NUMBER 37                                                                                                                SPRING 2006

Leaving His CHair after twentyfive years
A     fter twenty-five years as a university
      professor, Tore Frängsmyr is leaving
his chair in the History of Science. He has
                                                    Later, Tore Frängsmyr
                                                published a book on 19th
many interesting memories, not least from       century geology, concen-
his international activities, but he has no     trating on the discovery of
plans to write his autobiography. A his-        the Ice Age (Upptäckten av
torian should be careful about writing his      istiden, 1976). After Louis
own history, he says.                           Agazzi launched the theory
    Coming from the very north of Sweden,       of an Ice Age, geologists
Tore Frängsmyr entered Uppsala Univer-          around the world started to
sity in 1958 and studied philosophy, the        criticize or find evidence
history of literature and the history of sci-   in support of this theory.
ence. He received his PhD in 1969 and           Sweden was a highly inte-
was appointed Associated Professor the          resting country since there
same year. After a year as full professor at    were so many traces in the
Linköping University in 1981, he was of-        landscape: eskers, erratic
fered a personal chair as research profes-      blocks, scratches on flat
sor in the History of Science at Uppsala        rocks (roche moutonnée),
University, funded by the Swedish Coun-         changing sea levels (or land
cil for Humanities and Social Sciences. In      elevation phenomena), et-
2001, the University received a donation        cetera. While the famous
for a new chair for Tore Frängsmyr from         chemist Berzelius could
Dr. Lisbet Rausing, who received her PhD        not believe in an Ice Age,
from Harvard with a dissertation on Lin-        three younger geologists,
naeus.                                          Hampus von Post, Axel
                                                Erdmann and Otto Torell, Tore Frängsmyr. Photo by Conny Ekström.
History of Geology                              were able to complement
                                                Agazzi’s theory after con-
Tore Frängsmyr started as a historian of        ducting important fieldwork. Especially nal philosophy, even dangerous. In 1734,
literature but turned to the history of sci-    Torell made significant contributions to it was forbidden by the University Chan-
ence after some years. He was interested        the understanding of the processes in na- cellor, but four years later with another
in the problems of religion and science         ture that could explain the land elevation Chancellor it was promoted and Wolff
and wrote his doctoral dissertation on          phenomenon. The land is still rising along himself was invited to take a chair in rhe-
”Geology and the Doctrine of Creation”          the Baltic coast.                          toric and political science. He refused to
(Geologi och skapelsetro, 1969). It dealt                                                  take it but his philosophy was used. Wolff
with seven natural historians from the          Enlightenment studies                      himself became more and more apolo-
18th century—Urban Hjärne, Christopher                                                     getic in his defense for Christendom and
Polhem, Emauel Swedenborg, Anders               If the history of geology has been one of against everything that smelled of heresy.
Celsius, Carol Linnaeus, Torbern Berg-          Tore Frängsmyr’s specialties, the Enligh- At Uppsala University, even a chair in
man and Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, all         tenment and 18th century intellectual dis- ”apologetics” was established in the fa-
of them internationally renowned.               cussions has been another. He wrote one culty of divinity.
    In his dissertation, Tore Frängsmyr         book about the emergence of Wolffianism       In 1993, Tore Frängsmyr wrote a pro-
found that none of these natural historians     at Uppsala University between 1720 and vocative book on the Enlightenment in
wanted to recognize a conflict between re-      1760 (Wolffianismens genombrott, 1972). Sweden, or rather the absence of Enligh-
ligion and science, trying rather to avoid      This philosophy, emanating from Chris- tenment (Sökandet efter upplysningen).
this problem and saying that the two areas      tian von Wolff, was formed as a mathe- He meant that there was no current, no
were on different levels. Bergman said,         matical philosophy, using mathematical group, no leading person that could form
for instance, that Genesis was never me-        structure even in philosophy of law and an Enlightenment. On the contrary, Swe-
ant to be a textbook in science but more a      morality. Introduced by mathematicians den was, in the latter half of the eighte-
textbook on morality. Also, most of these       Samuel Klingenstierna and Anders Cel- enth century dominated by mystical mo-
people were sons of priests and clergy-         sius, it became popular In Sweden. First vements—freemasons, Swedenborgians,
men, so they were brought up to be good         Wolffianism was regarded as a very ratio- mesmerists, alchemists, and all manner
2                                                                                                        HISTORY OF SCIENCE

