"Gender state of being male or female â€¢ Gender"
How Does Gender and Sexuality Impact Our Behavior? 7/26/06 The Big Picture: Developing a Gender and Sexual Identity • Gender: state of being male or female • Gender identity: personal experience of being male or female • Sexuality: ways we experience or express ourselves as sexual beings Sexual Differentiation: How Do We Develop Our Sexual Anatomy? • Gender begins at conception (XX or XY) • Embryos are same (female) until 7th week then H-Y antigen causes testes to develop (if male) • Hermaphroditism: both testicular and ovarian tissue • Pseudohermaphrodite: ambiguous internal or external sexual anatomy • Both rare • The 'Guevedoces' of the Dominican Republic. – Early 1970s, Dr. Julianne Imperato,investigated reports of an isolated village where children appearing to be girls turned into men at puberty. In the village, these children were known as 'guevedoces' (literally, penis at 12 years)." Their underlying pathology was found to be a deficiency of the enzyme 5-alpha Reductase which converts testosterone into 5 dihydrotestosterone Gender Differences: Do Males and Females Think and Act Differently? • Males and females more similar then different • Some differences do exist in cognitive abilities and personality Cognitive Abilities • 1970’s research: females superior in verbal abilities; current research – differences small • Boys have more learning disabilities, lag in reading • Math abilities: males better? – Not until adolescence • Gender-typing? – Spatial skills or multiple solutions – “At-risk” status Cognitive Abilities • Visuo-spatial abilities: males have advantage – By age 4! – Fetal exposure to testosterone may enlarge areas of right hemisphere – Some researchers have found early maturing adolescents < late maturing for visuo- spatial and reverse for verbal – maturation rate might be the mechanism responsible for sex-related differences in cognitive functioning (Maccaby & Jacklin, 1974), given that girls typically mature faster than boys. • Math and science: small gender differences • College completion: similar rates; ethnic differences exist Breaking Research! • Haut & Barch (2006) – fMRI no gender differences in activation for words or faces in either WM or recognition task – Noteworthy: No differences in verbal abilities AND no differences in faces – No pervasive differences, perhaps task specific Personality Factors • Females more extraverted, anxious, trusting, nurturing; disclose more personal information – Collectivistic, emphasizing connectedness • Males more assertive, tough-minded, more self-esteem – Value achievement, emotional strength, athleticism, self-sufficiency • Aggression: males engage in more overt aggression (physical); females engage in relational aggression (verbal aggression) Aggression • Under everyday circumstances: – Girls use relational aggression- covert expression (gossiping, backbiting, spreading false rumors) – Boys use physical aggression- variety of cultures, boys are more overtly aggressive • When actually provoked, differences are much smaller (Bettencourt & Miller, 1996) – Men interpret ambiguous situations as provocative Spousal Violence • In 2000: – 22% of violence against women was by their intimate male partners – 3% of violence against men was by their intimate female partners • In 1998: – 3419 women killed, 32% at hands of male intimate – 4% for men killed by female intimate Effect of Hormones • Greater testosterone = more Aggression • Finger length ratio (Hurd & Bailey) – Fetal exposure to testosterone – Women are usually equal, Men ring finger is longer – Men with larger ratios = more aggressive – Accounts for ~10% of variance – GxE Gender Identity: The Influence of Nature and Nurture • For most of us gender identity and biology are the same • Studies of hermaphrodites (both testicular and ovarian tissue) and pseudohermaphrodites (ambiguous external or external sexual anatomy) help understanding of environmental role in gender identity • Environment and biology both have role in identity John/Joan • www.cbc.ca/news/background/reimer • “As Nature Made Him: The Boy who Was Raised as a Girl” – http://infocirc.org/rollston.htm Gender Identity Schema Development Social Role Theory (Eagly, 1987) & Personality • Most societies have division of labor based on gender – Gender role expectations, certain attributes consistent with role – Develop different skills and attitudes based on experiences – Women less likely to be in power, will become more polite and accommodating • Support (Hall, 1979) – Correlation between female oppression and nonverbal politeness Coping: Gender Differences • Flight or Fight research – Mostly done on men • ‘Tend and befriend’ – Shelley Taylor, 2000 – Protect oneself and