
        conservation action has been taken. For example, there is very little material of them
        in genebanks. Also, too much emphasis has been put on the potential for discovering
        new wonder drugs, and too little on the many problems involved in the use of
        traditional medicines by local populations.

5.3.3   There is not even a complete inventory of medicinal plants. Much of the knowledge
        on their use is held by traditional societies, whose very existence is now under threat
        since these societies are being integrated with non-traditional societies. Little of this
        information has been recorded in a systematic manner. Besides, the identification and
        selection of medicinal plants for use in health services, there is the potential that
        plants hold as an inexhaustible reservoir for the identification and isolation of useful
        chemical compounds for syndromes such as AIDS, for which there is yet no known
        cure. Ayurveda, the ancient system of herbal medicine, of our country is growing in
        popularity not only in India but also abroad. It is gratifying to note that there is a lot
        of research work being done on various aspects of ISM. But it is doubtful whether
        we have got our priorities right. Most such work revolve round pharmacological and
        clinical aspects. The need for standardization of Ayurvedic medicines has attracted
        some attention in the recent times, but most people seem to forget that without
        availability of genuine material in adequate quantity (which Agricultural Scientists
        can help ensure) and without standards in plant resources of drugs, we cannot evolve
        standards in Ayurvedic formulations. As at present, there is widespread concern for
        nonavailability of genuine raw material and the concern that market is being flooded
        with spurious drugs.
5.3.4   Research infrastructure: The drugs, pharmaceutical, perfumery, cosmetics and flavour
        industries use a large number of medicinal and aromatic plants and new items are
        continuously added to the list of commercial source of industrial raw materials every
        year. Of these, only a limited number of species have come under cultivation. The
        medicinal and aromatic plants at raw material stage are dealt by several Research and
        Development Organisations in Government of India. In the Ministry of Agriculture,
        the Deptt. of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) is responsible for research
        work on these crops under the aegis of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research
        (ICAR) which has a network of National Research Institutes and State Agricultural
        Universities. Its developmental part is taken care of under Division of Horticulture in
        the Ministry itself. The Department of Science and Technology (DST) has a similar
        chain of Research Institutes under aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial
        Research (CSIR) and few of these institutes carry out research work on these plants.
        Broadly speaking all aspects of Agricultural research fall in the domain of ICAR
        and technological aspects related to processing, purification, and developing upstream
        more potent phytochemicals come in purview of the CSIR. However, this division
        is not always strictly followed resulting in several areas of research where both


                                           9
                 have contributed significantly resulting in development of new varieties & improved
                 cultivation practices. Similarly, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare operate
                 through the Central Council of Research in Ayurved and Siddha (CCRAS) and
                 Ministry of Environment & Forests through its constituent Research set up viz. the
                 Indian Council of Forestry Research (ICFR); it has on roll one of the oldest research
                 institutes working on Forest species namely, the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun
                 which is also working in this sector. There are several organisations in the state
                 Govts. and corporate sector in the country which conducts research on some of these
                 crops. If taken together, the research infrastructure is fairly large but because of large
                 and diverse number of species involved and poor intra-institutional linkages on one
                 hand and the nature of priorities assigned in mandate of these organisations on the
                 other, has made its impact occasionally diffused at operational level.

5.4      Lessons learnt, suggestions, options for the future

         5.4.1   Lessons learnt

                 Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM) includes Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. The current
                 compartmentalized management of these systems-utilization of raw material by
                 practitioners of ISM, procurement from forest by businessmen and forest department
                 and other Government agencies and relatively low priority by those engaged in research
                 and development of agriculture, none of which hardly talk to each other or care to
                 understand each other’s problems and requirement has resulted into deterioration of
                 ISM by way of non-availability of material and/or material of good quality.

         5.2.2   Suggestions and options for the future

                 Functional integration of botanical, agricultural, chemical, pharmacological and
                 therapeutic aspects of plants, plant drugs and their application is the only way to
                 decrease distortion of the scientific priorities, to decrease dependencies for the needed
                 know how on those countries which often control the markets and regulate the trade.
                 Research on medicinal plants suffers for lack of mechanism for systematically,
                 routinely introducing and investigating plants which are little known to agriculturists
                 but are therapeutically useful medicinal plants.

