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POINTER V34N4 Understanding Why the Inferior Defeats the Superior


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									               ISSN 2017-3956                                Vol. 34 No. 4 [2009]


5	   Protection, Command and Control, Reconnaissance and Effects –
     Key Capabilities for Success in Military Operations
     by	Lieutenant	General	Hans-Otto	Budde,	
     Chief	of	Staff,	German	Army

14   Understanding why the “Inferior Defeats the Superior”
     by	COL	Ong	Yu	Lin

26   War As an Instrument of Politics
     by	COL(NS)	Goh	Teck	Seng

33   Leadership Development in the SAF:
     Planting the Seeds for Our Future
     by	LTC	Adrian	Chan

45	 The IDF and the Second Lebanon War
    by	CPT(NS)	Samuel	Chan

57   Rethinking Political Supremacy in War:
     A Review Essay of Clausewitz and Huntington
     by	Mr	Evan	A.	Laksmana

CONTENTS                              ...cont’d

67   Sources of Power:
     How People Make Decisions
     by	Mr	Toh	Ee	Loong	

71   Paul Krugman

75   World War I – Against the Odds
	    Kapitän	zur	See	Max	Looff

   Understanding	why	the	“Inferior	
       Defeats	the	Superior”
                                                               by	COL	Ong	Yu	Lin	

Introduction                                 the Hizbollah. There are even more
    The realist world favours the big        examples at the campaign levels where
and powerful actors, and the small           a numerically inferior force was able
and weak actors are deemed to be             to defeat a numerically superior force.
irrelevant objects in international          These include the Japanese invasion of
relations. The principle of international   Malaya between the British allied forces
relation theory is that being big and       and the Japanese military, the Battle
powerful implies the ability to exert        of Great Britain between the German
its influence and achieving its interest     Luftwaffe and the Royal Air Force,
at will especially over smaller and          and the Battle of Midway between
weaker actors. If power implies victory      the Japanese Imperial Navy and the
in a conflict, then weak actors should       depleted US Navy.
never win against stronger opponents,
especially if the gap in relative power          The concept of “using the inferior
is very large, but yet in history there     to overcome the superior” has its
are many examples where weak actors          roots in ancient Chinese military
defeated stronger actors. Some of these      history which emphasises stealth,
famous examples where powerful states        deception and indirect approaches.
were defeated by less powerful and           It is an integral part of the Chinese
smaller state and non-state actors were      culture to present oneself as weak
conflicts between the US and Vietnam,        and humble before seeking to exploit
the USSR and Afghanistan, the US and         opportunities and demonstrating
the Somalia Warlords, and Israel and         strength. This deceptive and stealthy

approach is designed to lower the           is the result of the interaction of the
opponent’s defences. In contrast, the       opponents’ strategies, the article will
Western approach seeks to project           also determine the type of strategies to
strengths as a way to gain advantages       be used for the inferior actor to move
and opportunities with the intent to        from inferiority to parity, and finally
frighten one’s opponent to yield. In        to superiority.
more recent history, the experiences of
the Chinese People’s Liberation Army        The Nature of Being
(PLA) in the Revolutionary War, the
War of Resistance against Japanese
                                            “Superior” or “Inferior”
Aggression and the War of Liberation          Conflict is a contest of wills as well
have reinforced the belief that the         as a contest of relative strength to
inferior can overcome the superior6 by      achieve victory and political outcomes.
relying on superior military art and        In such a contest, the belligerents can be
strategy rather than power to achieve       classified as superior or inferior relative
victory.                                    to the other. The terms “superior” and
                                            “inferior” better describe the relative
   This article examines the nature         nature of power than the terms of
of being superior and the sources           “weak” or “strong”. Yet, the nature
of power for state and non-state            of being superior or inferior is never
actors. Strategy involves the creative      absolute as the superiority that one
employment of these power attributes        enjoys depends on the relative strengths
as means to achieve political objectives.   and advantages one can bring to bear
Political objectives are derived from       at a particular point of time and place,
national interests  , and national         and/or the ability to conceal relative
interest is the most important factor       weaknesses and disadvantages from his
shaping strategy as it is both the          opponents. Whilst one may be relatively
start and destination of strategy. As      superior as a whole, there can be pockets
the inferior actor is operating from a      of relative weaknesses and inferiority.
relatively disadvantageous position,        Therefore, in superiority one can find
the inferior actor cannot defeat the        inferiority and in inferiority there is
superior actor from the onset of the        superiority. If the inferior actor wants
conflict in a decisive engagement.          some chance of success in a conflict
Through a series of clever application      with a superior opponent, he has to
of strategy, the inferior actor moves       identify the superior actor’s weaknesses
from a position of inferiority to parity    and use his pockets of superiority to
to superiority. The article examines        strike at the superior actor’s pockets of
how the shifting of this balance in         relative inferiority while avoiding his
favour of the inferior actor occurs and     strengths. Finding ways to strike at
in doing so, understands dynamics           an adversary’s weaknesses, bypassing
of the inferior defeating the superior,     his main strengths and thus avoiding a
and why superior strategy rather            head-to-head confrontation is the focus
than power can produce favourable           of every strategist0, as it promises an
outcomes. As the outcome of a conflict      early capitulation of the adversary.

