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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHARMACY AND BOTANY Ginkgo Ext
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHARMACY AND BOTANY Dr Dilip Panakkada Profesor & HOD Dept. of Homoeopathic Pharmacy National Institute of Homoeopathy (Govt. of India) Block-GE, Sector-3, Salt Lake KOLKATA – 700 106 E-Mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Ph: 09433182784 15/03/10 www.similima.com 1 DEFINITION PHARMACY: Greek “Pharmakon – a drug” Pharmacy is the science of study of identification, collection, combining, compounding, preparation, preservation, standardization and dispensing of drugs /medicines used in homoeopathic practice BOTANY: Science of study of plants 15/03/10 www.similima.com 2 PRIMITIVE PROBING 3500 BC: Curative properties of plants have been mentioned in Rigveda, Atharvaveda. 1500 BC: Egyptians aware of medicineal uses of plants, Ebers papyrus 370 – 287 BC: Theophrastus well known for his studies of plant kingdom. 78 AD: Dioscorides (Gk) described several plants of medicinal importance in ‘De Materia Medica’. 23-70 AD: Pliny the Elder compliled 37 volumes of natural history. 131-200 AD: Galen (Gk) pharmacist described varioius methods of preparation containing ative constituents of crude drugs – Gelenical pharmacy. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 3 SOURCES OF DRUGS VEGETABLE SOURCE : 65 % – EXOTIC : 60 % – INDIGENOUS : 40 % OTHER SOURCES : 35 % 15/03/10 www.similima.com 4 PLANT SOURCE CRYPTOGAMS (FLOWERLESS): – THALLOPHYTES: ALGAE – F vesiculosus BACTERIA –Staphylococci, streptococci, Tub FUNGI – Claviceps, Ustilago, Agaricus LICHENS - Usnea – BRYOPHYTA: HEPATICAE (Cl)– MUSCI (Cl)- – PTERIDOPHYTA: FILICES (Ferns) – Pteridium ARTICULATAE (Horsetails) – Equisetum hym. LYCOPSIDA (Club mosses) – Lyco clavatum 15/03/10 www.similima.com 5 PLANT SOURCE PHENEROGAMS (FLOWERING) SPERMATOPHYTA (SEED BEARING): – ANGIOSPERMS: DICOTYLEDONS: – POLYPETALAE (Sub Class): Rannunculaceae Papaveraceae Cruciferae Caryophyllaceae Sterculiaceae Rutaceae Meliaceae Anacardiaceae Leguminaceae Rosaceae Myrtaceae Cucurbitaceae Cactaceae Umbelliferae 15/03/10 www.similima.com 6 PLANT SOURCE – GAMOPETALAE (Sub Class): Rubiaceae Compositae Apocynaceae Asclepediaceae Boraginaceae Convolvulaceae Solanaceae Scrophulariaceae Bignohaceae Acanthaceae Verbanaceae Labiatae 15/03/10 www.similima.com 7 PLANT SOURCE – MONOCHLAMYDEAE: (Incomplete) Nyctaginaceae Amarantaceae Chenopodiaceae Polygonaceae Loranthaceae Euphorbiaceae Ulmaceae Moraceae Urticaceae Cannabinaceae Casuarinaceae 15/03/10 www.similima.com 8 PLANT SOURCE MONOCOTYLEDONS: – PETALOIDEAE (S Class) Liliaceae Amaryllidaceae Scitamineae (Musaceae /Zingiberaceae /Cannaceae Graminaceae Cyperaceae Orchidaceae 15/03/10 www.similima.com 9 PLANT SOURCE – GYMNOSPEMS: CYCADALES GINKGOALES –Ginkgo biloba CONIFERALES – Abies, Sequoia, Juniperus, Thuja, Cupressus, Aurucaria TAXALES – Taxus GNETALES - Ephedra 15/03/10 www.similima.com 10 PHARMACOGNOSY 1815 Seydler (German) coined the term while studying Sarasaparilla in his work ‘Analecta Pharmacognostica’ Pharmakon – drug, Gignosco – to acquire knowledge of Is the study of crude drugs of Plant, Animal or Mineral origin Is the physical, chemical and biological study of crude drug substances 15/03/10 www.similima.com 11 ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION MORPHOLOGY – SIZE – of plant parts like rhizomes, roots, corms, bulbs, tubers, fruit, seed, stem etc – SHAPE – of the plant part like napiform, annulated, etc – COLOUR – the range of colour like greyish of nux vom seeds – EXTERNAL MARKINGS – like furrows, wrinkles, ridges, annular, outgrowths etc. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 12 ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION ODOUR – Aromatic – Balsamic – Camphoraceous – Spicy – Pleasant – Irritating 15/03/10 www.similima.com 13 ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION TASTE – Bitter – Sour – Astringent – Pungent – Acid – alkaline 15/03/10 www.similima.com 14 ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION SOUND – to see the ripeness of the fruit / seed etc 15/03/10 www.similima.com 15 ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION FRACTURE – Granular – Splintery – Smooth 15/03/10 www.similima.com 16 MACROSCOPY OF PARTS USED PLANT PARTS – Bud, Flower, Fruit, Leaf, Root, Seed, Stem HABIT & HABITAT – Annual, Aquatic, Biennial, Climber, Creeper, Epiphyte, Habit (Herb, Shrub) Perennial, Tree etc PHYLLOTAXY – Alternate,Opposite, Whorled APEX OF LEAF – Acuminate, Acute, Obtuse MARGIN OF LEAF – Ciliate, Crenate, serrate, entire, undulate SHAPE OF LEAF – Cordate, Lanceolate, Oblong, Ovate 15/03/10 www.similima.com 17 MACROSCOPY OF PARTS USED TYPE OF LEAF – Simple, Compound, Pinnate, Palmate VENATION OF LEAF – Parellel, Reticulate, Unicosate, multicosate INFLORESCENCE – Cymose, RAcemose FLOWERS – Epigynous, Hypogynous, Perigynous FRUITS – Drupe, Berry 15/03/10 www.similima.com 18 QUANTITATIVE MICROSCOPY DETERMINATION OF PALISADE RATIO Average number of palisade cells beneath a group of epidermal cells – 4 epidermal cells / palisade cellls lying beneath are counted / figure divided by four. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 19 STOMATAL NUMBER Average number of stomata per sq. mm. of epidermis – range and average recorded. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 20 STOMATAL INDEX I = (S / E+S) X 100 (1 sq mm / 8-10 segments) Species Stomatal index (range) Upper surface Lower surface Digitalis purpurea 1.6 to 4.0 17.9 to 19.5 Digitalis lanata 13.9 to 14.7 14.9 to 17.6 15/03/10 www.similima.com 21 VEIN ISLET NUMBER Minute Species Vein islet number (Range) photosynthetic area encircled by Digitalis 2 - 5.5 conducting strands purpurea Number of vein Digitalis 2 – 3.5 islets per sq mm lanata midway between midrib and margin (4 mm area) 15/03/10 www.similima.com 22 VEIN TERMINATION NUMBER Ultimate free termination or end of a veinlet is termed vein termination Calculated as per sq mm of leaf surface 15/03/10 www.similima.com 23 TYPES OF STOMATA ANOMOCYTIC: Stomata surrounded by cells resembling other epidermal cells (rannunculalceous) ANISOCYTIC: Stomata surrounded by 3 or 4 sub cells of which one markedly smaller (cruciferous) PARACYTIC: Stomata with 2 sub cells with long axis parallel to the pore (rubiaceous) DIACYTIC: Stomata with 2 sub cells with long axis right angles to the pore (caryophyllaceous) ACTINOCYTIC: Stomata surrounded by a circle of radiating subsidiary cells 15/03/10 www.similima.com 24 PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION OF PLANT DRUGS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM – SYMPATHETIC: Thoraco lumbar – adrenergic Fight or flight – Nor-adrenaline or its derivatives are the neurotransmitters – PARASYMPATHETIC (VAGAL): Craniosacral – Cholinergic During sleep – Energy conserving – Acetyl 15/03/10 choline or its derivatives as n transmitters. www.similima.com 25 ACTION ON C N S (affecting mental activity) Lysergic acid diethylamide Hallucinogenic, prepared from ergot alkaloids or art culture Mescaline Hallucinogenic, from peyote cactus Cannabis Hallucinogenic, from the resin of cannabis sativa Purine bases e.g., Stimulant, from tea, coffee, cocoa, kola etc. Caffeine, theophylline, theobromine Cocaine Stimulant, from leaves of erythroxylon coca Reserpine