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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHARMACY AND BOTANY Ginkgo Ext

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHARMACY AND BOTANY Ginkgo Ext

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									RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
PHARMACY AND BOTANY
                  Dr Dilip Panakkada
                    Profesor & HOD
           Dept. of Homoeopathic Pharmacy
           National Institute of Homoeopathy
                     (Govt. of India)
            Block-GE, Sector-3, Salt Lake
                 KOLKATA – 700 106
            E-Mail: drdilipan@hotmail.com
                 drdilipan@gmail.com
               dpanakkada@yahoo.co.in
                   Ph: 09433182784




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                  DEFINITION


    PHARMACY:
     Greek “Pharmakon – a drug”
     Pharmacy is the science of study of
     identification, collection, combining,
     compounding, preparation, preservation,
     standardization and dispensing of drugs
     /medicines used in homoeopathic practice
    BOTANY:
     Science of study of plants
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                 PRIMITIVE PROBING

    3500 BC: Curative properties of plants have been mentioned
     in Rigveda, Atharvaveda.
    1500 BC: Egyptians aware of medicineal uses of plants, Ebers
     papyrus
    370 – 287 BC: Theophrastus well known for his studies of
     plant kingdom.
    78 AD: Dioscorides (Gk) described several plants of medicinal
     importance in ‘De Materia Medica’.
    23-70 AD: Pliny the Elder compliled 37 volumes of natural
     history.
    131-200 AD: Galen (Gk) pharmacist described varioius
     methods of preparation containing ative constituents of crude
     drugs – Gelenical pharmacy.


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               SOURCES OF DRUGS


    VEGETABLE SOURCE          : 65 %
      – EXOTIC                 : 60 %
      – INDIGENOUS             : 40 %
    OTHER SOURCES             : 35 %




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                        PLANT SOURCE

    CRYPTOGAMS (FLOWERLESS):
       – THALLOPHYTES:
              ALGAE – F vesiculosus
              BACTERIA –Staphylococci, streptococci, Tub
              FUNGI – Claviceps, Ustilago, Agaricus
              LICHENS - Usnea
       – BRYOPHYTA:
              HEPATICAE (Cl)–
              MUSCI (Cl)-
       – PTERIDOPHYTA:
              FILICES (Ferns) – Pteridium
              ARTICULATAE (Horsetails) – Equisetum hym.
              LYCOPSIDA (Club mosses) – Lyco clavatum


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                        PLANT SOURCE

    PHENEROGAMS (FLOWERING) SPERMATOPHYTA (SEED
     BEARING):
       – ANGIOSPERMS:
              DICOTYLEDONS:
                – POLYPETALAE (Sub Class):
                     Rannunculaceae
                     Papaveraceae
                     Cruciferae
                     Caryophyllaceae
                     Sterculiaceae
                     Rutaceae
                     Meliaceae
                     Anacardiaceae
                     Leguminaceae
                     Rosaceae
                     Myrtaceae
                     Cucurbitaceae
                     Cactaceae
                     Umbelliferae
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                 PLANT SOURCE

           – GAMOPETALAE (Sub Class):
                Rubiaceae
                Compositae
                Apocynaceae
                Asclepediaceae
                Boraginaceae
                Convolvulaceae
                Solanaceae
                Scrophulariaceae
                Bignohaceae
                Acanthaceae
                Verbanaceae
                Labiatae


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                PLANT SOURCE

           – MONOCHLAMYDEAE: (Incomplete)
               Nyctaginaceae
               Amarantaceae
               Chenopodiaceae
               Polygonaceae
               Loranthaceae
               Euphorbiaceae
               Ulmaceae
               Moraceae
               Urticaceae
               Cannabinaceae
               Casuarinaceae

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                      PLANT SOURCE

              MONOCOTYLEDONS:
                – PETALOIDEAE (S Class)
                     Liliaceae

                     Amaryllidaceae

                     Scitamineae (Musaceae /Zingiberaceae
                      /Cannaceae
                     Graminaceae

                     Cyperaceae

                     Orchidaceae




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                   PLANT SOURCE

       – GYMNOSPEMS:
            CYCADALES
            GINKGOALES –Ginkgo biloba

            CONIFERALES – Abies, Sequoia, Juniperus,
             Thuja, Cupressus, Aurucaria
            TAXALES – Taxus