                                                             other Eastern bloc countri-     Americans came in exploring the field. It
                                                             es.                             is a dramatic story, but one without a con-
                                                                 ”My best memories are,      clusion, since all remains after the Peking
                                                             however, from collabora-        Man disappeared during World War II.
                                                             tion with my international      The only remains left are three teeth—in
                                                             colleagues. Together with       Uppsala.
                                                             John Heilbron, I started a          ”It has been a fantastic opportunity to
                                                             project between Uppsala         write this book,” Tore says. “But from
                                                             and Berkeley that eventual-     now on I will concentrate on my univer-
                                                             ly came out as a book, The      sity history.” n
                                                             Quantifying Spirit in the
                                                             Eighteenth Century (1990).       Publication Series from the Office for
                                                             Collaboration with the Ber-      History of Science
                                                             keley group was very in-
                                                             spiring, and I’m glad to say     - Uppsala Studies in the History of
                                                             that many of these Ameri-        Science. An international series of
                                                             can colleagues are now per-      publications in the history of science,
                                                             sonal friends.”                  including the history of technology
                                                                 Another project was          and medicine. Founded 1984. A total
                                                             an International Summer          of 31 publications. ISSN 0282-1036.
                                                             School between Bologna,
                                                             Uppsala, Berkeley and Pa-        - Stella: Arbetsrapporter. In the Stella
                                                             ris, that is held every se-      series new research from the Office for
                                                             cond year. It started in 1988    History of Science is presented in a pre-
                                                             in Bologna, and this June        publication form. In Swedish. Founded
                                                             the 10th Summer School           1994. A total of 29 publications. ISSN
                                                             will be held in Uppsala.         1650-2272.
                                                             This year the theme will be
                                                             ”The Two Cultures in the         - Salvia Småskrifter. The Hans
                                                             Republic of Letters: Intel-      Rausing lectures are published in this
                                                             lectual History in the 17th      series. Founded 2003. A total of 6
The Peking Man. Drawing by Birger Bohlin (1927).             and 18th centuries.”             publications.
                                                                 ”I’m convinced that
of occultists. This kind of mysticism ex- the best international collaboration starts         - Uppsala Newsletter: History of
tended into the top of the social hierarchy, from a level of personal friendship,” says       Science. An occasional publication,
the court and nobility. Many historians Tore. “I am rather skeptical about official           usually published twice a year by the
criticized this hypothesis, claiming that projects, launched from a level above the           Office for History of Science. Founded
Sweden had a different Enlightenment scholars themselves, either on a national                1984. 37 issues.
than France.                                 scale or an international one. Big organi-
   ”Still, it is very unclear what sort of zations, like the European Union, Euro-
Enlightenment this could be,” says Tore pean Science Foundation, or a national
Frängsmyr. A new edition of his book has research council, can do much good in
just been published this year, and it seems supporting projects already started, but
that more and more historians are follo- they should not go out and proclaim what
wing his line.                               kind of research we should have.”
                                                 And what will Tore Frängsmyr do now
International works                          that he is retiring? His main preoccupa-
                                             tion will be the completion of a big project
Tore Frängsmyr has also published several about the history of Uppsala University
collections of essays, a book on the Swe- during the 19th and the 20th centuries. He
dish East India Company, one on utopias has two fulltime and two part time scho-
in Western thinking, and a two-volume lars assisting him on the project, which
work on Swedish History of Ideas and will result in a four-volume history.
Learning from the year 1000 to the year
2000 (Svensk idéhistoria, 1-2, 2000). He The Peking Man
received four prizes from different acade-
mies for this major work. Altogether he In September, Tore will come out with
has now published 28 books, half of those a book entitled Pekingmänniskan: En
written by himself, and half edited works. historia utan slut (“The Peking Man: A
   Over the years, Tore Frängsmyr has Story without an End”). It tells how Pe-
been involved in many international net- king Man was found in the 1920s by two
works. For a period of four years (1989- young paleontologists from Uppsala, Otto            Issue no. 6 of Salvia småskrifter. Last Hans
1993), he was Secretary General of the Zdansky and Birger Bohlin, and how they               Rausing Lecture was given 6 December, 2005,
International Union for the History and have been neglected by historians of sci-            by Professor John Heilbron, Worcester Col-
Philosophy of Science / Division of His- ence. Tore tells the whole story, how the           lege, Oxford. The title was ”Coming to terms
tory of Science. That was a lively period first findings came about, what role the           with the Scientific Revolution”. See also below,
with the liberation of East Germany and Swedes played as initiators, and how the             page 6.
HISTORY OF SCIENCE                                                                                                                          3