offspring (tend) • Quiet child less likely to attract predators – Create social networks to protect (befriend) • Exchange resources, watch for predators, share child care – Oxytocin levels increase in women during stress Conformity • Used to be presented that women > men (Crutchfield, 1955) • Meta-analysis (Eagly & Carli, 1981) – Very, very small effect – More likely in social group pressure (Asch) – Differences due to socialization? – Male researchers use of persuasive messages about sports over female researchers Chivalry & Sexism • "Women -- you can't live with them, and you can't live without them." • Ambivalent Sexism Inventory – No matter how accomplished he is, a man is not truly complete as a person unless he has the love of a woman. – Many women are actually seeking special favors, such as hiring policies that favor them over men, under the guise of asking for "equality.” – Many women have a quality of purity that few men possess. – Women seek to gain power by getting control over men. Sexism Stereotypes – "Hostile sexism," which involves negative feelings toward women • Negative stereotypes of career women, tolerant of sexual harassment & spousal abuse of women – "Benevolent sexism," a knight-in-shining armor ideology that offers protection and affection to women who conform to traditional gender roles (e.g., cute girlfriend, obedient wife, etc.) • more likely than others to blame a female victim for being raped after she invited a man into her apartment (presumably because the victim's behavior violated norms of female chastity). ASI, Cont • Men > Women in hostile sexism, Men = Women in benevolent sexism • In certain cultures, women > men on benevolent sexism Exotic as Erotic (Bem) • Gender schemas/stereotypes may play role in sexual orientation • Biological and social factors influence child’s choice of activities – Some kids attracted to activities typical of their gender, others attracted to atypical activities – a gender-conforming child feel different from opposite-gender children, while gender-nonconforming children will feel different from children of their own gender. – feeling of difference will evoke physiological arousal when the child is near members of the gender which it considers as being 'different'. – physiological arousal will later be transformed into sexual arousal: children will become sexually attracted to the gender which they see as different ("exotic") Evidence for and against Bem • For – Longitudinal studies of gender nonconforming boys (Zucker, 1990) • Age 7 to adulthood • 63% define self as gay or bisexual – Kinsey institute • 1000 gay men and lesbians, 500 heterosexuals • 63% gender nonconforming vs. 10-15% • Against – 50% of gay males preferred masculine activities (Bell et al, 1981) – Less stereotyped cultures, less tendency for gay males to have feminine childhood behavior (Ross, 1980) Overall: Sexual Orientation The Influence of Biology and the Environment • Sexual orientation not same as gender • Early gender-related behavior may predict later sexual orientation • Family dynamics do not cause homosexuality • Twin studies support genetic predisposition for homosexuality – ~50% concordance • May be related to decreased exposure to male hormones – More older brothers, changed prenatal environment? • Hypothalamus larger in heterosexual males vs. homosexual males (LeVay, 1991) Physical Attractiveness • Important to both men and women but may not be most important • Matching hypothesis: involved with people whose physical attractiveness is similar to ours; true for friendships and romantic relationships • May be inborn instinct; prefer attractiveness, someone who is healthy and able to reproduce First things first…..dating • Speed dating study-10,526 people (Kurzban et al, 2005) – Men rating women • Women’s BMI, age, facial attractiveness, racial similarity – Women rating men • Men’s facial attractiveness,height, age, closer to BMI of 25, race similarity • Overall – Men prefer women who are younger, women prefer men who are a little older – Assortative mating with race, height, desirable BMI • Women take 30 seconds to make an impression – Travel vs movies • Men take 2-3 minutes – Favorite pizza topping? Attraction & Mate Selection The Nature of Attraction • Attitudes determine to whom we will be attracted • Affective component of attitudes Proximity • Mere exposure effect: the more often we see person or object, the more we like it • Proximity, physical closeness, to person affects attraction – Someone we see often, sit by, work with, live near Similarity • Similarity predicts attraction across all cultures • Balance theory: tend to like those who are similar to us, avoids creating an imbalance in attitudes requiring adjustment of own or other’s attitudes