Volume 1 Issue 4 Page 1 June 2007 Naval UAS Volume 2 Newsletter Issue 2 http://uav.navair.navy.mil/ Navy Expands Multiservice UAS and the Navy so that it will be 90% Cooperation common. On ships the Navy will CAPT Paul Morgan use the UCARS autoland system. The Navy/USMC Team is on track to The UCARS uses the same milli- deliver a Naval Family of interoper- meter wave tracker for autoland as able UAS that will allow the DoN to the Tactical Automatic Landing operate the right air vehicle for the System (TALS) autoland system VTUAV Completes right mission for “Focused Flying”, for the Army Shadow UAS. Milestone C - 1/6 on land and on the sea, among the services, and with coalition partners. Current VTUAV payloads include the Electric Optic/Infra Red/Laser On land the USMC is moving from Designator/Range Finder (EO/IR/ the Tier I (Dragon Eye) and Tier II LDRF) BRITE Star II and Coastal (Pioneer) UASs to the state of the Battlefield Reconnaissance and art Raven – B and Shadow 200 de- Analysis (COBRA) mine detection veloped by the US Army. The Army payload (Blocks I, II, and III). provided extensive coordination to Shadow 200 to be Fielded in the DoN to support the quick deliv- The Navy led Small Tactical Un- 2007 - 5 ery of these two systems including manned Aerial System (STUAS/ adapting plans for training and lo- TIER II has the potential to be the gistics facilities that can support both first Joint UAS program. The sys- services. tem is planned to be both land and sea based. Each of the services At sea, the Vertical Take Off and has expressed interest in the pro- Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial curement. The system could dra- STUAS / Tier II RFP Vehicle (VTUAV) passed Milestone matically expand interservice coop- Due Out in Late Fall - 6 C, signaling the start of low-rate ini- eration in the employment of tial production on the road to Initial UASs. The endurance, perform- Operational Capability (IOC) on the ance, footprint and cost for this Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) class in type of a system makes it an excel- 2008. The VTUAV is the first USN lent candidate for a small size UAS UAS (third overall within the DoD) to that can be deployed in large num- reach Milestone C in the DoD acqui- bers. The requirement was shaped sition process. Milestone C will be by current operational experience. BAMS In Source Selection - 6 followed by VTUAV payload test flights this fall and then initial opera- Cooperation is on track to continue tional evaluation. as proven UAS and improved UAS capabilities lead the services to ac- Cooperation with the Army continues quire more UASs. on the VTUAV which was competi- tively selected in a separate procure- ment as the Army Class IV UAS for the Future Combat Systems (FCS). Planned Restructuring of The VTUAV system design has PEO(W) UAS Activities - 7 been coordinated between the Army Distribution Statement A – Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited, as submitted under NAVAIR Public Release Authorization 07-0540. Volume 1 Issue 4 Page 2 Spotlight on Standards and Interoperability Common Systems IPT: - NATO Efforts for UAS Standards and Interoperability – NAVAIR PEO(W) PMA-263 and OPNAV N-88 have provided leadership and support for NATO interoperability standards for UAVS over the past decade. The Chairman of the NATO Joint Capability Group on UAV (JCGUAV) is from the US Navy and the two Vice Chairman are from Germany and France. Twenty countries routinely participate in the JCGUAV bi-annual meetings held at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium. The JCGUAV has a sequence of interoperability standards underway: - UAV Flight in Non-Segregated Airspace (FINAS) - STANAG 4660 (Command and Control STANAG 4660: Data Link) STANAG 4660 leverages the UK High Integrity - HALE/MALE and Weaponization Data Link (HIDL) study which was conducted to - STANAG 4586 (UAV Control System) support development of the Watchkeeper UAS - Common Route Definition (CRD) Project. The UK is the lead for this effort. The Interoperable Command and Control Data Flight in Non-Segregated Airspace (FINAS): Link (IC2DL) STANAG 4660 functionality is to The FINAS Working Group is working towards provide: total system certification (including air worthi- - Command & control (C2) uplink and ness). The group is also working functional re- telemetry downlink for multiple UAVs quirements for a Sense and Avoid system, - Digital voice communications for Air training, Air Traffic Management and security Traffic Control (ATC) purposes issues. - Network enabled capability to sup- port communication with up to 5 ac- UAV Systems Airworthiness Requirements tive nodes with a large number of (USAR) now known as STANAG 4671 was re- passive nodes leased in June 2007 for review. This newly - Node to node relay (beyond line of minted STANAG is an airworthiness code for sight) capability fixed wing UASs with a take-off weight between - Optional low data rate sensor 150 kg – 20,000 kg. STANAG 4671 started life downlink for sensors such as EO/IR, as a French proposal to adapt a current Electronic Support Measures (ESM) manned aircraft standard to suit the characteris- and Electronic Warfare (EW). tics of UASs. The draft of STANAG 4660 is now available. The Airworthiness Offices of all three services This draft describes the signal and critical inter- are conducting an engineering review of the faces with enough detail to support independent standard. UASs should enjoy more streamline development of IC2DL interoperable data links. access to other nations’ airspace by agreeing to this common design and construction standard. Distribution Statement A – Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited, as submitted under NAVAIR Public Release Authorization 07-0540. Volume 1 Issue 4 Page 3 Spotlight on Standards and Interoperability Continued Weaponization: standards which allows for the competition of The UAV Weaponization Specialist Team (ST) alternative UAS components (control stations, has been established to review the required payloads, etc.) for a given UAS and standard technology to integrate weapon payloads into terms and applications which should result in UASs as well as enabling technologies includ- more simple and common training. These ing types of weapons. The team is currently benefits should allow for improved ISR collec- considering required messages and weapons tion and dissemination for the warfighter in the data at the following functional interfaces: near future as well as positively affecting the - Mission Plan interface to include acquisition process. weapons load, target data, release conditions, arming instructions, and Active Navy involvement with STANAG 4586 safe jettison areas. allows the Navy the ability to leverage industry - Command and Control messages resources for USN/DoD solutions as well as (part of STANAG 4586 Data Link In- providing a direct “input” in the development of terface (DLI)) to include armament international standards that impact USN UAS management configuration com- programs. mands and instructions. - Air Vehicle (A/V) to Weapon Interface STANAG 4586 is being implemented by manu- to include weapons status, release facturers from several NATO countries. The consent, air data interface, safe sepa- following is a listing of the noteworthy US imple- ration, and own position coordinates. mentations: - AAI/One System (Shadow 200, Pio- A UAV weapons architecture will be created neer, and Aerosonde UASs) and a set of Information Exchange Require- - General Atomics – Aeronautical Sys- ments (IERs) will be developed by the ST and tems Inc. (GA-ASI)/One System (ER/MP contained in a technical document. This techni- Sky Warrior UAS) cal information will be provided to the STANAG - Northrop Grumman Corporation/ 4586 Team so that the STANAG 4586 message Tactical Control System (TCS) set and Common Route Definition (CRD) will be (FireScout VTUAV) updated as needed. The CST has recently embarked on Edition 3 STANAG 4586: and Edition 4 to improve functionality and capa- Standard Agreement (STANAG) 4586 Edition 2 bilities of the standard. Edition 3 will include Version 5 (Edition 2.5) titled “Standard Inter- interoperable Mission Planning through the faces of UAV Control System (UCS) for NATO CRD, limited autonomy, bandwidth reduction UAV Interoperability” was sent to the NATO efforts (through the use of presence vectors Standardization Agency (NSA) for promulga- and fixed point scaling), limited net-centric task- tion. STANAG 4586 Edition 2.5 provides a path ing to include multicasting, an improved data for control stations to control designated UAVs/ link message set, and new CCI products. The payloads as well as the ability to more effi- CCI products being reviewed for inclusion into ciently and effectively Edition 3 include internet relay chat, new pay- collect and dissemi- loads (MSI/HSI/COMMINT), KLV Metadata nate standard ISR standards and MPEG-4. Edition 3’s initial draft data. Benefits of will be distributed for informal review in the STANAG 4586 in- French UCAS in spring of 2008. clude open source Development Distribution Statement A – Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited, as submitted under NAVAIR Public Release Authorization 07-0540. Volume 1 Issue 4 Page 4 Spotlight on Standards and Interoperability Continued Edition 4 will focus on net-centric operations developed to “extend” the CRD to cover UAS with the intentions of being an integral operating requirements. This new “extended” CRD is in- node on the Global Information Grid (GIG), corporated into STANAG 4586 Edition 3 which higher levels of autonomy with direct tasking will be released for review in the spring 2008 under designated levels of UAV self-control, timeframe. weaponzation and the development of a com- mon schema for Joint Architecture for Un- The “extended” CRD is a new stand-alone at- manned Systems (JAUS) and STANAG 4586 to tachment for STANAG 4586. The JMPS ICWG develop common “robotic” control. Edition 4 is officially references the UAV Custom tags in planned to be distributed for review in the 2009 their baseline documentation and defers con- timeframe. trol/management to the STANAG 4586 Custo- dian Support Team. Compliance testing and