                JubiLee years and Ordinary times
                                Recent History of Science in Finland
T    he early years of the 21st century have
     in Finland seen a whole row of bicen-
tennials. Elias Lönnrot, the composer of
                                                  from 1824 to 1868, all in Swedish) was
                                                  completed in 2004. The diaries of his two
                                                  brothers Wilhelm and Ferdinand, both
                                                                                                  overwhelming amount of material, and
                                                                                                  the short historical perspective. There are
                                                                                                  more than two dozens of different bran-
the national epic Kalevala, and many-si-          also bird painters and ornithologists (of       ches of science (15 in the volume on hu-
ded developer of the Finnish language,            whom the former spent most of his life in       manities and social sciences, 11 in the vo-
also author of the first Finnish flora, was       Sweden), will follow in 2006.                   lume on natural sciences), and even in this
born in 1802, Alexander von Nordmann,                But history of science in Finland has        classification fields like “law studies”, or
an internationally known zoologist, in            not only been concentrated in jubilee ye-       “medicine” have both one chapter, whe-
1803, the “national poet” J. L. Runeberg          ars, although some projects have received       reas some much narrower fields, such
in 1804, the poet and physicist J. J. Ner-        an impact from such anniversaries. In the       as “musicology”, “theatre studies” and
vander in 1805, as well as Magnus von             end of the 1980s a voluminous history           “molecular biology” have each got their
Wright, pioneer of Finnish painting and           of the University of Helsinki, by Matti         own chapters. This makes the work rather
ornithology, and the “national philosoph-         Klinge et al., was published in both Fin-       incoherent, and as most of the professors
er” J. V. Snellman in 1806.                                                                       are at least mentioned in their respective
    They were all born as subjects to the                                                         chapters, it is not easy to find the leading
Swedish Kingdom, but they grew up in                                                              trends and schools and pick up real and
the more or less autonomous Grand Du-                                                             recognized excellence from the growing
chy of Finland in the Russian Empire.                                                             masses of ordinary researchers and uni-
Maybe this political change favoured their                                                        versity teachers.
cultural development, and although they
conducted their first university studies at                                                       Developments in the 20th Century
the ancient capital Turku, they continued
at the new capital Helsinki, where the uni-                                                       The growth of science in Finland was spec-
versity had been removed after the great                                                          tacular during the 20th century: around
fire of Turku in 1827. Except Nordmann,                                                           the beginning of the century (1912) there
who continued his studies in Germany,                                                             was only one university with 64 profes-
these men, and several others, formed the                                                         sors (the faculty of theology 5, the facul-
informal “Saturday Society”, where many                                                           ty of law 9, the faculty of medicine 14,
ideas about Finland, its essence, its pos-                                                        the section of history and philology 19,
sibilities and future were discussed, in ad-                                                      the section of mathematics and sciences
dition to more general contemporary lite-            The seal of Helsinki University, 1919-       11, the section of agriculture and econo-
rary and cultural questions. It is maybe no                                                       mics 6), but ninety years later the num-
exaggeration to say that these men made                                                           ber of professors in the same University
Finland what she became and what she, in          nish and Swedish, and got finished for the      of Helsinki exceeded 450, and there were
many respects, still is.                          University’s 350 years jubilee in 1990.         fifteen other universities with altogether
                                                  A shorter version in German appeared in         more than 1500 professors. A century ago
Exhibitions and seminars                          1992 (see Uppsala Newsletter 19, 1993).         there was little, if any, research outside
                                                                                                  the university, but nowadays, although
Lönnrot’s jubilee year in 2002 was all            Four volumes of History of Science              the greatest part of science is still done in
over the country noticed with exhibitions,                                                        universities, there are scores of scientists
seminars, and publications, and the same          The next great effort in this field was a       in governmental and private institutes, as
applies to Runeberg, whose role both as a         four-volume history of science in Finland,      well as in other organisations.
lyrical poet and as a “national awakener”         Suomen tieteen historia (2000-2002). The            Suomen tieteen historia was initiated
was lifted up (the latter aspect e. g. in Matti   work, which so far has been published           and guided by the Delegation of Scien-
Klinge’s extensive book Den politiske Ru-         only in Finnish, consists of altogether         tific Societies, which in 1999 celebrated
neberg in Finnish, Poliittinen Runeberg).         2575 pages, and in addition to the editor-      its first centennial. Due to its massive size
A national committee is busily planning           in-chief Päiviö Tommila, emeritus profes-       and great number of details, it became
the celebrations of Snellman, and several         sor of history of Finland, there are nearly     evident already in the beginning of the
volumes of his Collected Works have al-           forty different writers. The first volume       project that a shorter and handier version
ready been published.                             deals with science and scientific culture in    would be needed, and this was published
   On the other hand, Nordmann’s bi-              Finland from medieval times until 1880s.        in 2003—so far only in Finnish—with
centennial passed nearly unnoticed, and           The second and third volume concentrate         the name Suomen tieteen vaiheet (“The
for Nervander only a couple of seminars           in different fields of humanistic and social    events of Finnish science”) and with Prof.
were held; these two men were important           research, natural sciences, medicine and        Päiviö Tommila and Dr. Aura Korppi-
for the history of science in Finland but         technology, and the fourth volume goes          Tommola as editors. Nearly thirty authors,
not effective in the nation-building! As to       again to more general questions of science      mainly the same as in the big work, were
Magnus von Wright, the long-term project          policy and conditions of science during         involved in this “concentrate” of 324 pa-
of the Swedish Literature Society in Fin-         the 20th century.                               ges, where in many cases general lines of
land (Svenska Litteratursällskapet i Fin-            It is evident that an enterprise like this   the development of different sciences are
land) to publish his diaries (five volumes,       will have at least two shortcomings: the        much easier to see. Again, a great number
4                                                                                                              HISTORY OF SCIENCE

