Contract of Employment with an Illegal Immigrant by bvu64416


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									               Illegal immigration in
            Greece:Profile, causes and

            Conference on Migration and Development organized by
                    OECD and IMEPO, 26 – 27 Apr 2007,
                           Costas Kanellopoulos

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   Definition of Illegal Immigrants

• Immigrants who generally cannot prove their legal
  residence in Greece, meaning those who do not have a
  passport or other travel document or visa or a valid stay
• Immigrants who may have entered legally but have
  subsequently remained on an illegal basis (by
  overstaying their permission to remain or by taking
  unauthorised employment).
• That is, ‘any person who does not, or no longer, fulfil the
  conditions for entry to, presence in, or residence on the
  territory of Greece” is considered an illegal immigrant.

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     Alternatives ways for legal entry and
     residence of third country nationals
• Potential immigrant workers should hold a visa for work issued
  before their entry into the country and after having signed an
  employment contract with a specific employer for a specific period of
  time. The procedure to obtain such a visa is rather bureaucratic and
• Illegal immigrants can stay in the country by submitting an asylum
  application. Certain immigrant workers use this indirect channel so
  as to buy some time of staying in Greece, while enjoying the rights
  ascribed to asylum seekers.
• Immigrants who have been illegally residing in the country (either as
  overstayers or as having illegally entered the country) can legalise
  their status through the consecutive regularisation programmes
  (1998, 2001, 2005, a 4th one is under way (L3536/07).

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            DATA SOURCES
• Information on stock and profile of illegal
  immigrants can be derived from the following
  sources: Regularisation programmes,
  Population Census, Administrative data on
  apprehensions and expulsions and Labour
  Force Survey (LFS).
• Information on health and pension security of
  each respondent derived from LFS allow us to
  draw conclusions regarding the profile of
  unsecured, that is illegal immigrants.
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             Share of immigrants from
            neighbouring countries (%)
                      REGULARISATION   CENSUS
                          (1998)        (2001)
                                                 SECURED       UNSECURED

            ALBANIA        64,9         57,5       58                   64

        BULGARIA            6,8          4,6
                                                   7.3              6.3
            ROMANIA         4,5          2,9

             TOTAL         100           100       100              100

              N           371,641      762,191    3,659            1,367

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         Share of neighbouring countries in
         apprehensions and expulsions (%)
                      APPREHENSIONS                             EXPRESSIONS

NATIONALITY   2002    2003    2004    2005    2006    2002    2003    2004    2005    2006

  ALBANIA     63,2    70,1    70,3    44,2    38,2    77,0    78,5    81,5    65,7    68.9

 BULGARIA      2,2     2,1     3,5     6,8      5,1    5,2     6,3     4,9     8,9     8.4

 ROMANIA       0,9     1,5     2,1     6,0      4,9    2,0     3,3     3,1     7,5     7.6

   TOTAL      100,0   100     100      100     100    100     100      100    100     100

     N        58230   51031   44985   40649   43159   49310   45112   39842   21238   17650

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            Origin of illegal immigrants

• All data show that the overwhelming majority is
  of Balkan origin, mainly Albania following by
  Bulgaria and Romania.
• On the other hand, illegal immigrants from Asia
  represent small, however recently growing,
• This shows that geographic proximity
  determines the bulk of immigrants in Greece,
  implying the temporary or cyclical character of

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     Shifts in and out of (il)legality
• Out of 370,000 applicants for the White Card in the first
  regularisation, only 228,221 applied for the Green Card,
  i.e. one year residence permit.
• Until April 2001 the number of applications for renewing
  the annual Green Card was 84,621 and the
  corresponding approvals 45,700.
• It is estimated that about 100,000 illegal immigrants did
  not apply for regularisation in each of the first two
  programmes. In the 3rd programme (law 3386/2005) the
  number of applicants was much lower, i.e. 140,000,
  implying that at least a similar number did not proceed to
• These numbers indicate the high propensity of
  regularised immigrants to lapse into illegality.
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       Profile of Illegal Immigrants
• Illegal immigrants are relatively younger than the
  native population even the legal immigrants.
• Unsecured immigrants seem to be concentrated
  in younger age groups (15 to 30) and in the
  mature age group (above 51), while secured
  immigrants are mainly between the ages of 31 to
• Single immigrants display a relatively higher
  share of unsecured (36.9%), than secured
  (27.7%). The opposite holds for married
  immigrants, where almost 70% are secured,
  while 58% are unsecured.
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       Profile of Illegal Immigrants
• The proportion of secured immigrants residing in
  the Athens area amounts to 60.8%, while for
  unsecured it is 56.5% and for natives 32.3%. A
  similar regional distribution of immigrants is met
  in the 2001 General Census.
• A larger proportion of unsecured than secured
  immigrants is met in the regions of Central
  Macedonia (Thessalonica), Thessaly and Crete.
• That is, illegal immigrants reside in urban areas
  where they find employment.
• Unsecured immigrants have a shorter period of
  stay than secured aliens.
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• It seems that illegal migrants behave as
  rational actors: most of them are educated
  youth looking to improve their
  circumstances and not desperate people
  running away simply to survive.
• They are informed about what to expect in

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                              EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF IMMIGRANTS

