OUTLINE CH 18 � THE 18TH CENTURY AN AGE by kaitlynnbarton

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									OUTLINE CH 17 – THE 18TH CENTURY: AN AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT
ANSWER ALL QUES. WITH AN ASTERICK ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER
TRY SOMETHING DIFFERENT – PLAN AHEAD

I. The Enlightenment – a movement of intellectuals who dared to know

        -The Paths of Enlightenment



                 -The Popularization of Science
                        -Fontenelle – provided link b/w scientists and philosophers




                 -A New Skepticism – increased skepticism about religion and growing
                       secularization

                          -Pierre Bayle – (know points he made in his work)




                 -The Impact of Travel Literature

                          -On the Ceremonies of the Chinese –

                          -cultural relativism -



                 -The Legacy of Locke and Newton – intellectual inspiration




*Discuss the significance and the influence of John Locke and Issac Newton on the
Enlightenment. (one paragraph response)

“Locke‟s philosophy implied that people were molded by their environment, by their experiences that they
received through their senses from their surrounding world. By changing the environment,… [people] could be
changed and a new society created.”


        -The Philosophes and Their Ideas – know major works discussed in chapter

                          -who were the philosophes????????




                          -worked in an atmosphere of censorship – how get around
                                 that????????
                  -Motesquieu and Political Thought
                         -Persian Letters –

“Much of the program of the French Enlightenment is contained in this work: the attack on traditional
religion, the advocacy of religious toleration, the denunciation of slavery, and the use of reason to liberate
human beings from their prejudice.”




                            -Spirit of the Laws - forms of political and social institutions vary
                                    since they depended upon conditions unique to different
                                    countries




                  -Voltaire and the Enlightenment – well known for his criticism of trad.
                          religion, as well as royal absolutism  look to England




                            -Calas affair  Treatise on Toleration



                            -Deism

In Voltaire‟s Treatise on Toleration “[he] became even more strident in his denunciations. „Crush the
infamous thing‟ he thundered repeatedly – the infamous thing being religious fanaticism, intolerance, and
superstition.”


*What are Voltair’e ideas regarding religious intolerance? Compare and contrast the
excerpts from Voltaire’s The Ignirant Philosopher and Candide in his discussion of the
problem of religious intolerance. Do you think one is more effective than the other? (Think
POV) (use box p. 479)

                  -Diderot and the Encyclopedia
                         -Encyclopedia was a major weapon of the philosophes crusade against
                                        the old French society




                  -Toward a New ‘Science of Man’ – emergence of what governed human
                         actions – social sciences



                            -David Hume –
                          -Physiocrats/Adam Smith – laissez-faire, a repudiation of
                                  mercantilism

                                   -The Wealth of Nations –


“stressed that the existence of the natural economic forces of supply and demand made it imperative that
individuals should be left to pursue their own economic self-interest.”


                 -The Later Enlightenment – children of Enlightenment – took it further

                          -Paul d’Holbach – everything in the universe consisted of matter and
                                  motion, no God necessary




                          -Marie-Jean de Condorcet – prophet of humankind’s perfection




                          -Jean-Jacques Rousseau – social contract theory  general will




"In order to preserve their property, people adopted laws and governors. In doing so, they rushed headlong
not to liberty, but into chains.”  social contract theory – “This means nothing less than that he will be
forced to be free.”


                                   -know his philosophy on education
                                          -Emile




                                   -did not practice what he preached, also saw gender diff 



                 -The Women’s Question in the Enlightenment

                          -quarrles de femme

                          -Astell -
         -Social Environment of the Philosophes



                  -Salons – what was their purpose???????? what role did women have in
                                 salons????????




“The salon served an important role in promoting conversation and sociability between upper-class men and
women as well as spreading the ideas of the Enlightenment.”



II. Culture and Society in an Age of Enlightenment
        -Innovations in Art, Music, and Literature
                        -Rococo – curves, wandering lines of natural objects, enchantment &
                               exuberance



                                     -Watteau & Neumann




                                     -neoclassicism still strong (see p. 564)

                                             -David – Oath of Horatii -



                  -The Development of Music
                         -the classical era followed the Baroque



                           -Bach/Handel to Mozart




                  -The Development of the Novel – chief vehicle for fiction writing

                           -Pamela




                  -The Writing of History – eliminate role of God

                           -Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
*How do the art and literature of the eighteenth century reflect the political and social life
of the period? (one paragraph response)

As Voltaire explained in his masterpiece, The Age of Louis XIV: „It is not merely the life of Louis XIV that
we propose to write; we have a wider aim in view. We shall endeavor to depict for prosperity, not the
actions of a single man, but the spirit of men…‟ In seeking to describe the „totality of human experience‟
Voltaire initiated the modern ideal of social history.”


         -The High Culture of the 18th Century
                        -novels  magazines  newspapers




                  -Education and Universities – secondary schools reinforced the class
                         hierarchy




                           -Germany - Realschule




         -Crime and Punishment
                -court system to deal with different types of crime



                  -what were the crimes of the 18th century and how punished?



                  -Beccaria – On Crimes and Punishments -




         -The World of Medicine

                  -traditionally, but beginning change – surgeons and hospitals




         -Popular Culture – general characteristics????????



                  -sense of community –
III. Religion and the Churches
       -The Institutional Church

                 -Church-State Relations – which states Protestant, which Catholic????????



                          -nationalization of churches



                                   -regulation and suppression


“The end of the Jesuits was paralleled by a decline in papal power. Already by the mid-18th century, that
papacy played a minor role in diplomacy and international affairs. In addition… bishops… became less
reverent towards papal power… „The Pope has his rights and we have ours.‟”


                 -Toleration and Religious Minorities
                        -Joseph II of Austria




                 -Toleration and the Jews – most despised religious minorities
                        -but exceptions????????




        -Popular Religion in the 18th Century



                 -Catholic Piety – most popular devotion still directed to an externalized form
                         of worship




                 -Protestant Revivalism
                        -Zinzendoef



                          -John Wesley
IDENTIFICATION

philosophes

Plurality of Worlds

Pierre Bayle

Montesquieu

Philosophic Letters on the English

David Hume

Physiocrats

Encyclopedia

The Social Contract

Vindication on the Rights of Women

Marie-Theresa de Geoffrin

Rococo

Neumann

Mozart

Pamela; or Virtue Rewarded

Spectator

Cesare Beccaria

taverns

deism

Gibbon

John Wesley

Joseph II

								
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