                                                        no institutes of their own, so those       New Biographies
                                                        representing experimental sciences
                                                        had to rely on the university insti-       One of the most eminent members of the
                                                        tutes, usually those where they had        “old” Academy was, as mentioned, the
                                                        worked before. Internationally the         mathematician Rolf Nevanlinna (1895-
                                                        best-known of the scientific Aca-          1980), whose extensive biography Korke-
                                                        demy members were probably the             at maailmat (“The High Worlds”) was pu-
                                                        biochemist A. I. Virtanen (Nobel           blished in 2001 by Olli Lehto, the former
                                                        Prize in 1945), the mathematician          Rector and Chancellor of the University
                                                        Rolf Nevanlinna, the meteorologist         of Helsinki, himself a world class mathe-
                                                        Erik Palmén, the astronomer Yrjö           matician and student of Nevanlinna. In
                                                        Väisälä, and the philosopher G. H.         2004, Professor (and Academician) Lehto
                                                        von Wright; among members re-              finished the triple biography of the brot-
                                                        presenting the creative arts, the ar-      hers Vilho, Yrjö and Kalle Väisälä, with
                                                        chitect Alvar Aalto and the novelist       the title Oman tien kulkijat (“They follo-
                                                        Mika Waltari may be mentioned.             wed their own ways”).
                                                            The influential politician Urho           Vilho Väisälä was a meteorologist
                                                        Kekkonen, who became President             and inventor of instruments and beca-
                                                        of the Republic in 1956 and re-            me known as the founder of the Vaisala
                                                        mained in office through repeated          Company, Yrjö was an astronomer who
                                                        re-elections until 1981, became,           excelled in several measurements and dis-
                                                        however, for reasons which are not         covered a great number of asteroids, and
                                                        quite clear (but at least partly, it se-   Kalle was a professor of mathematics and
                                                        ems, of personal nature), inimical         author of widespread textbooks. But writ-
                                                        to the Academy, and after several          ing biographies of eminent scientists is in
                                                        years of political manoeuvring he          spite of this not flourishing in Finland, and
                                                        succeeded in abolishing the Aca-           the dilemma is the same as in many other
                                                        demy in 1969. The existing aca-            countries: scientists are not interested in
The professor and prime minister, later archbishop      demicians could, of course, retain         their predecessors, and historians are not
Lauri Ingman (1868-1934).                               their position, and become emeri-          interested in scientists, whose work they
                                                        tus members in the age of 70; thus         seldom can appreciate.
of pages have been devoted to general or- the “old” Academy finally vanished only
ganization of science and to the position in summer 2003 with the death of von                     The National Library of Finland
of science and science policy in the con- Wright in the age of 87.
text of the whole society and national po-                                                         Still another work must be mentioned
litics. It would be most desirable to have The New Academy                                         when speaking about history of science in
this book translated into at least Swedish                                                         Finland. It is not voluminous but rich and
and English.                                     But the name of Academy of Finland was            elegant, and accessible to Scandinavian
                                                 inherited by the system of State Science          and foreign readers, because it has been
The Academy of Finland                           Commissions, an organisation founded al-          published separately in Finnish, Swedish
                                                 ready in 1950, which has as its main fun-         and English versions. This book Memory:
Still another massive project has recently ction to distribute the government money                Literary Treasures in the National Library
rendered its first fruit. It is the first volume for advancement of scientific research, in        of Finland (in Finnish Muistiin painettua,
of the history of the Academy of Finland, the beginning rather scarce but later so-                in Swedish Tryckt i minnet, 2004), is edi-
Suomen Akatemian historia I (2004), by mewhat more generous. It thus correspon-                    ted by Leena Pärssinen and Esko Rahikai-
Dr. Allan Tiitta, originally a geographer ded—and still corresponds—to a certain                   nen, both senior officials of the Helsinki
who in 1994 published his Ph. D. thesis extent to the French CNRS, and similar                     University Library, and published by the
about the 19th century historian, poet systems in other European countries.                        same library, which in recent years has
and novelist Zacharias Topelius as a geo-           Another relic from the time of the “old”       more and more began to use the unofficial
grapher. Dr. Tiitta was centrally involved Academy is the honorary title of “acade-                name “National Library”. In the two hund-
in the project “History of science in Fin- mician”, which is formally conveyed by                  red big and beautifully illustrated pages of
land”, and thereafter he has in a relatively the President of the Republic, like scores            this book no less than 39 experts tell about
short time produced this 700-pages story of other honorary titles; it can be given to              the library’s birth (in 1640, together with
of two institutions, which have practical- twelve Finnish persons at a time, but also              the University), its growth, its fates and its
ly nothing in common, except the name foreigners are entitled to it, like the Fin-                 specialities in widely different fields.
“Academy of Finland”. Its subtitle is “top nish-born Nobel Prize winning physiolo-                    It is a beautiful and informative book
individuals and commissions”, referring gist Ragnar Granit, who lived and worked                   well worth its subject, a library of some
to the two “academies” in question.              in Sweden from 1940 until his death in            2.7 million books located in (and under!)
    The first one was founded in 1948. It 1991.                                                    one of the most beautiful neoclassical
was a cultural manifestation of a nation            Tiitta’s history extends from the year         buildings in the old centre of Helsinki.
recovering from the wartimes, giving to 1948 to 1969; the two following volumes                    One would like to join the words in the
twelve eminent scientists and artists a will deal with the “new” Academy from                      preface by the Chief Librarian, Professor
permanent and considerable salary which 1970 to 1988 and from 1989 to 2003, but                    Kai Ekholm: “May the richness and diver-
would enable them to continue their crea- one could anticipate that they will lack                 sity of our national heritage be our com-
tive work. The academicians were chosen the drama of political feelings which was                  mon message for coming generations.”
by a special board and appointed by the connected with the “old” Academy of Fin-
President of the Republic, but they had land.                                                                                     Anto Leikola
HISTORY OF SCIENCE                                                                                                                     5

