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CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
By Dean Mariano F. Magsalin Jr.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Concept and Origin of the Bill of Rights
Classification
       1. Civil Rights
       2. Political Rights
       3. Social and Economic Rights
Doctrine of Preferred Freedom (Hierarchy of Rights)
       PBM Employees Org. vs. PBM Co., Inc., 51 SCRA 189 (1973)
The Fundamental Powers of the State
       Similarities, Differences & Limitations



POLICE POWER

Definition, Scope & Basis
Characteristics
Who exercises said power?
Tests of Police Power
Laws:
       Balacuit v. CFI, G.R. No. L-38429, June 30, 1988
       Lozano vs. Matinez, 146 SCRA 323 (1986)
       Del Rosario vs. Bengzon, 180 SCRA 521 (1989)
       Tablarin vs. Judge Gutierrez, 152 SCRA 730 (1987)
Zoning and Regulatory Ordinances:
       Ermita-Malate Hotel & Motel Operators v. City Mayor, 20 SCRA 849 (1967)
       Cruz vs. Paras, 123 SCRA 569 (1983)
       Velasco vs. Villegas, 120 SCRA 568 (1983)
       Magtajas vs. Pryce Properties, 234 SCRA 255 (1994)
       Tano v. Socrates, G.R. 110249, August 27, 1997
       City of Manila v. Judge Laguio, G.R. No. 118127, April 12, 2005
Administrative Rules and Regulations
       Bautista vs. Junio, 127 SCRA 329 (1984)
       Taxicab Operators of Metro Manila vs. BOT, 119 SCRA 597 (1982)
       Mirasol v. DPWH, G.R. No. 158793, June 8, 2006
       Anglo-Fil Trading vs. Lazaro, 124 SCRA 494 (1983)
       PPA v. Cipres Stevedoring, G.R. No. 145742, July 14, 2005
       Chavez v. Romulo, G.R. No. 157036. June 9, 2004



EMINENT DOMAIN

Definition
Who exercises the power?
       City of Manila vs. Chinese Cemetery of Manila, 40 Phil 349 (1919)
       Moday v. Court of Appeals, 268 SCRA 368 (1997)
Constitutional limitation - Art. II, Sec. 9
Distinguished from destruction due to necessity
Objects of Expropriation
       RP. v. PLDT, 26 SCRA 620 (1969)
Where Expropriation Suit is Filed
       Barangay San Roque v. Heirs of Pastor, GR 138896 June 20, 2000
Taking
      Definition and scope
Requisites of Taking
       Republic vs. Castelvi, 58 SCRA 336 (1974)
       City Govt. of Quezon City vs. Ericta, 122 SCRA 759 (1983)
Deprivation of Use
       Republic vs. Fajardo , 104 Phil.443 (1958)


                                                                                 1
       Napocor vs. Gutierrez, 193 SCRA 1 (1991)
       Napocor v. San Pedro, G.R. 170945, September 26, 2006
       U.S. v. Causby, 328 U.S. 256 (1946)
       PPI v. Comelec, 244 SCRA 272 (1995)
Priority in Expropriation
       Filstream International v. CA, 284 SCRA 716 (1998)
       City of Mandaluyong v. Francisco, G.R. No. 137152, January 29, 2001
       Lagcao v. Judge Labra, G.R. No. 155746, October 13, 2004
       JIL v. Mun. of Pasig, G.R. 152230, August 9, 2005
Public use
       Heirs of Juancho Ardona vs. Reyes, 125 SCRA 220 (1983)
       Sumulong vs. Guerrero, 154 SCRA 461 (1987)
       Province of Camarines Sur vs. CA, 222 SCRA 170 (1993)
       Manosca v. Court of Appeals, 252 SCRA 412 (1996)
       Estate of Jimenez v. PEZA, G.R. No. 137285, January 16, 2001
Government Withdrawal
       NHA v. Heirs of Isidro Guivelondo, G.R. No. 154411. June 19, 2003
       NPC & Pobre v. CA, G.R. No. 106804. August 12, 2004
Recovery of Expropriated Land
       ATO v. Gopuco, G.R. No. 158563, June, 30 2005
       Republic v. Lim, G.R. 161656, June 29, 2005
Genuine Necessity
       Mun. of Meycayauan vs. IAC, 157 SCRA 640 (1988)
       De Knecht vs. Bautista, 100 SCRA 660 (1980)
       Republic vs. De Knecht, G.R. 87351, February 12, 1990
       De la Paz Masikip v. Judge Legaspi, G.R. No. 136349, January 23, 2006
Just Compensation
Defined
       Eslaban v. De Onorio, G.R. No. 146062, June 28, 2001
       RP vs. IAC, et al., G.R. No. 71176, May 21, 1990
Determination of Just Compensation
       EPZA vs. Dulay, 149 SCRA 305 (1987)
When Determined
       Ansaldo vs. Tantuico, G.R. 50147 August 3, 1990
       NAPOCOR v. Tiangco, G.R. No. 170846, February 6, 2007
       City of Cebu v. Spouses Dedamo, G.R. No. 142 971, May 07, 2002
Manner of Payment
       Assoc.of Small Landowners v. DAR, 175 SCRA 343 (1989)
       DAR v. CA, 249 SCRA 149 (1995)
Trial with Commissioners
       Meralco v. Pineda, 206 SCRA 196 (1992)
       NPC v. Henson, G.R. No. 129998, December 29, 1998
       Napocor v. Sps. De la Cruz, G.R. No. 156093, February 2, 2007
       Leca Realty v. Republic, G.R. No. 155605, September 27, 2006
Legal Interest for Expropriation Cases
       NPC v. Angas, 208 SCRA 542 (1992)
       Wycoco v. Judge Caspillo, G.R. No. 146733, January 13, 2004
Writ of Possession
       City of Manila v. Oscar Serrano, G.R. No. 142304, June 20, 2001
       Republic v. Gingoyon, G.R. No. 166429, December 19, 2005
Expropriation of Utilities, Landed Estates and Municipal Property
       Art. XII, Sec. 18
       Art. XIII, Sec. 4
       Art. XIII, Sec. 9
       City of Baguio vs. Nawasa, 106 Phil. 114 (1959)
       Zamboanga del Norte vs. City of Zamboanga, 22 SCRA 1334 (1968)