                    State Actor                                   Non-State Actor
• Superior and well-developed power • Extensive and resilient organisational structure
  infrastructures (political, economic, social, of a known or unknown nature. Power is
  etc.) that are efficient and effective.       usually centred on individuals – its leader
                                                and his lieutenants.
• Powerful military with high readiness levels. • Armed faction that offers protection, conducts
  This is the state’s strength and ability to fight limited offensive, or coerces local populace
  and win a war.                                    support and is the nucleus of a military
• Highly developed economy including • Superior financial resources or numerous and
  technologically advanced industries. reliable sources of funding
• Developed population in terms of quantity • Enjoy mass but interspersed support.
  and quality (culture, and science and       Ability to recruit a large number of “loyal”
  technology).                                members through persuasion, inspiration or
• Advantageous natural geography including • Ability to move or manipulate information
  geographic position, size and shape of           to exploit the media, and to influence the
  territory, natural resources, national capital’s masses and win their hearts and minds. A
  location, frontiers and national boundaries,     well-developed information and intelligence
  relative distance between states, and grand      network.
  strategic space (maritime, atmospheric, and
  outer space).
• Favourable international and domestic mass • A high moral ground arising from a true or
  opinion and support.                         perceived just cause that resonates with the
Table	1.	Power	Attributes	of	State	and	Non-State	Actors

    Being superior is to attain relative         Shifting the Balance –
superiority and local superiority.               Inferior Defeating Superior
Relative superiority implies possessing
a relative advantage in terms of elements           Understanding why the “inferior
of power while local superiority implies         defeats the superior” is to gain insights of
focusing these elements of power at a            how and why these inferior actors defeat
particular time and space to create a            superior actors, and how a superior actor
relatively favourable situation. The             can retain the initiative and prevent the
sources of strengths for a superior              shifting of the balance in favour of the
state actor come from the elements of            inferior actor. Understanding the concept
national power while that of the non-            is also to understand a deeply rooted
state actor come from power attributes           Chinese strategic military mindset,
of similar nature but with several key           and how this thinking is shaping the
differences summarised in Table .               conceptualisation of PLA future military
A superior state and non-state actor             thinking, concepts and doctrines of a
usually possesses all or a combination           rising power. The concept is clearly
of these power attributes.                       evident in the PLA seminal book, “The

Science of Campaigns” which theorises

                                                  Source:	www.
how China can and must find ways to
defeat superior adversaries by timing
attacks well, concentrating firepower
on key enemy targets and destroying
enemy morale and political will. The
concept also provides a useful frame
to understand PLA emerging force
structure as it seeks to build up pockets
of superiority. Conceptually, writings on
PLA Joint Operations also demonstrate              PLA	soldiers	at	training
how joint operations are viewed as one
of the means of overcoming overall                 The Process of “Inferior
qualitative inferiority by exploiting              Defeating the Superior”
synergies and individual Services
advantages to create local qualitative                The heart of the concept of “the
parity, if not superiority, against a              inferior defeating the superior” is the
generally technologically superior                 clever application of a series of strategy
opponent.                                          that gradually shifts the balance of

