UPPSALA NEWSLETTER HISTORY OF SCIENCE NUMBER 37 SPRING 2006 Leaving His CHair after twentyfive years A fter twenty-five years as a university professor, Tore Frängsmyr is leaving his chair in the History of Science. He has Christians. Later, Tore Frängsmyr published a book on 19th many interesting memories, not least from century geology, concen- his international activities, but he has no trating on the discovery of plans to write his autobiography. A his- the Ice Age (Upptäckten av torian should be careful about writing his istiden, 1976). After Louis own history, he says. Agazzi launched the theory Coming from the very north of Sweden, of an Ice Age, geologists Tore Frängsmyr entered Uppsala Univer- around the world started to sity in 1958 and studied philosophy, the criticize or find evidence history of literature and the history of sci- in support of this theory. ence. He received his PhD in 1969 and Sweden was a highly inte- was appointed Associated Professor the resting country since there same year. After a year as full professor at were so many traces in the Linköping University in 1981, he was of- landscape: eskers, erratic fered a personal chair as research profes- blocks, scratches on flat sor in the History of Science at Uppsala rocks (roche moutonnée), University, funded by the Swedish Coun- changing sea levels (or land cil for Humanities and Social Sciences. In elevation phenomena), et- 2001, the University received a donation cetera. While the famous for a new chair for Tore Frängsmyr from chemist Berzelius could Dr. Lisbet Rausing, who received her PhD not believe in an Ice Age, from Harvard with a dissertation on Lin- three younger geologists, naeus. Hampus von Post, Axel Erdmann and Otto Torell, Tore Frängsmyr. Photo by Conny Ekström. History of Geology were able to complement Agazzi’s theory after con- Tore Frängsmyr started as a historian of ducting important fieldwork. Especially nal philosophy, even dangerous. In 1734, literature but turned to the history of sci- Torell made significant contributions to it was forbidden by the University Chan- ence after some years. He was interested the understanding of the processes in na- cellor, but four years later with another in the problems of religion and science ture that could explain the land elevation Chancellor it was promoted and Wolff and wrote his doctoral dissertation on phenomenon. The land is still rising along himself was invited to take a chair in rhe- ”Geology and the Doctrine of Creation” the Baltic coast. toric and political science. He refused to (Geologi och skapelsetro, 1969). It dealt take it but his philosophy was used. Wolff with seven natural historians from the Enlightenment studies himself became more and more apolo- 18th century—Urban Hjärne, Christopher getic in his defense for Christendom and Polhem, Emauel Swedenborg, Anders If the history of geology has been one of against everything that smelled of heresy. Celsius, Carol Linnaeus, Torbern Berg- Tore Frängsmyr’s specialties, the Enligh- At Uppsala University, even a chair in man and Johan Gottschalk Wallerius, all tenment and 18th century intellectual dis- ”apologetics” was established in the fa- of them internationally renowned. cussions has been another. He wrote one culty of divinity. In his dissertation, Tore Frängsmyr book about the emergence of Wolffianism In 1993, Tore Frängsmyr wrote a pro- found that none of these natural historians at Uppsala University between 1720 and vocative book on the Enlightenment in wanted to recognize a conflict between re- 1760 (Wolffianismens genombrott, 1972). Sweden, or rather the absence of Enligh- ligion and science, trying rather to avoid This philosophy, emanating from Chris- tenment (Sökandet efter upplysningen). this problem and saying that the two areas tian von Wolff, was formed as a mathe- He meant that there was no current, no were on different levels. Bergman said, matical philosophy, using mathematical group, no leading person that could form for instance, that Genesis was never me- structure even in philosophy of law and an Enlightenment. On the contrary, Swe- ant to be a textbook in science but more a morality. Introduced by mathematicians den was, in the latter half of the eighte- textbook on morality. Also, most of these Samuel Klingenstierna and Anders Cel- enth century dominated by mystical mo- people were sons of priests and clergy- sius, it became popular In Sweden. First vements—freemasons, Swedenborgians, men, so they were brought up to be good Wolffianism was regarded as a very ratio- mesmerists, alchemists, and all manner 2 HISTORY OF SCIENCE other Eastern bloc countri- Americans came in exploring the field. It es. is a dramatic story, but one without a con- ”My best memories are, clusion, since all remains after the Peking however, from collabora- Man disappeared during World War II. tion with my international The only remains left are three teeth—in colleagues. Together