                                    CHristina’s JOurney
            Experiencing History through a Musical Performance

T   he fascinating world of the Swedish
    monarch Queen Christina (1626-1689)
can be experienced in the innovative per-
                                              Christina and Music

                                              Christina’s aesthetic sensibilities and cos-
                                                                                             coronation took place in 1650 with great
                                                                                             splendour, pomp and ceremony. And yet,
                                                                                             contrary to appearances, it seems that the
formance Christina’s Journey, presented       mopolitan interests led her to become one      young queen was already entertaining
by leading Swedish artists. Contemporary      of the most important patrons of the arts      thoughts of abdication.
scenic expression and choreography com-       in the 17th century. During her brief pe-
plements Baroque sonorities in this musi-     riod as Swedish sovereign, she introduced      The Abdication
cal performance, on tour since 2004.          her country to the riches of contemporary
   The project Christina’s                                 European culture. In No-          Some time earlier she had been attracted
Journey has been insti-                                    vember 1652, at the Royal         to Roman Catholicism, as it seemed less
gated by Susanne Rydén,                                    command, a troupe of Italian      dogmatic to her than Protestantism. She
who over the past ten ye-                                  musicians arrived in Stock-       decided to act, sending a secret emissary
ars has devoted much time                                  holm under the leadership of      with a message to Rome. In the Throne
to the study and perfor-                                   Alessandro Cecconi. In time,      room in Uppsala Castle on 6th June 1654
mance of music associated                                  several of these musicians        Queen Christina abdicated. The fact that
with Queen Christina. The                                  were to leave Sweden, but         the daughter of the ”Northern Lion”,
performance, a combina-                                    Cecconi, as well as Maestro       the Protestant hero in the religious war,
tion of music, recitals and                                di capella Vincenzo Albrici,      could have failed in her spiritual calling
modern      choreography,                                  stayed until Christina herself    as a queen, and even worse, converted to
was inspired by the 350th                                  departed. It was the occasion     Catholicism, was appalling. She departed
anniversary in 2004 of                                     of Christina’s abdication that    for Rome immediately. Her official con-
Christina’s     abdication                                 gave Albrici the opportunity      version to Catholicism took place in Inns-
from the Swedish throne                                    to set Fader Wår for chorus       bruch in November 1655 and a month la-
and the beginning of her                                   and instruments, creating the     ter, on 23rd December, she was acccepted
pilgrimage to Rome.          Susanne Rydén                 first known Swedish setting       into the Roman church by the Pope.
                                                           of the Lord’s prayer. Instru-        Christina stayed in Rome for the rest
Christina’s Journey                           mental music, including a Sinfonia à due,      of her life, with the exception of a few vi-
                                              was also written or copied at this time by     sits to France and Sweden. Her abdication
The journey began in Uppsala on 6th June      the Italian musicians, and some of this re-    meant anything but a quiet life, and she
1654 and continued via Hamburg, Ant-          pertory remains to this day in Uppsala.        continued to pursue political ambitions as
werp, Brussels, Innsbruck (where Chris-                                                      well as cultivate her interests in the arts
tina officially converted to Catholicism),    Christina and her Era                          and sciences. She died in 1689 and was
through Italy to end in Rome eighteen                                                        buried in St Peter’s. n
months later in December 1655. On the         The birth of little Christina on 8th De-
way she was greeted with brilliant per-       cember 1626 was a great disappointment         Web address:
formances, concerts, operas and other         to mother and court alike: they had been       http://www.queenchristina.com/
spectacles. During her years in Italy the     expecting a prince. The king, on the other
country’s finest musicians flocked to her     hand, was overjoyed and ordered an im-
court.                                        mediate salute for his Crown Princess.
   The aim of the project, still on tour,     Unfortunately his joy was to be shortli-
has been to recreate Christina’s long jour-   ved. In 1632 King Gustav Adolph II fell
ney through Europe with a series of sta-      at the Battle of Lützen and six-year-old
ged concerts in the locations she visited.    Christina became ”Queen, by the grace of
Each concert portrays a journey through       God, and Reigning Princess of the Swe-
Christina’s own life. This 17th century       des, the Göte and the Vende, Sovereign of
queen was a woman of great intellect and      Finland, Duchess of Estonia and Lady of
power, qualities that provoke and inspire     Karelia and Ingermanland”.
today as clearly as they did three hundred       The powerful Chancellor Axel Oxen-
years ago.                                    stierna took over responsibility for train-
   The journey follows in Christina’s         ing the future monarch, ignoring the fact
footsteps, helped by music and literature     that she was female. She learned to speak
dedicated to the Queen as well as eye-wit-    several languages fluently; she studied
ness accounts of her pilgrimage. With a       philosophy, theology and etiquette as well
few exceptions, the music is completely       as mastering the arts of riding, shooting
unknown, and several of the works will be     and fencing, just as any prince would have
given their first performances in modern      done.
times. Compositions are from the Swe-            In 1644 Christina attained her majority.
dish Düben collection as well as by some      Far from being a puppet in the hands of
of Italy’s most famous composers of the       the chancellor, she showed her qualities as
                                                                                              Christina's Journey. Design Charles Koroly.
period.                                       an active and enlightened politician. The
6                                                                                                    HISTORY OF SCIENCE