Figure	1.	The	Process	of	Inferior	Defeating	the	Superior

factors in favour of the inferior (See          become more developed to sustain
Figure ). The inferior actor moves             the momentum of the military actions
from a position of inferiority to parity to     and preparations to transit to the
superiority, by resisting the superior,       offensive. These power infrastructures
achieving parity with the superior and          become more difficult to conceal
finally, defeating the superior. The            and become possible targets when
inferior actor can revert to a previous         detected by the superior actor. Even
phase or remain in a particular phase for       though parity has been achieved,
a protracted period of time if it is unable     the inferior actor would continue
to achieve its intentions to transit to the     to strengthen itself but conceal its
next phase.                                     growing strength; and at the same
                                                time stealthily improve its positional
• Start	 State	 (Sequence ). All other         or geographical advantage.
  things being equal, the expected
  outcome of a conflict involving a
                                              • Defeating	 the	 Superior (Sequence
  superior actor against an inferior
                                                ). The inferior actor is now ready
  actor is that the superior actor would
                                                to go on the offensive but instead
  be victorious.
                                                of a direct confrontation, he would
                                                create opportunities to lure the
• Resisting	 the	 Superior	 (Sequence           superior actor into disadvantageous
  ). In this phase, the inferior actor         positions where the superior actor’s
  would resist the superior through             strengths cannot be brought to bear
  limited offensive to erode the latter’s       and then defeat the superior actor at
  strengths. The inferior actor’s intent is     a place and time of the inferior actor’s
  not to decisively engage the superior,        choosing. The inferior actor could
  in order to preserve and consolidate          also entice the superior actor into
  its forces. The inferior actor would          unwittingly adopting a strategy that
  also attempt to jostle for or improve its     will lead to defeat. Preparedness
  positional/geographical advantage             is critical in this phase in order to
  from which it could negotiate and,            generate local superiority to defeat
  if necessary, fight. This process of          the superior actor by surprise.
  in the resistance phase continues till
  a state of parity is achieved.
                                              The Dynamics of
                                              Shifting the Balance
• Parity	with	the	Superior	(Sequence             Shifting the balance of advantages
  ). This is the tipping point of the        in favour of the inferior actor is the
  process which would determine               essence behind the strategy of “inferior
  victory or defeat for the inferior          defeating the superior”. This occurs
  actor. Paradoxically, achieving parity      through the interactions of one’s own
  with the superior actor also makes          strategy with environmental factors as
  the inferior actor more vulnerable          well as the adversary’s strategy. These
  as his power infrastructure need to         environment factors include what Sunzi

                                                referred to as the five factors and seven
                                                elements that determine victory or
                                                defeat: moral influence, weather, terrain,
                                                generalship, and doctrine and law.6
                                                When Sunzi’s five factors are reframed
                                                in a modern context, one can easily
     Source:	www.

                                                associate them to: just cause (which
                                                translates to mean a moral high ground,
                                                mass support and favourable opinion),
                                                weather, battlespace (land, air, sea,
                                                space, electromagnetic and cyberspace
                                                environment), leadership, and doctrine
                                                and concepts.

                                                   Own Actions – Executed In
                                                   anticipation, On time, Delayed or
                                                   not executed

Figure	2.	Interactions	with	Environmental	Factors	and	the	Adversary’s	Strategy
(Adversary’s	strategy	depicted	as	a	series	of	actions	and	reactions)	