         Considering the research gaps, problems and national priorities, following researchable issues
         emerged for future planning:

       Medicinal and Aromatic plants genetic resources.

       Emphasis on plant introduction and selection must be given considering the huge number of
        plants requiring attention of agricultural scientists.

       Developing Good agricultural practices for the medicinal plants in the line of world
        standard.
       The recent development of highly specific and sensitive analytical techniques such as the
        Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) or the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) are
        quick and reliable methods for breeding and identifying cultivars with a high content of a



                                                    20
         specific compound and/or the desired spectrum of secondary metabolites.

       Post harvest processing of raw material.


                                      6 SWOT ANALYSIS
6.1      Strength

       Ecological niche for almost any medicinal plant can be identified in the country. Therapeutic
aspects of plants useful in ISM are better understood than for plants useful in Traditional Systems
of Medicine of other countries. Many NGOs are interested in developing medicinal plants gardens.
They will collaborate and will be source of strength in collecting germplasm.

6.2      Weaknesses

       The number of plants that are urgently required to be studied are extremely high, causing
serious problems of prioritization. Research support needs strengthening in Agriculture sector.

6.3      Opportunities
       Growth potential of medicinal plants and its impact on the health of the Nation is tremendous.
However, it is emphasized: (1) that this is a new style development project, requiring collaboration
and linkages with institutions and individuals interested in promoting health and (2) that marketing
of medicinal plant products is not organized. In attempting to quantify the economic importance of
medicinal plants and discussing opportunity they provide, it is important to distinguish between the
market value of a commodity and its economic value. The market value is just that: the value the
market place attributes to a given commodity of its derivate product(s), as represented in the market
price and the quantity of the commodity that is sold. Obviously, the economic value is much larger
in magnitude but also much more difficult to quantify. It is possible that we can expand our export,
can serve better our domestic demand and can go for patenting.

6.4      Threats

       The availability of Medicinal Plants from the wild are fast dwindling while their production
through cultivation has been organized only for few of them. The situation is more complicated
than for food and fibre crops since marketing of medicinal plants is not organized. International
organisations and patenting rights may disrupt our planning. Preliminary data shows a high correlation
between species exported and those facing extinction.



                                       7 PERSPECTIVES
7.1      Present scenario of medicinal and aromatic plant research

        From the beginning, few institutes/SAUs/Colleges/botanical gardens are being involved in
some research. But no systematic and regular research was conducted. Under CSIR Central Institute
for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow is involving mainly basic research of some medicinal
plants in India. A Medicinal Plant Board has been created by government of India to coordinate



                                                   2
activities of all facets of medicinal plant research and development, production, processing and
marketing in a befitting manner to augment production and availability of quality raw material and
also export.
        There is huge task to be carried out at every level to make Indian System of Medicine a viable,
sustainable and most modern and this task, an urgency is generated which can only be established
through regular and systematic scientific research and investigation from collection, conservation and
evaluation to preparation of model GAP to compete in the world marker. It would be difficult task
but this task of realizing the essentialities of experimentation has been felt by NRCMAP. National
Research Centre for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants has already unfurled its wings on functioning
mode and has taken several steps towards a vibrant research along with its our reach programme
on AINRPMAP and AINRPB. In this effort, All India Network Project on Medicinal and Aromatic
Plants is also sharing its infrastructure and manpower towards the same goal.

