Millennium Development Goals for Water and Sanitation Dist water

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					Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
for Water and Sanitation

Country Assessment - Ghana




February 2004
MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04   Page 2
Preface
Purpose of this Desk Study
This report is part of a desk review on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for water
supply and sanitation in 14 African countries. Its purpose is to provide an assessment of the
sector in the selected country, estimate progress towards meeting the MDGs for water and
sanitation by 2015, and outline actions which would help achieve these goals. The report is
intended to reveal data gaps and validity issues to be addressed during the development of a full
country action plan, in conjunction with government and donors. This review follows a
prescribed format to enable comparisons between countries in the region.



Acknowledgements
This report was a collaborative effort between the World Bank and the African Development
Bank. It was drafted by Jason Cardosi, lead consultant for the Ghana Country Assessment
(World Bank), in coordination with local consultant, Peter Akari (World Bank), who was
responsible for data collection in the field. Alex McPhail (World Bank) guided the work and
made substantial contributions, with additional revisions and comments from Arthur Swatson
(World Bank). Robert Roche, Eustache Ouayoro, and Emily Horgan (World Bank) coordinated
the preparation of the assessments.




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                     Page 3
Definitions and Terms
MDGs for Water and Sanitation
Using 1990 as a base year, the MDGs for water supply and sanitation call for halving the
proportion of the world’s population without access to improved water by the year 2015, and
without sanitation by 2020. Data from the 2000 WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program
(JMP) was used to calculate global and regional MDGs to provide a baseline for the country desk
reviews.

Access to an Improved Water Source
This refers to the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of
water from an improved source, such as a household connection, public standpipe, borehole,
protected well or spring, and rainwater collection. Unimproved sources include vendors, tanker
trucks, and unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable access is defined as the availability of at
least 20 liters a person a day from a source within one kilometer of the dwelling. (World Health
Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Global Water Supply and Sanitation
Assessment 2000 Report).1

Access to Improved Sanitation Facilities
This refers to the percentage of the population with at least adequate excreta disposal facilities
(private or shared, but not public) that can effectively prevent human, animal, and insect contact
with excreta. Improved facilities range from simple but protected pit latrines to flush toilets with
a sewerage connection. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly
maintained. (World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund, Global Water
Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report).2

Issues Related to Access and Demographics
The JMP numbers are questioned in a number of countries. Both government and JMP figures
will need to be validated in order to produce robust access figures. The desk studies make use of
government figures wherever significant differences arise.




1
    http://www.developmentgoals.org/Definitions_Sources.htm
2
    Ibid.



MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                       Page 4
    Millennium Development Goals for Water and Sanitation
                 Country Assessment - Ghana

1. The MDG Challenge
1.1 Overview                                                                           Country Specific Data
In 2000 10.3 million (51%) of Ghana’s 20 million people                       Total area .......................... 238,540 km2
had access to water supply and 4.7 million (23%) had                          Population …………………20 million (2001)
access to sanitation. To achieve the MDGs, 13.6 million                       Rural population………………..64%
more people would need to obtain access to water and 18.2                     Urban population ............... 36%
million to sanitation. This would still leave 6.1 million                     Life expectancy .................. 56 years
without water and 7.1 million without sanitation.                             GNI per capita (PPP) ........... US$2170
From 1990-2003 approximately $17 million dollars a year
                                                                              GNI per capita (Atlas) ......... US$290
was invested in water supply and $5 million a year into
                                                                              GNI per capita growth rate .. 1.88%
sanitation. To achieve MDGs it is estimated that
investments will have to increase to approximately                            Human Dev. Index ............. 0.567 129th
$85million a year for water and $81 million for sanitation.                   Population growth rate........ 1.83%
Africa has developed solid strategies for providing                             Rural growth rate ............ .1.55%
sustainable water and sanitation services to poor people.                       Urban growth rate ........... 3.56%
The scorecard below shows Ghana’s progress towards
adopting key factors that affect sustainable services.
                                                                                                 Water Supply Access
      Sustainability Scorecard
                                                                       30.0             Goal: Increase access to water
 Rural Water Supply                                                                     from 10.3m to 23.9m by 2015.
                                                                       25.0             (12.5m rural and 11.4m urban).
      Community Management
                                                      Population (m)




      Demand Responsiveness                                            20.0
      Hygiene/Sanitation Promotion                                     15.0
      Decentralization, Programmatic
      User Friendly Handpump                                           10.0
      Supply Chains (parts/repairs)
      Household and School Latrines                                     5.0

 Towns Water Supply                                                     0.0
                                                                              urban     rural    total          urban    rural    total
      Autonomy of WB and Operator
      Contracts with Operators                                access (2000)                 added for MDGs (2000-2015)           no access
      Professional Support
      Business Plans and Tariffs
      Design Matches Demand                                                                     Access to Safe Water
      Supply Chains (parts/chemicals)
                                                                                      100
      Environmental Action Plans
 Urban Water Supply                                                                   80                                         79
      Autonomy of WB and Operator
      Contracts with Operators                                                        60
      Business Plans and Tariffs                                                   %                        51
      Effective Regulation                                                            40
      Services to Low Income Areas
      Strategic Sanitation Plans                                                      20


    Ratings:     Full    Partial   None                                                0
                                                                                       1990              2000       2015 MDG goal

MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                                                    Page 5
2. WSS Sector Status
2.1 Population and Access: Status and Projections
2.1.1 Demographics
The population of Ghana is 20 million with the largest proportion (41%) living is dispersed
settlements of less than 2000 inhabitants (see table 2). While Ghana will likely remain a rural
nation for the foreseeable future, urban areas are growing faster. At present the country is not
experiencing dramatic population shifts. At present growth rates, the 28 largest urban centers
will account for over a third of the population by 2015 - up from just over a quarter in 2000.