    tHe nOrdström-                            JOHn HeiLbrOn, Hans rausing LeCturer
    LindrOtH award
T    he Johan Nordström & Sten Lindroth
     Award for 2005 had two recipients:
                                              T   he Hans Rausing Lec-
                                                  ture of 2005 was held
                                              December 8th by Profes-
Peter Josephson, Uppsala University and       sor John Heilbron, Oxford
Thomas Karlsohn, Göteborg University.         University. He was welco-
The award was given to Josephson for          med by Rector Magnificus
his dissertation Den akademiska frihe-        Bo Sundqvist and Professor
tens gränser: Max Weber, Humboldtmo-          Tore Frängsmyr. His lecture
dellen       och                              ”Coming to Terms with the
den värdefria                                 Scientific Revolution” has
vetenskapen                                   been published in Salvia
[The Limits                                   småskrifter, no. 6.
of Academic                                      John Heilbron has pu-
Freedom:                                      blished several studies on
Max Weber,                                    the physicists H.G.J. Mo-
the Humboldt                                                                          John Heilbron
                                              sely and Max Planck. Other ProfessorAnnika Berg. and Professor Tore Frängsmyr.
                                                                            Photo by
Model and Va-                                 major works include his
lue Freedom]                                  important study Geometry Civilized from smyr published The Quantifying Spirit in
(Uppsala Uni-                                 1998, dealing with the role of geometry the Eighteenth Century, and they have
versity, 2005).                               in history and society, and The Sun in the also worked together in the creation of
The jury em-                                  Church from 1999, exploring scientific The International Summer School in His-
phasized that          Peter Josephson        education within the church. John Heil- tory of Science (which this year will take
Josephson’s                                   bron has collaborated closely with Swe- place in Uppsala).
dissertation is a competent contribution      den since the early 1980’s, especially the      John Heilbron is a foreign member of
to international Weber research, skillful-    Office for History of Science at Uppsala the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
ly using extensive, partly uninvestigated     University.                                  and was appointed Doctor honoris causa
material. Josephson’s dissertation also          In 1990, John Heilbron and Tore Fräng- by Uppsala University in 1999. n
”enlightens important issues concerning
academic freedom in a way that deepens
our historical understanding and contribu-        Strolling through History: A Trip to Rome
tes to contemporary discussions regarding
the role of the humanities in our society”.
   The Award was given to Thomas Karl-
sohn for his dissertation Passage mellan
medier: Vilém Flusser, datorn och skriften
[Passage bet-
ween media:
Vilém Flusser,
the Computer
and the Written
Word] (Göte-
borg Universi-
ty, 2005). The
jury declared
that Karlsohn
combined the
classical intel-
lectual     bio-
graphy with            Thomas Karlsohn
a contextuali-
zing reading of central texts of the media
theoretician Vilém Flusser. Flusser (1920-
1991) was a renowned and much admired
philsopher in Germany during the 1980’s,
                                                    From upper left: Jenny Alwall, Hanna Östholm, Tore Frängsmyr, Ulla Manns,
but is fairly unknown in Sweden.                    Frans Lundgren, Mathias Persson, Håkan Gunneriusson, Carl Frängsmyr.
   Karlsohn focuses on Flusser’s views of           Sitting: Ulla-Britt Jansson, Per Wisselgren, Emma Shirran.
the relation between an older culture based
on the written word and a new one based
on images. He has ”in a reflective way,
and with a clear and descriptive language,
                                              T   he Office for History of Science orga-
                                                  nized a trip to Rome from April 7-10
                                              2005. Under the competent guidance of
                                                                                           as later times.
                                                                                              Everyone was in agreement that the
                                                                                           trip, organized by Tore Frängsmyr, Ulla-
contributed to an emerging historical re-     Börje Magnusson from Svenska Institutet,     Britt Jansson and Hanna Östholm, was
search concerning the era of information      the participants were educated in history,   a very memorable and rewarding expe-
technology”. n                                art and architecture from Roman as well      rience. n
HISTORY OF SCIENCE                                                                                                                            7