TAXATION

Definition and Nature
Purpose
       CIR vs. Algue, Inc., 158 SCRA 9 (1988)
       Commissioner vs. Makasiar, 177 SCRA 27 (1989)



                                                                               2
Scope (The power to tax is the power to destroy)
Who exercises the power?
      Art. VI Sec. 28
      Art. XIV, Sec. 4 (3)
      Art. X, Sec. 5
Tax Exemptions
      YMCA vs. CIR, 33 Phil. 217 (1916)
      Bishop of Nueva Segovia vs. Provincial Board, 51 Phil. 352 (1927)
      Lladoc vs. CIR, 14 SCRA 292 (1965)
      Province of Abra vs. Hernando, 107 SCRA 104 (1981)
      Abra Valley College vs. Aquino , 162 SCRA 106 (1988)
      American Bible Society vs. City of Manila, 101 Phil. 386 (1957)
Double Taxation
      Punzalan vs. Municipal Board of Manila, 95 Phil.46 (1954)
License Fees
      Physical Therapy Org. vs. Municipal Board, G.R. 10448, August 30, 1957



DUE PROCESS
         Art. III, Sec. I
         Art. III. Sec. 14 (1)
Definition, Nature and Scope
Purpose of the guaranty
       Hurtado v. California, 110 U.S. 516 (1884)
Meaning of Life, Liberty, and Property
Substantive Due Process
       Villegas vs. Hu Chong Tsai Pao Ho, 86 SCRA 275 (1978)
       Rubi vs. Prov. Board of Mindoro, 39 Phil. 660 (1919)
Void for Vagueness/Overbreadth
       Ople v. Torres, 292 SCRA 141. (1998)
       Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148560, November 19, 2001
       David v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 171390, May 3, 2006
       Ong v. Sandiganbayayn, G.R. No. 126858, September 16, 2005
Procedural Due Process
Publication Requirement
       Tanada v. Tuvera, 146 SCRA 446 (1986)
       PITC v. Angeles, 263 SCRA 421 (1996)
       Republic v. Extelcom, G.R. 147096, January 15, 2002
Impartial Court or Tribunal
       Tanada vs. PAEC, 141 SCRA 307 (1986)
       Anzaldo vs. Clave , 119 SCRA 353 (1982)
       Tejano v. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 159190, June 30, 2005
       Tumey vs. Ohio, 273 U.S. 510 (1997)
       People v. Court of Appeals, 262 SCRA 452 (1996)
       Tabuena v. Sandiganbayan, 268 SCRA 332 (1997)
Prejudicial Publicity
       Sheppard v. Maxwell, 384 U.S. 333 (1966)
       Webb v. De Leon, 247 SCRA 652 (1995)
       People v. Sanchez, G.R. No. 121039, October 18, 2001
Notice and Hearing:
       Summary Dismissal Board v. Torcita, 330 SCRA 153 (2000)
       Secretary of Justice v. Lantion, G.R. No. 139466, October 17, 2000
       People vs. Estrada G.R. No. 130487 June 19, 2000
       Lim v. Court of Appeals, G.R. 111397, August 12, 2002
Opportunity to be Heard
       Budiongan v. De la Cruz, G.R. No. 170288, September 22, 2006
       Roxas v. Vasquez, G.R. 114944, June 21, 2001
       Marohombsar v. Judge Adiong, A.M. RTJ-02-1674, January 22, 2004
Exceptions to notice and hearing requirements
      Philcomsat vs. Alcuaz, 180 SCRA 218 (1989)
       Suntay vs. People, 101 Phil. 833 (1957)
       De Bisshop vs. Galang, 8 SCRA 244 (1963)
       Var Orient Shipping Co., Inc. vs. Achacoso, 161 SCRA 232 (1988)
Administrative Due Process



                                                                               3
      Ang Tibay vs. CIR, 69 Phil. 635 (1940)
      Montemayor vs. Araneta University Foundation, 77 SCRA 321 (1977)
      Meralco vs. PSC, 11 SCRA 317 (1964)
      Ateneo vs. CA, 145 SCRA 100 (1986)
      Alcuaz vs. PSBA, 161 SCRA 7 (1988)
      Non vs. Hon. Dames, G.R. No. 89317, May 30, 1990



EQUAL PROTECTION

Political, Economic and Social Equality
       Art. XIII, Sec. 1 and 2 (social justice)
       Id., Sec. 3 (protection to labor)
       Art. XII, Sec. 10 (nationalization of business)
       Id., Sec. 2, par. 2 (reservation of marine resources)
       Art. II, Sec. 11 (free access to the courts)
       Art. VIII, Sec. 5(5) (legal aid to poor)
       Art. IX-C, Sec. 10 (protection of candidates)
       Art. II, Sec. 26 (public service)
       Art. II, Sec. 14 (equality of women and men)
Sexual Discrimination
       Phil. Association of Service Exporters vs. Drilon, 163 SCRA 386 (1988)
Administration of Justice
       People vs. Hernandez, 99 Phil. 515 (1956)
       People vs. Isinain, 85 Phil. 648 (1950)
       Chavez v. PCGG, G.R. 130716, December 9, 1998
       Nunez vs. Sandiganbayan, 111 SCRA 433 (1982)
       Gallardo v. People, G.R. 142030, April 21, 2005