            GNETALES - Ephedra




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           PHARMACOGNOSY
    1815 Seydler (German) coined the term
     while studying Sarasaparilla in his work
     ‘Analecta Pharmacognostica’
    Pharmakon – drug, Gignosco – to acquire
     knowledge of
    Is the study of crude drugs of Plant, Animal
     or Mineral origin
    Is the physical, chemical and biological
     study of crude drug substances

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ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION

    MORPHOLOGY
       – SIZE – of plant parts like rhizomes, roots,
         corms, bulbs, tubers, fruit, seed, stem etc
       – SHAPE – of the plant part like napiform,
         annulated, etc
       – COLOUR – the range of colour like
         greyish of nux vom seeds
       – EXTERNAL MARKINGS – like furrows,
         wrinkles, ridges, annular, outgrowths etc.
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ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION

    ODOUR
       – Aromatic
       – Balsamic
       – Camphoraceous
       – Spicy
       – Pleasant
       – Irritating

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ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION

    TASTE
       – Bitter
       – Sour
       – Astringent
       – Pungent
       – Acid
       – alkaline

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ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION

    SOUND – to see the ripeness of the
     fruit / seed etc




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ORGANOLEPTIC EVALUATION

    FRACTURE
       – Granular
       – Splintery
       – Smooth




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           MACROSCOPY OF PARTS USED

    PLANT PARTS
       – Bud, Flower, Fruit, Leaf, Root, Seed, Stem
    HABIT & HABITAT
       – Annual, Aquatic, Biennial, Climber, Creeper, Epiphyte, Habit
         (Herb, Shrub) Perennial, Tree etc
    PHYLLOTAXY
       – Alternate,Opposite, Whorled
    APEX OF LEAF
       – Acuminate, Acute, Obtuse
    MARGIN OF LEAF
       – Ciliate, Crenate, serrate, entire, undulate
    SHAPE OF LEAF
       – Cordate, Lanceolate, Oblong, Ovate


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           MACROSCOPY OF PARTS USED

    TYPE OF LEAF
       – Simple, Compound, Pinnate, Palmate
    VENATION OF LEAF
       – Parellel, Reticulate, Unicosate, multicosate
    INFLORESCENCE
       – Cymose, RAcemose
    FLOWERS
       – Epigynous, Hypogynous, Perigynous
    FRUITS
       – Drupe, Berry
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QUANTITATIVE MICROSCOPY
DETERMINATION OF PALISADE
RATIO
    Average number of palisade cells
     beneath a group of epidermal cells
       – 4 epidermal cells / palisade cellls lying
         beneath are counted / figure divided by
         four.




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STOMATAL NUMBER

    Average number of stomata per sq.
     mm. of epidermis – range and average
     recorded.




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STOMATAL INDEX


          I = (S / E+S) X 100 (1 sq mm / 8-10 segments)
              Species                      Stomatal index (range)




                                Upper surface                   Lower surface



      Digitalis purpurea          1.6 to 4.0                        17.9 to 19.5



           Digitalis lanata     13.9 to 14.7                        14.9 to 17.6


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VEIN ISLET NUMBER

    Minute                       Species     Vein islet number (Range)

     photosynthetic area
     encircled by
                                  Digitalis            2 - 5.5
     conducting strands          purpurea

    Number of vein
                                  Digitalis            2 – 3.5
     islets per sq mm              lanata
     midway between
     midrib and margin
     (4 mm area)
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VEIN TERMINATION NUMBER

    Ultimate free termination or end of a
     veinlet is termed vein termination
    Calculated as per sq mm of leaf
     surface




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TYPES OF STOMATA

    ANOMOCYTIC: Stomata surrounded by cells
     resembling other epidermal cells
     (rannunculalceous)
    ANISOCYTIC: Stomata surrounded by 3 or 4 sub
     cells of which one markedly smaller (cruciferous)
    PARACYTIC: Stomata with 2 sub cells with long axis
     parallel to the pore (rubiaceous)
    DIACYTIC: Stomata with 2 sub cells with long axis
     right angles to the pore (caryophyllaceous)
    ACTINOCYTIC: Stomata surrounded by a circle of
     radiating subsidiary cells
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PHARMACOLOGICAL
ACTION OF PLANT DRUGS
    CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
       – SYMPATHETIC: Thoraco lumbar –
         adrenergic
              Fight or flight – Nor-adrenaline or its
               derivatives are the neurotransmitters
       – PARASYMPATHETIC (VAGAL):
         Craniosacral – Cholinergic
              During sleep – Energy conserving – Acetyl
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               choline or its derivatives as n transmitters.
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 ACTION ON C N S (affecting
 mental activity)
Lysergic acid diethylamide Hallucinogenic, prepared from ergot alkaloids or art
                           culture
Mescaline                  Hallucinogenic, from peyote cactus