7.2    Perspective
       Over the last two decades, there has been a tremendous growing interest in all traditional
systems of medicines mainly because of inadequacy in treatment of some of the deadly and
painful diseases such as cancer, HIV, AIDS, rheumatic arthritis, etc., by modern medicine. Despite
number of innovations in modern medical sciences, availability of modern medical treatment to
vast population of poor world wide remain a dream. It is estimated that world wide about 80% of
the population depend upon traditional system of medicine for their primary health care need. All
known civilization in the past such as Egyptian, Babylonian, Jewish, Greek, Chinese, Indus-Valley,
Tibetian etc., were having their traditional system of medicines and health care system. Sales figures
of herbal medicines in global and national market are rapidly swelling. According to the report of
Secretariats of Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) there was US$60,000 million sales in
world herbal medicines market in 2002.
       India has a rich heritage and long history of using medicinal and aromatic plants in improving
the quality of life. India is also fortunate to have one of the richest sources of plant biodiversity in
the world and perhaps the richest reservoir of traditional herbal medicinal plants and prescriptions.
The Indian system of medicines comprise of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani are having their long root
in our society and they predominantly use medicinal plants for their preparation and formulations.
Modern phramacopia also listed at least 25% of drugs derived from plants and vast majority although
synthetic analogues built on prototype compounds isolated from plants.
        Medicinal plants have been incorporated in seamless fabric of diet in our traditional food
habit and medicines which often connected through a comprehensive traditional theory of disease
control. Currently commercialization of this concept has started in the form of developing a new
line of products called “functional food” which contains medicinal plant as ingredients added to
health foods. In recent years four groups of “functional food” to improve gut health, heart health,
immune function and bone health are in demand in the global market. The “functional food” market
is projected to be about US$ 57 billion in 200. A large number of medicinal plants grown in
our subcontinent posses high quantity of antioxidants, protein, vitamins and immuno-modulating
substances. India therefore, can make its presence felt in the global market by participating in this
burgeoning market.
        New paradigm of Agro-biotechnology may be of importance to increase the biosynthetic
ability of nutraceuticals of crops itself and to produce the commercially viable material such a
biopharmaceuticals, functional proteins and edible vaccines in plant body. Efforts should be made
to identify and isolate useful bioactive substances from bio-resources. Research must be diverted


                                                  22
to identify the genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites useful for treatments of
diseases. The regulation mechanism of the biosynthetic pathways could be elucidated by metabolic
control through genetic manipulation and genetically modified plants.
        Harnessing of the strength of herbal sector needs a sizable investment in addition to
participation of various stakeholders. The ICAR alone can not achieve the goal, if other stake holders
fail to imbibe enthusiasm. The need of the hour is to prepare a National Medicinal Plant Products
Blueprint for the country in block by block concept wherein upstream activities on development
of herbal Food and Beverages, Traditional Medicines, Phytochemicals, Neutraceuticals, Healthcare,
Bioprospecting, Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics, Toiletries and Fragrance, Health enhancing and Dietary
Supplement Products and downstream activities such as Health Retreats, Health Services, Incubation
Center, Herbal Standard Institute, Herbal Gardens, College and HRD, Packaging, Aroma Therapy,
Herbal Research Center and Human Resource Training are to be orchestrated in synthesizing a new
symphony for the benefit of poor and rich to achieve our ancient dream, “health for all”.
       With the present mandate of NRCMAP research with basic objectives of bringing in visibility
and accountability in the research programmes with greater emphasis on developing technologies
which are farmer and market driven. NRCMAP would conduct basic, strategic and applied research
and location specific research with its NIARPMAP component in important medicinal aromatic plant
species in the following identified areas.

7.2.1    Crop Improvement
       Introduction of germplasm.
       Germplasm enhancement.
       Identification of high quality genotypes.
       Study of floral biology.
       Search for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
       G x E interaction to identify best location for best performance.
       Genetic finger printing of selected species.
       Conservation of medicinal plants in field gene bank.

7.2.2    Crop Production
       To develop basic aspects for developing good agricultural practices (GAP) for medicinal and
        aromatic plants taking into account individual location and species.
       Crop production technology.
       Integrated crop management which also includes integrated nutrient and pest management.
       Physiology of secondary metabolites production.
       Water management and water requirement study.
       Standardisation of different organic farming system.




                                                       2
7.2.3    Quality Management
       Monitoring of pesticide and heavy metal contamination in the market produce/sources.
       Monitoring quality of raw material available in the market.
       Fixing of standard of raw material.
       Developing chemical finger printing for individual species to avoid adulteration.
       Developing a referral laboratory.

7.2.4    Crop Protection
       Standardisation and developing integrated pest management (both disease and pest).
       Developing forecasting models.

7.2.5    Post Harvest Management
       Development of efficient drying system.
       Development of storage technology for reducing post harvest loses.

7.2.6    Biotechnology
       Micropropagation of species which have multiplication problem.
       Developing different molecular techniques for developing genetic finger printing.



                                 8 ISSUES AND STRATEGIES
       The number of medicinal and aromatic plants that need our attention is exorbitant. Therefore,
we have to be very cautious in deciding whether we should spend our resources in generating agro-
technology of a particular plant.