             Table 1: Population Distribution by Settlement Size (1000’s)
                                   Rural     Small    Medium     Large      Urban Total
                                             Towns    Towns      Towns
     Settlement size              .075-2*     2-5      5-50      50-200     >200
     Population (2000)          8,228        3,566     2,848      2,016     3,494    20,152
     Annual Growth Rate          2.5           2.5       2.5         3        3
                               (41%)         (18%)     (14%)      (10%)     (17%)
     Projected Pop. 2015        9,593        4,688     3,920      2,716     7,933    28,850
                               (33%)         (16%)     (14%)       (9%)     (27%)
     Projected Pop. 2020       10,857        5,307     4,435      3,149     9,197    32,938
                               (33%)         (16%)     (13%)      (10%)     (28%)
     Number of settlements (in 12,547        1,219      318         21        7      14,112
     units)
     7. Pop. in unplanned        N/A          N/A        N/A       N/A
     settlements (%)

In urban areas, the largest services areas, those of 200,000 or more are:
City                                                  Population (2000)
Accra -Tema Metro Area                                2,100,000
Kumasi Metro Area                                     1,200,000
Tamale Municipality                                   200,000

Supply Areas more than 200,000                        Population (2000)
Cape Coast Supply Area                                310,000
Kwanyaku Supply Area                                  440,000
Sekondi-Takoradi Metro Area                           290,000

Supply areas are served by one water supply system and populations are greater than administrative
city boundaries.

2.1.2 Access to WSS
According to a combination of government and UN data, access to improved water declined by
9% from 1990 to 2000 while access to improved declined by 23%. This is likely due to the
incapability of the data and underlines the need for a review of access figures. Some figures
could, however, also be indicative of the situation. Most of the decline in water supply access,


MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                       Page 6
   for example, occurred in urban areas. This is consistent with a growing urban population
   residing in areas where the utility is insolvent and unable to expand services.

   In order to achieve the MDGs, 13.6 million more people will need access to water and 18.2
   million more to sanitation (see table 3). This means an average annual increase in access of
   1.9% for water and 2.2% for sanitation. The total investment cost of meeting the MDGs for
   water and sanitation is estimated to be US $2.2 billion.

                              Table 2: Water Supply and Sanitation Access
                                                                                         GAP (2000-        Total
                                  2000                             MDG                   2015/2020)        Investment
                      Pop      Access      Access      Pop     Access       Access    Added Investment ($m)
                      (m)       (m)          (%)       (m)       (m)         (%)        (m)    ($m/yr)
Water        Rural    11.8       5.2         44%       17.1      12.5        73%        7.3        29            329
(MDG
2015)        Urban     8.4       5.1         61%        13       11.4        88%        6.3        57            657

             Total    20.2      10.3         51%       30.1      23.9        79%       13.6        85            986
Sanitation   Rural    11.8       1.3         11%       19.3      10.8        56%        9.5        25            377
(MDG
2020)        Urban     8.4       3.4         40%       15.1      12.1        80%        8.7        57            879

             Total    20.2       4.7         23%       34.4      22.9        67%       18.2        81            1253


   Note: Investment costs based on unit capital costs (Table 7) and number of people to be added between 2000-2015,
   service level, plus 30% added for management, planning/design, construction supervision, and capacity building for
   water and sanitation. Average water supply unit costs used were $46 for rural and $115 for urban. Sanitation unit
   costs were not available to this draft.


   2.1.3 Facilities
   Most people with improved access to improved water supply in Ghana utilized public standpipes
   or boreholes. In large urban centers, household connections serve 54% of the population (see
   table 4 below)

   In rural areas, the served population receives water from 13,780 drilled boreholes with
   handpumps, 12230 hand dug wells with handpumps, and 794 small piped systems.

   Latrines account for all improved access to sanitation in rural areas and small towns and are by
   far the common sanitation facility used in large towns and urban centers.




   MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                                   Page 7
       Table 3: Access to Improved Water and Sanitation by Type of Service (%)
                                                                    Small       Medium         Large
                                                  Rural                                                         Urban      Total
                                                                    Towns       Towns          Towns
Settlement size                                 .075-2*               2-5         5-50         50-200           >200

Water Supply                                        45                43           50             63             70          51

Household connection                               N/A                N/A          N/A            26             54          14

Public standpipe                                    4                 16           35             34             16          19

Borehole                                            31                21           12            NA              NA          17

Protected dug well                                  1                  6            3            2.8             NA          5

Protected spring                                   N/A                N/A          N/A

Sanitation                                          8                 20           24             56             44          25
Connected to public sewer
                                                                                                  1              1           1
                                                   N/A                N/A          N/A
Connected to septic system                         N/A               N/A          N/A             5              9           3
Latrine
                                                    8                 20           24             50             34          21
Note: Percents are based on the total population (e.g. 50% if 4m of 8m rural people are served by handpumps).
Coverage figures for rural to medium towns provided by CWSA
Coverage figures for large urban and cities provided by GWCL Reports



2.2 Institutional Arrangements
2.2.1 Policy, Regulation, and WRM
The Ministry of Works and Housing (MoWH) is responsible for sector policy formulation and
coordination. Functions include developing policy framework for the water and sanitation sector;
soliciting for funding from External Support Agencies (ESA); monitoring activities of water
supply and sanitation sector, and; advising cabinet on water and sanitation issues.
The Water Resources Commission (WRC), created by an Act of Parliament in 1996 is
responsible for regulation and management of utilization of water resources and for the
coordination of policy in relation to them. They grant water rights for abstraction and wastewater
discharges.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created in 1994 by an Act of Parliament, regulates
and enforces environmental quality laws, including policies and regulations pertaining to control
pollution of water resources. The issue of who is responsible for monitoring drinking water
quality is currently unclear in terms of statutory mandate and in terms of actual practice. This
function vacillates between the Ghana Standards Board, the EPA and the Food and Drugs Board.
It is the opinion of most experts that the formulation and enforcement of water quality standards
be the responsibility of EPA.