with Uppsala. John Heilbron, I started a ”It has been a fantastic opportunity to project between Uppsala write this book,” Tore says. “But from and Berkeley that eventual- now on I will concentrate on my univer- ly came out as a book, The sity history.” n Quantifying Spirit in the Eighteenth Century (1990). Publication Series from the Office for Collaboration with the Ber- History of Science keley group was very in- spiring, and I’m glad to say - Uppsala Studies in the History of that many of these Ameri- Science. An international series of can colleagues are now per- publications in the history of science, sonal friends.” including the history of technology Another project was and medicine. Founded 1984. A total an International Summer of 31 publications. ISSN 0282-1036. School between Bologna, Uppsala, Berkeley and Pa- - Stella: Arbetsrapporter. In the Stella ris, that is held every se- series new research from the Office for cond year. It started in 1988 History of Science is presented in a pre- in Bologna, and this June publication form. In Swedish. Founded the 10th Summer School 1994. A total of 29 publications. ISSN will be held in Uppsala. 1650-2272. This year the theme will be ”The Two Cultures in the - Salvia Småskrifter. The Hans Republic of Letters: Intel- Rausing lectures are published in this lectual History in the 17th series. Founded 2003. A total of 6 The Peking Man. Drawing by Birger Bohlin (1927). and 18th centuries.” publications. ”I’m convinced that of occultists. This kind of mysticism ex- the best international collaboration starts - Uppsala Newsletter: History of tended into the top of the social hierarchy, from a level of personal friendship,” says Science. An occasional publication, the court and nobility. Many historians Tore. “I am rather skeptical about official usually published twice a year by the criticized this hypothesis, claiming that projects, launched from a level above the Office for History of Science. Founded Sweden had a different Enlightenment scholars themselves, either on a national 1984. 37 issues. than France. scale or an international one. Big organi- ”Still, it is very unclear what sort of zations, like the European Union, Euro- Enlightenment this could be,” says Tore pean Science Foundation, or a national Frängsmyr. A new edition of his book has research council, can do much good in just been published this year, and it seems supporting projects already started, but that more and more historians are follo- they should not go out and proclaim what wing his line. kind of research we should have.” And what will Tore Frängsmyr do now International works that he is retiring? His main preoccupa- tion will be the completion of a big project Tore Frängsmyr has also published several about the history of Uppsala University collections of essays, a book on the Swe- during the 19th and the 20th centuries. He dish East India Company, one on utopias has two fulltime and two part time scho- in Western thinking, and a two-volume lars assisting him on the project, which work on Swedish History of Ideas and will result in a four-volume history. Learning from the year 1000 to the year 2000 (Svensk idéhistoria, 1-2, 2000). He The Peking Man received four prizes from different acade- mies for this major work. Altogether he In September, Tore will come out with has now published 28 books, half of those a book entitled Pekingmänniskan: En written by himself, and half edited works. historia utan slut (“The Peking Man: A Over the years, Tore Frängsmyr has Story without an End”). It tells how Pe- been involved in many international net- king Man was found in the 1920s by two works. For a period of four years (1989- young paleontologists from Uppsala, Otto Issue no. 6 of Salvia småskrifter. Last Hans 1993), he was Secretary General of the Zdansky and Birger Bohlin, and how they Rausing Lecture was given 6 December, 2005, International Union for the History and have been neglected by historians of sci- by Professor John Heilbron, Worcester Col- Philosophy of Science / Division of His- ence. Tore tells the whole story, how the lege, Oxford. The title was ”Coming to terms tory of Science. That was a lively period first findings came about, what role the with the Scientific Revolution”. See also below, with the liberation of East Germany and Swedes played as initiators, and how the page 6. HISTORY OF SCIENCE 3 JubiLee years and Ordinary times Recent History of Science in Finland T he early years of the 21st century have in Finland seen a whole row of bicen- tennials. Elias Lönnrot, the composer of from 1824 to 1868, all in Swedish) was completed in 2004. The diaries of his two brothers Wilhelm and Ferdinand, both overwhelming amount of material, and the short historical perspective. There are more than two dozens of different bran- the national epic Kalevala, and many-si- also bird painters and ornithologists (of ches of science (15 in the volume on hu- ded developer