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                 Galatians 5:

13Forthe whole law is summed up in a single
  commandment, "You shall love your neighbor as
Team Presentations – 3 @ 40 pts each for a total of
   120 pts

Individual Papers – 3 @ 80 pts each for a total of 240

Training Assignment – 60 pts

Participation - 30 pts

Final Exam – 100 pts - Covers chapter five.

Final case analysis – 50 pts

   Equal Employment
   Opportunity and
   Managing Diversity
Diversity and Diversity Management

 Diversity – any perceived difference
 among people: age, race, religion,
 functional specialty, profession, sexual
 orientation, geographic origin, lifestyle,
 tenure with the organization, or position,
 and any other perceived difference.
Diversity Management

  Ensuring that factors are in place to
  provide for and encourage the continued
  development of a diverse workforce by
  melding these actual and perceived
  differences among workers to achieve
  maximum productivity
Equal Employment Opportunity:
An Overview

• EEO has been modified since passage of the
  Civil Rights Act in 1964.
• Congress has passed other legislation.
• Major Supreme Court decisions interpreting
  the provisions were handed down.
• Executive orders were signed into law.
Civil Rights Act of 1866

              • Oldest federal legislation
                affecting staffing
              • Based on the Thirteenth
              • No statute of limitations
              • Employment is a
                contractual arrangement
Illegal for an Employer to

                        •    Race
                        •    Color
                        •    Sex
                        •    Religion
                        •    National origin
Exceptions to Title VII

                    • Bona fide occupational
                      qualifications (BFOQs)
                    • Seniority and merit
                    • Testing and educational
Persons Not Covered
by Title VII

• Aliens not authorized to work in the
  United States
• Members of the Communist party
• Homosexuals
Age Discrimination in Employment Act Of
1967--amended In 1978 & 1986

 • Illegal to discriminate against anyone 40 years
   or older
 • Administered by EEOC
 • Pertains to employers who have 20 or more
 • Provides for a trial by jury
 • Possible criminal penalty
 • Older Workers Benefit Protection Act
Rehabilitation Act of 1973

      • Prohibits discrimination against disabled
      • Government contractors, subcontractors,
        and organizations
      • Receive federal grants in excess of
      • Administered by OFCCP
Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978

                   • Amendment to Title VII of
                     the Civil Rights Act
                   • Pregnancy, childbirth, or
                     related medical condition
                   • Benefits area also
Americans with Disabilities Act

• Prohibits discrimination against
  qualified individuals with disabilities
• Prohibits discrimination in all
  employment practices
Individual with a Disability
• A person who has, or is regarded as
  having, a physical or mental impairment
• Substantially limits one or more major life
• A record of such an impairment
• Regarded as having such an impairment
Civil Rights Act of 1991

• Provide appropriate remedies for intentional
  discrimination and unlawful harassment
• Codify the concepts of business necessity and
  job related
• Confirm authority and guidelines for finding of
  disparate impacts under Title VII
• Respond to recent Supreme Court decisions
Major Provisions of the
1991 Civil Rights act

 • Damages and Jury Trials: Provides for compensatory and
   punitive damages for victims of intentional discrimination,
   suing under Title VII, the Age Discrimination Act (ADA), or
   federal employment sections of the Rehabilitation Act. The
   combined amount of compensatory and punitive damages
   depends on the size of the employer, with caps ranging
   from $50,000 to $300,000. Jury trials may be requested by
   any party seeking compensatory or punitive damages.
Major Provisions of the
1991 Civil Rights act