Cannabis                   Hallucinogenic, from the resin of cannabis sativa

Purine bases e.g.,         Stimulant, from tea, coffee, cocoa, kola etc.
Caffeine, theophylline,
theobromine
Cocaine                    Stimulant, from leaves of erythroxylon coca

Reserpine                  Depresses mental activity, from Rauwolfia spp.

Yohimbine                  Similar to Rauvolfia, but has antiadrenaline
                           reactions, & effects heart muscles- from various spp
                           of apocynaeceae
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 Analeptic drugs (Stimulants to CNS
 in addition to mental stimulants)
Picrotoxine   Analeptic, used in the treatment of
              barbiturate poisoning – from berries
              of Anamirta cocculus
Lobeline      From Lobelia inflata


Strychnine    Weak analeptic, toxic doses produce
              spinal convulsions – from strychnos
              spp.
Camphor       Weak analeptic, from Cinnamonium
              camphora
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Central depressants of
motor function
Tropane        Formerly used for Parkinson’s
alkaloids –    disease. Used in treatment of
hyoscine,      travel and delirium tremens.
atropine etc


Gelsemium      Rarely employed now due to
root           toxicity-Galenical preparations
               used as antispasmodics

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Analgesic drugs

Morphine   Relief of pain. Depressant
           action on cough and respiratory
           centres. Principal alkaloid of
           opium.


Codeine    Less active than morphine.
           Much safer drug for releif of
           mild pain and for use as a
           cough suppressant.
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ACTION ON AUTONOMIC
NERVOUS SYSTEM
    Acetyl choline like drugs
Pilocarpine         From pilocarpus microphyllus


Arecoline           From seeds of Areca catechu


Muscarine           From Amanita spp. and other fungi


Physostigmine       From Physostigma venenosum – a
                    cholinesterase inhibitor
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Antagonists of
acetylcholine
Tropane ester alkaloids like           From solanaceae plants like
hyoscine, atropine                     Duboisia, Atropa, Datura etc.



Neurotransmitter blocking              From leaves and stems of
agents like tubocurarine               Chondodrendon tomentosum



Ganglion blocking agents like           - as above-
tubocurarine in large doses



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a) Adrenaline like b)antagonists to
adrenaline

a)         Ephedrine           From stems of
                               Ephedra spp.




b) Ergot like alkaloids        From sclerotia of
e.g., ergotamine               Claviceps spp.


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Ophthalmic preparations

    Eye being under the control of
     autonomic nervous system is affected
     by some of the drugs mentioned
     above; these include atropine,
     hyoscine, physostigmine and
     pilocarpine.


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 ACTION OF HEART MUSCLES

Cardiac glycosides:   A-v conduction time increased,
Digitalis spp.        decrease of sinoatrial nodal rate.
                      Increased excitability lead to ectopic
                      beats with over dosage
Strophanthus spp.     Like digitalis but action more rapid and
                      less prolonged

Convallaria maj.      Similar to strophanthus


Quinidine: (from      In recurrent paroxysmal dysrhytmias
cinchona bark)        like atrial fibrillation or flutter – which
                      has now been replaced by electrical
                      cardioconversion
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     ACTION ON BLOOD VESSELS
   PERIPHERAL VASOCONSTRICTORS

          Ergotamine from      Constrictor effect on vascular smooth
          Claviceps purpurea   muscles. The reversal of the dilatation
                               of cranial vessels leads to its use in
                               migraine
          Ergotoxine           Similar to ergotamine



          Ephedrine from       Prolonged action on blood pressure
          Ephedra spp and
          synthetic
          Nicotine             Vasoconstrictor (Sympathetic) effect
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                               and by it promoting release of
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                               vasopressin and adrenaline
Action on blood vessels (Central
vasoconstrictive drugs)