of the Finnish language, whom the former spent most of his life in manities and social sciences, 11 in the vo- also author of the first Finnish flora, was Sweden), will follow in 2006. lume on natural sciences), and even in this born in 1802, Alexander von Nordmann, But history of science in Finland has classification fields like “law studies”, or an internationally known zoologist, in not only been concentrated in jubilee ye- “medicine” have both one chapter, whe- 1803, the “national poet” J. L. Runeberg ars, although some projects have received reas some much narrower fields, such in 1804, the poet and physicist J. J. Ner- an impact from such anniversaries. In the as “musicology”, “theatre studies” and vander in 1805, as well as Magnus von end of the 1980s a voluminous history “molecular biology” have each got their Wright, pioneer of Finnish painting and of the University of Helsinki, by Matti own chapters. This makes the work rather ornithology, and the “national philosoph- Klinge et al., was published in both Fin- incoherent, and as most of the professors er” J. V. Snellman in 1806. are at least mentioned in their respective They were all born as subjects to the chapters, it is not easy to find the leading Swedish Kingdom, but they grew up in trends and schools and pick up real and the more or less autonomous Grand Du- recognized excellence from the growing chy of Finland in the Russian Empire. masses of ordinary researchers and uni- Maybe this political change favoured their versity teachers. cultural development, and although they conducted their first university studies at Developments in the 20th Century the ancient capital Turku, they continued at the new capital Helsinki, where the uni- The growth of science in Finland was spec- versity had been removed after the great tacular during the 20th century: around fire of Turku in 1827. Except Nordmann, the beginning of the century (1912) there who continued his studies in Germany, was only one university with 64 profes- these men, and several others, formed the sors (the faculty of theology 5, the facul- informal “Saturday Society”, where many ty of law 9, the faculty of medicine 14, ideas about Finland, its essence, its pos- the section of history and philology 19, sibilities and future were discussed, in ad- the section of mathematics and sciences dition to more general contemporary lite- The seal of Helsinki University, 1919- 11, the section of agriculture and econo- 1940. rary and cultural questions. It is maybe no mics 6), but ninety years later the num- exaggeration to say that these men made ber of professors in the same University Finland what she became and what she, in nish and Swedish, and got finished for the of Helsinki exceeded 450, and there were many respects, still is. University’s 350 years jubilee in 1990. fifteen other universities with altogether A shorter version in German appeared in more than 1500 professors. A century ago Exhibitions and seminars 1992 (see Uppsala Newsletter 19, 1993). there was little, if any, research outside the university, but nowadays, although Lönnrot’s jubilee year in 2002 was all Four volumes of History of Science the greatest part of science is still done in over the country noticed with exhibitions, universities, there are scores of scientists seminars, and publications, and the same The next great effort in this field was a in governmental and private institutes, as applies to Runeberg, whose role both as a four-volume history of science in Finland, well as in other organisations. lyrical poet and as a “national awakener” Suomen tieteen historia (2000-2002). The Suomen tieteen historia was initiated was lifted up (the latter aspect e. g. in Matti work, which so far has been published and guided by the Delegation of Scien- Klinge’s extensive book Den politiske Ru- only in Finnish, consists of altogether tific Societies, which in 1999 celebrated neberg in Finnish, Poliittinen Runeberg). 2575 pages, and in addition to the editor- its first centennial. Due to its massive size A national committee is busily planning in-chief Päiviö Tommila, emeritus profes- and great number of details, it became the celebrations of Snellman, and several sor of history of Finland, there are nearly evident already in the beginning of the volumes of his Collected Works have al- forty different writers. The first volume project that a shorter and handier version ready been published. deals with science and scientific culture in would be needed, and this was published On the other hand, Nordmann’s bi- Finland from medieval times until 1880s. in 2003—so far only in Finnish—with centennial passed nearly unnoticed, and The second and third volume concentrate the name Suomen tieteen vaiheet (“The for Nervander only a couple of seminars in different fields of humanistic and social events of Finnish science”) and with Prof. were held; these two men were important research, natural sciences, medicine and