Public Policy
      Central Bank Employees Assoc. v. BSP, G.R. No. 148208, Dec. 15, 2004
      PNB v. Palma, G.R. 157279, August 9, 2005
      Unido vs. COMELEC, 104 SCRA 17 (1981)
      PJA vs. Prado, 227 SCRA 703 (1993)
      Olivarez v. Sandiganbayan, 248 SCRA 700 (1995)
      Tiu v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 127410, January 20, 1999
      Coconut Oil Refiners v. Torres, G.R. 132527, July 29, 2005
      ISAE v. Quisumbing, G.R. No. 128845, June 1, 2000
      PHILRECA vs. DILG, G.R. No. 143076. June 10, 2003
      Beltran v. Secretary of Health, G.R. No. 133640, November 25, 2005



THE NON-IMPAIRMENT CLAUSE
      Art. III, Sec. 10
      Purpose
      When impairment occurs
      When allowed
Emergency Powers
      Rutter vs. Esteban, 93 Phil. 68 (1953)
Zoning and Regulatory Ordinances
      Villanueva vs. Castaneda, 154 SCRA 142 (1987)
      Sangalang vs. IAC, 168 SCRA 634 (1988)
      Ortigas & Co. v. CA, G.R. No. 126102, December 4, 2000
 Administrative Regulations
      Tiro vs. Hontanosas, 125 SCRA 697 (1983)
Rental Laws
      Caleon vs. Agus Development Corp., 207 SCRA 748 (1992)
Tax Exemptions
      Meralco v. Province of Laguna, 306 SCRA 750 (1999)



ARRESTS, SEARCHES AND SEIZURES
     Art. III, Sec. 2 and 3
Purpose and Importance of the guaranty


                                                                                4
       Alvero v. Dizon, 76 Phil 637 (1946)
To Whom Directed
       People vs. Andre Marti, 193 SCRA 57 (1991)
Who May Invoke the Right?
       Bache and Co., vs. Ruiz, 37 SCRA 323 (1971)
       Stonehill v. Diokno, 20 SCRA 383 (1967)
       Zurcher vs. Stanford Daily, 436 U. S. 547 (1978)
       Wilson v. Layne, 98-0083, May 24, 1999
Conditions for a valid warrant
Existence of Probable Cause
       Burgos vs. Chief of Staff, 133 SCRA 800 (1984)
       Chandler v. Miller, April 15, 1997, D-96-126
       People v. Chua Ho San, 308 SCRA 432) (1999)
       People v. Molina, G.R. No. 133917, February 19, 2001
Partially Valid Warrant
       People v. Salanguit, G.R. 133254, April 18, 2001
       Microsoft Corp. v. Maxicorp., G.R. 140946, September 13, 2004
Personal determination by judge
       Sta. Rosa Mining Co., vs. Fiscal Zabala, 153 SCRA 367 (1987)
       Paderanga vs. Drilon, G.R. 96080, April 19, 1991
       Pita vs. CA, 178 SCRA 362 (1987)
       Abdula v. Guiani. 326 SCRA 1 (2000)
       People v. Mamaril, G.R. 147607, January 22, 2004
Examination of witnesses
        Pasion Vda. De Garcia vs. Locsin, 65 Phil 68 (1938)
       Yee Sue Kuy vs. Almeda, 70 Phil. 141, (1940)
       Alvarez vs. CFI, 64 Phil. 33 (1937)
       Mata vs. Bayona , 128 SCRA 388 (1984)
Particularity of description
       Olaes vs. People, 155 SCRA 486 (1987)
       Prudente vs. Judge Dayrit, 180 SCRA 69 (1989)
       Chia vs. Coll. of Customs, 177 SCRA 755 (1989)
       20th Century Fox Film Corp. vs. CA, 164 SCRA 655 (1988)
       People v. Choi, G.R. No. 152950, August 3, 2006
       Nolasco vs. Cruz Pano, 132 SCRA 152 (1985)
       PICOP v. Asuncion, 307 SCRA 253) (1999)
       Yousef Al Ghoul vs. C.A, GR No.126859, September 4, 2001
       Del Rosario v. People G.R. No. 142295, May 31,2001).
Objects of Seizure
       Rule 126, Sec. 3, Rules of Court (ROC)
       Unilab v. Isip, G.R. No. 163858, June 28, 2005
Warrantless searches
Valid Waiver
       People vs. Omaweng, 213 SCRA 462 (1992)
       People v. Correa, 285 SCRA 679 (1998)
       People vs. Ramos, G.R. 85401-02, June 4, 1990
       People v. Barros, 231 SCRA 557 (1994)
       Veroy vs. Layague, 210 SCRA 97 (1992)
       People vs. Damaso, 212 SCRA 457 (1992)
       Lopez vs. Comm. Of Customs, 68 SCRA 320 (1975)
       Caballes v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 136292, January 5, 2002
       People vs. Asis, et. al., G.R. No. 142531, October 15, 2002
       People vs. Tudtud, et. al., G.R. No. 144037, September 26, 2003
Incident to lawful arrest
        Rule 126, Section 13, Rules of Court
       Chimel vs. California, 395 U. S. 752 (1964)
       People vs. de la Cruz, G.R. 83988, April 18, 1990
       People v. Kalubiran, 196 SCRA 645 (1991)
       People v. Malmstedt, 198 SCRA 401 (1991)
       Espano v. Court of Appeals, 288 SCRA 558 (1998)
       People vs. Tangliben, 184 SCRA 220 (1990)
       People v. Che Chun Ting, 328 SCRA 592 (2000)
       People vs. Estrella, G.R. Nos. 138539-40, January 21, 2003
       People vs. Libnao, et al., G.R. No. 136860, January 20, 2003