  • “Race Norming” of Employment Tests: Prohibits
    adjustments in test scores, use of different cutoff scores, or
    other amendments to employment-related tests, based on
    race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
Major Provisions of the
1991 Civil Rights act
  • Expanded Coverage under Section 1981: Amends
    interpretation of language in the Supreme Court decision in
    Patterson v. McLean, regarding the right ―to make and
    enforce contracts.‖ Prior to this decision, section 1981 was
    applied to race discrimination in all aspects of the
    employment contract, i.e., hiring, duration of employment,
    and contact termination. After the Patterson decision,
    Section 1981 applied to hiring only. The Civil Rights Act of
    1991 restores the pre-Patterson interpretation, specifying
    that the term ―make and enforce‖ contracts includes all
    benefits, privileges, terms, and conditions of the
    employment relationship. This is significant, since there are
    no caps on awards for compensatory and punitive damages
    under Section 1981.
Major Provisions of the
1991 Civil Rights act
  •    Mixed Motive Cases: Reverses Price Waterhouse v.
      Hopkins, in which the Supreme Court held that an employer
      could avoid liability for discrimination by showing that it
      would have made the same employment decision in the
      absence of discrimination. Under the new act, this rule is
      changed by providing that an illegal employment practice
      has occurred, if discrimination was a motivating factor, even
      though other factors also motivated the employment
      decision. In such cases, plaintiffs may recover declaratory
      and injunctive relief, attorneys’ fees, and costs.
Major Provisions of the
1991 Civil Rights act
  • Disparate Impact: Reverses the Supreme Court decision of
    Wards Cove v. Antonio, which stated that plaintiffs, injured by
    disparate impact discrimination, had to prove that the challenged
    practices were not significantly related to legitimate business
    objectives. Under the 1991 act, an employer must demonstrate
    that a challenged practice is job-related and consistent with
    ―business necessity,‖ after the plaintiff has shown that the
    employment practice caused a disparate impact. Once the
    employer has met its burden, the plaintiff must prove that an
    alternative practice exists, having less of a disparate impact, and
    that the employer refused to adopt it. If the employer can prove
    that its employment practice does not cause disparate impact, it is
    not required to show that the practice is required by business
Major Provisions of the
1991 Civil Rights act
  • Extraterritorial Employment: Defines employees in both Title
    VII and the ADA to include U.S. citizens employed abroad and
    provides exemptions for otherwise unlawful employment actions, if
    compliance violates laws of the foreign country where the
    employee works. Additionally, the 1991 act creates a presumption
    that violations of Title VII by foreign corporations, controlled by a
    U.S. employer, are violations by the U.S. employer, itself.
  • Glass Ceiling: The Glass Ceiling commission was established to
    study barriers to advancement of minorities and women in the
    workforce and to recommend means of overcoming those barriers.
    Also establishes the National Award for diversity and excellence in
    executive management.
Example of the Four-Fifths Rule

   A company hired 193 of the 344 Caucasian
   applicants who applied; 40 of the 49 Hispanic
   applicants, 110 of the 209 African-American
   applicants, and 62 of the 89 Asians who applied.
   The selection ratio for each group follows.

  Caucasian applicants: 193/344 = 56%.
    – Hispanic applicants: 40/49 = 82%.
    – African-American applicants: 110/209 = 53%.
    – Asian applicants: 62/89 = 70%.
Example of the Four-Fifths Rule

        The most favorably treated group, in this
   example, in terms of selection ratio, is the
   Hispanics, with a selection ratio of 82%.
        To avoid discriminating against the Caucasian,
   African-American, and Asian applicants, each of
   the other groups must have a selection ratio of at
   least 80% of 82%, or 66%. Since their selection
   ratios were less than 66%, both Caucasian and
   African-American applicants were discriminated
   against by the hiring plan that this firm used, but
   Asians and Hispanics were not.
Damages Permitted

          Number of
          Employees   Damages
            15-100    $50,000
           101-200    $100,000
           201-500    $200,000
           Over 500   $300,000
State and Local Laws

            • State and local laws affect
            • When EEOC regulations
              conflict with state or local
              civil rights regulations
            • Legislation more favorable
              to women and minorities
Glass Ceiling

                Invisible barrier in
                organizations that prevents
                many women and
                minorities from achieving
                top-level management
 Executive Order 11246

• Executive order (EO) - Directive issued by the
  President, having force and effect of laws
  enacted by Congress
• Executive Order 11246 - Every executive
  department and agency that administers a
  program involving federal financial assistance
  must adhere to policy of nondiscrimination
 Executive Order 11246
• Affirmative action stipulated by EO 11246
• Requires employers to take positive steps to
  ensure employment of applicants and
  treatment of employees during employment
  without regard to race, creed, color, or national
Executive Order 11375

• In 1968 EO 11246 was modified.
• Changed the word ―creed‖ to ―religion‖ and added
  sex discrimination to the other prohibited items
Griggs v Duke Power Company

   When human resource
   management practices eliminate
   higher percentage of minority or
   women applicants, the burden of
   proof is on the employer to show the
   practice is job related.
Albermarle Paper Company v Moody

  Reaffirmed the idea that any test used in
  the selection process, or in promotion
  decisions, must be validated if it is
  found its use has had an adverse
  impact on women and minorities
Phillips v Martin Marietta Corporation

• Court ruled that the company had
  discriminated against a woman because she
  had young children.