                             new bOOks and dissertatiOns
            Taking Place                        Simone de Beauvoir, Ellen Key, Elise Ot-          All of these issues demonstrate how the
                                                tesen- Jensen, Alva Myrdal, Alfred C.          shape of curriculum was seen as having

T   he essay collection Taking Place deals
    with places shaped by interactions of
science, technology, and industry. It treats
                                                Kinsey, Betty Friedan, and Kate Millett
                                                are represented.
                                                   In addition, lesser known names such
                                                                                               wider significance for society. An im-
                                                                                               portant reason for this, argues Lövheim,
                                                                                               is the connection between curriculum
place as an essential factor for understan-     as Mathilda Betham, who published a            and future perspectives. Situations where
ding municipalities, companies, scientists,     biographical dictionary on famous wo-          a curriculum was to be rewritten were
and scientific institutions. It discusses, by   men in 1803, the Danish economist K.           apprehended as opportunities to influence
means of historical and contemporary                                                           and secure the future. n
examples, the embodiment of ideas and
power relationships in architectural struc-                                                    Daniel Lövheim, Att inteckna framtiden:
tures, and how the creation of organized                                                       Läroplansdebatter gällande naturveten-
places can create or reverse the flow of                                                       skap, matematik och teknik i svenska all-
people, ideas, wealth and commodities.                                                         männa läroverk 1900-1965 [Securing the
   The aim of Taking Place is to cast new                                                      Future: Curriculum Debates concerning
light on the complexities inherent in the                                                      Science, Mathematics and Technology in
interplay between science, technology, and                                                     Swedish Secondary Schools 1900-1965]
industry; and on how they are embedded                                                         (Diss., Uppsala, 2006). ISBN: 91-554-
in society. n                                                                                  6442-4.

Enrico Baraldi, Hjalmar Fors, Anders                                                            Enlightenment in Sweden?
Houltz (editors), Taking Place: The Spa-
tial Contexts of Science, Technology and
Business (Watson Publishing Internatio-                                                        I  n 1993 Tore Frängsmyr published a
                                                                                                  book, Sökandet efter upplysningen (In
                                                                                               Search for Enlightenment), in which he
nal, 2006). ISBN 0-88135-252-7.                                                                claimed that Sweden did not have an en-
                                                                                               lightened movement in the 18th Century
                                                A. Wieth Knudsen who wrote an antife-          and that only a few isolated philosophers
                                                minist treatise in 1924, and Swedish po-       were influenced by the French ”philosop-
                                                pular novelist Alice Lyttkens, who also        hes”. One of the few was Peter Forskål
                                                wrote on women’s history in the 1940’s,        who was educated at Göttingen Univer-
                                                can be found in this important reader with     sity and was a disciple of Linneaus.
                                                an informative introduction by Dr Hanna            Tore Frängsmyr’s book has now come
                                                Östholm. n                                     out in a new edition (2006). It was trans-
                                                                                               lated into a French edition in 1999 (À la
                                                                                               recherche des Lumières: Une perspective
                                                Hanna Östholm (editor), Feminismens idéer      suédoise, Presses universitaires de Bour-
                                                [Ideas in Feminism] (Studentlitteratur,        deaux). n
                                                2006). ISBN 9144045581.
                                                                                               Tore Frängsmyr, Sökandet efter upplys-
                                                                                               ningen: Perspektiv på svenskt 1700-tal [In
                                                      Securing the Future                      Search for Enlightenment] (Stockholm,

                                                I  n his dissertation Daniel Lövheim ana-
                                                   lyzes different conceptions of the school
                                                subjects science, mathematics and tech-
                                                                                               2006). ISBN 91-27-11324-8.

                                                nology. How were they looked upon and
                                                presented during the debates? What kind
                                                of values and functions were they said to
       Ideas in Feminism                        promote?

A    new anthology, Feminismens idéer,
     [Ideas in Feminism] presents 200
years of Western feminism, focusing on
                                                    Lövheim discusses principal ques-
                                                tions regarding why the school subjects
                                                became objects for debate: Why did dif-
Sweden and the Nordic countries. The            ferent actors engage in these discussions?
texts are organized into seven themes           A leading perspective is that schools and
—Enlightenment and liberalism, Socia-           their curricula often are used as arenas for
list feminism, The discussion on double         larger debates concerning the role of sci-
standards, Psychoanalysis, Feminism             ence and technology in society. One of the
and welfare Sweden, Historiography of           reasons for this, argues Lövheim, is that a
women’s history, and Sexual liberation.         curriculum often is seen as representing a
    The anthology consists of two parts,        standpoint in these broader societal discu-
one printed and the other published onli-       ssions. In the study, this is shown through        Peter Forskål (1732-1763) was inspired
ne. Renowned authors like Marie Gouze,          a number of different debates concerning,          by Enlightenment ideas when he wrote
                                                                                                   a dissertation on the freedom of the
John Stuart Mill, J. J. Bachofen, Clara         for example, the amount of hours devoted           press De libertate civili. Forskål was a
Zetkin, Alexandra Kollontay, August             to science, student conducted experiments,         controversial figure in the 18th century
Strindberg, Elin Wägner, Sigmund Freud,         eugenics and environmental aspects.                Sweden.
8                                                                                                         HISTORY OF SCIENCE