    Most of the drugs like picrotoxin,
     which stimulate the CNS also stimulate
     the vasomotor centre in the medulla
     producing a rise in blood pressure.
     Although at one time used as resp
     stimulatn, these drugs have been
     largely replaced by mechanical devices
     for artificial ventillation of lungs.
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Action on blood vessels
    VASODILATOR DRUGS
    Papaverine          Relaxation of smooth muscles of vessels
    Xanthine            Caffene, theobromine theophylline etc., like
                        papaverine, but central vasoconstrictor and diuretic
    Ergotamine          Adrenaline antagonist
    Reserpine           Vasodilation by peripheral and central action
    Veratrum alkaloids Bradycardia, peri. Vasodilatation –sensitise cardiac,
                       aortic and carotid sinus baroreceptors
    Xanthine            Dilation of renal medullary blood vessels
    derivatives
    Digitalis           Increased renal perfusion and GF results
    glycosides
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    ACTION ON RESPIRATORY
    SYSTEM
     Bronchodilators:
       – Ephedrine- Used in prophylaxis of asthma due to its
          bronchodilator effect.
       – Xanthines- as above
     Expectorants:
       – Ipecacuanha- used as expectorant, slow acting emetic but in
          subemetic doses expectorant
       – Senega, liquorice, squilla- contains saponin like substances which
          acts as expectorants
       – Benzoin- used in inhalation for treatment of catarrh of resp tract.
     Cough depressants:
       – Morphine, codeine, noscapine- causes depression of cough centre
          and stops cough.
     Antiexpectorants:
       – Atropine- Reduces bronchial secretion. Eg., stramonium leaf +
          lobelia herb + pot nitrate used earlier as smoking powder for
          asthma
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ACTION ON THE GASTRO
INTESTINAL TRACT
     Bitters:
       – Cinchona, nux vom, quassia, gentian to stimulate appetite as it
           stimulates gustatory nerves.
     Anticholinergic drugs:
       – Hyoscine and Hyocyamine help patients with ulclers by reducing
           gastric motility and muscle spasm
     Emetics:
       – Ipecac preparations have delayed emetic action
     Carminatives:
       – Aromatic substances assisting eructation reflelx
     Ulcer therapy:
       – Derivatives of glycyrrhetinic acid effective in peptic ulcer
     Laxatives and purgatives:
       – Agar, ispaghula, bran, senna, cascara, rhubarb, aloes, castor oil etc.
     Antidiarrhoeal drugs:
       – Morphine, codeine which increase smooth ms tone reduce motility

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ACTION ON UTERUS

    Ergometrine: Routinely given during
     childbirth- reduce post partum
     haemorrhage as well stimulant on ut.
     Ms.
    Ergotamine: Similar to above, but has
     a peripheral vasocostrictor action.


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ACTION ON SKIN AND MUCOUS
MEMBRANE
    Emollients and demulcents:
       – Oils, Fats, Waxes, gums, etc used as vehicles (ext)
 Absorbents:

       – Starch, alginates, charcoal
 Astringents:

       – Tannins
 Counter irritants:

       – Camphor, turpentine, capsicum, aconite etc
 Antiseptics:

       – Eucalyptus, thyme oil, etc
 Anti inflammatory agents:

       – Steroids semisynthetic from diosgenin, hecogenin etc
       – Colchicine, from colchicum for gout
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Anti tumors

    Colchicine: used in Ch. Myeloid
     leukemia and Hodgkins ds.
    Vinblastine, vincristine: alkaloids of
     catharanthus roseus used in
     choriocarcinoma, Hodgkins ds and ALL
    Podophyllum resin: as a paint in
     treating soft veneral and other warts.

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Treatment of infections

    Antibiotics: from moulds and
     streptomyces
    Antimalarials: from Cinchona spp.
    Amoebicides: Santonin (round worm),
     chenopodium oil43 (hookworm) etc.
    Thymol – hook worm


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CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS
HYDROCARBONS AND DERIVATIVES


       – MONOBASIC ACIDS –
              MONOCARBOXYLIC ACIDS
                 – 2-methyl butyric acid –component in Veratrum
                   alkaloids
                 – Tiglic acid –occurs in croton tiglinum
                 – Senecioic acid – isolated from Senecio
              FATTY ACIDS –
                 – Ricinoleic acid of castor oil
                 – Sterculic acid of sterculiaceae
              AROMATIC ACIDS-
                 – Benzoic acid and cinnamic acid of balsams
                 – Truxillic acid (polymer of cinnamic acid) in cocoa
                   leaf
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HYDROCARBONS AND DERIVATIVES


       – DIBASIC ACIDS
              – Malic acid of Apples and tamarind
              – Tartaric acid of tamarinds and other fruits
       – TRI BASIC ACIDS
              – Aconitic acid – of Aconitum spp.