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                                                 Page 8
2.2.2 Rural WSS
The Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) facilitates the development of water and
sanitation services in rural areas and towns. Roles include: ensuring sustainability of water and
sanitation systems provided through appropriate management models; maximizing health
benefits through integration of health and hygiene; education and sanitation promotion
interventions, and; facilitating capacity building of sector practitioners.
District Assemblies demonstrate commitment to the sector by setting up District Water and
Sanitation Teams (DWST). The DWSTs select beneficiary communities and apply for national
program benefits on their behalf. The DWSTs also manage implementation and approve tariffs
set by Community Water and Sanitation Committees. and town Water and Sanitation Boards.
Communities apply for benefits available from the District Assemblies. Commitment is
demonstrated by opening of a bank account and depositing funds towards the capital cost
contribution (5%) for each facility and eventual collections for operations and maintenance and
replacement. Communities make their own arrangements for payment of facilities and fully
operate and manage its use. Community Water and Sanitation Committees (WATSAN) are
established to set tariffs, maintain accounts, and manage day-to-day operations of water points.
NGOs provide technical assistance to communities during planning implementation and
provision of facilities. They also provide capacity building to community management groups.
In some cases, NGOs will provide water and sanitation facilities. The NGOs active in the sector
include World Vision International, Water Aid, ProNet and several church funded organizations


2.2.3 Small and Medium Towns WSS
Towns establish Water and Sanitation Boards (WSDB) to manage facilities directly or through
contract. District Assemblies mange project implementation and approve tariffs set by Town
Water and Sanitation Boards.


2.2.4 Large Towns and Urban WSS
The Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) was created by an Act of Parliament responsible
for the provision, distribution and management of urban water supply and succeeded the Ghana
Water and Sewerage Corporation. The GWCL is responsible for planning, development and
operation of Water (and Sewerage) Services in some medium towns that are not under
community management, and all large towns and cities. The Accra central sewerage system,
managed by the GWCL has now been handed over to the Accra Metropolitan Authority. The
GWCL undertakes research and planning, engineering design, construction, operation of works.
Regulation of urban water supply is the responsibility of the Public Utilities Regulatory
Commission (PURC). The main function of PURC is to examine and approving rates and tariffs
chargeable for provision of utility services (Water Electricity and Gas). The PURC approves
tariffs for urban water supply utility service currently undertaken by GWCL. District Assemblies
regulate water supply tariff in community-managed small towns pipe systems and rural
handpump water supply systems.




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                     Page 9
2.3 PRSP Priorities
1. The Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS) has set the priorities for providing safe water
and sanitation in Ghana. The GPRS focuses on improving access in rural, peri-urban and poor
urban areas. The emphasis is on the following priority areas:
2. Acceleration of rural water provision, with emphasis on guinea worm endemic communities
and regions that have least benefited from new investments in the past decade
 Effective management of urban systems
 Safe liquid and solid waste management
 Capacity building for environmental health
 Sector restructuring to improve management and investment in water supply and sanitation;
 Improving financial solvency through the charging of appropriate tariff;
 Increased capital to maintain assets to address deterioration of assets;
 Provision of funds to undertake development of potentially profitable extensions (especially
in Accra)

2.4 Sustainability Factors

 Ratings:     Full    Partial    None

2.4.1 Rural Water Supply and Sanitation
   Community Management: The Community Water and Sanitation Program (NCWSP) has
adopted a Community Ownership and Management strategy under which community water and
sanitation committees handle day-to-day maintenance and repair needs by training two pump
caretakers. More complex maintenance and repair needs are undertaken by district Area
Mechanics.
    Demand Responsiveness: Underpinning community management is the use of the demand-
responsive approach. District Assemblies and communities make formal requests to join the
government assisted national program (see Institutional Arrangements) with communities
contributing five percent of capital costs - although actual contributions vary due to different
interpretations across projects. Community WATSAN committees are open to all community
members. Account information listing tariff collections and O&M contributions are available for
inspection by community members.
   Hygiene and Sanitation Promotion
Under the NCWSP, communities benefiting from water facilities must also receive a minimum
content of hygiene education and sanitation promotion activities. Despite this policy, however,
not all projects include hygiene and sanitation.
   Decentralized and Programmatic Strategy: The National Community Water and Sanitation
Program is administered nationally by CWSA and locally by the districts. A standard
implementation strategy, focusing on community management and the demand responsive
approach, is applied.




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                  Page 10
   User Friendly Handpump
The NCWSP standardized the use of four Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM)
handpumps: the Ghana Modified India Mark II, Vergent, Afidev, and Nira. This has brought the
percentage of function points functioning close to 100% in areas covered by the NCWSP.
Average breakdown time for handpumps has been assessed to be about three days. The few
remaining handpumps that have not yet been converted to VLOM experience breakdowns of up
to one week.
    Supply Chains
The continued success of maintenance arrangements may rely on the availability of spare parts,
the need for which is expected to increase as water points age. The Community Water and
Sanitation Agency (CWSA) recently introduced a new spare parts distribution system with
funding from DANIDA and KfW, in which responsibility for storage and distribution has been
awarded to a private contractor. The contractor established distribution outlets for in Tema,
Accra (2), Kumasi and Tamale. Demand to date appears to be weak with little supply chain
activity occurring beyond the distributors.
   Household and School Latrines
While latrines are included in some projects, it is believed many are not maintained and little
demand exists for replacement and new construction.


