Soy Lecithin Guide Learn About Learn About Soybean Phospholipid by benbenzhou


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									  Learn About                                       Learn About


AMERICAN LECITHIN COMPANY                           courtesy of
115 Hurley Road, Unit 2B
Oxford, CT 06478

PHONE:       (203) 262-7100
FAX:         (203) 262-7101
                                                    AMERICAN LECITHIN COMPANY
TOLL-FREE:   1-800-364-4416
What’s Inside:                                         Lecithins are natural     formulas dissolve
                                                   soybean derivatives           instantly into water
How do Lecithins Work?               4
                                                with intrinsic nutritional       or helping paints to flow
Lecithin Chemistry               6            value and extremely impor-         easily onto smooth or
                                            tant roles in manufacturing.         rough surfaces.
Classifying Lecithins        8

Labeling Lecithins      10                 Widely differing affinities for oil   American Lecithin Company’s
                                          and water and low production           product line includes standard,
Selecting Lecithins 12
                                         costs make them invaluable in an        modified, refined, de-oiled and
About American                           amazingly broad range of                fractionated lecithins, all derived
 Lecithin                                processes. Lecithins help make          by extracting and purifying
 Company             15                   chocolates deliciously smooth and      phospholipids from crude soybean
                                           hand lotions creamy to the touch.     oil. Sold under the Alcolec® brand
                                            They are equally at home             name, most are available in liquid,
                                             helping powdered baby               granular and powder form.

  2                                                                                                                    3
          How do
L E C I TWork? N S                                                 Lecithins        can be:
                                                       Emulsifiers                  Release Agents
                                                Emulsions are produced by           Lecithins promote separation
Lecithins are used mainly as                dispersing one normally un-             of food from contact surfaces in               What are
emulsifiers. Their surface-              mixable material in another by             dip tank, aerosol sprayer, air spray
active, water-loving                  mixing, colloidal milling or                  system, and other applications. Water-          HLB Values?
                                     homogenization. The surface-active             filled dip tanks usually contain up to
(hydrophilic) or water-
                                   qualities of lecithins make them effective       10% de-oiled lecithin; pan or belt-release
hating (hydrophobic)                                                                                                                 Emulsification
                                  emulsifying agents that reduce mixing time        applications consist mainly of vegetable oil
properties turn                  and maintain the stability of the dispersion.      with 2% lecithin.                                 properties of different
materials that do not                                                                                                                  lecithins are a
mix easily and tend to          Wetters and Instantizers                            Separating Agents                                  function of their
separate into stable           Lecithins provide fast, complete wetting of          When applied directly to products such as           water- or fat-loving
                               powders into aqueous systems. Low-fat powders        processed cheese slices, lecithin helps form a
blends.                                                                                                                                 qualities, known in
                               require lecithins with lower HLB values (see note    stable film barrier that prevents them from
                                                                                    sticking together. When used directly in            the industry as
                               at right) to retard wetting rates; fatty powders
The main types of               require higher HLB values.                          products such as baked goods, they enhance the      Hydrophilic-
emulsions are oil-in                                                                ability to cut and shape products and reduce        Lipophilic Balance
water (such as                  Viscosity Modifiers                                 sticking to mixing vessels.                        or HLB. See the
mayonnaise, infant               Lecithins greatly reduce the surface tension                                                          chart on page 12 for
                                  of fats, enabling particles of chocolate, sugar   Nutritional Supplements
formulas and hand and                                                                                                                 HLB values for ALC
                                   and milk products to be coated, improv-          Lecithins have nutritional value of their
body lotions), and water-             ing flow- and mix-ability. Typical               own. The phospholipids they contain           products.
in-oil (such as margarines,             usage levels are 0.2 – 0.6% of                    are considered essential nutrients
icings and frostings and                   total product weight.                             for proper functioning of
                                                                                                the human body.
petroleum emulsions).