Päiviö Tommila and Dr. Aura Korppi- for the history of science in Finland but technology, and the fourth volume goes Tommola as editors. Nearly thirty authors, not effective in the nation-building! As to again to more general questions of science mainly the same as in the big work, were Magnus von Wright, the long-term project policy and conditions of science during involved in this “concentrate” of 324 pa- of the Swedish Literature Society in Fin- the 20th century. ges, where in many cases general lines of land (Svenska Litteratursällskapet i Fin- It is evident that an enterprise like this the development of different sciences are land) to publish his diaries (five volumes, will have at least two shortcomings: the much easier to see. Again, a great number 4 HISTORY OF SCIENCE no institutes of their own, so those New Biographies representing experimental sciences had to rely on the university insti- One of the most eminent members of the tutes, usually those where they had “old” Academy was, as mentioned, the worked before. Internationally the mathematician Rolf Nevanlinna (1895- best-known of the scientific Aca- 1980), whose extensive biography Korke- demy members were probably the at maailmat (“The High Worlds”) was pu- biochemist A. I. Virtanen (Nobel blished in 2001 by Olli Lehto, the former Prize in 1945), the mathematician Rector and Chancellor of the University Rolf Nevanlinna, the meteorologist of Helsinki, himself a world class mathe- Erik Palmén, the astronomer Yrjö matician and student of Nevanlinna. In Väisälä, and the philosopher G. H. 2004, Professor (and Academician) Lehto von Wright; among members re- finished the triple biography of the brot- presenting the creative arts, the ar- hers Vilho, Yrjö and Kalle Väisälä, with chitect Alvar Aalto and the novelist the title Oman tien kulkijat (“They follo- Mika Waltari may be mentioned. wed their own ways”). The influential politician Urho Vilho Väisälä was a meteorologist Kekkonen, who became President and inventor of instruments and beca- of the Republic in 1956 and re- me known as the founder of the Vaisala mained in office through repeated Company, Yrjö was an astronomer who re-elections until 1981, became, excelled in several measurements and dis- however, for reasons which are not covered a great number of asteroids, and quite clear (but at least partly, it se- Kalle was a professor of mathematics and ems, of personal nature), inimical author of widespread textbooks. But writ- to the Academy, and after several ing biographies of eminent scientists is in years of political manoeuvring he spite of this not flourishing in Finland, and succeeded in abolishing the Aca- the dilemma is the same as in many other demy in 1969. The existing aca- countries: scientists are not interested in The professor and prime minister, later archbishop demicians could, of course, retain their predecessors, and historians are not Lauri Ingman (1868-1934). their position, and become emeri- interested in scientists, whose work they tus members in the age of 70; thus seldom can appreciate. of pages have been devoted to general or- the “old” Academy finally vanished only ganization of science and to the position in summer 2003 with the death of von The National Library of Finland of science and science policy in the con- Wright in the age of 87. text of the whole society and national po- Still another work must be mentioned litics. It would be most desirable to have The New Academy when speaking about history of science in this book translated into at least Swedish Finland. It is not voluminous but rich and and English. But the name of Academy of Finland was elegant, and accessible to Scandinavian inherited by the system of State Science and foreign readers, because it has been The Academy of Finland Commissions, an organisation founded al- published separately in Finnish, Swedish ready in 1950, which has as its main fun- and English versions. This book Memory: Still another massive project has recently ction to distribute the government money Literary Treasures in the National Library rendered its first fruit. It is the first volume for advancement of scientific research, in of Finland (in Finnish Muistiin painettua, of the history of the Academy of Finland, the beginning rather scarce but later so- in Swedish Tryckt i minnet, 2004), is edi- Suomen Akatemian historia I (2004), by mewhat more generous. It thus correspon- ted by Leena Pärssinen and Esko Rahikai- Dr. Allan Tiitta, originally a geographer ded—and still corresponds—to a certain nen, both senior officials of the Helsinki who in 1994 published his Ph. D. thesis extent to the French CNRS, and similar University Library, and published by the about the 19th century historian, poet systems in other European countries. same library, which in recent years has and novelist Zacharias Topelius as a geo- Another relic from the time of the “old” more and more began to use the unofficial