                                                                         5
Plain view doctrine
       People v. Musa, 217 SCRA 597 (1993)
       Padilla v. CA, 269 SCRA 402 (1997)
       People v. Valdez, G.R. No. 129296, September 25, 2000
       Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321 [1987]}
       People v. Compacion, G.R. No. 124442, July 20, 2001
       People v. Huang Zhen Hua, G.R. 139301, September 29, 2004
Enforcement of fishing, customs and immigration laws
       Roldan vs. Area, 65 SCRA 320 (1975)
       People v. Gatward, 267 SCRA 785 (1997)
       People v. Johnson, G.R. No. 138881, December 18, 2000
       People vs. Suzuki, G.R. No. 120670, October 23, 2003
 “Stop and frisk”
       Terry vs. Ohio, 392 US 1 (1968)
       People v. Solayao, 262 SCRA 255 (1996)
       Manalili v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 113447, October 7, 1997
       Malacat v. Court of Appeals, 283 SCRA 159 (1997)
       Florida v. J.L., 98-1993, March 28, 2000
Search of moving vehicles
       Papa vs. Mago, 22 SCRA 857 (1968)
       People vs. CFI of Rizal, 101 SCRA 86 (1980)
       Salvador v. People, G.R. No. 146706, July 15, 2005
       Whren v. United States, 95-5841, January 10, 1996
Emergency circumstances
       People vs. De Gracia 233 SCRA 716          (1994)
Checkpoints
       Gen. De Villa vs. Valmonte G.R. No. 83988, May 24, 1990
       Aniag vs. Comelec, 237 SCRA 424 (1994)
       People v. Usana, 323 SCRA 754 (2000)
       People v. Vinecario, G.R. No. 141137, January 20, 2004
Inspection of buildings
       Camara vs. Municipal Court, 387 U. S. 523 (1967)
Warrantless arrests
       Rule 113, Sec. 5
       Art. 125, Revised Penal Code
Rebellion as Continuing Offense
       Umil vs. Ramos, G. R. 81567, July 9, 1990
Committed in the Presence of Police Officers
       People v. Sucro, 195 SCRA 388 (1991)
       People v. Luisito Go, G.R. No. 116001, March 14, 2001
Personal Knowledge of the Offense
       People vs. Gerente, 219 SCRA 756 (1993)
       People v. Sinoc, 275 SCRA 357 (1997)
       People v. Baula, G.R. No. 132671, November 15, 2000
       People v. Cubcubin, G.R. No. 136267, July 10, 2001
Time of Arrest
       People vs. Rodrigueza, 205 SCRA 791 (1992)
       Go vs. Court of Appeals, 206 SCRA 586 (1992)
       People v. Calimlim, G.R. No. 123980, August 30. 2001
Marked Money
       People vs. Enrile, 222 SCRA 586 (1993)
Lack of Urgency
       People v. Pasudag, G.R. No. 128822, May 4, 2001
       People vs. Aminnudin, 163 SCRA 402 (1988)
Effect of Bail
       Rule 114, Section 26
Effect of Entry of Plea
       People v. Plana G.R. No. 128285, November 27, 2001
Validity of Conviction
       People v. Conde, G.R. No. 113269, April 10, 2001




                                                                        6
PRIVACY OF COMMUNICATION & CORRESPONDENCE
      R.A. No. 4200 (Anti-Wire Tapping Law) (1965)
      Arts, 290, 291, 292 and 299. Revised Penal Code.
      Gaanan vs. IAC, 145 SCRA 113 (1986)
      Katz vs. U.S., 389 U.S. 347 (1967)
      Ramirez vs. CA, G.R. No. 93833, September 28, 1995
      Salcedo-Ortanez v. CA, 235 SCRA 111 (1994)
      Alejano v. Cabuay, G.R. No. 160792, August 25, 2005
Privileged Communications
       In Re Laureta, 148 SCRA 382 (1987)
       People vs. Albofera, 152 SCRA 123 (1987)
       Zulueta v. Court of Apeals, 253 SCRA 699 (1996)
       Deano v. Godinez, 12 SCRA 483 (1964)
       Waterhouse Drug Corporation v. NLRC, G.R. No. 113271. October 16, 1997
Exclusionary Rule
       Art. III, Sec. 3(2)
       Silverthorne Lumber vs. US, 251 US 385 (1920)
       People v. Aruta, G. R. 120915, April 3. 1998
       People v. Rondero, G.R. 125687, December 9, 1999
Liability for damages
       Aberca vs. Ver, 160 SCRA 590 (1989)