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    HYDROCARBONS AND DERIVATIVES

     ALCOHOLS
        – MONOHYDRIC
             ALIPHATIC – Cetyl alcohol
               
            TERPENE – bergamot and linalol and its acetate in lavender
                       and rosemary
                       Menthol and its acetate in peppermint
                       Sabinol and its acetate in Juniperus
            AROMATIC – Benzyl & Cinnamyl alcohol as esters of benzoic
                       and cinnamic acids in balsams such as Tolu/Peru
        – DIHYDRIC – 3,6 dihydroxytropane free/esters in
                      Solanaceae, Erythroxylaceae
        – TRIHYDRIC -Glycerol
        – POLYHYDRIC-sugar alcohols sorbitol -in rosaceous fruits and
                       mannitol in manna and dulcitol in Euonymus.
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HYDROCARBONS AND DERIVATIVES


    ESTERS
       – Linalyl acetate in lavender
       – Alkaloids like Atropine and Reserpine are
         esters




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CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS
CARBOHYDRATES

    MONO
       – D-Erythrose (4), D-Ribose (5), D-Mannose (6)
    DI
       – Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose
    TRI
       – Gentianose – Gentiana spp, Manneotriose – Fraxinus spp.
    TETRA
       – Stachyose – Tubers of Stachys japonica
       – Glycosides of Digitalis.
    POLY
       –   Amylopectin or alpha amylose – starch 80%
       –   Amylose or beta amylose – starch 20%

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CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS
PHENOLS AND PHENOLIC GLYCOSIDES
    SIMPLE PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS
       – Catechol of Kola seeds and Gaultheria spp.
    TANNINS
       – Gallitannins of rhubarb, cloves
    COUMARINS AND THEIR GLYCOSIDES
       – Umbelliferone of Belladonna, Ferula spp., Daphne mez.
    ANTHRAQUINONES AND THEIR GLYCOSIDES
       – Chrysophanein of Rheum and Rumex spp.
    NAPHTHOQUINONES AND THEIR GLYCOSIDES
       – 4β-D-Glucoside of α-hydrojuglone of Juglans spp.
    FLAVONES AND FL GLYCOSIDES
       – Eriodictyol of Yerba santa, Gentisin of Gentiana spp.
    ANTHOCYANIDINS AND ANTHOCYANINS
       – Malvidin of Malva spp., Delphinidin of Delphinium and Viola spp.
    LIGNANS AND LIGNIN
       – Dibenzyl butane type lignan found in Myristica fragrans
       – Podophyllum contains aryltetralin type lignan
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CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS
VOLATILE OILS AND RESINS

    VOLATILE OILS
      – Lemon oil
      – Eucalyptus oil
      – Clove oil
      – Peppermint oil
    RESINS/ GUM RESINS
      – Asafoetida from Ferula asafoetida
      – Guaiacum from heat wood of Guaiacum off




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CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS
SAPONINS / CARDIOACTIVE DRUGS
/STEROIDAL SAPONINS

    SAPONINS
       – Quillaia saponaria
    CARDIOACTIVE STEROIDAL GLYCOSIDES
       – Digitalis spp.- Digitoxigenin, Gitoxigenin
    STEROIDAL SAPONINS
       –   Sarsaponin of Smilax spp.
       –   Digitonin of Digitalis purp, D. lanata
       –   Dioscin of Dioscorea spp.