Lecithins also have characteristics
that help:
• Disperse powders into liquids
• Control the viscosity of liquids and
• Prevent foods from sticking to
  contact surfaces
• Prevent adhesion of food
  products to one another

   4                                                                                                                                                       5
L EChemistryI N S                                          Most of the          In addition
                                                       performance              to phospholipids,
                                                  benefits of soybean-          soybean lecithins con-
When using lecithins as                                                                                           Particle size affects lecithin
emulsifiers, they should always                based lecithins come from        tain triglycerides, sterols,        requirements in wetting and
be added in the oil phase first.            the unique hydrophilic or           small quantities of fatty             instantizing applications.
Heating to 120o F helps                                                                                                 Larger particles have less
dispersion and can improve                hydrophobic surface-active            acids, carbohydrates and                 surface area and usually
handling and mixing                     properties of phospholipids,            sphingolipids. “Fractionating”             require up to 0.25%
characteristics.                                                                                                            lecithination; smaller
                                      their primary component.                  (breaking up) these complex                  particles typically
Oil-in-water emulsions                                                          mixtures, or adding elements such             require up to 2%.
typically include lecithin
at 5 – 10%, and water-              These phospholipids typically contain:      as refined oils or other surfactants,           When using lecithins
                                   Phosphatidylcholine (PC, 13–18%)                                                             as separating agents
in-oil emulsions at 1 –                                                         can create new products tailored for             via direct incorpora-
5%, of the oil’s weight.
                                   Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, 10– 15%)       specific applications. De-oiling of              tion in such products
Most food products                 Phosphatidylinositol (PI, 10–15%)                                                             as baked goods,
                                                                                lecithin enhances the typical phos-              review regulatory
contain from 1 – 2%
salt; higher levels may            Phosphatidic acid (PA, 5–12%)                pholipid composition as depicted in              issues to comply
affect lecithin                                                                                                                 with FCC standards
                                                                                the chart below.                                of identity.

                                      Standard Liquid Lecithin                                De-Oiled Lecithin*
                                                                                                                                H2O (1%)
          H2O (1%)
                                                                                                                        Triglycerides (3%)
                                                                    PC (16%)
          Triglycerides (37%)

                                                                                                                                PC (24%)

                                                                    PE (13%)

                                                                                                                                PE (20%)

                                                                    PI (10%)
                                                                                                                                 PA (7%)

                                                                     PA (5%)
                                                                                                                                 PI (14%)

                                                          Minor Phospholipids
                                                                        (2%)                    Glycolipids (15%)

                                                       Complexed Sugars (5%)               Complexed Sugars (8%)       *Granular or powdered
  6                                                                                                                    form; most triglycerides     7
                                                                                                                       and free fatty acids are
                                                            Glycolipids (11%)           Minor Phospholipids (8%)       removed.
Lecithin products are classified
using attributes such as color,                        Physical       AI       AV      Color       HI     Moisture      Viscosity
viscosity, and the percentages                          State
of certain types of                       Alcolec®:
                                         S               Fluid      62% min   32 max   17 max     .1% max  1% max     12,000 cP max
materials they contain.
                                        BS               Fluid      62% min   32 max   14 max     .1% max  1% max     12,000 cP max
The terms used when                   XTRA-A             Fluid      66% min   25 max   17 max     .1% max .8% max     15,000 cP max
specifying lecithins                 Z-3                 Fluid      58% min     <38    12 max    .05% max 1.5% max   Heavy bodied fluid
are:                               Z-7                   Fluid      58-64%     18-30   12 max    .05% max 1.5% max   Heavy bodied fluid
                                   Aquasperse A          Fluid      47-52%     13-21   14 max    .02% max .8% max      2,500 cP max
                                  LV-30                  Fluid      50-54%    25 max   14 max    .01% max .8% max      1,500 cP max
Acetone                          439-C                   Fluid      50% min   30 max     N/A      .1% max  1% max           N/A
Insolubles (AI)                  Granules               Granular    97% min   36 max   tan/yel   .02% max 1% max            N/A
                                                                                                                                                      Insolubles (HI)
Expressed as a                   F-100                  Powder      97% min   36 max   tan/yel   .02% max 1% max            N/A
                                                                                                                                                       Expressed as a
percentage. This is              FF-100                   Fine      97% min   36 max   tan/yel   .02% max 1% max            N/A                        percentage (usually
a measure of the                                        Powder                                                                                        under 0.1%).
surface-active portion            PG                   Granular     98% min   36 max   tan/yel   .01% max 1% max            N/A                       Measures residual
of a lecithin, comprised          40-P                  Powder      97% min   28 max   tan/yel      N/A   1.2% max          N/A                       nonfatty material,
mainly of phospholipids            EM                   Powder      97% min   36 max     tan      .3% max 1.5% max          N/A                      composed mainly of
and glycolipids.                    Lexin K              Solid      75-79%    36 max   14 max     .1% max  1% max           N/A                     soybean meal fines.
                                     HWS               Powder*        N/A      N/A       tan        N/A      N/A            N/A
Acid Value (AV)                        30-A            Powder**       N/A      N/A     tan/yel      N/A      N/A            N/A                   Moisture (H2O)
Expressed as meq KOH/kg.                                                                                                                         Measured by the
                                          * Wheat starch carrier                                                                                Karl Fisher method,
This is a measure of total                  ** Corn flour carrier
acidity afforded by ionizable                                                                                                                a potentiometric titration
groups of phospholipids and free,                                                                                                          specific for water. Powder and
fatty acids added to some liquid                                                                                                        liquid lecithins typically contain
lecithins to stabilize viscosity.                                                                                                   less than 1% water.