RIGHTS OF PERSONS UNDER CUSTODIAL INVESTIGATION
       Art. III, Sec , 12
      Miranda vs. Arizona , 384 US , 436 (1966)
Custodial Investigation
       People v. Lugod, G.R. 136253, February 21, 2001
       People v. Del Rosario G.R. 127755, April 14, 1999
       People v. Bolanos, 211 SCRA 262 (1992)
       Rhode Island v. Innis, 446 U.S. 291, [1980]
       People v. Mahinay, 302 SCRA 455 (1999)
Administrative Investigations
       People vs. Judge Ayson, 175 SCRA 216 (1989)
       Office of the Court Administrator v. Sumilang, 271 SCRA 316 (1997)
       People v. Uy, G.R. No. 157399, November 17, 2005
Police Lineup
       Gamboa vs.Cruz, 162 SCRA 642 (1988)
       United States v. Wade, 388 U.A. 218 (1967)
       People v. Escordial, G.R. 138934, January 16, 2002
       People vs. Piedad, et al., G.R. No. 131923, December 5, 2002
Cases before January 17, 1973 not applicable
       Magtoto vs.Manguera, 63 SCRA 4 (1975)
Rule under the 1973 Constitution (Voluntary, knowing & intelligent waiver)
       People vs. Caguioa, 95 SCRA 2 (1980)
      People vs. Tampus, 90 SCRA 624 (1980)
       People v. Sayaboc, G.R. 147201, January 15, 2004
The Galit Rule
       People vs. Galit, 135 SCRA 465 (1985)
Rule under the 1987 Constitution
Requirement of Competent & Independent Counsel
       People vs. Bandula, 232 SCRA 566 (1994)
       People v. Quidato, G.R. 117401, October 1, 1998
       People v. Januario. 267 SCRA 608 (1997)
       People v. Labtan, GR. No. 12793, December 8, 1999
       People vs. Samus, G.R. 135957-58, September 17, 2002
       People v. Tomaquin, G.R. No. 133138, July 23, 2004
       People v. Bagnate, G.R. No. 133685-86 May 20, 2004
Counsel of Choice
       People vs. Gallardo, G.R. No. 113684, Jan. 25, 2000
       People vs. Barasina, 229 SCRA 450 (1994)




                                                                                7
Counsel’s presence required in entire proceedings
       People v. Morial, G.R. 129295, August 15, 2001
Seized Articles
       People v. Castro. 274 SCRA 115 (1997)
       People v. Wong Chuen Ming. 256 SCRA 182 (1996)
       Marcelo v. Sandiganbayan, 302 SCRA 102 (1999)
       People v. Macabalang, G.R. 168694, November 27, 2006
Confession to Newsmen
       People v. Andan. 269 SCRA 95 (1997)
       People v. Endino, G.R. 133026, February 20, 2001
       People vs. Ordono, G.R. No. 132154, June 29, 2000
       People vs. Guillermo, GR. No. 147786, January 20, 2004
Other Confessions
       People v. Malngan, G.R. No. 170470, September 26, 2006
       People v. Gomez, 270 SCRA 432 (1997)
       Illinois v. Perkins, 496 U.S. 292 (1990)
       People v. Lugod, G.R. 136253, February 21, 2001
Re-enactment
       People v. Luvendino, 211 SCRA 36 (1992)
Exclusionary rule
       Art. III, Sec. 12 (3)
Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine
       People v. Alicando 251 SCRA 293 (1995)
       Harris vs. New York, 401 U.S. 222 (1971)
       New York vs. Quarles, 104 S. U. 2626 (1984)



RIGHT TO BAIL
       Art. III, Sec. 13
Bail Defined
       Rule 114, Section 1, ROC
Kinds of Bail
       Rule 114, Sections 10, 11, 14 & 15
When right may be invoked
       Herras Teehankee vs. Rovira, 75 Phil. 634 (1945)
       People vs. San Diego, 26 SCRA 522 (1968)
       Cortes v. Judge Catral, A.M. No. RTJ-97-1387, September 10, 1997
       Lavides v. CA, G.R. No. 129670. February 1, 2000
       Government v. Judge Puruganan, G.R. 148571, December 17, 2002
Procedure for bail
       Paderanga v. Drilon, 247 SCRA 741, (1995).
       Go v. Bongolan. A.M. 99-1464, July 26, 1999
       People v. Gako, G.R. 135045, December 15, 2000
Bail and Habeas Corpus
       Enrile vs. Salazar, 186 SCRA 217 (1990)
       People vs. Judge Donato, 198 SCRA 130 (1991)
Bail on appeal
       People vs. Fortes, 223 SCRA 619 (1993)
       Maguddatu v. CA, G.R. No. 139599. February 23, 2000
       Obosa v. Court of Appeals, G.R. 114350, January 16, 1997
Standards for fixing bail
       Rule 114, Sec. 9
       Villasenor vs. Abano, 21 SCRA 312 (1967)
       De la Camara vs. Enage, 41 SCRA 1 (1971)
       Almeda vs. Villaluz, 66 SCRA 38 (1975)
       Yap v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 141529, June 6, 2001
       Cabañero v. Cañon, A.M. No. MTJ-01-369, September 20, 2001
       Victory Liner v. Belosillo, G.r. 425 SCRA 79 (2004)
 Bail and the Right to Travel Abroad
       Manotoc vs. Court of Appeals, 142 SCRA 149 (1980)