• Major implication – firm cannot impose
  standards for employment only on women
Espinoza v Farah Manufacturing
 Court ruled that Title VII does not prohibit
 discrimination on the basis of lack of citizenship.

 Weber v Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical
 Supreme Court ruled that Title VII does not
 prohibit race-conscious affirmative action
Dothard v Rawlingson

 Impact of the decision was height and weight
 requirements must be job related.

 University of California Regents v
  Reaffirmed that race may be taken into account
  in admission decisions
American Tobacco Company v

   Allows seniority and promotion
   systems established since Title VII to
   stand, although they unintentionally
   hurt minority workers
Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson

 • First sexual harassment case to reach
   the U.S. Supreme Court

 • Supreme Court ruled Title VII is not
   limited to discrimination with only
   economic or tangible effects.
City of Richmond v J.A. Croson Co.

• Supreme Court affirmed a Court of Appeals
  ruling that the city's plan was not justified by a
  compelling governmental interest because
  record revealed no prior discrimination by the
  city itself in awarding contracts
• The 30 percent set-aside was not narrowly
  tailored to accomplish a remedial purpose.
Adarand Constructors v Pena

 Criticized the moral justification for
 affirmative action, saying that race-
 conscious programs can amount to
 unconstitutional reverse discrimination
 and even harm those they seek to
Affirmative Action - 2003

• Grutter v Bollinger – colleges and
  universities have ―compelling interest‖ in
  achieving diverse campuses
• Gratz v Bollinger – in trying to achieve
  diversity, colleges and universities cannot
  use point systems that blindly give extra
  credit to minority applicants
O’Connor v Consolidated Coin
Caterers Corp.

     Declared discrimination is illegal
     even when all employees are
     members of the protected age
Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission (EEOC)

• Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, as
  amended, created the EEOC
• Filing a discrimination charge initiates
  EEOC action.
• Certain exceptions to coverage of Title
Exceptions to Title VII Coverage

• Religious institutions, with respect to
  employment of persons of a specific
  religion in any of the institution’s activities
• Aliens
• Member of the Communist Party
Uniform Guidelines on Employee
Selection Procedures

             Assists employers, labor
             organizations, employment
             agencies, and licensing and
             certification boards in complying
             with federal prohibitions against
             employment practices that
             discriminate on basis of race,
             color, religion, gender, and
             national origin.
EEOC Definition of Sexual Harassment

Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors,
and verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that
occur under any of the following situations:
1.   When submission to such conduct is made either explicitly
     or implicitly a term or condition of an individual’s
2.   When submission to or rejection of such conduct by an
     individual is used as basis for employment decisions
     affecting such individual
3.   When such conduct has the purpose or effect of
     unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work
     performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive
     working environment
Guidelines on Discrimination
Because of National Origin

  Discrimination on basis of national origin as
  denial of equal employment opportunity
  because of:
• Individual’s ancestors or place of birth
• Individual has the physical, cultural, or
  linguistic characteristics of a national origin
Guidelines on Discrimination
Because of Religion

            Employers have an
            obligation to accommodate
            religious practices unless
            they can demonstrate a
            resulting hardship.
Methods for Accommodating
Religious Practices

           • Voluntary substitutes
            • Flexible scheduling
              • Lateral transfers
        • Change in job assignments
  • Union should accommodate by permitting
Affirmative Action Programs

   An approach developed by
   organizations with government
   contracts to demonstrate that
   workers are employed in proportion
   to their representation in the firm's
   relevant labor market
Sample of Guidelines to Prevent
Sexual Harassment

  • Develop a written policy that prohibits sexual
  • Inform managers and employees of the policy.
  • Inform managers and employees of the appropriate
    action to take, if they are harassed.
  • Investigate any complaints promptly.
  • Take appropriate action against the offender.
EEOC Complaint Processing System

             Page 180
Evidence Presented in Title VII
Discrimination Suits

  Adverse Impact
  • Plaintiff must demonstrate statistically that the
    practice in question affects various groups
  • Defendant can use either business necessity,
    bona fide occupational qualification, or validation
    data to rebut the charges.
  • Plaintiff must show that an alternative practice can
    be used, and that the alternative practice results in
    less adverse impact.
Evidence Presented in Title VII
Discrimination Suits

  Disparate Treatment
  • Plaintiff must demonstrate that: (1) he or she
    belongs to a minority; (2) he or she applied for and
    was qualified for the job; (3) he or she was
    rejected for the job; and (4) that the job remained
  • Defendant must show job-based reasons for the
    action that is taken.
  • Plaintiff must prove that the reasons given are a
    pretense, while the true reason for the decision
    was prejudice.