2.4.2 Town Water Supply               Ratings:     Full    Partial    None
   Autonomy:
The Community Operation and Management strategy of the NCWSP has recently been applied
to small towns with local Water and Sanitation Development Boards (WSDB) taking over new
systems or existing ones previously under the control of the Ghana Water Company Limited
(GWCL). WSDBs were created as autonomous bodies with responsibly over day-to-day
operations and maintenance. While legally autonomous, many WSDBs are subject to
management interference by district assemblies, often in the form of staffing changes.
   Contract with Operator:
In two towns (Bekwai: pop 40,000 and Atebubu, pop 30,000) operators have been contracted.
   Professional Support:
WSBDs are trained in system operations. Most small and medium town water systems rely on
GWCL for specialized services in operations and maintenance and repair. Distribution of spare
parts and chemicals is limited. Water boards rely on GWCL or they travel long distances to
purchase supplies. Maintenance contracts have been discussed, but have only been implemented
in one system.
   Business Plans
Tariffs are designed to cover recurrent costs as well as replacement of equipment. In practice,
however, revenues are inadequate due in part to poor collection rates and water boards are barely
able to cover operations. WSDBs rely on district assemblies for major replacement work and
expansion.


MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                    Page 11
   Design Matches Demand:
As with point sources, planning for small piped systems applies a demand-responsive approach.
Communities participate in the planning and design where they decide the size and extent of the
water supply system based on what they can afford to operate. Designs take into consideration
the projected population of the town with distribution capacity for 10 years and source capacity
for 20.
   Environmental Action Plans:
Environmental Impact Assessment studies are part of preliminary work before pipe systems are
provided. It is also a requirement for communities to prepare environmental sanitation action
plans. In practice they have been undertaken by only a few communities and WSDBs.


2.4.3 Urban Water Supply
                                         Ratings:      Full    Partial    None
   Autonomy:
The state Ghana Water Company Limited manages the water supply systems of the 100 largest
towns and cities. The level of staff training for routine operations is considered high and
comparable internationally. GWCL uses professionals outside the organization for technical
studies, detailed engineering design, contract supervision and management, civil engineering
construction of water supply systems, and installation and repair of heavy pumping plant and
equipment.
   Contract with Operator:
The Government is currently examining various PSP options to improve commercial operations
and business practices, procedures and systems.
   Business Plans
Given the financial loses currently incurred by GWCL, prospects for business sustainability is
doubtful under these circumstances. Government recognizes the problems faced by GWCL and
is taking steps to address these constraints.
     Effective Regulation:
Regulation is under review by the government as part of urban water sector reforms.
   Services to Low-Income Areas:
Service is Low-income is largely undocumented although a number of independent providers are
known to exist.
   Strategic Sanitation Plans:
Like small towns, sanitation action plans have yet to be implemented on a large scale


2.5    Capacity - Public and Private Sector
In public sector, national agencies are deconcentrated with a large proportion of staff regionally
assigned and able to support the districts. As shown in Table 4, however, professional
engineering capacity remains low, and virtually no priority is placed on financial expertise.



MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                    Page 12
                      Table 4: Staffing at Key Government Institutions
                                                                   Professional        Financial
                                                       Number of
                                                                     Engineers      Management
       Institution                                         Staff
                                                                           (%)             (%)
       CWSA (rural and small towns WSS)
       National Program Management                            30             10              n/a
       Regional Program Staff                                170             12              n/a
       District Assemblies (district WSS
                                                             440            n/a              n/a
       teams)
       GWCL (large towns and urban WSS)
       Head Office (Planning and Coordination)               400              3              n/a
       Regions (Water Supply Technical
                                                            4327              1              n/a
       Operations)


Table 5 provides a snapshot of the water and sanitation-related firms and NGOs. There is an
active market surrounding the sector with high capacity in engineering, drilling, civil works.
Many engineering firms have not/are unable to respond to potential operation and maintenance
opportunities in towns, and in rural areas and small towns, spare parts are in short supply.


      Table 5: Private Sector Overview – Number of firms by size (employees)
                                         Micro (<10        Small 10 -50     Medium (50-
                                         employees)         employees)    300 employees)
                Pipe/fitting suppliers                               2                 2
                Electro-mechanical
                                                  10
                equipment suppliers
                Engineering Firms                 30                10                 5
                Drilling Firms                                      15
                Civil Works
                                                  50                50                25
                contractors
                Hydrogeologists                   10                 5
                O&M                              150                50
                NGOs – Technical
                Assistance (TA) and                4                 8                 2
                WSS construction
                NGOs – TA only                     8                10
               Source: GWCL and CWSA


2.6 Donor Support
   All sector donors in Ghana, except DfID, have high interest in the Community Water and
    Sanitation sub-sector. The principal investors in terms of volume of financial commitments
    are the World Bank, Danida, CIDA, the Government of the Netherlands, and, of late,
    the European Union (EU).



MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                        Page 13
   The urban water sub-sector receives funding mainly from the International Development
    Association (IDA) of the World Bank, the Government of the Netherlands and African
    Development Bank (AfDB). The most significant urban investment in the last 10 years was
    the World Bank funded Water Sector Rehabilitation Project.
   The role of the donors ranges from financing feasibility studies through project preparation,
    facility delivery, capacity building, up to monitoring and evaluation. Some of them provide
    technical assistance as a component of the financing arrangement. The main international
    NGOs provide the funding as well as take direct responsibility for the management of their
    programs/projects.
   The major NGOs in the sector include World Vision International (WVI) and Water Aid.
    There are however, other partners valued by CWSA such as ADRA, Plan International,
    Church of Christ, Pronet and the Catholic Church (via its rural water supply units and
    Catholic Relief Services).