8.1      Issues
        Some of the most dramatic developments experienced during last decades in biotechnologies
will restructure our production of pure natural products. The entire 650 million US$ medicinal plant
export market (largely from third world countries) is exposed to substitution by synthetics or tissue
culture factories. Experiences with the new biotechnologies have all led to or are leading to the
displacement of natural products of third world countries by cultured products or alternative plants in
the developed countries. It must be realised that single cell culture will mean that tropical countries
will no longer be the source of many medicinal, spice, dye and industrial plants where identified
pure chemical products are the desired constituents.

8.2      Strategies
        The future of research on medicinal plants in agricultural institutions/departments lies in
identifying and developing those medicinal plants whose products, in crude form, are used either in
traditional systems of medicine or (in general, though to a lesser extent) in allopathy.



                                                   2
        We need to broaden our horizon considerably in deciding whether it is desirable to develop
agro-technology of a medicinal plant considering issues & strategies stated above. This is so because,
agricultural research takes long time and after years of work, if the crop produce is not to be
exploited for medicinal purposes, all our efforts will be wasted. It will be futile, self defeating and
socially irrelevant, if we use current export potential as a sole or a major criteria to decide whether
we should conduct research on a plant.
        The number of species will be still substantial, if only those are considered for germplasm
collection whose therapeutically useful products are primarily used in crude form. Therefore in setting
up priorities for conserving and researching medicinal plants, wild plants with small populations
should have greater priority over plants that are already in cultivation. Among wild plants greater
priority should be given to perennials over annuals. Furthermore, plants that are extracted for their
roots and barks should receive special attention. Meanwhile the future of medicinal plants that are
harvested for their leaves, flowers and fruits is to a certain extent relatively safe and they become
endangered if they are sensitive to habitat disturbances and grow only in forests that may be clear
cut indiscriminately at any time.


                            9 PROGRAMMES AND PROJECTS
9.1     Guiding principles of the programme identification
       Numbers of medicinal and aromatic plants which are therapeutically useful are large.
Therefore, following guiding principles will be used judiciously in choosing plants to develop their
agrotechnologies (irrespective of whether their marketing has been organized) with ultimate aim:
.    It is threatened with extinction.
2.    Over the years price of its economic products, consistently and rapidly, is rising.
.    It is used in crude form and is used since hundreds of years (In crude form, due to the
      presence of co-effectors, the therapeutic effect is often more favourable in comparison with
      pure substances. Moreover, if a slow release and prolonged effect is desirable, medicines of
      plant origin are preferred in modern medicines).
.    Little or no information is available on the crop.
5.    The work is labour intensive.
6.    Input and management costs are low.
7.    Efficacy of its products has proved of considerable therapeutic importance (for saponin diuretics,
      expectorants and bitter principles, preparation of pure substances are technically complicated
      and/or not economical).
8.    Its active constituent is not likely to be manufactured synthetically or in the “tissue culture”
      factory
9.    Its development has long term impact on providing genuine quality raw material for Traditional
      Systems of Medicine and/or for Western medicine (Allopathy).
0. Its development is related to the actual needs of rural populations.
11. Its development is justified by the long term social benefits.

                                                   25
9.2    Time frame

 No.                 Objectives                                Goals                     Time Scale
 .    To study floral biology               To understand mode of pollination before    2007-205
                                             appreciable germplasm is collected (for
                                             seed propagated plants)
 2.    To study the method of vegetative     To develop protocol for vegetative          2007-2025
       multiplication (for vegetatively      multiplication
       propagated plants)                    To develop protocol for mass                2007-2025
                                             multiplication through tissue culture
                                             (where conventional multiplication
                                             procedure is inadequate)
      Collection, conservation and          To enrich and maintain MAP gene pool        2007-2025
       evaluation of MAP germplasm
 (a)   To survey and collect germplasm       To assemble the germplasm and setting       2007-200
       from the country                      up of the gene bank
 (b)   To survey and collect germplasm       -do-                                        2007-205
       from other countries
 (c)   Evaluation of germplasm               To select therapeutically superior          2007-2025
                                             germplasm, preferably resistant to
                                             diseases, pests and high yielding
 .    Crop Improvement                                                                  2007-2025
 (a)   Plant Introduction (for many plants) To Introduce therapeutically useful plants   205-2025
 (b)   Plant selection (for some plants)     To select superior lines                    2007-2025
 (c)   Plant hybridisation and mutation      To create genetic variability               2007-2025
       breeding
 (d)   Developing different molecular        To explore different molecular techniques 200-2025
       techniques for chemical finger        for different medicinal plants
       printing
 5.    To identify compatible medicinal      To understand the canopy structure,         2007-2020
       plants based cropping systems         light penetration, root spread of various
                                             component crops and input requirements
                                             in the farming system
 6.    To determine the optimum              To find out the optimum nutritional         2007-2025
       nutritional input for medicinal       requirements for obtaining high yield and
       plants based cropping systems         good quality medicinal plant products
 7.    To develop an ideal irrigation        To design and develop the best irrigation   200-2025
       system and water requirement for      system for MAPs
       MAPs
 8.    To find out different physiological   To develop plant ideotype for higher        2007-2025
       parameters for maximum                productivity (for very few crops)
       productivity