Color                                                                                                                  Viscosity
Measured against the Gardner scale.                                                                                         Reported in centipoise at 25oC/77oF,
Most lecithin products range from                                                                                              after evaluation with a Brookfield
having a light honey (11 on the                                                                                                    rotary viscometer, a widely-used
scale) to dark amber (17 on the                                                                                                        technique.
scale) color.

  8                                                                                                                                                                     9
LECITHINS                                               Soy Lecithin
ALC lecithins are all-natural,                         Nutritional Profile                                            Labeling Terminology
soy-based and kosher for a                      Nutritional Summary           Granular Form         Liquid               As natural products, lecithins
variety of food and                           (per 100 grams product)        (without flow agent)    Form
                                                                                                                            are considered “Generally
other applications.                        Calories                               700                 790
                                         Calories From Fat                        480                 620                     Recognized as Safe”
The association with                   Total Fat (g.)                              53                  69                       (GRAS) by the FDA,
good health adds                      Saturated Fat (g.)                           12                  14                        under 21 CFR 184.1400
value on product                                                                                                                  and specifications of
                                   Approximate Fatty Acid Composition
labels… The word                  (per 100 grams product)                                                                          the Food Chemicals
“soy” usually                     Monounsaturated (oleic, 18:1) (g.)                5                 12                           Codex (FCC). The
prefaces lecithin as             Polyunsaturated (g.)                              33                 40
                                      (linoleic, 18:2) (g.)                        30                 36
an ingredient as a                                                                                                                  designation is
                                      (linoleic, 18:3) (g.)                         3                  4
convenience for                  Saturated (g.)                                    12                 14                            “Soy Lecithin,”
consumers and food                    (palmitic, 16:0) (g.)                        10                 11
                                                                                                                                    although “Lecithin”
processors interested                 (stearic, 18:0) (g.)                          2                  3
                                                                                                                                   is often used.
in source labeling                 Primary Acetone Insolubles                                                                      Chemically modified
ingredients.                       (per 100 grams product)
                                                                                                                                  lecithins sometimes
                                     Phosphatidylcholine (g.)                      24                 16
                                       Phosphatidylethanolamine (g.)               20                 13                         require special labeling.
The chart at right shows                 Phosphatidylinositol (g.)                 14                 10                       When hydroxylated,
typical nutritional infor-                                                                                                   they should be identified
mation associated with                                                                                                     as “Hydroxylated Soy
soy lecithin. Contact us for                                                                                            Lecithin” or “Hydroxylated
nutritional profiles for individual                                                                                  Lecithin.” When enzymatically
lecithin products.                                                                                               modified, the phrase “Enzymatically
                                                                                                             Modified Lecithin” should appear on labels.