Depresses mental activity, from Rauwolfia spp. Yohimbine Similar to Rauvolfia, but has antiadrenaline reactions, & effects heart muscles- from various spp of apocynaeceae 15/03/10 www.similima.com 26 Analeptic drugs (Stimulants to CNS in addition to mental stimulants) Picrotoxine Analeptic, used in the treatment of barbiturate poisoning – from berries of Anamirta cocculus Lobeline From Lobelia inflata Strychnine Weak analeptic, toxic doses produce spinal convulsions – from strychnos spp. Camphor Weak analeptic, from Cinnamonium camphora 15/03/10 www.similima.com 27 Central depressants of motor function Tropane Formerly used for Parkinson’s alkaloids – disease. Used in treatment of hyoscine, travel and delirium tremens. atropine etc Gelsemium Rarely employed now due to root toxicity-Galenical preparations used as antispasmodics 15/03/10 www.similima.com 28 Analgesic drugs Morphine Relief of pain. Depressant action on cough and respiratory centres. Principal alkaloid of opium. Codeine Less active than morphine. Much safer drug for releif of mild pain and for use as a cough suppressant. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 29 ACTION ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Acetyl choline like drugs Pilocarpine From pilocarpus microphyllus Arecoline From seeds of Areca catechu Muscarine From Amanita spp. and other fungi Physostigmine From Physostigma venenosum – a cholinesterase inhibitor 15/03/10 www.similima.com 30 Antagonists of acetylcholine Tropane ester alkaloids like From solanaceae plants like hyoscine, atropine Duboisia, Atropa, Datura etc. Neurotransmitter blocking From leaves and stems of agents like tubocurarine Chondodrendon tomentosum Ganglion blocking agents like - as above- tubocurarine in large doses 15/03/10 www.similima.com 31 a) Adrenaline like b)antagonists to adrenaline a) Ephedrine From stems of Ephedra spp. b) Ergot like alkaloids From sclerotia of e.g., ergotamine Claviceps spp. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 32 Ophthalmic preparations Eye being under the control of autonomic nervous system is affected by some of the drugs mentioned above; these include atropine, hyoscine, physostigmine and pilocarpine. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 33 ACTION OF HEART MUSCLES Cardiac glycosides: A-v conduction time increased, Digitalis spp. decrease of sinoatrial nodal rate. Increased excitability lead to ectopic beats with over dosage Strophanthus spp. Like digitalis but action more rapid and less prolonged Convallaria maj. Similar to strophanthus Quinidine: (from In recurrent paroxysmal dysrhytmias cinchona bark) like atrial fibrillation or flutter – which has now been replaced by electrical cardioconversion 15/03/10 www.similima.com 34 ACTION ON BLOOD VESSELS PERIPHERAL VASOCONSTRICTORS Ergotamine from Constrictor effect on vascular smooth Claviceps purpurea muscles. The reversal of the dilatation of cranial vessels leads to its use in migraine Ergotoxine Similar to ergotamine Ephedrine from Prolonged action on blood pressure Ephedra spp and synthetic Nicotine Vasoconstrictor (Sympathetic) effect 15/03/10 and by it promoting release of www.similima.com 35 vasopressin and adrenaline Action on blood vessels (Central vasoconstrictive drugs) Most of the drugs like picrotoxin, which stimulate the CNS also stimulate the vasomotor centre in the medulla producing a rise in blood pressure. Although at one time used as resp stimulatn, these drugs have been largely replaced by mechanical devices for artificial ventillation of lungs. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 36 Action on blood vessels VASODILATOR DRUGS Papaverine Relaxation of smooth muscles of vessels Xanthine Caffene, theobromine theophylline etc., like papaverine, but central vasoconstrictor and diuretic Ergotamine Adrenaline antagonist Reserpine Vasodilation by peripheral and central action Veratrum alkaloids Bradycardia, peri. Vasodilatation –sensitise cardiac, aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors Xanthine Dilation of renal medullary blood vessels derivatives Digitalis Increased renal perfusion and GF results glycosides 15/03/10 www.similima.com 37 ACTION ON RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Bronchodilators: – Ephedrine- Used in prophylaxis of asthma due to its bronchodilator effect. – Xanthines- as above Expectorants: – Ipecacuanha- used as expectorant, slow acting emetic but in subemetic doses expectorant – Senega, liquorice, squilla- contains saponin like substances which acts as expectorants – Benzoin- used in inhalation for treatment of catarrh of resp tract. Cough depressants: – Morphine, codeine, noscapine- causes depression of cough centre and stops cough. Antiexpectorants: – Atropine- Reduces bronchial secretion. Eg., stramonium leaf + lobelia herb + pot nitrate used earlier as smoking powder for asthma 15/03/10 www.similima.com 38 ACTION ON THE GASTRO INTESTINAL TRACT Bitters: – Cinchona, nux vom, quassia, gentian to stimulate appetite as it stimulates gustatory nerves. Anticholinergic drugs: – Hyoscine and Hyocyamine help patients with ulclers by reducing gastric motility and muscle spasm Emetics: – Ipecac preparations have delayed emetic action Carminatives: – Aromatic substances assisting eructation reflelx Ulcer therapy: – Derivatives of glycyrrhetinic acid effective in peptic ulcer Laxatives and purgatives: – Agar, ispaghula, bran, senna, cascara, rhubarb, aloes, castor oil etc. Antidiarrhoeal drugs: – Morphine, codeine which increase smooth ms tone reduce motility 15/03/10 www.similima.com 39 ACTION ON UTERUS Ergometrine: Routinely given during childbirth- reduce post partum haemorrhage as well stimulant on ut. Ms. Ergotamine: Similar to above, but has a peripheral vasocostrictor action. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 40 ACTION ON SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANE Emollients and demulcents: – Oils, Fats, Waxes, gums, etc used as vehicles (ext) Absorbents: – Starch, alginates, charcoal Astringents: – Tannins Counter irritants: – Camphor, turpentine, capsicum, aconite etc Antiseptics: – Eucalyptus, thyme oil, etc Anti inflammatory agents: – Steroids semisynthetic from diosgenin, hecogenin etc – Colchicine, from colchicum for gout 15/03/10 www.similima.com 41 Anti tumors Colchicine: used in Ch. Myeloid leukemia and Hodgkins ds. Vinblastine, vincristine: alkaloids of catharanthus roseus used in choriocarcinoma, Hodgkins ds and ALL Podophyllum resin: as a paint in treating soft veneral and other warts. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 42 Treatment of infections Antibiotics: from moulds and streptomyces Antimalarials: from Cinchona spp. Amoebicides: Santonin (round worm), chenopodium oil43 (hookworm) etc. Thymol – hook worm 15/03/10 www.similima.com 43 CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS HYDROCARBONS AND DERIVATIVES – MONOBASIC ACIDS – MONOCARBOXYLIC ACIDS – 2-methyl butyric acid –component in Veratrum alkaloids – Tiglic acid –occurs in croton tiglinum – Senecioic acid – isolated from Senecio FATTY ACIDS – – Ricinoleic acid of castor oil – Sterculic acid of sterculiaceae AROMATIC ACIDS- – Benzoic acid and cinnamic acid of balsams – Truxillic acid (polymer of cinnamic acid) in cocoa leaf 15/03/10 www.similima.com 44 HYDROCARBONS AND DERIVATIVES – DIBASIC ACIDS – Malic acid of Apples and tamarind – Tartaric acid of tamarinds and other fruits – TRI BASIC ACIDS – Aconitic acid – of Aconitum spp. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 45 HYDROCARBONS AND DERIVATIVES ALCOHOLS – MONOHYDRIC ALIPHATIC – Cetyl alcohol TERPENE – bergamot and linalol and its acetate in lavender and rosemary Menthol and its acetate in peppermint Sabinol and its acetate in Juniperus AROMATIC – Benzyl & Cinnamyl alcohol as esters of benzoic and cinnamic acids in balsams such as Tolu/Peru – DIHYDRIC – 3,6 dihydroxytropane free/esters in Solanaceae, Erythroxylaceae – TRIHYDRIC -Glycerol – POLYHYDRIC-sugar alcohols sorbitol -in rosaceous fruits and mannitol in manna and dulcitol in Euonymus. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 46 HYDROCARBONS AND DERIVATIVES ESTERS – Linalyl acetate in lavender – Alkaloids like Atropine and Reserpine are esters 15/03/10 www.similima.com 47 CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS CARBOHYDRATES MONO – D-Erythrose (4), D-Ribose (5), D-Mannose (6) DI – Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose TRI – Gentianose – Gentiana spp, Manneotriose – Fraxinus spp. TETRA – Stachyose – Tubers of Stachys japonica – Glycosides of Digitalis. POLY – Amylopectin or alpha amylose – starch 80% – Amylose or beta amylose – starch 20% 15/03/10 www.similima.com 48 CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS PHENOLS AND PHENOLIC GLYCOSIDES SIMPLE PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS – Catechol of Kola seeds and Gaultheria spp. TANNINS – Gallitannins of rhubarb, cloves COUMARINS AND THEIR GLYCOSIDES – Umbelliferone of Belladonna, Ferula spp., Daphne mez. ANTHRAQUINONES AND THEIR GLYCOSIDES – Chrysophanein of Rheum and Rumex spp. NAPHTHOQUINONES AND THEIR GLYCOSIDES – 4β-D-Glucoside of α-hydrojuglone of Juglans spp. FLAVONES AND FL GLYCOSIDES – Eriodictyol of Yerba santa, Gentisin of Gentiana spp. ANTHOCYANIDINS AND ANTHOCYANINS – Malvidin of Malva spp., Delphinidin of Delphinium and Viola spp. LIGNANS AND LIGNIN – Dibenzyl butane type lignan found in Myristica fragrans – Podophyllum contains aryltetralin type lignan 15/03/10 www.similima.com 49 CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS VOLATILE OILS AND RESINS VOLATILE OILS – Lemon oil – Eucalyptus oil – Clove oil – Peppermint oil RESINS/ GUM RESINS – Asafoetida from Ferula asafoetida – Guaiacum from heat wood of Guaiacum off 15/03/10 www.similima.com 50 CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS SAPONINS / CARDIOACTIVE DRUGS /STEROIDAL SAPONINS SAPONINS – Quillaia saponaria CARDIOACTIVE STEROIDAL GLYCOSIDES – Digitalis spp.- Digitoxigenin, Gitoxigenin STEROIDAL SAPONINS – Sarsaponin of Smilax spp. – Digitonin of Digitalis purp, D. lanata – Dioscin of Dioscorea spp. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 51 CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS ALKALOIDS NON HETEROCYCLIC – Ephedrine of Ephedra spp. – Colchicine of Colchicum spp. HETEROCYCLIC – Hygrines of Coca spp. – Coniine of Conium mac – Lobeline of Lobelia spp. – Hyoscyamine, atropine of Atropa, Datura – Quinine, quinidine of Cinchona spp – Emetine, Cephaeline of Caephalis spp. – Ergometrine, ergotamine of Claviceps spp. – Pilocarpine of Pilocarpus spp. – Caffeine of Corree – Aconitine of Aconitum 15/03/10 www.similima.com 52 SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED COMMON NAME – Vernacular or common names are made up of words from native language of the country or the region – Varies in different countries/ regions of same country – Portuguese, Spanish, English, Hindi, Bangali, Kannada etc 15/03/10 www.similima.com 53 SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED SYNONYMS – A name rejected due to misuse or difference in taxonomic judgement is called synonym – Atropa belladona : A. lethalis, Belladonna baccifera, B. Trichotoma, S. fluriosum – Azadirachta indica : M. azadirachta 15/03/10 www.similima.com 54 SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED HYPONYMS – A name not assignable to a definable taxon (by adequate circumscription or type; a genus without species etc) – Mercurialis perennis (Dogs mercury), Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco) donot actually explain the nature of the plant. 