               Table 6: Main Donors in the Water and Sanitation Sector




                                                                                                                        (US$ m 1990–
                                                   Multilaterals




                                                                                                                        Investment
                                                                                                           Sanitation
                                      Bilaterals




            Organizations




                                                                                                                        Approx.
                                                                                   Towns



                                                                                                   Water
                                                                                           Urban




                                                                                                                        2003)
                                                                   Other

                                                                           Rural
                                UN




                                                                                                              
          AFD                                                                                                          21
          DANIDA                                                                                                      49
          DFID                                                                                            
          CIDA                                                                                                         130
          EU                                                                                                          68
          Govt of the                                                                                                 80
          Netherlands
          Govt of Spain                                                                                                20
          JICA                                                                                                          39
          KFW                                                                                                         24
          UNICEF                                                                                                       6
          World Bank                                                                                                 170


2.7 Financing
2.7.1 Past and projected investments by government and donors.
Past and ongoing donor investments from 1990-2003 amounts to approximately US$ 500 million
in stand-alone water and sanitation projects (See Annex 4 for investment listing). Urban water
received the highest amount (see table 7 below), mainly attributable to the Bank’s US$120
million Water Sector Rehabilitation Project. In terms of volume, most donors focused on rural
and small town water supply. Sanitation received significantly less attention.




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                                                                Page 14
               Table 7: Water and Sanitation Investments, 1990 – 2003
                                                                               Water Supply and
                          Water Supply                  Sanitation
                                                                                  Sanitation
                      Number         Amount     Number of      Amount       Number of        Amount
                      projects       (US$M)      projects      (US$M)        projects        (US$M)
    Rural and S.
                         17            171           2               53         5              46
    Towns
    Urban                 5            196          --               --         1              24
            Total        22            267           2               53         6              70



Available information on planned investments shows three urban water supply projects, one rural
water project and general planning underway for two unspecified rural interventions.
Government projections from 2003 – 2006 look to provide 4.7 million people with access to
water facilities and 1.2 million with sanitation access.


                                        Table 8: Unit Costs*
             Settlement Type       Description of Water Schemes           Unit Costs (US$)
             Water Supply
             Rural                 Household connection                         50
                                   Standpipe                                    50
                                   Borehole                                     16
                                   Protected dug well                           10

             Urban                 Household connection/standpipe               110

             Sanitation
             Rural                 Unlined VIP Latrine                          40

             Urban                 Single Seater KVIP                           100
                                   Septic Tank                                  100
                                   Sewer Connection                             100
               *excluding mobilization costs



3. Achieving the MDGs: Issues and Constraints
Ghana has carried out reforms across the sector which now provide a solid basis for an MDG
action plan. In rural areas In rural area the country was at the forefront of widely implementing
the demand-responsive approach. Decentralized development of WSS by District Assemblies
and community ownership and management of handpump water supply systems is entrenched
and largely effective. Technology for rural water supply is standardized and enhancing
sustainability.

The demand responsive and community management approach has also been effectively applied
to small towns that have opted for it. Operations in small towns have generally improved since



MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                             Page 15
the implementation of this strategy. For urban areas, an independent regulator exists provide the
basis for sound tariff setting. Capacity for technical operations in the large urban areas is high.
Key issues and constraints to achieve the MDGs remain regarding financing, capacity and
sustainability.

3.1 Financing Issues/Constraints
Funding provision and absorption – in broad terms, systems/commitments are not yet in place to
provide and absorb the significantly higher annual investments required to meet the MDGs
(about eight times current annual amounts).


3.2 Capacity Issues/Constraints
3.2.1 Contractors, Drillers and Equipment Suppliers
Engineering Firms and Equipment Suppliers - For reasons that are unclear, firms are not
responding to all sector demands and opportunities in rural areas and small towns .

3.2.2 District Assemblies
There is lack of qualified staff in the District Assemblies to implement, monitor and provide
technical support to water supply and sanitation systems in rural areas and small towns.

3.3 Sustainability Issues/Constraints
3.3.1 Rural WSS
   Spare parts - There is an apparent lack of demand for spare parts could be another constraint.
    It might indicate that pumps are not yet requiring part replacement or that communities are
    deferring much needed maintenance.
   Hygiene and sanitation - While policy dictates that each project contains sanitation and
    hygiene promotion, it does not always occur.
   Financial policy - donors and NGOs have varying ways in which the 5% community capital
    cost contributions are applied. Some donors do not support District Assembly contributions
    to capital cost. Differing perceptions of capital cost contributions could interfere with
    District Assemblies decentralized development concept and jeopardize community
    ownership and responsibility over water points.

3.3.2 Town WSS
   Spare parts - There is a lack of available spare parts and chemicals.
   Sanitation - Sanitation action plans, while required, are often ignored.

3.3.3 Urban WSS
 Utility performance - The sole utility suffers from poor performance and is unable to
    achieve cost recovery and meet the growing needs of the population.
   Sanitation - As in smaller towns, sanitation policy remains largely on paper and
   Low income areas - Data on the needs of low income dwellers is lacking.




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                     Page 16
4. MDG Action Plan
4.1 Actions: Address sustainability, capacity and financing constraints
        Constraint/Issue                          Actions/Steps to Consider
   Finance
   Funding provision and          Develop detailed investment requirements to meet MDGs and
   absorption                     adapt PRSP accordingly. Streamline guidelines.

   Capacity Issues
   Engineering Firms and          Research markets (see rural and small towns) and firms. Review
   Equipment Suppliers            government and donor practices. Ensure policy enables firms to
                                  respond to demand and supply goods and services to the sector.
   District Assemblies            Assess capacity needs and staff competencies. Develop
                                  recurrent training programs and recruitment plans. Develop
                                  capacity-specific investment program.