                                                                          8
RIGHTS OF AN ACCUSED
      Art. III, Sec. 14



Presumption of Innocence


Proof beyond reasonable doubt
       People vs. Dramayo, 42 SCRA 59 (1971)
Order of Trial
       Alejandro vs. Pepito, 96 SCRA 322 (1988)(modified by Rule 119 Sec. 3 (e)
Presumption of Guilt
       Dumlao vs. Comelec, 95 SCRA 392 (1980)
       People vs. Mingoa, 92 Phil. 857 (1953)
 Applicability to Juridical Persons
       Feeder Int’l Line vs. CA CR 94262 May 31, 1991
Official Duty
       People vs. Martos, 211 SCRA 805 (1992)
Equipoise Rule
       Corpuz vs. People, 194 SCRA 73 (1991)
       Dizon Paminatuan v. People, July 11, 1994
Right to be heard personally or by counsel
Importance of Counsel
       People vs. Holgado, 85 Phil. 752 (1950)
       Delgado vs. CA, 145 SCRA 357 (1986)
Improvident Plea of guilt
       People vs. Baluyot, 75 SCRA 148 (1977)
       People vs. Magsi, 124 SCRA 69 (1983)
       People v. Besonia, G.R. No. 151284-85, February 5, 2004
       People v. Murillo, G.R. No. 134583, July 14, 2004
Right to Lawyer of Choice
       People vs. Malunsing, 63 SCRA 493(1975)
       Libuit v. People, G.R. No. 154363, September 13, 2005
Deprivation of Right to be Heard
       Moslares v. CA, 291 SCRA 440 (1998)

Right to be informed of nature and cause of accusation
Lack of Arraignment
       Borja vs. Mendoza, 77 SCRA 422 (1977)
       People v. Alcalde, G.R. 139225, May 29, 2002
       People v. Dy, G.R. 115236, January 29, 2002
Sufficiency of the Information
       People v. Sadiosa, 290 SCRA 82 (1998)
       People v. Perez, G.R. No. 122764, September 24, 1998
       People v. Lozano, G.R 125080, September 25, 1998
       People v. Ladrillo, GR. No. 124342, December 8, 1999
       People v. Valdesancho, G.R. 137051, May 30, 2001
       People v. Alcaide, G.R. Nos. 139225-28, May 29, 2002
       People vs. Ostia, G.R. No. 131804, February 26, 2003
       People vs. Flores Jr., G.R. No. 128823-24, December 27, 2002
       People v. Cachapero, G.R. No. 153008, May 20, 2004



Right to speedy, impartial and public trial
Speedy trial
     Acevedo vs. Sarmiento, 36 SCRA 247 (1970)
     People vs. Judge Laya, 161 SCRA 327 (1988)
     Conde vs. Rivera, 45 Phil. 650 (1924)
     Dacanay vs. People, 240 SCRA 490 (1995)
     People v. Rivera, G.R. No. 139180, July 31, 2001



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      Solar Team Entertainment v. How, G.R. No. 140863, August 22, 2000
      Valencia v. Sandiganbayan. G.R. No. 165996, October 17, 2005
      Domondon v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 166606. November 29, 2005
Public trial
      Garcia vs. Domingo, 52 SCRA 143 (1970)
      Perez v. Estrada, A.M. No. 01-4-03-SC, June 29, 2001
Impartial trial
      Tumey vs. Ohio, 273 U.S. 510 (1927)
      Soriano vs Angeles, G.R. No. 109920. August 31, 2000



Right to confront witnesses
      U.S. v. Javier, 37 Phil. 449 (1918)



Right to secure attendance of witnesses
      U.S. vs. Garcia, 10 Phil. 384 (1908)
      People vs. Sandal, 54 Phil. 883 (1938)
      People vs. De Luna, 174 SCRA 204 (1989)



Right to be present during trial
Trial in absentia
        Rule 115, Sec. 1 (c)
        People vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 140285, September 27, 2006
When presence of the accused is a duty:
Arraignment and plea
        Rule 116, Sec. 1 (b)
During trial for identification
        Aquino vs. Military Commission No. 63 SCRA 546 (1975)
        People vs. Salas, 143 SCRA 163 (1986)
Promulgation of sentence
        Rule 120, Sec. 6
        Exception: Light offenses



PRIVILEGE AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATION
       Art. III, Sec. 17
Scope covers compulsory testimonial incrimination
       United States vs. Tan Teh, 23 Phil. 145 (1912)
       United States vs. Ong Siu Hong, 36 Phil. 735 (1917)
       People vs. Otadura, 86 Phil. 244 (1950)
       Villaflor vs. Summers, 41 Phil. 62 (1920)
       Bermudez vs. Castillo, 64 Phil. 485 (1937)
       Beltran v. Samson, 53 Phil. 570 (1929)
       People vs. Tranca, 235 SCRA 455 (1994)
       South Dakota v. Neville, 459 U.S. 553 (1983)
       Schemerber v. California, 384 U.S. 757 (1966)
       People v. Rondero, GR. No. 125687, December 9, 1999
       People vs. Gallarde, G.R. No. 133025. February 17, 2000.
In what proceedings available
       Pascual vs. Board of Medical Examiners, 28 SCRA 344 (1969)
       Galman vs. Pamaran, 138 SCRA 274 (1985)
Use Immunity v. Transactional Immunity.
       Art. XIII, Sec. 18 (8)
       R.A. No. 1379, Section 8
       Galman vs. Pamaran, 138 SCRA 274 (1985)
       Brown v. Walker, 161 U.S. 591
Exclusionary rule
       Art. II, Sec. 12 (3)
Effect of denial of privilege by court
      Chavez vs. Court of Appeals, 24 SCRA 663 (1968)




