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The Topic Outline � AP Human Geography by kaitlynnbarton

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									Topic Outline – AP Human Geography
The topic outline below is a skeleton around which the course is developed through the use of textbooks, Web
sites, journals, observations, and possibly fieldwork or class trips.

Percentage Goals for Exam Content Area (Multiple-Choice Section)
I. Geography: Its Nature and Perspectives 5–10%
        A. Geography as a field of inquiry
        B. Evolution of key geographical concepts and models associated with notable geographers
        C. Key concepts underlying the geographical perspective: location, space, place, scale, pattern,
        regionalization, and globalization
        D. Key geographical skills
                 1. How to use and think about maps and spatial data
                 2. How to understand and interpret the implications of associations among phenomena in
                 3. How to recognize and interpret at different scales the relationships among patterns and
                 4. How to define regions and evaluate the regionalization process
                 5. How to characterize and analyze changing interconnections among places
        E. New geographic technologies, such as GIS and GPS
        F. Sources of geographical ideas and data: the field, census data

II. Population 13–17%
         A. Geographical analysis of population
                 1. Density, distribution, and scale
                 2. Consequences of various densities and distributions
                 3. Patterns of composition: age, sex, race, and ethnicity
                 4. Population and natural hazards: past, present, and future
         B. Population growth and decline over time and space
                 1. Historical trends and projections for the future
                 2. Theories of population growth including the Demographic Model
                 3. Patterns of fertility, mortality, and health
                 4. Regional variations of demographic transitions
                 5. Effects of population policies
         C. Population movement
                 1. Push and pull factors
                 2. Major voluntary and involuntary migrations at different scales
                 3. Migration selectivity
                 4. Short-term, local movements, and activity space

III. Cultural Patterns and Processes 13–17%
          A. Concepts of culture
                   1. Traits
                   2. Diffusion
                   3. Acculturation
                   4. Cultural regions
          B. Cultural differences
                   1. Language
                   2. Religion
                   3. Ethnicity
                   4. Gender
                   5. Popular and folk culture
        C. Environmental impact of cultural attitudes and practices
        D. Cultural landscapes and cultural identity
                1. Values and preferences
                2. Symbolic landscapes and sense of place

IV. Political Organization of Space 13–17%
          A. Territorial dimensions of politics
                   1. The concept of territoriality
                   2. The nature and meaning of boundaries
                   3. Influences of boundaries on identity, interaction, and exchange
          B. Evolution of the contemporary political pattern
                   1. The nation-state concept
                   2. Colonialism and imperialism
                   3. Federal and unitary states
          C. Challenges to inherited political–territorial arrangements
                   1. Changing nature of sovereignty
                   2. Fragmentation, unification, alliance
                   3. Spatial relationships between political patterns and patterns of ethnicity, economy, and
                   4. Electoral geography, including gerrymandering

V. Agricultural and Rural Land Use 13–17%
        A. Development and diffusion of agriculture
                 1. Neolithic Agricultural Revolution
                 2. Second Agricultural Revolution
        B. Major agricultural production regions
                 1. Agricultural systems associated with major bioclimatic zones
                 2. Variations within major zones and effects of markets
                 3. Linkages and flows among regions of food production and consumption
        C. Rural land use and settlement patterns
                 1. Models of agricultural land use, including von Thünen’s model
                 2. Settlement patterns associated with major agriculture types
        D. Modern commercial agriculture
                 1. Third Agricultural Revolution
                 2. Green Revolution
                 3. Biotechnology
                 4. Spatial organization and diffusion of industrial agriculture
                 5. Future food supplies and environmental impacts of agriculture

VI. Industrialization and Economic Development 13–17%
        A. Key concepts in industrialization and development
        B. Growth and diffusion of industrialization
                   1. The changing roles of energy and technology
                   2. Industrial Revolution
                   3. Evolution of economic cores and peripheries
                   4. Geographic critiques of models of economic localization (i.e., land rent, comparative
                   costs of transportation), industrial location, economic development, and world systems
        C. Contemporary patterns and impacts of industrialization and development
                   1. Spatial organization of the world economy
                   2. Variations in levels of development
                   3. Deindustrialization and economic restructuring
                 4. Pollution, health, and quality of life
                 5. Industrialization, environmental change, and sustainability
                 6. Local development initiatives: government policies

VII. Cities and Urban Land Use 13–17%
          A. Definitions of urbanism
          B. Origin and evolution of cities
                   1. Historical patterns of urbanization
                   2. Rural–urban migration and urban growth
                   3. Global cities and megacities
                   4. Models of urban systems
          C. Functional character of contemporary cities
                   1. Changing employment mix
                   2. Changing demographic and social structures
          D. Built environment and social space
                   1. Comparative models of internal city structure
                   2. Transportation and infrastructure
                   3. Political organization of urban areas
                   4. Urban planning and design
                   5. Patterns of race, ethnicity, gender, and class
                   6. Uneven development, ghettoization, and gentrification
                   7. Impacts of suburbanization and edge cities


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