         Not So Subtle Discrimination

      Job Analysis
Steps in Conducting a Job
  Step 1   Determine the Purpose for
           Conducting a Job Analysis
  Step 2   Identify the Jobs to Be Analyzed
           Explain the Process to Employees and
  Step 3   Determine Their Level of Involvement
           Determine the Data Collection
  Step 4   Method and Collect Job
           Analysis Information
  Step 5   Process the Job Analysis Information
  Step 6   Review and Update Frequently
Popular Analysis
Data Collection Methods

                        (jobholders are observed
                         performing their work)

    Data              (knowledgeable employees are
  Collection            interviewed as to specific
  Methods                    work activities)

                         Questionnaires and
                     Checklists (knowledgeable
                  employees complete paper and
               pencil forms regarding work activities)
Succession Planning

 Process of ensuring that
 qualified persons are
 available to assume key
 positions managerial
 positions once positions are
Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool

                                             Human Resource
  Tasks      Responsibilities       Duties   Planning
                                             Training and
  Job                                        Performance Appraisal
Analysis          Job                        Compensation and
              Specifications                 Benefits
                                             Safety and Health
                                             Employee and Labor
Knowledge        Skills         Abilities    Legal Considerations
                                             Job Analysis for Teams
Reasons For Conducting
Job Analysis

• Staffing – would be haphazard if recruiter did not know
  qualifications needed for job
• Training and Development – if specification lists a
  particular knowledge, skill, or ability, and the person filling
  the position does not possess all the necessary
  qualifications, training and/or development is needed
• Compensation and Benefits – value of job must be
  known before dollar value can be placed on it
Reasons For Conducting
Job Analysis (Continued)

• Safety and Health – helps identify safety and health
• Employee and Labor Relations – lead to more objective
  human resource decisions
• Legal Considerations – having done job analysis
  important for supporting legality of employment practices
• Job Analysis for Teams – today, individuals do what has
  to be done to complete the task
Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis

 •   Work Activities – work activities and processes; activity records (in film
     form, for example); procedures used; personal responsibility
 •   Worker-oriented activities – human behaviors, such as physical
     actions and communicating on the job; elemental motions for methods
     analysis; personal job demands, such as energy expenditure
 •   Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used
 •   Job-related tangibles and intangibles – knowledge dealt with or
     applied (as in accounting); materials processed; products made or
     services performed
 •   Work performance – error analysis; work standards; work
     measurements, such as time taken for a task
 •   Job context – work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives;
     physical working conditions; organizational and social contexts
 •   Personal requirements for the job – personal attributes such as
     personality and interests; education and training required; work
Conducting Job Analysis

      The people who participate in job
      analysis should include, at a minimum:
                 • The employee
     • The employee’s immediate supervisor
Timeliness of Job Analysis

                     Rapid pace of
                     technological change
                     makes need for
                     accurate job analysis
                     even more important
                     now and in the future.
Job Analysis and the Law

             • Fair Labor Standards Act –
               employees categorized as
               exempt or nonexempt
             • Equal Pay Act – similar pay
               must be provided if jobs are not
               substantially different as shown
               in job descriptions
Job Analysis and the Law

• Civil Rights Act – basis for adequate defenses against
  unfair discriminations charges in selection, promotion, and
  other areas of HR administration
• Occupational Safety and Health Act – specify job
  elements that endanger health or are considered
  unsatisfactory or distasteful by most people
• Americans with Disabilities Act – make reasonable
  accommodations for disabled workers

         Job Analysis/Gas Industry

    and Retention
   Internal Versus External Recruitment:
   Advantages and Disadvantages

                  Internal Recruitment
Advantages                           Disadvantages

1. Employees familiar                1. Political infighting for
   with organization                    promotion
2. Lower recruiting and              2. Inbreeding
   training costs                    3. Morale problem for
3. Increase morale and                  those not promoted
   motivation for employees
4. Probability of success due
   to better assessment of
   abilities and skills
   Internal Versus External Recruitment:
   Advantages and Disadvantages