                                                                           10
RIGHT TO SPEEDY DISPOSITION OF CASES
     Art. III, Sec. 16
     Art. VIII, Sec. 15
     Art. VII, Sec. 19 par. 3
     Art. IX, A, Sec. 17
     Duterte v. Sandiganbayan, 289 SCRA 721 (1998)
     Tatad vs. Sandiganbayan ; 159 SCRA 70 (1988)
     Licaros v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. 145851, November 22, 2001
      Dimayacyac v. Judge Roxas, G.R. No. 136264, May 28, 2004
      Bernat v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 158018. May 20, 2004



PUNISHMENTS

Excessive fines and cruel, degrading and inhuman punishments
      People vs. Dela Cruz, 92 Phil. 906 (1953)
      People vs. Borja, 91 SCRA 340 (1978)
      People vs. Dacuycuy, 173 SCRA 90 (1989)
      Loiusiana v. Resweber, 329 U.S. 459 (1947)
      Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399 [1986]
      Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002)
The death penalty
      Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice, G.R. No. 132601 January 19, 1999



Involuntary servitude
      Art. III, Sec. 18
      Aclaracion vs. Gatmaitan, 64 SCRA 131 (1979)



Imprisonment for debt
      Art. III, Sec. 20
      Sura vs. Martin, 26 SCRA 286 (1969)
      People vs. Nitafan, 207 SCRA 726 (1992)
      In Re: Habeas Corpus of Benjamin Vergara, G.R. No. 154037. April 30, 2003



Ex post facto laws and bills of attainder
      Art III, Sec. 22
      Kay Villegas Kami, 35 SCRA 429 (1970)
      People vs. Ferrer, 48 SCRA 382 (1972)
      People vs. Sandiganbayan, 211 SCRA 241 (1992)
      Wright vs. CA, 235 SCRA 341 (1994)



Double Jeopardy
      Art. III, Sec. 21
      Rule 117, Sec. 7
      Rule 120, Sec. 5
      Elements
              People vs. Obsania, 23 SCRA 1249 (1968)
      Subsequent prosecution barred; Exceptions
              Melo vs. People, 85 Phil. 766 (1959)
              People vs.Yorac, 42 SCRA 230 (1971) (overruled)
              PSB v. Bermoy, G.R. No. 151912, September 26, 2005
              Heirs of Rillorta vs. Firme, 157 SCRA 518 (1988)
              People vs. Miraflores, 115 SCRA 586 (1982)
              People vs. Judge Vergara, 221 SCRA 560 (1993)
              Tupaz v. Ulep, GR. No. 127777, October 1, 1999
              Argel v. Judge Pascua, A.M. No. RTJ-94-1131, August 20, 2001




                                                                                  11
      Jurisdiction of Courts
             People v. Bocar, 138 SCRA 166 (1985)
             Galman vs Sandiganbayan, 144 SCRA 43 (1986)
             People vs. Grospe, 157 SCRA 154 (1988)
             People vs. Judge Santiago, 174 SCRA 143 (1989)
      Identity of Acts
             People vs. Relova, 148 SCRA 292 (1987)
      Identity of Offenses
             People vs. City Court, 154 SCRA 175 (1987)
             Nierras vs. Dacuycuy, 181 SCRA 1 (1990)
      Military Court Proceedings
             Cruz vs.Enrile, 160 SCRA 702 (1988)
             Tan v. Barrios. October 18, 1990
      Right to Speedy Trial
             Que vs. Cosico, 177 SCRA 410 (1989)
             Caes vs. IAC, 179 SCRA 54 (1989)
      Administrative & Criminal Proceedings
             Icasiano vs. Sandignabayan, 209 SCRA 377(1992)
             Vincoy v. CA, G.R. No. 156558, June 14, 2004
             People v. Larannaga, G.R. No. 138874, July 21, 2005
      Plea of Guilt to Lesser Offense
             People vs. Judge Villarama, 210 SCRA 246 (1992)



PRIVILEGE OF THE WRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS
      Art. II, Sec. 15
      Art. VII, Sec, 18
      Villavicencio vs. Lukban, 39 Phil 778 (1919)
      Moncupa vs. Ponce Enrile, 141 SCRA 223 (1986)
      Lansang vs. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448 (1971)
      Chavez vs. Court of Appeals, 24 SCRA 663 (1968)
      Gumabon vs. Director of Prisons, 37 SCRA 420 (1971)
      In re Abadilla, 156 SCRA 92 (1987)
      Norberto Feria vs. CA, et al. G.R. 122954 Feb 15, 2000
      Illusorio v. Bildner, G.R. 139789, May 12, 2000



FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION
       Art. III, Sec. 4
       Id., Sec. 18 (1)
Purpose
       United States vs. Bustos, 37 Phil. 731 (1918)
       Burgos vs. Chief Of Staff, 133 SCRA 800 (1984)
       New York Times vs. Sullivan 380 US 51 (1964)
Restrictions
       Gonzales vs. COMELEC, 27 SCRA 835 (1969)
       Social Weather Station v. Comelec, G.R. 147571, May 5, 2001
Balancing of Interest Test
Dangerous Tendency Test
Clear and Present Danger Test
       Zaldivar vs. Sandiganbayan, 170 SCRA 1 (1989)
       Sanidad vs. COMELEC, G.R. 90878, January 29, 1990
       Reno v. ACLU, D-96-511 June 26, 1997
       Miriam College v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 127930 December 15, 2000
       ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corp. v. Comelec, G.R. No. 133486, January 28, 2000
       Chavez v. Comelec
Freedom of Expression, Libel and National Security
       Babst vs. NIB, 132 SCRA 316 (1984)
       Espuelas vs. People, 90 Phil. 524 (1951)
       Elizalde vs. CFI 116 SCRA 93 (1982)
       Lopez vs. Court of Appeals, 34 SCRA 116 (1970)
       PJI v. Thoenen, G.R. No. 143372, December 13, 2005
       Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397 (1989)
       Borjal v. C.A., 301 SCRA 1(1999)