grapher. Dr. Tiitta was centrally involved Academy is the honorary title of “acade- name “National Library”. In the two hund- in the project “History of science in Fin- mician”, which is formally conveyed by red big and beautifully illustrated pages of land”, and thereafter he has in a relatively the President of the Republic, like scores this book no less than 39 experts tell about short time produced this 700-pages story of other honorary titles; it can be given to the library’s birth (in 1640, together with of two institutions, which have practical- twelve Finnish persons at a time, but also the University), its growth, its fates and its ly nothing in common, except the name foreigners are entitled to it, like the Fin- specialities in widely different fields. “Academy of Finland”. Its subtitle is “top nish-born Nobel Prize winning physiolo- It is a beautiful and informative book individuals and commissions”, referring gist Ragnar Granit, who lived and worked well worth its subject, a library of some to the two “academies” in question. in Sweden from 1940 until his death in 2.7 million books located in (and under!) The first one was founded in 1948. It 1991. one of the most beautiful neoclassical was a cultural manifestation of a nation Tiitta’s history extends from the year buildings in the old centre of Helsinki. recovering from the wartimes, giving to 1948 to 1969; the two following volumes One would like to join the words in the twelve eminent scientists and artists a will deal with the “new” Academy from preface by the Chief Librarian, Professor permanent and considerable salary which 1970 to 1988 and from 1989 to 2003, but Kai Ekholm: “May the richness and diver- would enable them to continue their crea- one could anticipate that they will lack sity of our national heritage be our com- tive work. The academicians were chosen the drama of political feelings which was mon message for coming generations.” by a special board and appointed by the connected with the “old” Academy of Fin- President of the Republic, but they had land. Anto Leikola HISTORY OF SCIENCE 5 CHristina’s JOurney Experiencing History through a Musical Performance T he fascinating world of the Swedish monarch Queen Christina (1626-1689) can be experienced in the innovative per- Christina and Music Christina’s aesthetic sensibilities and cos- coronation took place in 1650 with great splendour, pomp and ceremony. And yet, contrary to appearances, it seems that the formance Christina’s Journey, presented mopolitan interests led her to become one young queen was already entertaining by leading Swedish artists. Contemporary of the most important patrons of the arts thoughts of abdication. scenic expression and choreography com- in the 17th century. During her brief pe- plements Baroque sonorities in this musi- riod as Swedish sovereign, she introduced The Abdication cal performance, on tour since 2004. her country to the riches of contemporary The project Christina’s European culture. In No- Some time earlier she had been attracted Journey has been insti- vember 1652, at the Royal to Roman Catholicism, as it seemed less gated by Susanne Rydén, command, a troupe of Italian dogmatic to her than Protestantism. She who over the past ten ye- musicians arrived in Stock- decided to act, sending a secret emissary ars has devoted much time holm under the leadership of with a message to Rome. In the Throne to the study and perfor- Alessandro Cecconi. In time, room in Uppsala Castle on 6th June 1654 mance of music associated several of these musicians Queen Christina abdicated. The fact that with Queen Christina. The were to leave Sweden, but the daughter of the ”Northern Lion”, performance, a combina- Cecconi, as well as Maestro the Protestant hero in the religious war, tion of music, recitals and di capella Vincenzo Albrici, could have failed in her spiritual calling modern choreography, stayed until Christina herself as a queen, and even worse, converted to was inspired by the 350th departed. It was the occasion Catholicism, was appalling. She departed anniversary in 2004 of of Christina’s abdication that for Rome immediately. Her official con- Christina’s abdication gave Albrici the opportunity version to Catholicism took place in Inns- from the Swedish throne to set Fader Wår for chorus bruch in November 1655 and a month la- and the beginning of her and instruments, creating the ter, on 23rd December, she was acccepted pilgrimage to Rome. Susanne Rydén first known Swedish setting into the Roman church by the Pope. of the Lord’s prayer. Instru- Christina stayed in Rome for the rest Christina’s Journey mental music, including a Sinfonia à due, of her life, with the exception of a few vi- was also written or copied at this time by sits to France and Sweden. Her abdication The journey began in Uppsala on 6th June the Italian musicians, and some of this re- meant anything but a quiet life, and she 1654 and continued via