                                                    26
No.                 Objectives                                Goals                      Time Scale
9.    To develop highly specific and         To screen and select genotypes with a       2007-2025
      sensitive analytical techniques such   high content of a specific compound
      as the radioimmuno assay (RIA) or      and/or the desired spectrum of secondary
      the enzyme linked immunosorbent        metabolites so that identifiction and
      assay (ELISA) for the chosen           development of superior lines will take
      medicinal plants                       less time than before
0.   To help in establishing chain of       To make available locally preferred         2007-205
      medicinal plants gardens (at least     medicinal plant products-especially fresh
      one per district) in the country.      herb-in a decentralised manner
.   To develop organic gardening           To ensure adequate soil status as far as    200-2020
      practices                              micronutrients are concerned (atleast
                                             some of the medicinal plant products are
                                             very high in micronutrients)
2.   To estimate pesticide residue in       To ensure that harmful product are not      200-205
      medicinal plants                       present in the raw material
.   To find out an effective early         The goal is to develop an integrated        200-2020
      detective method coupled with          pest management technique involving
      biocontrol measures for pests and      biocontrol measures and use of synthetic
      disease                                pheromones
.   To estimate cost of production         To have a realistic estimate of cost of     2007-2025
                                             production for making recommendations
                                             regarding incentives to be given to
                                             farmers and price support mechanism for
                                             stabilising price of commodities.
5.   To mechanise the operations such      Identifying/developing labour saving         200-2025
      as harvesting inter-culture and post- farm machineries to reduce the cost of
      harvest processing.                   production
6.   To determine seed technology and       To develop standards for planting           2007-2025
      production standards (seed biology,    material
      seed health, seed certification
      standards, seed production
      technology including machineries,
      seed storage, processing and
      packaging)
7.   Technology Transfer and HRD            -Developing and utilizing communication 2007-2025
                                             methodology
                                             -To study impact
                                             -To involve NGOs
                                             -Training and education
8    Development of post-harvest- To develop suitable postharvest                       2007-2025
       storage technology for reducing technologies for MAPs
       post harvest loses.



                                                  27
9.3        Funds
       Most of the funds are expected from the regular budgetary allocations under plan and non-
plan for the Institute in coming years. In the X plan the total expenditure was 22.98 crores and it
may increase by about 20-25% in every coming plans.
        In addition, whenever possible the scientists will be encouraged to submit ad-hoc schemes
to ICAR and other agencies/organizations such as Dept. of Biotechnology, United States Agency
for International Development, International Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, and collaborative
programme with pharmaceutical Industries will be encouraged. Additional funds are required for
training and exposing agricultural scientists to better appreciate the principles and practices of
Traditional Systems of Medicine.


                            10 LINKAGE AND CO-ORDINATION
10.1 Linkages
      I.      At National Level

              (a)   With ICAR Organisations/Ministry of Agriculture

                    .   NBPGR
                    2.   CIAE, Bhopal
                    3.   Ministry of Agriculture, GOI
                    .   National Medicinal Plant Board
              (b)   With other Govt. Organisations

                    .   Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha
                    2.   Indian System of Medicine, Govt. of India
                    .   Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar
                    .   National Chemical Laboratory, Pune
                    6.   Dept. of Biotechnology, New Delhi
                    7.   CIMAP (Lucknow), RRL (Jammu), RRL (Jorhat), RRL (Bhubneshwar)
                    8.   Indian Council of Forestry Research, Dehra Dun
              (c)   With NGOs