validation of STANAG 4586 are currently underway with the TCS and The UAV Custom Tag Schema is registered One System GCS. The TCS has completed with the DoD Metadata Registry and is currently component lab testing and is planning system being used by the US Army Extended Range level flight testing. The One System has com- Multi-purpose (ERMP) Sky Warrior program. pleted component lab testing and system flight testing with the Shadow 200 and is currently conducting interoperability testing with the Focus on the Warfighter ISR Services Contract: Shadow 200 and Aerosonde UASs. Lessons The Navy continues to contract with Boeing for learned are being studied and being used to ISR services for Navy shipboard and oil plat- further refine STANAG 4586. form deployments. - Common Route Definition (CRD)/UAS Cus- tom Tags – The Common Route Definition (CRD) is the standard for mission planning data ScanEagle on Patrol transfer. The CRD is formatted in XML and is the underlying mission planning format for Joint Mission Planning System (JMPS), the Portable Flight Planning System (PFPS), Air Force Mis- sion Support System (AFMSS) and the NATO Air Command and Control System (ACCS). The ACCS combines and automates the plan- ning, tasking and execution of all operations at the tactical level. The CRD is controlled by the JMPS Interface Control Working Group (ICWG). In the past, the CRD only contained route planning and contingency planning data transfer capability. The STANAG 4586 team realized that this would not sufficiently cover the Mission Plans needed for UAS operations. Therefore, unique UAV planning data for a collection plan, dis- semination plan and communication plan was Distribution Statement A – Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited, as submitted under NAVAIR Public Release Authorization 07-0540. Volume 1 Issue 4 Page 5 Focus on the Warfighter Continued Marines of VMU-1 Shadow 200: The Shadow 200 (RQ-7B) is set to quickly re- place the Pioneer UAS. The approved pro- curement of the US Army Shadow tactical un- manned aircraft system (TUAS), as an immediate organic capability for the USMC Tier III requirement is in place. The Shadow will be fielded in a two phased approach. Phase 1 consists of both unmanned squadrons (VMUs) being trained on Shadow IAW existing Army procedures, immediately followed by the squadrons deployment in support of Operation Iraq Freedom (OIF). After both squadron de- ployments, a comprehensive review will be per- formed to determine if the Army procedures are adequate to meet evolving Navy/USMC require- ments. If not, Phase 2 would be instituted to make the required changes. Current plans call for a planned procurement of twelve (12) systems to outfit the VMUs. Shadow 200s Distribution Statement A – Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited, as submitted under NAVAIR Public Release Authorization 07-0540. Volume 1 Issue 4 Page 6 Program Highlights STUAS/Tier II UAS: - U.S. Navy plans to release - Kearfott Inc. - Guidance and Navigation the request for proposals (RFP) for its Small - Lockheed Martin Corporation - Ship In- Tactical Unmanned Air System (STUAS)/ Tier II tegration this Fall. Although the system will be tailored for - Raytheon Company - Tactical Control USN/USMC users, the US Army, US Coast System Guard and US Air Force are expressing interest - Rockwell Collins - Avionics in the winner of this full and open competition. - Rolls-Royce Corporation - Engine A STUAS /Tier II Industry Day was held on the - Sierra Nevada Corporation - Unmanned morning of August 6th in conjunction with the Common Automatic Recovery System PEO(W) / AUVSI Unmanned System Demon- - Schweizer Aircraft Corporation - Airframe stration. Artist Conception of the STUAS First Flight of the RQ-8B VTUAV - The MQ-8B FireScout Vertical takeoff and land- ing Tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle (VTUAV) has reached Milestone C, signifying the beginning of its low-rate initial production phase. This signifi- cant step for the VTUAV program and for un- manned systems in general is due to an im- mense amount of hard work and diligence re- garding meeting and exceeding requirements set forth for the new capabilities these systems offer the warfighter. The Northrop Grumman Corporation’s VTUAV is made available to the Navy through the efforts of the Fire Scout Industry team which also include: - Cubic Defense Applications - Communica- tions Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) - - FLIR Systems, Inc. - BriteStar II Payload Currently within Source Selection. - GE Fanuc - Vehicle Management Computer Distribution Statement A – Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited, as submitted under NAVAIR Public Release Authorization 07-0540. Volume 1 Issue 4 Page 7 Planned Restructuring of PEO(W) UAS Activities Putting the capabilities that UASs bring into the hands of the warfighter means those systems forts including some unmanned airship projects not only have to be reliable and effective, it also currently under NAVAIR Science and Technol- means they have to interoperate with manne ogy leadership. The Program