                               PERCENTAGE          PERCENTAGE
                             DISTRIBUTION OF     DISTRIBUTION OF   PERCENTAGE
                              SECURED 3RD        UNSECURED 3RD     DISTRIBUTION
                                 COUNTRY             COUNTRY        OF NATIVES
                               IMMIGRANTS          IMMIGRANTS

            EMPLOYED              69.12               60.13           57.71

            UNEMPLOYED            6.91                13.02            7.26

            NON ACTIVE            23.97               26.85           35.03

            TOTAL                100.00               100.00          100.00

            N                     3,659               1,367          145,731

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            Employment Status
• The share of unemployed unsecured immigrants
  is almost twice that of secured immigrants (13%
  versus 6.9%), while unemployed natives amount
  to 7.26%.
• The high unemployment of unsecured implies
  difficulties in finding a job, but also a relatively
  higher percentage of voluntary unemployment.
• Unsecured immigrants display a higher
  proportion of non-active than secured
  immigrants (26.8% versus 24%).

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                                         Employment by Sector
                                                                     % of unsecured
Sector                                         % of secured aliens                    % of natives
AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK, HUNTING, FORESTRY              3.40               8.39            16.04

FISHING                                                0.08               0.36            0.35
MINING, QUARRYING                                      0.24               0.00            0.57
MANUFACTURING                                         21.04               9.00            14.01

ELECTRICITY, GAS AND WATER SUPPLY                      0.12               0.00            1.05

CONSTRUCTION                                          28.51               29.32           6.92
TRADE, REPAIR                                         10.32               8.88            17.30
HOTELS, RESTAURANTS                                   10.48               7.06            6.88

TRANSPORT, STORAGE, COMMUNICATIONS                     2.25               1.82            6.33

FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION                               0.47               0.00            2.41

REAL ESTATE, RENTING AND BUSINESS ACTIVITIES           2.69               0.97            5.10

                                                       0.47               0.00            7.70

EDUCATION                                              1.50               0.61            6.55
HEALTH, SOCIAL WORK                                    1.70               0.36            4.75
OTHER BUSINESS ACTIVITIES                              2.69               1.95            3.48
PRIVATE HOUSEHOLDS WITH EMPLOYED PERSONS              13.88               31.27           0.54

EXTRATERRITORIAL ORGANIZATIONS AND BODIES              0.16               0.00            0.01

TOTAL                                                 100.00             100.00          100.00
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N                                                     2,529               822            84,102
            Employment by Sector
• Secured immigrants display a higher proportion than the natives in
  sectors such as manufacturing, construction, hotels, restaurants and
  private households.
• A large proportion of unsecured immigrants work in private
  households (31.3%, secured immigrants 13.9% and natives 0.54%),
  construction (29.3% versus 28.5%).
• Unsecured are employed in agriculture and livestock with a
  remarkably larger proportion (8.4%) than the secured (3.4%).
• Unsecured concentrate in sectors with a high underground activity,
  which produce non internationally tradable goods or services.
• There are significant differences by employment sector between
  secured and unsecured immigrants with the former displaying higher
  concentration in the so-called formal activities.

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    Causes of Illegal Immigration
• Poor employment and income opportunities in the countries of
• Enhanced employment opportunities (mainly in the informal sector)
  with a wage level much higher than in the countries of origin.
• Information and guidance by compatriots, who have previously
  migrated to Greece.
• Easy crossing of borders due to the difficulties in patrolling them.
  Greece has devoted remarkable human, financial and technical
  resources to control its land and sea external borders since 1990s.
  A EU policy on external borders control seems necessary.
• The current immigration law offers poor opportunities for aliens to
  migrate legally to Greece. It is doubtful whether, with the exception
  of seasonal and specialised workers, there are cases of immigrant
  workers entering the country legally on the basis of the general
  provisions of current immigration law.

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    Causes of Illegal Immigration
•   Sanctions against illegal immigration provisioned by current legislation are rarely
•   Readmission and police cooperation agreements do not always work smoothly and
    effectively. Apprehended illegal aliens from certain countries are not removed within
    the legal time span. 22% of apprehended aliens at prefectures bordering Turkey were
    removed during the period 2000- 2005. This percentage climbs to 73.8% for those
    apprehended at prefectures bordering other Balkan countries and 81.1% at
    prefectures bordering Albania. Also, percentages of removed aliens are consistently
    lower than those of apprehended for those originating from Africa (16.1% in 2006)
    and Asia (3.83%).
•   The successive amnesty programmes might stimulate entry of illegal immigrants, in
    the sense that they feel confident that a new programme sooner or later would take
•   Cyclical migration has not yet been legally provisioned. Temporary migration remains
    rather low (18.465 in 2004, 31.550 in 2005 and 13.277 in 2006).
•   Immigration policy so far has not taken into account the labour demands by Greek
•   The real and psychic cost to be and remain legal might be much higher than
    expected benefits.

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            Prospects-Policy Options
• Illegal Immigration cannot be eliminated, however it can
  be gradual and to a large extent managed.
• Encouragement of temporary and cyclical migration.
• Encouragement of voluntary return migration, even for
  illegal immigrants.
• Incorporation of migration issues in wider bilateral
  agreements with countries of origin.
• State cooperation and help on economic development
• Strengthening the economic activities of Greek firms and
  banks in the countries of origin.

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• Thank you for your attention

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