  10                                                                                                                                                  11
           Selecting                                                                    This chart can help you determine which ALC Alcolec® products

LECITHINS                                                                               are best suited for your applications. More information follows in the
                                                                                        Solvent Solubility Index on the next page.





                                                      t en



                                                  C on




                                                                                                                      Typical Uses




                                        W/ O
                 Product                                                                                                                                             Physical Properties

                                                                                                 Food                                   Industrial


          2.0    Alcolec® XTRA-A                 •         • •                          Chocolate, margarine                  Inks, paint & coatings, textiles   Oil soluble

          4.0    Alcolec® S
                                                 •         • • •                        Baked goods, cheese
                                                                                        products, confections,
                                                                                        dairy products, dietetic &
                                                                                                                              Adhesives, absorbents,
                                                                                                                              detergents, dust control, dyes,
                                                                                                                              fertilizers, inks, masonry &
                                                                                                                                                                 Oil soluble

                                                                                        instant foods, margarine &            asphalt, metal processing,
                                                                                        shortening, meats &                   paint & coatings, paper,
                                                                                        poultry, processing &                 pesticides, petroleum/oils,
                                                                                        coatings                              polymers/rubber, textiles

          4.0    Alcolec® BS
                                               • • •
                                                 •                                      Cheese products, dairy
                                                                                        products, instant foods
                                                                                                                              Cosmetics & soaps,
                                                                                                                              detergents, dyes, paper
                                                                                                                                                                 Oil soluble

          4.0    Alcolec® LV-30
                                               • • • •                                  Oil-based aerosol spray release
                                                                                        applications, instantizing,
                                                                                                                                                                 Easily sprayable, low
                                                                                                                                                                 viscosity, oil soluble
                                                                                        griddle/skillet release

          4.0    Alcolec® Lexin-K
                                           •     • •                                    Chewing gum base                                                         Low flavor

          5.6    Alcolec® 439-C
                                           • •                                                                                Paints, coatings, textiles         Water dispersible

          7.0    Alcolec®Granules,
                 F-100, FF-100       • • • • • • • •                                    Cake mixes, cookies, low-fat
                                                                                        cookies, crackers, pizza crust,
                                                                                        waffles/pancakes, cheese
                                                                                                                              Animal feeds, ceramic &
                                                                                                                              glass, cosmetics & soaps,
                                                                                                                                                                 Dry blendable, low flavor,
                                                                                                                                                                 oil soluble, water dispersible

                                                                                        sauces, chewing gum, colors,
                                                                                        frostings, granola bars, ice
                                                                                        cream, frozen desserts, cones,
 HLB                                                                                    instantizing, meat sauces,
Value                                                                                   gravies, canned meat
                                                                                        products, milk powders,
                                                                                        non-dairy creamers

          7.0    Alcolec® PG
                                           • •                       • •                                                      Magnetic tape, cosmetics,
                                                                                                                              soaps, skin care
                                                                                                                                                                 Dry blendable, low flavor,
                                                                                                                                                                 oil soluble, water dispersible

          8.0    Alcolec® 40-P
                                             •                                          Functional food applications
                                                                                        where a higher choline
                                                                                        content is desired
                                                                                                                                                                 Higher choline content,
                                                                                                                                                                 low flavor, water dispersible

          9.0    Alcolec® EM
                                     • • • • •                            •             Baked goods, starch-based
                                                                                        sauces, puddings
                                                                                                                                                                 Dry blendable, low flavor,
                                                                                                                                                                 oil soluble, water dispersible

          9.0    Alcolec® Z-3
                                           • •                            •             Baked goods, instant foods,
                                                                                        instantizing, milk powders
                                                                                                                              Cosmetics & soaps, dyes,
                                                                                                                                                                 Oil soluble, water dispersible