15/03/10 www.similima.com 55 SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED TYPONYMS – Or isonyms (different individuals of the same species or homogenous) are two Basionyms (A name at its introduction - specific or intraspecific name which has priority and is retained when transfer to a new taxon) based on the same type – Or Metonym (A later superfluous name introduced based on the type of an existing basionym which stands out) 15/03/10 www.similima.com 56 SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED INVALID NAMES – Old names changed with new nomenclature are considered as invalid names Banksia prostrata became Banksia gardneri Hibiscus rhodopetalus became Abelmoschus moschatus 15/03/10 www.similima.com 57 SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF COMMERCIAL NAME – Local name used by traders/cultivators/collectors who are illiterate – Different plants known by same names at different locations – Different species of cinchona are known as cinchona bark irrespective of species – Different species of aloes with different composition known in commerce as aloe 15/03/10 www.similima.com 58 SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES OF BOTANICAL NAME – Universal and recognized around the world – Informs regarding genera and family – Well known plant has only one Bo. Name – Helps in identification easily 15/03/10 www.similima.com 59 SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED ANOMALIES IN NOMENCLATURE OF HOMOEOPATHIC DRUGS – Belladonna – A belladonna – Nux vom – Strychnos nux vom – Asoka – Jonosia asoka – Arjuna – T arjuna – Ipecac – Cephaelis ipecacuanha – Pulsatilla – Pulsatilla nigricans – Gels - Gelsemium sempervirens – Nux moschata – Myristica fragrans – Opium – Papaver somnifera – Mullein – Verbascum thapsus – Kalmegh – Andrographis paniculata – Aswagandha – Withania somnifera 15/03/10 www.similima.com 60 HERBARIUM – WHAT TO COLLECT Size of the mounting sheet 28.75 x 41.25 cm Filed number distinctive Field notes Pressing and drying in V, N, M or even W shapes if size is too big 15/03/10 www.similima.com 61 HERBARIUM FIELD NOTES Date Vernacular name and uses Locality Habitat Description Collectors name 15/03/10 www.similima.com 62 HERBARIUM POISONING AND PRESERVATION – Merc chloride 1%, 15-20 seconds – Lauryl pentachlorophenate – Formalin 10% – Fumigation, to kill pests methyl bromide, carbon disulphide or carbon tetrachloride kept in each herbarium case. – Small plants Ethanol 95% -50cc Gl acetic acid -5cc Formaldehyde 40% -10cc Water -35cc 15/03/10 www.similima.com 63 HERBARIUM – Special methods To retain green colour of leaves for herbarium 50% ethanol -70cc Formaldehyde -5cc Glycerine -2.5cc Cupric chloride -20g Uranium nitrate -2.5g 15/03/10 www.similima.com 64 HERBARIUM - labels Name of family Name of genus and species Locality of collection Date of collection Description/remarks/notes Collector’s name and number Vernacular name and local uses To be fixed on bottom right hand corner 1cm away from edges of sheet Size usually 6.5 x 10.5 cm 15/03/10 www.similima.com 65
"RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHARMACY AND BOTANY Ginkgo Ext"