   Rural WSS Sustainability
   Spare parts                    Assess community maintenance practices. Conduct market
                                  survey and share with private sector.
   Hygiene and Sanitation         Ensure hygiene promotion and sanitation demonstration is
                                  included in all RWSS projects.
   Financial Policy               CWSA-district-donor workshop to establish harmonized financial
                                  policy.
   Town WSS Sustainability

   Spare parts                    Conduct market survey in conjunction with rural areas. Ensure
                                  enabling environment exists.
   Sanitation                     Assess constrains to enforcing policy and develop plan. Include
                                  promotion activities in all projects.
   Urban WSS Sustainability
   Utility Performance            Government is looking at various options to increase
                                  performance including partnering with the private sector
   Sanitation                     Assess constrains to enforcing policy and develop plan. Include
                                  promotion activities in all projects.
   Low income Areas               Assess needs and practices in low income areas. Include in
                                  urban water and sanitation reforms.


4.2 Next Steps: Building consensus, introducing reforms, increasing
    capacity, and securing added financing
4.2.1 Collaborative Efforts
Chances for successful scale-ups can increase if likeminded donors cooperate on various issues.
Applying a programmatic approach to sector assistance will bring consistency, local
empowerment, and reduce duplicated efforts. Procurement procedures could be standardized
across all projects and consistent performance indicators would improve the clarity of the
situation and progress.




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                       Page 17
4.4.2 Consultative Process
A consultative process can help to build broad support for an MDG action plan. A first step
might be a workshop in which donors inform each other of their view and interpretations of the
MDGs and implications on Ghana. This might be concluded with the creation of a steering team
charged with drafting a business plan with government for the achievement of the MDGs. The
plan would be incorporated into the PRSP and include a definitive set of access numbers, a
costing of proposed activities, and guideline for donor interventions.


4.4.3 Timeframe
Developing and implementing detailed action plan should begin with and be determined by the
consultative process with donors and government:
2003 – 2004:
  First workshop and launch of steering committee
  Agreement of water and sanitation access definitions and numbers
  Revision of PRSP including capacity building guidelines

Every five years starting in 2005:
 Survey of access and other indicators
 Identification and revision of constraints
 Adjustment of work plans and activities

4.3 Monitoring: Tracking access, reforms and capacity
Developing robust water and sanitation access figures is key to sector planning and monitoring.
This might be achieved by adapting the JMP to local conditions. Access to improved water, for
example can mean a water source up to one kilometer from a dwelling. In many countries, such
as Ghana, this would be unacceptable in urban areas where 100 meters is considered a more
appropriate distance and in rural areas 500 meters is the norm.
Further work on compiling past investments should be undertaken and investment requirements
refined. In addition, standardized water and sanitation indicators would help to consistently
measure progress throughout the country. The Bank is developing such indicators at country,
program and project levels. These can be presented as to the steering committee and adapted to
the country based on capacity and relevance.




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                 Page 18
Annex 1: Definitions
A. Country Definitions and Unit Costs
Rural
The definition of access to Rural Water supply is systemalised in Ghana by the CWSA.
300 persons have access to a borehole or a yard tap within a distance of 500 meters
150 persons have access to a hand-dug well within a distance of 500 meters
Consumption is assumed to be 20 litres per capita per day
All year round source of water


Urban
There is no clear definition of coverage for urban water supply
Consumers obtain water from a variety of connections including yard tap, neighbours, private standpipes,
public standpipes, water trucks, etc).
A study conducted by London Economics in 1999 put the average per capita demand in Ghana as follows:
Average per capita Demand (Central Scenario) L/c/d)
ATMA                                              69.9
Ashanti/Central and Western Regions               59.7
Other regions                                     39.8
All Ghana                                         52.4


The SIP, 1998, made projections of overall water demand will increase from 70 to 80 l/c/d from 1996 to
2010. Unit costs for Urvban water supply were derived from the data from the GWCL SIP
An alternative useful indicator of coverage is connection density (average population per connection).
Louis Berger S.A. (1996) determined the connection density for urban water in Ghana as follows:
          34 persons per connection
          6 households per connection (assuming household size is 5)


Urban Population Figures (Louis Berger)
    1995         7,080,864
    2000         8,197,520


Unit Costs for sanitation facilities


Facility                                  Total cost      Unit cost
VIP Latrine



MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                         Page 19
Unlined VIP (Mozambique)                  $200           $40
Single Seater (KVIP)(Family of 5)         $500           $100
Double Seater (Family of 5)      $800            $160
8-Seater (Institutional)         $4,000


Water Borne
Septic Tank (Family of 10)       $1000           $100
Sewer connection                 $500            $100


Notes on Sanitation Unit costs
Sewer connection does not include trunk mains nor treatment plant costs
Latrines in urban are assumed to be lined KVIP
Latrines in rural are assumed to be unlined VIP (such as the Mozambique slab)


B. Global MDG and Improved Access Definitions
Definitions of MDGs and Access to Improved Water and Sanitation
1. Millennium Development Goal for Water Supply defined
Water Supply
“Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability”
Under Goal 7:
Target 10. “Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water.”
Specifically:
“29. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source”

Sanitation
Halve by 2020 the proportion of people without sustainable access to improved sanitation.
2. Measurement of access to Water and Sanitation services
Reasonable access to improved water supply was broadly defined as the availability of at least 20 litres
per person per day from a source within one kilometer of the user's dwelling.