Hamburg, Ant- pertory remains to this day in Uppsala. continued to pursue political ambitions as werp, Brussels, Innsbruck (where Chris- well as cultivate her interests in the arts tina officially converted to Catholicism), Christina and her Era and sciences. She died in 1689 and was through Italy to end in Rome eighteen buried in St Peter’s. n months later in December 1655. On the The birth of little Christina on 8th De- way she was greeted with brilliant per- cember 1626 was a great disappointment Web address: formances, concerts, operas and other to mother and court alike: they had been http://www.queenchristina.com/ spectacles. During her years in Italy the expecting a prince. The king, on the other country’s finest musicians flocked to her hand, was overjoyed and ordered an im- court. mediate salute for his Crown Princess. The aim of the project, still on tour, Unfortunately his joy was to be shortli- has been to recreate Christina’s long jour- ved. In 1632 King Gustav Adolph II fell ney through Europe with a series of sta- at the Battle of Lützen and six-year-old ged concerts in the locations she visited. Christina became ”Queen, by the grace of Each concert portrays a journey through God, and Reigning Princess of the Swe- Christina’s own life. This 17th century des, the Göte and the Vende, Sovereign of queen was a woman of great intellect and Finland, Duchess of Estonia and Lady of power, qualities that provoke and inspire Karelia and Ingermanland”. today as clearly as they did three hundred The powerful Chancellor Axel Oxen- years ago. stierna took over responsibility for train- The journey follows in Christina’s ing the future monarch, ignoring the fact footsteps, helped by music and literature that she was female. She learned to speak dedicated to the Queen as well as eye-wit- several languages fluently; she studied ness accounts of her pilgrimage. With a philosophy, theology and etiquette as well few exceptions, the music is completely as mastering the arts of riding, shooting unknown, and several of the works will be and fencing, just as any prince would have given their first performances in modern done. times. Compositions are from the Swe- In 1644 Christina attained her majority. dish Düben collection as well as by some Far from being a puppet in the hands of of Italy’s most famous composers of the the chancellor, she showed her qualities as Christina's Journey. Design Charles Koroly. period. an active and enlightened politician. The 6 HISTORY OF SCIENCE tHe nOrdström- JOHn HeiLbrOn, Hans rausing LeCturer LindrOtH award T he Johan Nordström & Sten Lindroth Award for 2005 had two recipients: T he Hans Rausing Lec- ture of 2005 was held December 8th by Profes- Peter Josephson, Uppsala University and sor John Heilbron, Oxford Thomas Karlsohn, Göteborg University. University. He was welco- The award was given to Josephson for med by Rector Magnificus his dissertation Den akademiska frihe- Bo Sundqvist and Professor tens gränser: Max Weber, Humboldtmo- Tore Frängsmyr. His lecture dellen och ”Coming to Terms with the den värdefria Scientific Revolution” has vetenskapen been published in Salvia [The Limits småskrifter, no. 6. of Academic John Heilbron has pu- Freedom: blished several studies on Max Weber, the physicists H.G.J. Mo- the Humboldt John Heilbron sely and Max Planck. Other ProfessorAnnika Berg. and Professor Tore Frängsmyr. Photo by Model and Va- major works include his lue Freedom] important study Geometry Civilized from smyr published The Quantifying Spirit in (Uppsala Uni- 1998, dealing with the role of geometry the Eighteenth Century, and they have versity, 2005). in history and society, and The Sun in the also worked together in the creation of The jury em- Church from 1999, exploring scientific The International Summer School in His- phasized that Peter Josephson education within the church. John Heil- tory of Science (which this year will take Josephson’s bron has collaborated closely with Swe- place in Uppsala). dissertation is a competent contribution den since the early 1980’s, especially the John Heilbron is a foreign member of to international Weber research, skillful- Office for History of Science at Uppsala the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences ly using extensive, partly uninvestigated University. and was appointed Doctor honoris causa material. Josephson’s dissertation also In 1990, John Heilbron and Tore Fräng- by Uppsala University in 1999. n ”enlightens important issues concerning academic freedom in a way that deepens our historical understanding and contribu- Strolling through History: A Trip to Rome tes to contemporary discussions regarding the role of the humanities in our society”. The Award was given to Thomas Karl- sohn for his dissertation Passage mellan medier: Vilém Flusser, datorn och skriften [Passage bet- ween media: Vilém Flusser, the Computer and the Written Word] (Göte- borg Universi- ty, 2005). The jury declared