                  External Recruitment
Advantages                             Disadvantages

1. New ideas and approaches            1. Lack of ―fit‖ between
2. ―Clean slate‖ regarding company-        employee and
    specific experiences from which        organization
    to build                           2. Lowered morale and
3. Level of knowledge and skill not       commitment of
   available in current organization       employees
                                       3. Increased adjustment
Retaining Employees

•   Be a company for which people want to work.
•   Select the right person the first time.
•   Manage the joining-up process.
•   Coaching to maintain commitment.
Common Alternative Staffing Options
Traditional Temporary Help
• In a traditional temporary worker arrangement, a
   potential employee is recruited, tested, screened,
   and employed by a temporary staffing agency.
• The temporary agency assigns qualified individual
   to work at a client’s site, generally to support or
   supplement the current workforce. Temporary
   employees can be supplied by a variety of
   agencies, especially if the requirements for the job
   are highly specialized, like engineers or other
   types of scientists.
 Common Alternative Staffing Options
Long-Term Temporary Assignments
• Increasingly popular to staff part of work force with
  temporary workers on an on-going basis.
• Not considered short term replacements, but more
  a part of the regular work force.
• Number of individuals employed will change with
  needs of the business.
• One advantage of this option is that downsizing is
  done with temporary workers, providing core
  employees a feeling of job security.
 Common Alternative Staffing Options
In-House Temporary Employees
• Organizations may hire temporary workers on their
   own payroll, but will more than likely not pay them
• These individuals can be cross trained to work on a
   variety of jobs, so they can be plugged-in where
• This staffing option provides the organization with
   maximum flexibility.
 Common Alternative Staffing Options
Temp-to-Perm Programs
• Some temporary hiring firms serve as feeders for
  their clients.
• Client company agrees to hire a temporary worker
  as a permanent worker after a probationary period.
• If temporary employee performs competently
  during the probationary period, client company may
  move the worker to its payroll.
 Common Alternative Staffing Options
Part-Time Employees
• Workers who work less than 40 hours a week are
  considered part-time employees.
• They can be on the organization’s payroll or
  assigned via a temporary agency.
• Frequently, these individuals will receive limited, if
  any, benefits.
Common Alternative Staffing Options
Employee Leasing
• A company transfers some employees to a leasing
  firm or Professional Employer Organization (PEO).
• Leasing firm then leases back the workers to
  perform the same jobs which they did for the client
• Leasing firm is now responsible for cost and work
  that are associated with the typical HR functions,
  such as payroll, benefits, and record keeping.
 Common Alternative Staffing Options
Temp-to-Lease Programs
• A firm contracts with a temporary staffing agency to
  provide temporary workers.
• After temporary employees satisfactorily complete
  a probationary employment period, they are
  transferred to a leasing agency, with which client
  company also has contracted.
• Like a promotion for the workers, as their jobs
  become ―permanent,‖ they are now eligible for all
  benefits that are offered by the PEO.
Common Alternative Staffing Options
Independent Contractors
• Independent contractors are self-employed
  individuals who market a specific skill they possess
  to a variety of companies.
• A company hires them for a specific project or
• Usually, payment is based on the time and effort
  that the individual expends on the project, and
  frequently, expenses are reimbursed.
Common Alternative Staffing Options
Outsourcing Services
• An independent company, with expertise in a
  specific area, contracts with a firm to take full
  responsibility for that specific function in the
Resume Bloopers

 • Please disregard the attached resume, it is
   terribly out of date.
 • Here are my qualifications for you to
 • I am a great team player I am.
 • Very experience with out-house computers.
 • I have lurnt Word Perfect 6.0, computor and
   spreadsheat progoms.
Resume Bloopers
 • My intensity and focus are at inordinately high
   levels, and my ability to complete projects on
   time is unspeakable.
 • I am an outstanding worker; flexible 24 hours
   a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year.
 • In my last position I set up an entire office
   including furniture, lighting, computers, filing
   cabinets, and office procedures. I also have a
   flair for floral arrangements and catering.
Resume Bloopers

 • I hold a B.A. in Loberal Arts.
 • I never take anything for granite.
 • To Home-Ever it concerns.
 • I have expertise in dealing with customers’
   conflicts that arouse.
 • I seek challenges that test my mind and body,
   since the two are usually inseparable.
 • I am good at checking out customers.
Resume Bloopers