The following technologies were included in the assessment as representing “improved” water supply and
sanitation:
Water                                                  Sanitation
Household connection                                   Connection to a public sewer
Public standpipe                                       Connection to septic system
Borehole                                               Pour-flush latrine
Protected dug well                                     Simple pit latrine
Protected spring                                       Ventilated improved pit latrine
Rainwater collection




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                           Page 20
The following technologies were considered “not improved”:
Water                                                Sanitation
Unprotected well                                     Service or bucket latrines
Unprotected spring                                   (where excreta are manually
Vendor-provided water3                               removed)
Bottled water                                        Public latrines
Tanker truck-provided water                          Latrines with an open pit




3
    Considered as “not improved” because of concerns about the quantity of supplied water.



MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                      Page 21
Annex 2: Water Supply and Sanitation Access – WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring
Project (2000)
                                                                 Small        Medium
                                              Rural                                  Large Towns             Urban         Total
                                                                 Towns        Towns
Settlement size                            .075-2*                2-5           5-50          50-200         >200
8. Access to improved water %                  45                 43                50           63              70         55


a. Household connection                 N/A                N/A                N/A                      26             54           14


b. Public standpipe                                   4                  16              35            34             16           19


c. Borehole                                           31                 21              12 NA              NA                     17


d. Protected dug well                                 1                  6                3            2.8 NA                       5


e. Protected spring                     N/A                N/A                N/A


9. Access to improved sanitation                      8                 20               24            56             44           25
%

a. Connected to public sewer                                                                            1              1            1
                                        N/A                N/A                N/A
b. Connected to septic system
                                        N/A                N/A                N/A                       5              9           3
c. Latrine                                            8                  20              24            50             34           21




Definition of Access to Water Supply


 Rural
The definition of access to Rural Water supply is systemalised in Ghana by the CWSA.
300 persons have access to a borehole or a yard tap within a distance of 500 meters
150 persons have access to a hand-dug well within a distance of 500 meters
Consumption is assumed to be 20 litres per capita per day
All year round source of water


Urban
There is no clear definition of coverage for urban water supply



MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                                               Page 22
Consumers obtain water from a variety of connections including yard tap, neighbours, private standpipes,
public standpipes, water trucks, etc).
A study conducted by London Economics in 1999 put the average per capita demand in Ghana as follows:
Average per capita Demand (Central Scenario) L/c/d)
ATMA                                              69.9
Ashanti/Central and Western Regions               59.7
Other regions                                     39.8
All Ghana                                         52.4


The SIP, 1998, made projections of overall water demand will increase from 70 to 80 l/c/d from 1996 to
2010. Unit costs for Urvban water supply were derived from the data from the GWCL SIP
An alternative useful indicator of coverage is connection density (average population per connection).
Louis Berger S.A. (1996) determined the connection density for urban water in Ghana as follows:
          34 persons per connection
          6 households per connection (assuming household size is 5)


Urban Population Figures (Louis Berger)
    1996         7,080,864
    2000         8,197,520


Unit Costs for sanitation facilities


Facility                                   Total cost     Unit cost
VIP Latrine


Unlined VIP (Mozambique)                   $200           $40
Single Seater (KVIP)(Family of 5)          $500           $100
Double Seater (Family of 5)       $800            $160
8-Seater (Institutional)          $4,000


Water Borne
Septic Tank (Family of 10)        $1000           $100
Sewer connection                  $500            $100


Notes on Sanitation Unit costs



MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                         Page 23
Sewer connection does not include trunk mains nor treatment plant costs
Latrines in urban are assumed to be lined KVIP
Latrines in rural are assumed to be unlined VIP (such as the Mozambique slab)




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                         Page 24
Annex 3: Ghana Water Company Limited: Income and Expenditures 2002
and 2001

                                                           2002
                                                                                 2001
Income or Expenditure                                      (Projected)
                                                                                 cedis
                                                            cedis
Total Income from Water Sales and Other
                                                           277,550,857           206,482,780
Income
Expenditure                                                573,505,000           455,257,580
Surplus (Deficit) before exchange loses                    (295,954,143)         (248,774,800)
Source: i) 2001 audited accounts; ii) Projections for performance targets 2002




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                          Page 25
Annex 4: Water Supply and Sanitation Investments
Main financing agency   Project name, start and      Investment ($m)          Activities/Facilities       No.
                        end years, location

AFD                      WSS phases 1a, 1b,1c,                                water points                860
                        1990-1999, Central
                        Region (all districts)




                                                                       20.8
                                                                              piped systems                18
CIDA                    COWAP, 1993-1999,                               8.6   water point                2600
                        Upper East & West                                     rehabilitation
                        Regions
                        GAP 1- Small Towns                              11    piped system                 14
                        Rehabilitation, 1990 –                                rehabilitation
                        1994 Northern Upper
                        East & West Regions

                        GAP 2 – Small Towns                                   piped system                 18
                        Rehabilitation, 1996-2000                             rehabilitation,
                                                                              capacity building

                         NORWASP – Northern                             11    Hand dug wells               70
                        Region -Point Sources,
                        1999 –2006, 7 districts in                            Boreholes                   630
                        the North Eastern corridor

DANIDA                   Phase 1 – Volta Region                        25.4
                        – 8 districts, 1993-1996

                         Phase 2 – Volta, 1997-                         1.9
                        2003




                        Eastern & Greater Accra                         17    institutional latrines      170
                        Region, 1999-2003
                                                                              household latrines
                                                                                                        10,000
                         Small towns Project for                        .06   small town piped              5
                        Greater Accra, 2002 -                                 systems
                        2004
                         Sector Capacity Building                       5.1   capacity building
                        Component, 1999-2003,
                        greater Accra, easter and
                        Volta regiona

DFID                     South East Water &
                        Sanitation Project –
                        (SEDWSP – Completed

EU                       Small Towns Water &                            16    small town piped             25
                        Sanitation Project                                    systems
                        (Ashanti, Western &
                        Brong Ahafo regions) –
                        25 small towns., 2001




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                                Page 26
Main financing agency   Project name, start and     Investment ($m)          Activities/Facilities      No.
                        end years, location

                         Rural Water &                                 16    point sources with         475
                        Sanitation Project –                                 pumps
                        Northern Region. East &
                        West Gonja & West
                        Mamprusi – Guinea                                    boreholes with solar
                        Worm endemic region ,                                pumps                       25
                        2002-2005
                        Programming Study for                          36    latrines                  2000
                        Small Towns Water
                        Supply & Sanitation –
                        Central & Western
                        Regions – 50 small towns


                        1/3 of funding for micro
                        financing devoted to
                        water supply in project
                        areas. (1990)