that Karlsohn combined the classical intel- lectual bio- graphy with Thomas Karlsohn a contextuali- zing reading of central texts of the media theoretician Vilém Flusser. Flusser (1920- 1991) was a renowned and much admired philsopher in Germany during the 1980’s, From upper left: Jenny Alwall, Hanna Östholm, Tore Frängsmyr, Ulla Manns, but is fairly unknown in Sweden. Frans Lundgren, Mathias Persson, Håkan Gunneriusson, Carl Frängsmyr. Karlsohn focuses on Flusser’s views of Sitting: Ulla-Britt Jansson, Per Wisselgren, Emma Shirran. the relation between an older culture based on the written word and a new one based on images. He has ”in a reflective way, and with a clear and descriptive language, T he Office for History of Science orga- nized a trip to Rome from April 7-10 2005. Under the competent guidance of as later times. Everyone was in agreement that the trip, organized by Tore Frängsmyr, Ulla- contributed to an emerging historical re- Börje Magnusson from Svenska Institutet, Britt Jansson and Hanna Östholm, was search concerning the era of information the participants were educated in history, a very memorable and rewarding expe- technology”. n art and architecture from Roman as well rience. n HISTORY OF SCIENCE 7 new bOOks and dissertatiOns Taking Place Simone de Beauvoir, Ellen Key, Elise Ot- All of these issues demonstrate how the tesen- Jensen, Alva Myrdal, Alfred C. shape of curriculum was seen as having T he essay collection Taking Place deals with places shaped by interactions of science, technology, and industry. It treats Kinsey, Betty Friedan, and Kate Millett are represented. In addition, lesser known names such wider significance for society. An im- portant reason for this, argues Lövheim, is the connection between curriculum place as an essential factor for understan- as Mathilda Betham, who published a and future perspectives. Situations where ding municipalities, companies, scientists, biographical dictionary on famous wo- a curriculum was to be rewritten were and scientific institutions. It discusses, by men in 1803, the Danish economist K. apprehended as opportunities to influence means of historical and contemporary and secure the future. n examples, the embodiment of ideas and power relationships in architectural struc- Daniel Lövheim, Att inteckna framtiden: tures, and how the creation of organized Läroplansdebatter gällande naturveten- places can create or reverse the flow of skap, matematik och teknik i svenska all- people, ideas, wealth and commodities. männa läroverk 1900-1965 [Securing the The aim of Taking Place is to cast new Future: Curriculum Debates concerning light on the complexities inherent in the Science, Mathematics and Technology in interplay between science, technology, and Swedish Secondary Schools 1900-1965] industry; and on how they are embedded (Diss., Uppsala, 2006). ISBN: 91-554- in society. n 6442-4. Enrico Baraldi, Hjalmar Fors, Anders Enlightenment in Sweden? Houltz (editors), Taking Place: The Spa- tial Contexts of Science, Technology and Business (Watson Publishing Internatio- I n 1993 Tore Frängsmyr published a book, Sökandet efter upplysningen (In Search for Enlightenment), in which he nal, 2006). ISBN 0-88135-252-7. claimed that Sweden did not have an en- lightened movement in the 18th Century A. Wieth Knudsen who wrote an antife- and that only a few isolated philosophers minist treatise in 1924, and Swedish po- were influenced by the French ”philosop- pular novelist Alice Lyttkens, who also hes”. One of the few was Peter Forskål wrote on women’s history in the 1940’s, who was educated at Göttingen Univer- can be found in this important reader with sity and was a disciple of Linneaus. an informative introduction by Dr Hanna Tore Frängsmyr’s book has now come Östholm. n out in a new edition (2006). It was trans- lated into a French edition in 1999 (À la recherche des Lumières: Une perspective Hanna Östholm (editor), Feminismens idéer suédoise, Presses universitaires de Bour- [Ideas in Feminism] (Studentlitteratur, deaux). n 2006). ISBN 9144045581. Tore Frängsmyr, Sökandet efter upplys- ningen: Perspektiv på svenskt 1700-tal [In Securing the Future Search for Enlightenment] (Stockholm, I n his dissertation Daniel Lövheim ana- lyzes different conceptions of the school subjects science, mathematics and tech- 2006). ISBN 91-27-11324-8. nology. How were they looked upon and presented during the debates? What kind of values and functions were they said to Ideas in Feminism promote? A new anthology, Feminismens idéer, [Ideas in Feminism] presents 200 years of Western feminism, focusing on Lövheim discusses principal ques- tions regarding why the school subjects became objects for debate: Why did dif- Sweden and the Nordic countries. The ferent actors engage in these discussions? texts are organized into seven themes A leading perspective is that schools and —Enlightenment and liberalism, Socia- their curricula often are used as arenas