 • Reason for leaving: maturity leave.
 • Received a plague for Salesperson of the
 • Wholly responsible for two (2) failed financial
 • I will not accept employment in foreign
   countries, including New York and California.
Resume Bloopers

 • I am writing to you as I have written to all
   Fortune 100 companies every year for the
   past three years, to solicit employment.
 • I have an extensive background in public
   accounting. I can also stand on my head.
 • Flunked the CPA exam with high grades.
 • Overlooked all areas to ensure an
   overwhelming success.
Resume Bloopers

 • Completed 11 years of high school.
 • At the emphatic urging of colleagues, I have
   consented to apply for you position.
 • There is acuracy in all phases of my work.
 • Thank you for your consideration and I hope
   to hear from you shortly.
Correlation Coefficient
                       Correlation Coefficient
  -1.00                       0.00                       1.00

                           No Relationship
  Negative Relationship*       Positive Relationship**
   As the value of one                   As the value of one
   variable increases,                   variable increases,
   the other decreases                   so does the other

  *The higher one’s                **The higher one’s
   satisfaction, the                    satisfaction, the
   lower his or her                     higher his or her
   intention to quit                    intention to remain
                                        with the company
The Interview
 Effects that Distort
 • Halo Effect
 • Contrast Effects
 • Leniency
 • Strictness
 • Central Tendency Errors
 • Structured
 • Semi-Structured
 • Unstructured
Preliminary Interview

     • Removes obviously unqualified
         • Telephone interviews
         • Videotaped interviews
          • Computer interviews
Review of Applications
• Application form must reflect not only
  firm’s informational needs, but also
  EEO requirements.

Review of Resumes

• A more advanced procedure, resumes
  automatically evaluated
Advantages of Selection Tests

               • Reliable and accurate
                 means of selecting
                 qualified candidates
               • Identify attitudes and
                 job-related skills
               • Deficiencies in other
Potential Problems Using Selection

                 • Legal liabilities
                 • Test anxiety
Characteristics of Properly Designed
Selection Tests

• Standardization - Uniformity of the
  procedures and conditions of administering
• Objectivity - Everyone scoring a test obtains
  the same results
• Norms - Frame of reference for comparing
  an applicant's performance with that of others
Characteristics of Properly Designed
Selection Tests (Continued)

 • Reliability - Provides consistent results
 • Validity - Measures what it is supposed to
 • Requirement for Job Relatedness – test
   must work without having adverse impact on
   minorities, females, and individuals with
   backgrounds or characteristics protected
   under law
Cognitive Aptitude Tests

                • Measures individual’s
                  ability to learn, as well
                  as to perform a job
Psychomotor Abilities Tests

                        • Strength
                      • Coordination
                        • Dexterity
Job Knowledge Tests

   • Measure a candidate's
     knowledge of the duties of the
     position for which he or she is
   • Are commercially available
Work-Sample (Simulation)
• Tests that require an applicant to
  perform a task or set of tasks
  representative of the job
• Such tests by their nature are job
• Produces a high predictive validity,
  reduces adverse impact, and is more
  acceptable to applicants
Vocational Interests

• Indicate the occupation in which a person is
  most interested and is most likely to receive
  satisfaction from
• Primary use has been in counseling and
  vocational guidance
Personality Tests

              • Traits
              • Temperaments
              • Dispositions
Substance Abuse Testing

  • Proponents contend testing
    necessary to ensure workplace
    safety, security, and productivity
  • Drug testing in the U.S. is becoming
Graphoanalysis (Handwriting Analysis)

 • Many people view handwriting analysis
   in same context as psychic readings or
Internet Testing

  Increasingly being
  used to test skills
  required by
The Employment Interview

• Goal-oriented conversation in which
  interviewer and applicant exchange
• Interview planning – essential to effective
• Content of the interview
Content of the Interview

        • Occupational experience
         • Academic achievement
           • Interpersonal skills
            • Personal qualities
             • Organizational fit
Candidate’s Role and Expectations

     • While interviewer provides
       information about company, it
       is important for applicants to do
       their homework.
Unstructured (Nondirective) Interview

                • Asks probing, open-
                  ended questions
                • Encourages applicant to
                  do much of the talking
                • Often time-consuming
                • Potential legal woes
Structured (Directive or Patterned)

                 • Situational questions
                 • Job knowledge questions
                 • Job-sample simulation
                 • Worker requirements
Behavioral Interview