          10.0   Alcolec® Z-7
                                           • •                  •                       Salad dressing, release (water
                                                                                        based), flavors, colors, cocoa,
                                                                                                                                                                 Oil soluble, water dispersible

          12.0   Alcolec®
                 Aquasperse A              • •                  • • •                   Instantizing, flavors, belt
                                                                                                                                                                 Easily sprayable, low
                                                                                                                                                                 viscosity, water dispersible

          N/A    Alcolec® HWS
                                         • •                    •                       Piecrusts, cakes, cake mixes,
                                                                                        biscuits, cookies, sugar wafers,
                                                                                                                                                                 For ease of incorporation

water     N/A    Alcolec® 30-A
                                             • •                •                       Piecrusts, cakes, cake mixes,
                                                                                        cookies, sugar wafers, cones
                                                                                                                                                                 For ease of incorporation

12                                                                                                                                                                                         13

 Use levels are usually 0.2% - 1.0% based on finished product weight. If no specific information is available, start with 0.5% of finished product and adjust as necessary.
          Selecting                                                                                                                   About
   LECITHINS                       continued
                                                              Oil-Free   Fluid Hydroxylated   S ince 1928, ALC                        LECITHIN
Solvent Solubility Index for
                                                                                              has been committed to
                                                                                              advancing natural soybean
                                                                                              lecithin technology and
                                                                                                                                      C O M PA N Y
Alcolec® Lecithins                          Benzene                S         S       S        providing the very best products
                                         Chlorodifluoromethane S             S       S        and services available.
                                        Chloroform                 S         S       S
This chart gives general              Cyclohexanone                 S        S       S        Introducing the Alcolec ® product line
information about the               Diethyl Ether                  S         S       S        early in its history, ALC set an industry
solubility of various              Dimethyl Sulfoxide               I        I       I        standard for quality and consistency.
                                  Dioxane                           I        I       I        Advancements continued through
Alcolec products in a

                                 Ethanol                            I        I       I        performance chemistry — the modification
wide range of
                                 Ethyl Acetate                      I        I       I        of lecithins’ basic properties to create new
                                Glycerine                           I        I       I
• Oil-free lecithin                                                                           products that perform better in broader uses.
                                Heptanol                            S        S       S
  includes Alcolec®             Hexane                              S        S       S                                                             For additional general
  Granules/F-100/               Iso-amyl Alcohol                    I        I       I
                                                                                              Adding lecithin fractionation technology in the
                                                                                              1980’s enabled ALC to offer the broadest, most       information about
  FF-100 and PG.                lsooctane                           S        S       S
                                                                                                                                                   ALC and our products,
                                 Isopropyl Ether                   S         S       I        versatile product line on the market.
• Fluid lecithin                                                                                                                                  visit our website:
                                  Kerosene                          S        S       S
  includes Alcolec® S                                                                                                                   
                                   Methanol                         I        I       I        Our long history and continuing commit-
  and BS.
                                    Methylene Chloride              S        S       S        ment to help you with general or
• Hydroxylated lecithin              Methyl Ethyl Ketone           I         I       I        s p e c i f i c aspects of commercial              Have questions?
  includes Alcolec® Z-3                Methyl Isobutyl Ketone S              S       S            applications make us the ideal                Contact us directly:
  and Z-7.                              Mineral Spirits            S         S       S               partner for any lecithin-
                                           Petroleum Ether         S         S       S                       related project.
                                             Propylene Glycol I              I       I
                                                Pyridine          S          S       S
                D - Dispersible by                 Tetrahydro-
                      use of hot                       furan      S          S       S
                      water, slightly                       Toluene
                     alkalized                                   S           S       S                                             AMERICAN LECITHIN COMPANY
                 I-    Insoluble                                                                                            115 Hurley Road, Unit 2B
                 S-    Soluble at 10%                                                                                         Oxford, CT 06478
                       (w/w) at 25°C                                                                                  

                                                                                                                                      Phone: (203) 262-7100
                                                                                                                                        Fax: (203) 262-7101
                                                                                                                                               e-mail: customerservice

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