Honors General Chemistry 1
SUMMARY OF ORBITAL HYBRIDIZATION RULES
Hybridization is a phenomenon where individual atomic orbitals associated with the
same atom undergo "mixing" to yield new or hybrid orbitals. During the hybridization process,
the following are true.
(1) The number of hybrid orbitals produced equals the number of atomic orbitals mixed. For
example, one "s" orbital and 2 "p" orbitals yield three hybrid orbitals after hybridization.
(2). Hybrid orbitals are given symbols and are named according to the number and type of
atomic orbitals that go into the hybridization process. For example, when one "s" orbital and two
"p" orbitals undergo hybridization, the resulting three hybrid orbitals are called "sp2" hybrid
(4) Hybrid orbitals of the same type (such as sp3) have the same shape.
(5) Hybrid orbitals are strongly directional. They are oriented in specific spatial directions
around the atomic nucleus to be as far apart as possible. For example, the four sp3 hybrid orbitals
form a tetrahedron.
In general, the type of hybridization used by a specific atom in a molecule or ion can be
predicted by determining the number of attachments to the atom in question. An attachment is
defined as a bonded atom (regardless of the number of bonds to it) or a non-bonding pair of
electrons (not involved in resonance). [Note: there are exceptions to this rule - for many
situations, however, this simple rule applies]
Attachments Hybridization Shape Angle
6 d2sp3 octahedral 90o
5 dsp3 trigonal bipyramid 90o, 120o
4 sp tetrahedral 109.5o
3 sp trigonal planar 120o
2 sp linear 180o
26 October, 2007
/P orbitals ~ ~.L
~ - -J e_\
y :L .~. "" ~ --
'I. sp2 orbitals ~ '1Tbond
Sp2 carbon Sp2 carbon Carbon-carbon double bond
p orbit~ I
Carbon-carbon triple bond
1.06 A 1180\
. C-H sp hybridized C
(1 bond atom
C-C 'if bond 1
€~f-f(~.~ H1s ....
H-C==C-H One C-C (J'bond
Two C-C 'if bonds
C-C 'iT bond 2