Municipal Solid Waste Management in Finland

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					 Municipal Solid Waste
 Management in Finland
12.2.2009    Markku Salo JLY-Jätelaitosyhdistys
    JLY-Jätelaitosyhdistys FSWA

founded 1996
35 municipal waste treatment
organisations
27 associated members, universities,
consultants, other companies
member organisations cover apr. 350
municipalities and cities, 5 million
inhabitants
Average serviceregion size apr. 140 000
inhabitants (30 000-1 000 000)
Member of ISWA, ECN, ACR+
Municipal Waste Europe (MWE)


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 EU waste directive

• Did not change the framework of the MSW too
  much
• Clarified some basic concepts of the directive
   • Waste to energy recovery
   • Reuse and recycling targets for paper, metal,
     plastic and glass
   • Source separation
   • Construction and demolition waste
   • End of waste
   • By-products
   • Biowaste?
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Waste hierarchy?




                                           Knowledge based
                                            eco-efficiency
                                              in regional
                                                context




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More wealth in a better environment

Lifecycle approach
     • linked energy and material flows
     • EU and national regulations aim at eco-
       efficiency
Decoupling waste generation from the growth of
  economy
     • Resource strategy is based on improved
       knowledge on the natural phenomena to
       achieve environmental targets



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Population density




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Finnish MSW management in brief

• First waste law 1978, present 1993
• Finnish municipalities are responsible for arranging
  MSW collection and treatment for households and
  public premises excl. wastes covered and collected
  by producers responsibility
      • for business municipal waste on market basis since June 2007
• Over 30 regional, municipality owned waste
  organisations
• Major part of the public operations are outsourced
      • collection and transportation 99 %
      • remarkable part of recovery and treatment
      • 1 major national private company L&T + Sita, several local
• Producer responsibility
      • Paper, packaging, tires, vehicles, WEEE, batteries
      • Municipalities provide collection services on market basis


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 Changes in waste legislation

• business MSW was liberalised to market
  1.6.2007
   • Municipalities are expected to continue their
     services within their capacity
   • Lack of private treatment capacity and private
     investments, who can take investment risks

• renewal of the waste law by 2010
   • New EU waste directive enforcement
   • Discussion on responsibilities
   • Discussion on securing the proximity principle


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MSW treatment in municipal waste
organisations

        Jätelaitosten käsittelypaikoilleen vastaanottama jäte 2004




 other waste

                                         households and public utilities
      38 %                                 40 %
                                                           Kotital. ja julk.palv. jäte
                                                           Elinkeinojen yhdyskuntaj.
                                                           Muu jäte (sis. hyötyk.)




                     22 %
               business MSW




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     Organizing MSW services in Finland
•30 regional municipal waste treatment
organisations
•Only some municipalities organize their
waste management individually
•JLY member organisations cover apr.
350 municipalities and cities,
apr. 5 million inhabitants
•Average service region size is
apr. 140 000 inhabitants
(30 000-1 050 000)
•Private waste companies provide mainly
collection services and pre-treatment
•Co-operation with industry in energy
recovery and recycling

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Economy of MSW
• MSW collection and treatment costs covered with waste
  fees
   • municipal collection fees are usually based on waste
     volumes (pay as you throw)
   • treatment 98 €/t incl. vat and landfill tax 30 €/t
• MSW fees for average one family house 159 €/a
   • Collection and treatment of 240 l bin 6 €, 600 l bin 9,5 €
   • hazardous waste and some recycling services free of
     charge for households (subsidised by other treatment fees)
• Other
   • producer responsibility waste
   • weighing systems used for business waste in some cases
   • logistics and telematics


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MSW treatment 2007




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National waste strategy till 2016

• Target for MSW
     • Materialrecovery 50 % (challenging!)
            • Biological treatment, composting or digestion 320-350
              kt/y
            • Producer responsibility
     • Waste to energy 30 % (not enough!)
            • W to E capasity needed plan 700-750 (1 000?) kt/y
     • Landfill 20 % (too much!)
• Energy and climate strategy
     • Landfill ban for biodegradable and burning
       waste by 2020

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  MSW recovery and recycling
• Waste to energy in co-operation with energy sector
   • 3 operating MSW WtE
         • Turku old 50 000 t/a, Riihimäki started 2007, 50 000 t/a, Kotka started
           2008 100 000 t/a
   • RDF, SRF, REF for co-incineration
         • 5 municipal REF-plants
         • 12+ private REF-plants
         • 4 major co-incineration power plants (CHP), MSW capacity apr. 150 000
           200 000 t/a