• Structured interview where applicants relate
  actual relevant past incidents to target job
   – Behavioral questions – job relevant
   – Evaluating candidates – rating scale helpful
   – Broad application but potential problem –
     jobseekers have gotten wise to process
Methods of Interviewing

• One-on-one interview - Applicant meets
  one-on-one with an interviewer
• Group interview - Several applicants
  interact in the presence of one or more
  company representatives
• Board interview - Several of the firm’s
  representatives interview one candidate
Methods of Interviewing

• Stress interview - Anxiety is
  intentionally created
• Realistic job previews - Job
  information is conveyed to the
  applicant in an unbiased manner
Legal Implications of Interviewing

 • Interview is considered to be a test
 • Subject to same validity requirements as
   any other step in selection process,
   should adverse impact be shown
Personal Reference Checks

             • Provides additional
               insight into applicant
             • Verification of accuracy
Negligent Hiring

 • Negligent Hiring - Liability employer incurs
   when no reasonable investigation of
   applicant’s background is made and
   potentially dangerous person is assigned to
   position where he or she can inflict harm
 • At Risk Employers – Risk of harm to third
   parties. Example: Taxi driver
Negligent Hiring (Continued)

 • OSHA’s Role – Law requires employer to
   provide safe place to work; this extends to
   providing safe employees.
 • Double Jeopardy – Negligent retention
   occurs when company keeps employees
   whose records indicate strong potential for
 • Due Diligence Required – Employer
   responsible for employee’s unlawful acts
   even if not job related
Other Legal Aspects

Over half of the states in U.S. have passed
laws offering varying degrees of protection
to employers who provide good-faith
references and who release truthful
information about current or former
Problems in Obtaining Information
from Professional References

   Two schools of thought:
   1. Don’t tell them anything.
   2. Honesty is the best policy.
Negligent Referral

 May occur when
 former employer fails
 to offer a warning
 about a particularly
 severe problem with a
 past employee

         Hiring the Educated

     Job Design
Individual and Group Job Design Options
 Individual Design Options                  Group Design Options
                                               WORK TEAMS
                                          Large Task that Is Completed
  Rotating from Job to Job
                                          by a Group of Specific Task
   within an Organization

                                Job           WORK GROUPS
  Adding More Tasks to the     Design      Work Teams Are Given a
  Job; Horizontal Loading    Approaches   Goal to Achieve and Control
                                            over Accomplishment
     Making Jobs More                        QUALITY CIRCLES
      Meaningful and                       A Group of Employees and
    Challenging; Vertical                 Supervisors Meet Regularly
          Loading                         to Discuss Quality Problems
                                                 and Solutions
The Eight Deeply Embedded Life Interests

    • Application of Technology — Intrigued by the inner workings of
      things; curious about finding better ways to use technology to
      solve problems.
    • Quantitative Analysis — Mathematical people work as fun when
      others consider it drudgery.
    • Theory Development and Conceptual Thinking — Drawn to
      theory, why of strategy more interesting than how.
    • Creative Production — Enjoy beginning of projects the most;
      many unknowns to make something out of nothing.
    • Counseling and Mentoring — Teaching enjoyable; usually
      translates into coaching and mentoring; often drawn to
      organizations, such as museums, schools, and hospitals when
      products or services hold a high social value.
The Eight Deeply Embedded Life Interests

    • Managing People and Relationships — Enjoy dealing with
         people on a day-to-day basis; derive a lot of satisfaction from
         workplace relationships; focus much more on outcomes than
         counseling and mentoring people.
    • Enterprise Control — Find satisfaction in making the decisions
         that determine the direction taken by a work team, a business
         unit, a company division, or an entire organization.
    • Influence Through Language and Ideas — Love expressing
         ideas for sheer enjoyment that comes from storytelling,
         negotiating, or persuading; feel most fulfilled when they are writing
         or speaking; sometimes feel drawn to careers in public relations
         or advertising.

    SOURCE Adapted from T. Butler and J. Waldroop, “Job Sculpting, the Art of Retaining Your Best People,” Harvard
    Business Review, September-October 1999, pp. 144-152.
A Snapshot Comparison Summary
   Communities of practice, formal work groups, project teams, and informal
                networks are useful in complementary ways.
What’s Their Purpose? Who Belongs?          What Holds Them Together? How Long Do They Last?