    Coupled with the interactions of the      objectives, which when executed in
adversary’s strategy, these factors act as    concert achieves the strategic intent.
forces that pull and push the strategy        Likewise, each operational action is
away or towards the attainment of             essentially a series of tactical actions with
the intended objectives (See Figure ).       tactical objectives, which when executed
Strategy is essentially a plan of action      in concert achieves the operational
sequences to achieve an objective             objective. This lattice-like structure of
or intent, utilising available power          nested actions and objectives explain
resources.  In the absence of any           why the outcomes of a series of tactical
reaction from the adversary, the strategy     actions can have strategic implications
will unfold accordingly and the intent        in a theatre of operations, and the
will be achieved easily. When the             disruption of certain actions at the lower
strategies of two adaptive opponents          levels can cause the failure of the larger
interact, the series of opposing action       action and even the overall strategy.
sequences interact as action-reaction
pairs. The effect of these action-reactions   Ways to Shift the Balance
is that the unfolding strategy is shifted
off-track or on-track. Even before the           The purpose of strategy is to achieve
previous action-reaction interactions         own intent or objectives while denying
are completed and their effects fully         the adversary from achieving his intent
felt, it is possible that the next sets       or objectives. This can be best achieved
of action-reaction interactions have          by “attacking the adversary’s strategy”
begun, nullifying the previous sets of        and “disrupting his alliances”.0
interactions or strengthening them.
The action-reaction pairs may be real         •	 Attacking the adversary’s strategy is
actions, reactions and inactions as well         to defeat him at every stage of his plans
as perceived actions, reactions and              to produce a sense of hopelessness
inactions. Perceived actions, reactions          and the futility of further contest.
and inactions arise from the anticipation        This is executed through strategies to
of the adversary’s courses of actions            “exploit the enemy’s vulnerabilities,
and/or incorrect understanding of the            erode the enemy’s capabilities,
prevailing situation. The effect of these        achieve relative superiority, and
actions and reactions is Clausewitzian           capitalize on the element of surprise
friction and fog, producing either an            and unpredictability”. By doing so,
effective resultant strategy that achieves       it breaks the adversary’s planned
the objective/intent or an ineffective           sequence of actions and prevents him
resultant strategy that does not achieve         from achieving his intent. The inferior
the objective/intent.                            actor can use his pockets of relative
                                                 strengths to attack the superior actors’
   Each of these actions or a set of             vulnerabilities. For example, these
actions can have inter-linked objectives         concepts are embodied in the Chinese
that collectively lead to the achievement        concept of Unrestricted Warfare
of the overall intent. Each action or a          which proposes the employment of
set of actions can be viewed as a series         asymmetric means by an inferior
of operational actions with operational          actor to compensate for military

  inferiority against a superior actor.     actions for the fear of retaliation.
  Key to the concept is the correct           Additionally, the inferior actor can
  understanding and employment of             also adopt a system-of-systems
  the principle of asymmetry which            approach in organising his own
  would allow the PLA to always               power infrastructures to enhance
  find and exploit an enemy’s weak            resiliency and survivability.
  spot.  The underpinning idea of
  Unrestricted Warfare is that there
                                            •	 Disrupting his alliances includes
  are no rules and that the nature of
                                               diplomatic initiatives and sowing
  warfare has widened to include
                                               of discord amongst the adversary’s
  all power infrastructures such as
  political, economic, cultural and            allies; to weaken his external support,
  social systems. It advocates attacking       reduce his international support
  the superior actor’s well-developed          and opinion, dislodge him from
  power infrastructures, as well as            his moral high ground and isolate
  vulnerable but highly symbolic               the adversary in the eyes of the
  targets, to demonstrate the superior         international community. The inferior
  actors’ vulnerabilities. These can be        actor can exploit information and the
  pre-emptive or retaliatory attacks           media to shape public opinions.
  with “Assassin Mace” or trump card           Conversely, the inferior actor can also
  weapons. The possession of such            forge strategic alliances with other
  weapons would also deter a superior          stronger actors to deter aggression
  actor from taking pre-emptive                from a hostile superior actor.