for list feminism, The discussion on double larger debates concerning the role of sci- standards, Psychoanalysis, Feminism ence and technology in society. One of the and welfare Sweden, Historiography of reasons for this, argues Lövheim, is that a women’s history, and Sexual liberation. curriculum often is seen as representing a The anthology consists of two parts, standpoint in these broader societal discu- one printed and the other published onli- ssions. In the study, this is shown through Peter Forskål (1732-1763) was inspired ne. Renowned authors like Marie Gouze, a number of different debates concerning, by Enlightenment ideas when he wrote a dissertation on the freedom of the John Stuart Mill, J. J. Bachofen, Clara for example, the amount of hours devoted press De libertate civili. Forskål was a Zetkin, Alexandra Kollontay, August to science, student conducted experiments, controversial figure in the 18th century Strindberg, Elin Wägner, Sigmund Freud, eugenics and environmental aspects. Sweden. 8 HISTORY OF SCIENCE Uppsala Newsletter is an occasional publication, usually published twice a year by the Office for History of Science at Uppsala University. Its aim is to give surveys and information about our field in Scandinavia. Although there is no Scandinavian society for history of science, we have correspondents in most university towns, and through them we hope to reflect ongoing research. The Newsletter will be sent without cost to anyone interested. Inquiries and information should be sent to the Editor/ Assistant Editor. UPPSALA NEWSLETTER History of Science Editor: Tore Frängsmyr Assistant Editor: Jenny Alwall (email@example.com) Frontispiece of F. Imperato’s, Dell’historia naturale, 1599. Office for the History of Science Uppsala University From Private to Public Model” by Giovanni di Pasquale, “Taste, Order and Aesthetics in Eighteenth-Cen- Box 629 S-751 26 Uppsala, Sweden F rom Private To Public is a collection of essays exploring the emergence of Natural History as a discipline during the tury Mineral Collections” by Jonathon Simon, “Collected, Analyzed, Displayed: Lavoisier and Minerals” by Marco Be- Tel. +46 18-471 15 77 http://www.vethist.idehist.uu.se Printed by Wikströms, Uppsala, 2006. period from the Renaissance to the end of retta, “The Swedish Museum of Natural the 18th century. History and the ’Linnean Tradition’” by The twelve expert authors together Jenny Beckman and “Do Collections Marco Beretta (ed.), From Private to Pu- cover a long time-line as well as a large Make the Collector? Charles Darwin in blic: Natural Collections and Museums geographical area. Contributions include Context” by Janet Browne. Introduction (Watson Publishing International, 2005). “The Museum of Alexandria: Myth and by Marco Beretta. n ISBN 0-88135-360-4. rapprochement across a political chasm? wright and historians of science. In 2002, Copenhagen in Debate Frayn’s characters play through the dif- the publicity prompted Bohr’s family to I n 1941, two of the world’s leading sci- entists met in Nazi-occupied Denmark. They were old friends, a mentor and his ferent interpretations and find that their understandings, like quantum mechanics itself, are rooted in uncertainty. release previously unavailable documents pertaining to the infamous conversation. In light of the new information, historians brilliant former protégé, and together they The production of Copenhagen stirred were forced to examine the incident yet had changed the world of physics. up a vigorous exchange between the play- again. But one was German and a Michael Frayn’s Copenhagen leading figure in Hitler’s nuclear in Debate collects essays speci- fission program. The other was ally written by leading historians Danish, half-Jewish, and a states- in reaction to the play and the new man in the global physics com- documents. They debate Frayn’s munity. The meeting between depiction, shed light on the mys- Werner Heisenberg and Niels tery at its center, and reflect on Bohr broke off in embarrassment the relation between history and and strained their relationship for drama. the rest of their lives. What was By special arrangement with said—what exactly happened the Niels Bohr Archive in Co- that night—has been fiercely de- penhagen, Bohr’s now-famous bated ever since. documents are reproduced in this Michael Frayn’s Tony Award- volume. n winning drama Copenhagen ta- kes the controversial encounter Matthias Dörries, Michael Frayn's to the stage. Was Heisenberg Copenhagen in Debate: Histori- trying to forestall the develop- cal Essays and Documents on the ment of nuclear weapons? Car- 1941 Meeting Between Niels Bohr rying out atomic espionage? Or Elisabeth Heisenberg, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg. Picture and Werner Heisenberg (Berkeley, just clumsily seeking personal taken in 1937, Fredriksborg Castle, Hillerød. 2005). ISBN 0-9672617-2-4.
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