                                                                                                Uppsala Newsletter is an occasional
                                                                                                publication, usually published twice
                                                                                                a year by the Office for History of
                                                                                                Science at Uppsala University. Its aim
                                                                                                is to give surveys and information
                                                                                                about our field in Scandinavia.
                                                                                                Although there is no Scandinavian
                                                                                                society for history of science, we have
                                                                                                correspondents in most university
                                                                                                towns, and through them we hope to
                                                                                                reflect ongoing research.
                                                                                                   The Newsletter will be sent without
                                                                                                cost to anyone interested. Inquiries
                                                                                                and information should be sent to the
                                                                                                Editor/ Assistant Editor.

                                                                                                   UPPSALA NEWSLETTER
                                                                                                   History of Science
                                                                                                   Editor: Tore Frängsmyr
                                                                                                   Assistant Editor: Jenny Alwall
    Frontispiece of F. Imperato’s, Dell’historia naturale, 1599.                                   Office for the History of Science
                                                                                                   Uppsala University
     From Private to Public                       Model” by Giovanni di Pasquale, “Taste,
                                                  Order and Aesthetics in Eighteenth-Cen-
                                                                                                   Box 629
                                                                                                   S-751 26 Uppsala, Sweden

F   rom Private To Public is a collection
    of essays exploring the emergence of
Natural History as a discipline during the
                                                  tury Mineral Collections” by Jonathon
                                                  Simon, “Collected, Analyzed, Displayed:
                                                  Lavoisier and Minerals” by Marco Be-
                                                                                                   Tel. +46 18-471 15 77
                                                                                                   Printed by Wikströms, Uppsala, 2006.
period from the Renaissance to the end of         retta, “The Swedish Museum of Natural
the 18th century.                                 History and the ’Linnean Tradition’” by
   The twelve expert authors together             Jenny Beckman and “Do Collections            Marco Beretta (ed.), From Private to Pu-
cover a long time-line as well as a large         Make the Collector? Charles Darwin in        blic: Natural Collections and Museums
geographical area. Contributions include          Context” by Janet Browne. Introduction       (Watson Publishing International, 2005).
“The Museum of Alexandria: Myth and               by Marco Beretta. n                          ISBN 0-88135-360-4.

                                                  rapprochement across a political chasm?      wright and historians of science. In 2002,
    Copenhagen in Debate                          Frayn’s characters play through the dif-     the publicity prompted Bohr’s family to

I  n 1941, two of the world’s leading sci-
   entists met in Nazi-occupied Denmark.
They were old friends, a mentor and his
                                                  ferent interpretations and find that their
                                                  understandings, like quantum mechanics
                                                  itself, are rooted in uncertainty.
                                                                                               release previously unavailable documents
                                                                                               pertaining to the infamous conversation.
                                                                                               In light of the new information, historians
brilliant former protégé, and together they          The production of Copenhagen stirred      were forced to examine the incident yet
had changed the world of physics.                 up a vigorous exchange between the play-     again.
    But one was German and a                                                                              Michael Frayn’s Copenhagen
leading figure in Hitler’s nuclear                                                                     in Debate collects essays speci-
fission program. The other was                                                                         ally written by leading historians
Danish, half-Jewish, and a states-                                                                     in reaction to the play and the new
man in the global physics com-                                                                         documents. They debate Frayn’s
munity. The meeting between                                                                            depiction, shed light on the mys-
Werner Heisenberg and Niels                                                                            tery at its center, and reflect on
Bohr broke off in embarrassment                                                                        the relation between history and
and strained their relationship for                                                                    drama.
the rest of their lives. What was                                                                         By special arrangement with
said—what exactly happened                                                                             the Niels Bohr Archive in Co-
that night—has been fiercely de-                                                                       penhagen, Bohr’s now-famous
bated ever since.                                                                                      documents are reproduced in this
    Michael Frayn’s Tony Award-                                                                        volume. n
winning drama Copenhagen ta-
kes the controversial encounter                                                                       Matthias Dörries, Michael Frayn's
to the stage. Was Heisenberg                                                                          Copenhagen in Debate: Histori-
trying to forestall the develop-                                                                      cal Essays and Documents on the
ment of nuclear weapons? Car-                                                                         1941 Meeting Between Niels Bohr
rying out atomic espionage? Or Elisabeth Heisenberg, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg. Picture           and Werner Heisenberg (Berkeley,
just clumsily seeking personal taken in 1937, Fredriksborg Castle, Hillerød.                          2005). ISBN 0-9672617-2-4.

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