Examples	of	trump	card	weapons

Interaction of Strategies                     However, this conclusion is again
                                              partially correct as adopting a direct
   Strategy must be adjusted to
                                              approach is guaranteed defeat for
remain relevant or a new strategy             the inferior actor as it simply cannot
must be adopted as the situation              match the superior actor’s capacity
changes and as the balance of relative        to fight. Indirect-direct interactions
advantages swings between the two             tend to be protracted as time favours
opponents, a result of the interaction        the inferior actor. The lack of a rapid
of the opponents’ strategies. This            and decisive victory over an inferior
interaction of strategies is essentially      actor produces frustration, leading to
Arreguin-Toft’s strategic interaction         increased use of force or greater risk
which holds the view that superior            of dwindling domestic support and
actors will lose asymmetric conflicts         increasing pressure to end the conflict.
when they use the wrong strategy              Hence, the longer the conflict, the
vis-à-vis their opponents’ strategy.        greater the chance that the superior
Arreguin-Toft classified all strategies       actor will abandon the war effort.
into two ideal strategic approaches:
direct and indirect. Direct approaches           In the phase when parity is achieved,
target the adversary’s military force in      same approach interactions may not end
order to destroy his capacity to fight.       in defeat for the inferior actor. With both
Indirect approaches seek to destroy the       sides evenly matched and having no
adversary’s will to fight.                    advantages over the other, the outcome
                                              can be either defeat or victory. Victory
   Arreguin-Toft concluded that same          or defeat depends on which side is
approach interactions (direct-direct or       better at exploiting the environment,
indirect-indirect) imply defeat for the       better trained and better led. This is,
inferior actor as the inferior actor has no   in essence, Sunzi’s five factors and
capabilities to erode the superior actor’s    seven elements for predicting victory
strengths or render them irrelevant.          or defeat. Additionally, the side that
Same approach interactions tend to            adopts the indirect approach has a better
be decisive and short in duration. 6         chance to secure victory than the side
However, from the above discussion            who adopts a direct approach, as the
on the process of “inferior defeating the     indirect approach avoids the opponent’s
superior”, one can conclude that this is      strengths and attacks his weaknesses.
true for the resistance phase only when
the inferior actor is relatively weak and        When the inferior actor is ready
is focused on force preservation and          to defeat the superior actor, it is
force consolidation.                          likely that he will engage in indirect
                                              approaches to secure victory. The
   Arreguin-Toft also concluded that          inferior actor will only engage in the
opposite interactions (direct-indirect        same approach interactions where and
or indirect-direct) imply victory for the     when the superior actor’s strengths
inferior actors as the superior actor’s       cannot be brought to bear, in order
strengths are rendered irrelevant.            to increase his chance of success.

Same approach interactions are, thus,            outcome, indirect approaches offer
transformed into indirect approach               best probability of victory. In spite
interactions, ensuring certain victory           of the relative advantages that the
for the inferior actor.                          inferior actor holds over the superior
                                                 actor, the inferior actor will seek to
   The series of interactions at various         transform same approach interactions
phases are summarised in Table . In the         into opposite approach interactions to
resistance phase, the inferior actor can         ensure victory.
defeat the superior actor, as long as the
inferior actor adopts opposite interaction
and indirect approach. When the                  Conclusion
inferior actor has achieved parity with             The strategy of “inferior defeating the
the superior actor, the indirect approach        superior”	arises from Chinese military
offers better probability of victory while       thinking that saw practice in past wars
the same approach interactions favour            and conflicts in China. It has become
both opponents equally. When the                 part of the Chinese strategic thinking
inferior actor has achieved a position           mindset, continues to be relevant
of strength and is ready for a final             and remains part of the present-day

    Phase              Inferior’s	Intent          Strategic	Interactions Possible	Outcome	
                                                  (Inferior	vs	Superior)    for	Inferior
Resisting the • Prevent annihilation of             Indirect vs Direct        Victory
Superior        forces.
                • Consolidation of own             Indirect vs Indirect       Defeat
                                                     Direct vs Direct         Defeat
                • Jostle and improve position
                  for negotiation, and if           Direct vs Indirect        Defeat
                  necessary, fighting.
Achieving    • Continue to strengthen but           Indirect vs Direct        Victory
Parity with    conceal growing strength.           Indirect vs Indirect
the Superior
             • Improve positional                                         Either outcomes
                                                     Direct vs Direct
               advantage but continue to
               present weaknesses.                  Direct vs Indirect        Defeat
Defeating    • Create opportunities                 Indirect vs Direct        Victory
the Superior   to lure superior into
                  positions to render his    Indirect vs Indirect             Victory
                  strengths irrelevant.
                • To defeat superior actor     Direct vs Direct               Victory
                  at a place and time of the
                  inferior actor’s choosing. Direct vs Indirect               Defeat