                    .   Centre of Science for Villages, Magan Sangrahalaya, Vardha 2 00
                    2.   Research Officer, Herbal Garden, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal - 676 503
                    3.   Jan Seva Mandal, Kon’t Road, Nandurbar, Maharashtra-425412
                    4.   Foundation of Revitalisation of local Health Tradition, Bangalore
      II.     At International level

              .    Biodiversity International, Rome (formerly IPGRI)


                                                     28
                                    11 CRITICAL INPUTS
        The most critical input entails infrastructural support to take up the programme. The NRC
will attach highest priority to strategic research, while the Coordinated Network will be charged with
applied regional research.

11.1   Funds
       The funding of the programme is envisaged out of plan and non-plan budget of the ICAR.
However, efforts will be made for arrangement of external funding sources through collaborative
research programmes.

11.2   Manpower
        The present sanctioned cadre strength of scientists is 25. However, only thirteen scientists
are in position.


                                     12 RISK ANALYSIS
        Vast reservoir of novel uses of plants and their compounds is threatened by deforestation and
uncontrolled grazing. The traditional medicinal plants based industry, barely cognizant of the need
to protect botanical sources, hardly makes any move towards sustainable cultivation. In cataloguing
threatened plant species, scientists have discovered that many plants of medicinal values are being
rapidly depleted. As business scramble to meet growing consumer demand and forest dwellers and
landless labourers take advantage of the easy and immediate source of income provided by plant
collection, a “free-for-all” situation is taking place. Cultivation of medicinal plants in a way that
will genuinely benefit local people is hampered by the lack of guaranteed markets and price stability
for farmers and traders. At present, not even embryonic efforts are under way to develop sound
environmental and economic activities to the current system of medicinal plants exploitations.

Output and expected situation
       Demand for plant based medicines is increasing rapidly and if the medicinal plants will
be made available in abundance, the rise in prices can be contained. The project also envisages
availability of quality raw material.


            13 PROJECT REVIEW, REPORTING AND EVALUATION
                           ARRANGEMENTS
        The progress of the research projects will be reviewed in the Staff Research Council (SRC)
meetings which will be held twice a year, once research work will be initiated at NRC. In addition,
the Research Advisory Committee (RAC) will also review the research progress and suggest future
lines of work. The Director will monitor the progress of work from time to time by conducting mid
term review meetings and periodical visits to the different centres. As per the ICAR guidelines the
progress of work will be reported through quarterly and annual reports. As is the convention, the
ICAR may appoint a quinquennial review team to evaluate the performance of the Institute.
      Moreover, Newsletters Bulletins (research and farm) etc. will be published on the basis of
work carried out in NRC/Coordinated Project.


                                                 29
                               14 RESOURCE GENERATION
       Allocation from the Indian Council of Agricultural Research under the plan and non-plan will
continue to be the major source of funding for the Institute. Attempts will also be made to generate
resources from external agencies. In addition, all possible efforts will be made to maximize internal
resource generation through revolving funds and consultancy services.


                                          15 OUTPUTS

       Output of the this research programme would be generation of various technologies leading
to development of Good Agricultural Practices of a large number of MAP species to assure supply
of quality raw drug to the industries for preparations of highly stable medicines in terms of quality
from batch to batch. Development of high yielding and high quality genotypes/ cultivars would also
make the extraction industries more efficient and cost effective due to handling of less quantity of
raw material for higher quantity of extraction. Farmers will also be benefited from such activities
and will get premium price for their produce free from residual and heavy metal toxicity as well as
gain from high productivity. This would also lead to a number of high quality publications as well
as few patents in the field of product and process development.


                                         16 OUTCOME
        Overall impacts of the entire research activities will lead to a paradigm shift in the mind
set of the pharmaceutical and Indian System of Medicine industries from present day quantity
consciousness to quality consciousness. This shift will improve the quality of health care in the
society, thus wellbeing of fellow citizens will be protected. It will also add substantially to the GDP
of the country through increase in export of quality raw drug as well as quality finished products.
Farming community will ultimate gain from their freedom of choice to select the crops depending
upon the economics of cultivation. A basket of options will be available to them which will add to
their confidence in farming.




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