IBRD/IDA                CWSP 1 – rural water                           8.4   water points              1288
                        supply and sanitation for
                        Northern, Western,
                        Ashanti & Brong Ahafo
                        regions, 1994-1999
                                                                             latrines                  5931
                         Small Towns Water                             4.4   piped systems               36
                        Supply Project – Brong
                        Ahafo, Ashanti &
                        Western, Upper East &
                        West & Northern regions,
                        1994 - 2000

                        Capacity building                             12.1   capacity building
                         CWSP 2 - Ashanti,                             25    WSS to 500,000
                        Brong Ahafo, Upper East                              people
                        and Upper West Regions
                        , 1999-2002                                          Capacity building to
                                                                             DAs


JICA                    Phase 1 – Northern                             8.9   water points               159
                        Region – Nanumba
                        District
                         Phase 2 – Brong Ahafo                         7.5   water points               310
                        District: Berekum &
                        Jaman
                        Phase 3 – Eastern                              7.7   water points               425
                        Region: 7 districts

                        Phase 4 – In two stages,                       15.   water points               285
                        namely Term Term I,
                        2001-2003

KFW                      RWSP1 – AMER                                  9.3   pumps                     3,800
                        (Conversion Program)                                 PSP maintenance
                        1997-2000

                                                                             boreholes                  100




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                              Page 27
Main financing agency    Project name, start and     Investment ($m)         Activities/Facilities       No.
                         end years, location

                         EVORAP – Eastern &                            7.8   piped systems/small          33
                         Volta rehabilitation of                             towns
                         systems transferred to
                         Das by GWCL; and
                         community own systems
                         (12), 2000-2003

                          RWSP2 – Ashanti, Brong                             Boreholes                   270
                         Ahafo and Western
                         regions.                                            Rehabilitate                 86
                                                                             boreholes
                         RWSP 3 – Ashanti and                          2.6   boreholes                   500
                         Eastern, 2000-2002

                                                                             latrines                   1000

                         RWSP 4, 2003-2005                             4.6   boreholes                  1000
                                                                             latrines                   2000
                         Phase I: Northern region                            boreholes & pumps            60
                         – Zabzugu, Saboba,
                         Nanumba, East Gonja,                                rehabilitation               32
UNICEF                   Tolon and Savelugu                                  piped system                  1
                         provision of new sources.
                                                                             Capacity building –
                                                                             health


                         Phase II: Northern and                        5.5   hand-dug wells              120
                         Upper East regions;
                                                                             boreholes                    80
                                                                             institutional latrines       60
                                                                             household latrines
                                                                                                         240
Total                                                                  285

Urban Water and Sanitation


Government of the        1.Rehabilitation and        24                      Rehabilitation and
Netherlands              expansion of Weija head                             expansion of Weija
                         works and distribution                              Treatment Plant
                         network improvement in                              Improvement of
                         Accra West, 1999-2001                               distribution system in
                                                                             Western Accra



                         2. Distribution             24                       Effluent Treatment
                         improvement of Western                              and Disposal
                         part of Accra, 2002-2004                            Weija Dam
                                                                             Emergency Repair
                                                                             Works
                         3. Winneba Water Works      8                       Distribution
                         Replacement and                                     Improvement
                         Augmentation, 1999-2002                             Treatment plant
                                                                             Impounding Weir




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                               Page 28
Main financing agency      Project name, start and      Investment ($m)          Activities/Facilities              No.
                           end years, location

                           Sekondi-Takoradi Water       24                       Improvement of
                           Supply Rehabilitation                                 distribution pipelines
                           Project, 2002-2004                                    Dredging Inchaban
                                                                                 Reservoir
                                                                                 Replacement of
                                                                                 existing steel
                                                                                 pipeline
Government of Spain        Akwapim Ridge Water          10                       Distribution
                           Supply Project, 2000-                                 Improvement 1.2
                           2002                                                  Rehabilitation of
                                                                                 Booster Station




                           Six Towns Water Supply                          10    Rehabilitation and
                           Project, 2003-2005                                    capacity expansion
                                                                                 of 6 water supply
                                                                                 systems




World Bank (Co-financing   Water Sector                 120.4                    1990 - 1998              Institutional
with Governments of UK,    Rehabilitation Project,                               Rehabilitated 25         strengthening
Austria, and Japan)        1990-1998                                             water systems.-
                                                                                 Technical assistance

2. Planned Projects
AFD                         Phase 2- Northern                                    Point sources                      235
                           Region – Proposals &
                           discussions completed.                                Piped systems                        13
                           (Western corridor)                                    Household latrines                   72
                                                                                 Institutional latrine
                                                                                                                      72
CIDA                       Small towns water supply                                    Piped systems      20
                           and sanitation, 2004-
                           2010 for 20 communities
                           in the eastern corridor of
                           the Northern region.




DANIDA                      A Phase II of the Danida                                 Concept paper
                           Sector Program Support                                  being formulated
                           is being envisaged, 2004-
                           2010
                            Programming for the
                           northern sector of Ghana
EU
Governments of Ghana and   Accra Rurals                                   41.9   Rehabilitation of Old
Israel                     Rehabilitation Project                                Kpong Water
                                                                                 Treatment Plant
                                                                                 Replacement of
                                                                                 existing pipelines




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                                        Page 29
Main financing agency   Project name, start and   Investment ($m)          Activities/Facilities      No.
                        end years, location

Government of the        Beifikrom water supply                     47.8    Construction of new
Netherlands             rehabilitation project,                            water treatment
                        2003-2005                                          plant (15,500)
                                                                           Construction intake
                                                                           works
                                                                           Transmission
                                                                           and distribution
                                                                           network
                                                                           improvement




MDG Country Assessment Ghana – 02/01/04                                                            Page 30

				
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Description: Millennium Development Goals for Water and Sanitation Dist water