                                                                                  12
      Baguio Midland Courier v. CA, G.R. No. 107566, November 25, 2004
Freedom of Expression and the Administration of Justice
      Cabansag vs. Fernandez, 102 Phil. 152
      People vs. Alarcon, 69 Phil. 265 (1939)
      In Re Ramon Tulfo, AM 90-4-1545-0, April 17, 1990
      Nestle Phils. vs. Sanchez, 154 SCRA 542 (1987)
      In Re Atty. Emil Jurado AM 90-5-2373 July 12, 1990
Freedom of Expression, Movie Censorship, Obscenity and the Right to Privacy
      Gonzales vs. Kalaw Katikbak, 137 SCRA 356 (1985)
      Lagunzad vs. Sotto, Vda. De Gonzales 92 SCRA 476 (1979)
      Ayer Productions vs. Judge Capulong, 160 SCRA 861 (1988)
      KMU v. Director General, G.R. No. 167798, April 19, 2006
      MTRCB v. ABS-CBN, G.R. No. 155282, January 17, 2005
      Reno v. ACLU, June 26, 1997, D-96-511
      Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973)
      Fernando v. Court of Appeals. G.R. No. 159751 December 6, 2006

Radio Broadcasts
      Eastern Broadcasting Corp. (DYRE) vs. Dans, 137 SCRA 247 (1985)



FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY
      BP Blg. 880 (Public Assembly Act of 1985)
      Primicias vs. Fugoso, 80 Phil. 71 (1948)
      Navarro vs. Villegas, 31 SCRA 730 (1970)
      Ignacio vs. Ela, 99 Phil. 346 (1956)
      J.B.I. Reyes vs. Bagatsing , 125 SCRA 553 (1983)
      Ruiz vs. Gordon, 126 SCRA 233 (1983)
      Malabanan vs. Ramento, 129 SCRA 359 (1984)
      Arreza vs. GAUF, 137 SCRA 94 (1985)
      German vs. Barangan, 135 SCRA 514 (1985)
      Acosta v CA and CSC GR 132088 Jun 28, 2000
      Bayan v. Ermita, G.R. No. 169848, April 25, 2006



FREEDOM OF INFORMATION
      Art. III, Sec. 7
      Baldoza vs. Dimaano, 71 SCRA 14 (1976)
      Tanada vs. Tuvera, supra
      Valmonte vs. Belmonte, 170 SCRA 256 (1989)
      Legaspi vs. CSC, 150 SCRA 530 (1987)
      Garcia vs. BOI, 177 SCRA 374 (1989)



FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION
      Art. III, Sec. 8
      Art. IX, Sec. 2 (5)
      Art. XIII, Sec. 3, par.2
      Occena vs. COMELEC, 127 SCRA 404 (1985)
      In re Edillon, 84 SCRA (1979)
      Rotary Int’l v. Rotary Club, 481 U.S. 537 (1987)



FREEDOM OF RELIGION
       Art. III, Sec. 5
Nonstablishment Clause
Operation of Secretarian schools
       Art. XIV, Sec. 4(2)
Religions instruction in Public schools
       Art. XIVSec. 3(3)
       Civil Code, Art. 359(1)
Anti- evolution laws
       Epperson vs. Arkansas, 33 U. S. 27 (1968)



                                                                              13
Prayer and Bible reading in public schools
       Engel vs. Vitale, 370 U. S. 421 (1962)
       Abington Schools Dist. vs. Schempp, 374 U. S. 203 (1973)
       Stone v. Graham, 449 U.S. 39 (1980)
Tax exemption
       Art. VI, Sec. 28 (3)
Public aid to religion
       Art. VI, Sec. 29 (2)
       Aglipay vs. Ruiz, 64 Phil. 201 (1937)
       Mueller v. Allen, 463 U.S. 388 (1983)
       Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 [1971]
       Wallace v. Jaffree, 472 U.S. 38 [1985]).
       Islamic Da’wah Counsil v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 153888, July 9, 2003
Intramural religious disputes
       Fonacier vs. CA, 96 Phil. 417 (1955)
Free Exercise Clause
       Estrada v. Escritor, A.M. No. P-02-1651. June 22, 2006
Flag salute
       West Va Board of Education vs. Barnette, 319 U. S. 624 (1943)
       Ebralinag v. Division Superintendent (March 1, 1993)
Freedom to propagate religious doctrines
       American Bible Society vs. City of Manila , 181 Phil. 386 (1957)
       Swaggart Ministries v. Cal Bd. Of Equalization, 493 U.S. 378 (1990)
Exemption from Union shop
       Victoriano vs. Elizalde Rope Workers Union , 59 SCRA 54 (1974)
Disqualification for local government officials
       Pamil vs. Teleron , 86 SCRA 413 (1978)
Religious Test
       Torcaso vs. Watkins 367 U.S. 488 (1961)



LIBERTY OF ABODE AND TRAVEL
      Art. III, Sec. 6
      Salonga vs. Hermosa, 97 SCRA 121 (1989)
      Caunca vs. Salazar, 82 Phil. 851 (1940)
      Manotok vs. CA. 142 SCRA 149 (1986)
      Marcos vs. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668 (1989)
      Silverio vs. CA, G.R. no. 94284 April 8, 1991
      Lorenzo v. Director of Health, 50 Phil 595                                 end.




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