Table	2.	Outcomes	of	Strategic	Interactions	in	Various	Phases

Chinese military thinking, concepts           and capitalize on the element of
and doctrines. However, the concept is        surprise and unpredictability”, and to
equally appealing to the non-Chinese          weaken his external support, reduce
too as many examples dotting the              his international support and opinion,
history of conflicts have shown.              dislodge him from his moral high
                                              ground and isolate the adversary in the
    The nature of being superior              eyes of the international community.
or inferior is never absolute as the
superiority that one enjoys depends on           The key to enable an inferior actor to
the relative strengths and advantages         defeat a superior actor is the application
one can bring to bear at a particular point   of the appropriate type of strategies in
of time and place. It also depends on the     the right phase of the conflict. In the
ability of the inferior actor to conceal      resistance phase, the inferior actor can
relative weaknesses and disadvantages         defeat the superior actor, as long as
from his opponents. Therefore, in             the inferior actor adopts an opposite
superiority exists pockets of inferiority     interactions approach. When the inferior
and in inferiority, there are pockets of      actor has achieved parity with the
superiority. If the inferior actor wants      superiority, indirect approaches offer
some chance of success in a conflict with     better probability of victory while same
a superior opponent, he has to identify       approach interactions equally favour
the superior actor’s weaknesses and use       both opponents, but the inferior actor
his pockets of superiority to strike at the   can tilt the outcome in his favour
superior actor’s pockets of inferiority       through the employment of crafty
while avoiding his strengths.                 strategies. When the inferior actor has
                                              achieved a position of strength and is
   The process of “inferior defeating         ready for a final outcome, same approach
the superior” occurs through clever           interactions and indirect approaches offer
application of strategies that sees the       best probability of victory. Nevertheless,
inferior actor moving from a position         the inferior actor would continue to
of inferior to parity and finally being       employ strategies to render irrelevant
able to defeat the superior actor to          the superior actor’s remaining pockets of
gain superiority. The inferior actor          strengths to be certain of victory. Thus,
employs stealth, deception and indirect       strategy is the creative employment of
approaches in the various stages of           power and will continue to matter more
resisting the superior, achieving parity      than power to achieve victory.
with the superior and even for the final      Endnotes
phase when it attempts to defeat the
superior actor. This is best achieved
                                                  Hans Morgenthau, Politics	 among	 Nations,
                                                  (New York: Knopf, 6), p6.
by attacking the adversary’s strategy         
                                                  The term international relations theory refers
and disrupting his alliances. These               to a simplified version of realist theory with
                                                  three key elements: () there is no authority
twin approaches aim to defeat him                 above states that is capable of regulating their
at every stage of his plans through               interactions; () all states have some power
                                                  to harm other states; and () states therefore
strategies to “exploit the enemy’s                seek to increase their relative power, which
vulnerabilities, erode the enemy’s                can deter other states from launching attacks,
                                                  intimidate them into making concessions, or
capabilities, achieve relative superiority,       defeat them in war.


     Arreguin-Toft, Ivan, How	the	Weak	Win	Wars:	            is superior in arms? (6) On which side are
     A	Theory	of	Asymmetric	Conflict, (Cambridge             officers and men better trained? () Which
     and New York: The Cambridge University                  side is stricter and more impartial in meting
     Press, 00).                                           out rewards and punishments?