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CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS
ALKALOIDS
    NON HETEROCYCLIC
       – Ephedrine of Ephedra spp.
       – Colchicine of Colchicum spp.
    HETEROCYCLIC
       –   Hygrines of Coca spp.
       –   Coniine of Conium mac
       –   Lobeline of Lobelia spp.
       –   Hyoscyamine, atropine of Atropa, Datura
       –   Quinine, quinidine of Cinchona spp
       –   Emetine, Cephaeline of Caephalis spp.
       –   Ergometrine, ergotamine of Claviceps spp.
       –   Pilocarpine of Pilocarpus spp.
       –   Caffeine of Corree
       –   Aconitine of Aconitum
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      SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED


    COMMON NAME
       – Vernacular or common names are made
         up of words from native language of the
         country or the region
       – Varies in different countries/ regions of
         same country
       – Portuguese, Spanish, English, Hindi,
         Bangali, Kannada etc

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      SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED


    SYNONYMS
       – A name rejected due to misuse or
         difference in taxonomic judgement is
         called synonym
       – Atropa belladona : A. lethalis, Belladonna
         baccifera, B. Trichotoma, S. fluriosum
       – Azadirachta indica : M. azadirachta


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      SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED


    HYPONYMS
       – A name not assignable to a definable
         taxon (by adequate circumscription or
         type; a genus without species etc)
       – Mercurialis perennis (Dogs mercury),
         Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco) donot
         actually explain the nature of the plant.


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      SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED


    TYPONYMS
       – Or isonyms (different individuals of the same
         species or homogenous) are two Basionyms (A
         name at its introduction - specific or intraspecific
         name which has priority and is retained when
         transfer to a new taxon) based on the same
         type
       – Or Metonym (A later superfluous name
         introduced based on the type of an existing
         basionym which stands out)
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      SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED


    INVALID NAMES
       – Old names changed with new
         nomenclature are considered as invalid
         names
            Banksia prostrata became Banksia gardneri
            Hibiscus rhodopetalus became Abelmoschus
             moschatus



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      SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED


    ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF
     COMMERCIAL NAME
       – Local name used by traders/cultivators/collectors
         who are illiterate
       – Different plants known by same names at
         different locations
       – Different species of cinchona are known as
         cinchona bark irrespective of species
       – Different species of aloes with different
         composition known in commerce as aloe

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      SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED


    ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES OF
     BOTANICAL NAME
       – Universal and recognized around the
         world
       – Informs regarding genera and family
       – Well known plant has only one Bo. Name
       – Helps in identification easily

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      SOME BOTANICAL TERMS USED


    ANOMALIES IN NOMENCLATURE OF
     HOMOEOPATHIC DRUGS
       –   Belladonna – A belladonna
       –   Nux vom – Strychnos nux vom
       –   Asoka – Jonosia asoka
       –   Arjuna – T arjuna
       –   Ipecac – Cephaelis ipecacuanha
       –   Pulsatilla – Pulsatilla nigricans
       –   Gels       - Gelsemium sempervirens
       –   Nux moschata – Myristica fragrans
       –   Opium – Papaver somnifera
       –   Mullein – Verbascum thapsus
       –   Kalmegh – Andrographis paniculata
       –   Aswagandha – Withania somnifera
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           HERBARIUM – WHAT TO COLLECT


    Size of the mounting sheet 28.75 x
     41.25 cm
    Filed number distinctive
    Field notes
    Pressing and drying in V, N, M or even
     W shapes if size is too big


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           HERBARIUM FIELD NOTES



    Date
    Vernacular name and uses
    Locality
    Habitat
    Description
    Collectors name

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                        HERBARIUM


    POISONING AND PRESERVATION
       – Merc chloride 1%, 15-20 seconds
       – Lauryl pentachlorophenate
       – Formalin 10%
       – Fumigation, to kill pests methyl bromide, carbon
         disulphide or carbon tetrachloride kept in each
         herbarium case.
       – Small plants
              Ethanol 95%          -50cc
              Gl acetic acid       -5cc
              Formaldehyde 40%     -10cc
              Water                -35cc
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                         HERBARIUM


       – Special methods
              To retain green colour of leaves for
               herbarium
                    50% ethanol          -70cc
                    Formaldehyde -5cc
                    Glycerine       -2.5cc
                    Cupric chloride -20g
                    Uranium nitrate      -2.5g
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             HERBARIUM - labels

    Name of family
    Name of genus and species
    Locality of collection
    Date of collection
    Description/remarks/notes
    Collector’s name and number
    Vernacular name and local uses
    To be fixed on bottom right hand corner 1cm away
     from edges of sheet
    Size usually 6.5 x 10.5 cm
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