 Community            To develop          Members, who               Passion,        As long as
                      members’                select               commitment,         there is
 of practice        capabilities; to       themselves                   and          interest in
                       build and                                   identification    maintaining
                       exchange                                       with the        the group
                      knowledge                                       group’s
Formal work           To deliver a        Everyone who                 Job           Until the next
                      product or          reports to the           requirement      reorganization
   group                service              group’s               and common
                                            manager                   goals
    Project         To accomplish           Employees              The project’s       Until the
                    a specific task        assigned by              milestones         project is
     team                                     senior                and goals         completed

   Informal         To collect and         Friends and             Mutual needs       As long as
                       pass on              business                                people have a
   network             business           acquaintances                             reason to stay
                     information                                                      in contact
     SOURCE: Adapted from E. Wenger and W. Snyder, “Communities
     of Practice: The Organizational Frontier,” Harvard Business
     Review, January-February 2000, pp. 139-145.
Job Characteristics Model
  Core Job                                       And Work
  Characteristics          Critical              Outcomes
   Skill Variety      Psychological States   High Internal
                        Experienced           Motivation
   Task Identity       Meaningfulness
                        of the Work             High
                         Experienced          High Work
    Autonomy            Responsibility         Quality

    Feedback         Knowledge of Results        Low
                     from Work Activities    Absenteeism
                                             and Turnover
                      Relationships Are
                    Moderated by Employee
                    Growth Need Strength
Strategic Guidelines Offered by the Job
Characteristics Model

           Strategic Guidelines                             Core Job Dimensions
  1. Combining tasks - Combine existing specialized                Skill Variety
     tasks to form a large module of work.

  2. Creating natural work units - Form tasks into
     an identifiable meaningful whole piece of work.
                                                                   Task Identity

  3. Establishing client relationships - Establish direct
     relationships between employee and user of                 Task Significance
     the good or service.

  4. Vertical Loading - Give employee more                          Autonomy
     responsibility, discretion, and control over work.

  5. Opening feedback channels - Increase employee
     performance feedback and tell if performance has              Feedback
     remained stable, increased, or decreased.
   Advantages and Disadvantages of
   Job-Sharing for Employers

  The organization can retain experienced and
  valued staff.
  Administration costs for training, accommodation,
  and other employment expenses could be higher.
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Job-Sharing for Employers

  Provides flexible opportunities for
  employees and increasing satisfaction,
  thereby impacting positively on their
  Communication may be a problem in jobs
  where continuity is essential.
   Advantages and Disadvantages of
   Job-Sharing for Employers

  If one job sharer is ill or on leave, there is
  continuity, as at least part of the job gets done.
  If one job sharer leaves, the employer has to find
  another job sharer.
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Job-Sharing for Employers

  Potential for job share partners to cover
  each other’s absences or assist during
  peak periods.
  Both job sharers will not be able to attend
  the same meetings or appointments.
   Advantages and Disadvantages of
   Job-Sharing for Employers

  A flexible work option for those who wish to work
  part time without necessarily sacrificing their
  Working fewer hours reduces income.
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Job-Sharing for Employers

  Management positions, requiring incumbent’s full-
  time presence, can be available to those wishing
  to work part time.
  Need to convince employer, who may be reluctant
  to allow certain jobs, higher level or management
  jobs, to be shared.
   Advantages and Disadvantages of
   Job-Sharing for Employers

  Attractive to those with family responsibilities.
  Participating in job share arrangements may affect
  promotional prospects.
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Job-Sharing for Employers

  Provides a way for individuals to earn an
  income and pursue other interests, study, or
  leisure activities.
  Communication may be a problem, if job
  sharers do not overlap and may require new
  procedures to ensure sufficient
A Strategic Framework for Implementing
Job Redesign in Organizations

            Step 1 - Recognize Need for Change

                 Step 2 - Select Intervention
        Step 3 – Diagnose Work System and Context

     Step 4 - Cost/Benefit Analysis of Proposed Changes

                Step 5 - Go/No-Go Decision
          Step 6 - Develop Implementation Strategy

                  Step 7 - Implementation
            Step 8 - Supplements to Intervention

                Step 9 - Evaluate Intervention
Diagnosis of the Work System
and Context

•   Existing Jobs
•   Existing Work Force
•   Technology
•   Organization Design
•   Leader Behavior
•   Group and Social Processes

         Toyota’s Production System

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