• 25 in-vessel composting plants + 2 anaerobic
   • MSW biological treatment capacity 350 000 t/a
   • (treated MSW biowaste 140 000 t/a)
• Material recycling
   • Co-operation with producer responsibility associations
   • industry


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  Waste to Energy situation
• apr. 20 potential W to E
projects plants in different
phase of planning or
permission application
• less than 10 are feasible
+ co-incineration plants
for ”clean wastes” and
REF/RDF




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Bigger is more economic, but do
not make oversize!




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  Producer responsibility
• partial responsibility on packaging waste
   • only the most profitable part is collected!
   • packaging waste not collected by producers,
     remains MSW on municipal responsibility
• Municipal organisations are providing collection
  services for the WEEE producers on contract
  basis
   • municipal organisations provide recycling
     centres for producer responsibility waste on
     contract basis
   • JLY coordinator in municipal collection point
     contracting
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   Collection and transportation system

• In Finland municipalities can decide on two
  options in arranging waste collection
   • Municipal waste collection service
        • 99 % outsourced and tendered
        • optimised collection
   • Property or household direct contract based
     system
        • still used in many cities and municipalities, difficult to change
        • does not give possibilities to control the waste streams and
          systems in households
        • more km, less efficiency
   • Facts support change to municipal service tendered in
     new waste law
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Telematics in waste collection (TCS)




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Case Example

 Tampere Regional Solid Waste Management
       • Company was established in 1994
       • Development towards extensive utilisation of waste
         materials was started
       • Part of MSW stream have to diverted into energy in
         order to reach 70 % recovery rate, lot of work and R&D
       • PPP was started officially (with negotiated procedure)
         in December 2003
       • Procedure was stopped and new start with restricted
         procedure in October 2004
       • Selection of partner in April 2005 – Market Court
       • Actual operation may start in 2009 but delays are
         possible


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    Tampere Regional Solid Waste
    Management Ltd




            Over 400 000 inhabitants

                                                             21
12.2.2009               Markku Salo JLY-Jätelaitosyhdistys    21
   Tampere Regional Solid Waste
   Management Ltd
      Facts and Figures of the Region
            • Area: over 10 000 km2
               • Population over 400 000; 12% in rural
               • Economic activity
                   • Service 66 %
                   • Industry 30 %
                   • Farming and others 4 %
            • Regional MSW company
               • Turnover about 22 milj.€
               • Staff about 60
               • MSW about 152 000 t/a



                                                            22
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   MSW source separation
      Source separation at household level
            • Hazardous waste (all)
                • 2,2 kg/p/a (household) + 1,4 kg/p/a (SME)
            • Producer responsibility
                • paper (about 75 kg/p/a), package (about 90
                  kg/p/a), ELV, tyres, WEEE (6,4 kg/p/a)
            • Biowaste (about 45 kg/p/a)
            • Dry waste (237 kg/p/a)
            • Others
                •   Like MSW 113 kg/p/a
                •   Sludges 90 kg/p/a
                •   Soils 125 kg/p/a
                •   Others 95 kg/p/a
            • Recovery from MSW about 40 % and
              from total waste about 55 %.
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Collection of Waste
 Tampere Regional Solid Waste Management
    All collection contracted out
    Public procurement procedure many years
   without any problems
    Private companies collect the waste
   according to the daily route list
    Customer service
    Billing of customers
    According to waste law waste is transported
   to municipal site or to the sites of the partners
   that are selected through public procurement
   procedure

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   Collection control system

                        Contractor                            Waste management
                                                                  enterprise
           TCS
          Vehicle
                                                              TCS Driving
         Hardware                                                                            TCS Office
                                     TCS Office             Manager Software
           and                                                                                Software
          Mobile                      Software
                                      (Labour                                                (Customer
         Terminal                                                                             Service /
                                    Management)
                                                                                              Driving
                                                                                            Management)

   GPS Global
   Positioning System



                        Interface                                               Interface   Background
                                                            TCS Mobile Server                 System
       Background              TCS Mobile Server
         System