Manager is ex- platforms, provide information to intelligence and pected to slate this summer in time for decision making systems, and safely operate an October 2007 Program Office stand-up. within the Joint Battlespace. This requires a “system-of-systems” approach that enables use The second new program office will be the Per- of common architectures, standards, and solu- sistent Unmanned Surveillance Program Office tions across Navy and Marine Corps UAS. With – PMA-262. This program office will have the this in mind the successful creation and fielding Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) Pro- of a Family of Unmanned Systems is of critical gram (ACAT I) as the principal acquisition pro- concern to avoid duplication and eliminate stove- gram. It will also have management responsi- pipes while providing safe, interoperable sys- bility for the Global Hawk Maritime Demonstra- tems to the warfighter. tion Program (GHMD) as well as any future Persistent Surveillance-related efforts. The Pro- In order to more effectively manage the develop- gram Manager is expected to slate this summer ment of UAS programs and coordinate with an in time for an October 2007 Program Office increasingly broad stakeholder base, RADM Tim stand-up. Heely, PEO(W), has directed the planning for restructuring of PEO(W) UAS activities after re- Finally, in order to more effectively coordinate ceiving initial approval from the Assistant Secre- both within PEO(W) and with activities like the tary of the Navy for Research, Development, UAS Planning Task force, JUAS MRB, and and Acquisition (ASN(RDA)). In the proposed JUAS COE, what is now the PMA-263 Common concept, what is currently PMA-263 will be split Systems Integration Department functions will into three program offices. The first program of- be transferred to the PEO(W) staff with some fice will retain the PMA-263 designation, but will slight modifications. Common Systems will fo- be renamed the Navy/Marine Corps Small Tacti- cus on overarching Family of Systems architec- cal UAS Program Office. This program office will ture, standards, and acquisition issues as well have the Small Tactical UAS(STUAS)/Tier II as interfacing with key partner and stakeholder UAS program (anticipated ACAT II) as its princi- activities. This is expected to maintain tight co- pal acquisition program, but will also conduct all- ordination and cooperation across the three Navy/Marine Corps small-tactical and Tier I/II Program Offices and the NUCAS Advanced De- UAS programs and activities to include USMC velopment Program Office (ADPO). Raven, EOD JUONS, and a number of technol- ogy efforts. CAPT Morgan will remain Program Manager until a successor is chosen in the sum- mer of 2008. The first new program office will be the Navy/ Marine Corps Tactical Unmanned ISR Program Office – PMA-266. This program office will have the VTUAV (ACAT I) Program and the Tactical Control System (TCS) Program (ACAT II) as principal acquisition programs. It will also have management responsibility for USMC VUAV in addition to other Tactical UAS/Tier III related ef- Distribution Statement A – Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited, as submitted under NAVAIR Public Release Authorization 07-0540. Volume 1 Issue 4 Page 8 Related Navy ISR Developments Continued US Navy’s UAS Weaponization Strategy In anticipation of a FY10 weapons requirement for the MQ-8B Vertical Takeoff/Landing Un- manned Air Vehicle (VTUAV), PMA-263 is adopting an approach to developing a weapon system architecture capable of being integrated on multiple platforms. PMA-263 is leveraging the work of the NATO Industrial Advisory Group (NIAG) Subgroup 97 and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The SAE for aircraft weapons interfaces will complete two new interface standards for minia- ture munitions and micro-munitions. The minia- ture and micro-munitions standards will include the High Speed 1760 (HS1760) capability. HS1760 provides MIL-STD-1553B Notice 4 type- command and control messages while providing the capability of data transfers all at a 1 Gbaud data rate. HS1760 will also be added to MIL- STD-1760E to replace High Bandwidth Lines 2 and 4 for Class I and IA interfaces. By adopting HS1760 early, UASs can provide a growth path for smaller and smarter weapons to fully exploit emerging capabilities, such as streaming digital video from the weapon to the air vehicle. Working with the NATO Joint Capability Group on Unmanned Air Vehicles (JCGUAV), PMA-263 is also assisting with defining the weapons- related messages sets needed for STANAG 4586, Standard Interfaces of UAV Control Sys- tem (UCS) for NATO UAV Interoperability. Many of these activities will be completed by Fis- cal Year 2010, allowing the system architecture framework to be ready not only as the first Navy UAS to integrate weapons, VTUAV, but the en- tire family of future unmanned systems in the Navy inventory. Distribution Statement A – Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited, as submitted under NAVAIR Public Release Authorization 07-0540.
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