     The former actor is deemed to be the superior      6
                                                             Pan Jianbin and Liu Ruixiang, Sunzi	 – The	
     actor while the latter, the inferior actor.             Art	of	War, Chapter  – Strategic Assessment,

     Mao Tsetung, Selected	Military	Writing	of	Mao	          pp-.
     Tsetung, (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press,        
                                                             Time and duration are components of the
     6).                                                  strategy. It is interpreted as a means to be
     The	Selected	Works	of	Deng	Xiaoping, Volume             combined with ways (methods) to achieve
     II (-), Speech at a Plenary Meeting             the intent or objectives. Hence, depending
     of the Military Commission of the Central               on the desired effects, actions can be either
     Committee of the CPC, December ,                      decisive or protracted ones.
     . See            
                                                             Ong Yulin, “In Search of An Ideal Victory:
     dengxp/                                                 Attacking the Enemy’s Strategy in the

     Chinese	 Military	 Encyclopedia, Volume ,              Malayan Campaign”, The	Bellona	Quarterly,
     (Beijing: Military Science Publishing House,            /00, pp66-.
     ), p6.                                       
                                                             V.K. Triandafillov, The	Nature	of	the	Operations	

     Peng Guangqian and Yao Youzhi (eds.), The	              of	Modern	Armies, (Portland: Frank Cass & Co,
     Science	of	Military	Strategy, (Military Science         ).
     Publishing House, Academy of Military              0
                                                             Pan Jianbin and Liu Ruixiang, Sunzi	 –	 The	
     Science, 00), p0.                                    Art	of	War, Chapter  – Attack by Stratagem,

     Pan Jianbin and Liu Ruixiang, Sunzi	 – The	             pp-6.
     Art	of	War:	A	Chinese	English	Bilingual	Reader,    
                                                             Wee Chou-Hou, Sun	Zi	Art	of	War,	An	Illustrated	
     Chapter 6 – Weakness and Strengths, (Beijing:           Translation	with	Asian	Perspectives	and	Insights,
     Military Science Publishing House, ),               (Pearson, Prentice Hall, 00), p.
                                                             Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, Unrestricted	
     Michael I. Handel, Masters	of	War:	Sun	Tzu,	            Warfare, (Beijing: PLA Literature and Arts
     Clausewitz	 and	 Jomini, (London; Portland,             Publishing House, ), Translated by
     Oregon: Frank Cass ), p.                          Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS),

     Peng and Yao (eds.), Science	 of	 Military	             Washington, DC.
     Strategy, pp6-.                                 
                                                             Ibid., p, (pp-0 in original).

     Mao Tsetung, On	 Protracted	 War,	 Selected	       
                                                             Examples are anti-satellite and space weapons,
     Works	 of	 Mao	 Tsetung, Volume II, (Beijing:           Special Forces operations against enemy C,
     Foreign Languages Press, 6), pp6-.              precision-guided missiles, including anti-

     Li Bingyan, “Applying Military Strategy in              radiation missiles, electromagnetic pulse
     the Age of the New Revolution in Military               weapons, lasers weapons, computer viruses
     Affairs”, in The	Chinese	Revolution	in	Military	        and computer hackers, etc.
     Affairs, ed. Shen Weiguang, (New China             
                                                             Arreguin-Toft, Ivan.
     Press, 00).                                      6

     Mao Tsetung, On	Protracted	War, pp6-66.         
                                                             Andrew J.R. Mack, “Why Big Nations Lose

     The seven elements are: () Which sovereign             Small Wars: The Politics of Asymmetric
     possesses greater moral influence? () Which            Conflict ” , World	 Politics, Vol. , No. 
     commander is more capable? () Which                    (January ), pp–00.
     side holds more favourable conditions in           
                                                             Pan Jianbin and Liu Ruixiang, Sunzi	 - The	
     weather and terrain? () On which sides are             Art	of	War, Chapter  – Strategic Assessment,
     decrees better implemented? () Which side              pp-.

                                COL Ong Yu Lin is currently the Deputy Chief Guards Officer. He
                                is a Guards Officer by training and has attended the Royal Military
                                Academy at Sandhurst, U.K., the U.S. Army Infantry School at
                                Fort Benning, the Australian Command and Staff College, and the
                                Chinese PLA National Defence University. He has previously held
                                command appointments in the battalion and brigade levels. He
                                holds a BSc in Physics from the National University of Singapore,
                                a Master of Management in Defence Studies from the University
                                of Canberra, Australia and an MBA from the Nanyang Fellows
                                Programme in Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological


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