                                                                                             25
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  Waste Processing
      Landfill
         • One landfill in operation
         • One in closing phase
         • Leachate to city sewer
      Two Composting Plants
         • Biowaste 12 000 t/a
         • Sludge 33 000 t/a
      SRF Production Plant 12 000 t/a (Fuel)
      Methane utilization
            • Three pumping stations (2300 m3/h)
            • 5,2 GWh electricity + heat (local power station)
      Pretreatment of Hazardous waste
                                                             26
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Strong points of a Regional MSW


       Logistics is well developed; work continues
       Waste to Energy
             • In co-operation with energy sector
             • Takes time; permitting slow (NIMBY)
             • Partner selected
       Changes in legislation creates uncertainty
             • Investment sizing
             • Operation on market

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Co-operation arrangements

Forms of MSW co-operation in Finland
   • One municipality arranges services and sell the
     services to others
            • easy way to start the co-operation
   • Municipalities form an intermunicipality
            • operates on its area as one municipality
   • Municipalities establish a company
            • easy way to work in co-operation. The shares can be
              divided on the basis of population or other relevant
              basis and therefore the decision making can be arranged
              on fair basis.
   • Municipalities establish a company together with
     private company
            • The decision making depends how the shares are
              distributed between the shareholders. In case the private
              sector has the majority of the shares, the public sector
              have to have a clear idea about their relevance in the
              company. Cannot be in In-house position.


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  Regional by-laws

• Necessary for local level waste operations. (In Finland the by-laws
  have to established by the municipality even if these have to be in
  co-ordination with the regional operations. )
• By-laws define the basis and practise for source selection and
  similar practical issues in the co-operation area
    •   Separation of biowaste
    •   Separation of packaging wastes
    •   Separation of waste paper
    •   Separation of other recyclables
• By-laws are also important tools for local politicians to express their
  preferences in practical operations of waste management
    • The level of source separation
    • The flexibility of the collection
    • Minimum requirements




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    MSW operations

Collection of waste
    •     Regional co - operation enhances the effective collection
          system
            •   Collection routes can be better planned
            •   Customer service can be improved
            •   Overall cost can be reduced
            •   New developments can be started
    •     Separate collection can be implemented effectively
            •   Hazardous waste collection system can be established
            •   Biowaste
            •   Paper
            •   Recovered materials
            •   Dry waste / energy waste
Processing of waste
    •     Regional approach gives good basis for waste processing
            • Waste quantities are big enough for different types of processing to
              be economical


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        Resources

Research and development
    •   Regional co - operation gives much better basis for research and
        development activities
           •   Resources are better compared to single municipality
           •   Staff is professional waste management personnel
           •   Long term commitments are easier
           •   New developments can be started


Human resources
    •   Staff is working with waste management only
           • Further education needs and possibilities easier
           • Learning by doing
    •   Recruitment of new staff
           • Image of regional organisation is clear
           • Environment work has a good image




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 Awareness


Consumer advice
    •   This is essential part of today's waste management
           • New rules and regulations are similar in the whole region
           • Media coverage is better
           • Larger volumes reduce unit prices also here


Conclusions
    •   Regional approach gives better resources for waste management
    •   Development of the waste management system is on sound basis
    •   Waste collection and processing of waste can be well integrated
    •   Waste processing can be more efficient
    •   Overall costs per capita are lower
    •   Human resources can be developed and motivate
    •   Consumer advise can be better organised




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Existing drivers towards 2020

Climate change
     • landfill directive targets in biodegradable
       waste for 2016
     • framework directive for eco-efficiency,
       combining energy and material use
Other drivers on MSW
     • comprehensive public responsibility in MSW
     • Integrated Product Policy (IPP) in regional
       context
     • waste market is supported with regulations
     • research for better knowledge on eco-
       efficiency in material and energy flows
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Practical lessons learned in public
waste service
1. Commitment of the local decision makers to
   long term strategic development in MSW
2. Clear mandate to carry out the legal duties
3. Adequate financial and manpower resources
4. Outsourcing of the services which can be well
   specified and where private sector is efficient
5. Tendering when competition is expected
6. Control of the waste streams under
   responsibility

12.2.2009        Markku Salo JLY-Jätelaitosyhdistys   34
Tere tulemast!


                          Jätelaitospäivät
                           27.-28.5.2009
                             Tampere
                             www.jly.fi




12.2.2009   Markku Salo JLY-Jätelaitosyhdistys   35
Thank you for your attention!




                                          www.jly.fi

12.2.2009    Markku Salo JLY-Jätelaitosyhdistys        36