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					    GP2                     Life Cycle Assessment VIII
 Group of Pollution
                                  'Calculating Consequences Beyond the Box'
    Prevention




                       Comparison between palm and soybean
                      oils eco-efficiency for biodiesel production




Gil Anderi da Silva                                                    30 Sep – 2 Oct 2008
Rita de Cassia Monteiro Marzullo                                             Seattle

University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
   GP2
                              MOTIVATION
Group of Pollution
   Prevention




         1 – Biodiesel: important alternative for fossil fuels.
         2 – Brazil: large territorial extension + many different
         climate conditions  potencial for many biodiesel
         alternative sources.
                                      
         GP2: comparison of        environmental performance of
         different biodiesels, using LCA.
   GP2
                         BIODIESEL IN BRAZIL
Group of Pollution
   Prevention

            Main vegetable sources for Brazilian biodiesel production

                     Sources                             %
                     Soybean                             90
                     Cotton                               4
                     Palm                                 2
                     Sunflower                            1
                     Corn                                 1
                     Castor bean                          1
                     Others                               1
   GP2
                               BIODIESEL IN BRAZIL
Group of Pollution
   Prevention

                                    Palm
                                  Castor    Vegetal oil
                                Soybean     production
                               Sunflower


                     Sugarcane (ethanol)     Alcohol       Biodiesel
                                            production    production
                     Crude oil (methanol)



                                             Catalyst
                                            production




                        “Comparing eco-efficiency of palm
                          and soybean biodiesel using
                            Eco-efficiency Analysis”.
   GP2
                     BIODIESEL IN BRAZIL
Group of Pollution
   Prevention


                          Palm oil data
     Palm: 22% oil content.
     Oil revenue: 0.1 ton of oil per hectare.
     1 ton of palm oil produces 1.05 ton of biodiesel.

                        Soybean oil data
     Soybean: 19% oil content.
     Oil revenue: 0.6 ton of oil per hectare.
     1 ton of soybean oil produces 1.07 ton of biodiesel.
   GP2
                     ECO-EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS (BASF)
Group of Pollution
   Prevention




     Compares environmental and economical
     performances (eco-efficiency) of products.


      Environmental performance based in ISO 14040
      series.
   GP2
                     ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE
Group of Pollution
   Prevention              SCOPE DEFINITION

    Function: to provide energy for combustion engines

    Functional unit: to provide 40 GJ for combustion engines

    Reference flows:

           •Palm oil: 951 kg (4,757 kg of palm fruits)

           •Soybean oil: 953 kg (5,015 kg of beans)
   GP2
                          ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE
Group of Pollution
   Prevention                   SCOPE DEFINITION
    Product system/boundaries:



                  Oleaginous
                                               Oil        Biodiesel
                 raw material
                                            production   production
                  production



                                Transport
   GP2
                         ECO-EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS (BASF)
Group of Pollution
   Prevention
                         Environmental performance assessment

                                     Atmospheric
                       Energy         emissions          Climate
                     consumption
                                                         changes
                       Materials
                     consumption       Liquid
                      Land use                          Ozone layer
                                      effluents
                                                         depletion
                                                       Photochemical
                                                      ozone formation
                     Emissions


                                        Solid
                                   Resíduos sólidos
                                       wastes          Acidification
                      Toxicity
                      potential          48%

                        Risk
                      potential
   GP2
Group of Pollution
   Prevention
                                ENERGY CONSUMPTION


                                          Energy consumption (MJ/FU)
                                           Palm            Soybean
                 Agricultural subsystem    4,226              3,941
                 Transport subsystem       124.5              2,089
                 Oil subsystem             122.7              5,994
                          TOTAL           4,473.2            12,024
                          NORMALIZATION    0.37                 1
   GP2
Group of Pollution
   Prevention
                               ATMOFERIC EMISSIONS


                                             Palm            Soybean
         Global warming (g CO2 eq/FU) -1.09x106    1    -4.67x106 0.23   49%
         Ozone dep. (g CFC11 eq/FU)
         Smog (g C2H4 eq/FU)             632     0.31    2030      1     24%
         Acidification (g SO2 eq/FU)    11600     1      8310     0.71   28%
         Atmosferic emissions                    0.84             0.55
         Normalization                            1               0.66
   GP2                       LIQUID EFFLUENTS
Group of Pollution
   Prevention                    Palm               Soybean

                           (g/FU) (m3 of water) (g/FU) (m3 of water)
      COD                  25,400     339         21.8     0.291
      BOD                  16,900    1,120        4.68     0.312
      Ntot                  1,200     92.4        482       37.1
      Ptot                   767      767        1,350     1,350
      Heavy metals          13.0      13.0      0.00703  0.00703
      HC                    4,790    2,390        26.9      13.4
      SO4-2                  424     0.424        662     0.662
      Cl-                  4,200      4.20       6,670     6.67
           TOTAL                     4,727                 1,408
           NORMALIZATION                1                   0.30
   GP2
Group of Pollution
   Prevention
                                       SOLID WASTES

                                             Palm     Soybean
                 Municipal wastes (kg/FU)    92.3        221
                 Industrial wastes (kg/FU)   2,750      4,380
                 Building wastes (kg/FU)
                 Mining wastes (kg/FU)       6,06      9,68
                           TOTAL (kg/FU)     2,850     4,610
                           NORMALIZATION     0.62        1
   GP2                             TOTAL EMISSIONS
Group of Pollution
   Prevention




                                               TOTAL          Weighting
                                          Palm      Soybean    factor
                 Atmospheric emissions      1         0.65      15%
                 Liquid effluents           1         0.30      50%
                 Solid wastes             0.62          1       35%
                          TOTAL           0.87        0.60
                          NORMALIZATION    1          0.69
   GP2                        NATURAL RESOURCES
Group of Pollution
   Prevention                         Palm                Soybean
                                                                         Weighting
                              (kg/FU)    weighed      (kg/FU)   weighed   factor
      Coal                      15.9        1.8         7.11      0.801    0.113
      Oil                       43.1       15.2         120        42.5    0.354
      Natural gas               34.9       12.3         10.1       3.56    0.352
      Sulphur                   24.0       36.9         37.9       58.3     1.54
      Phosphate rock            723       1,120        1,350      2,090     1.55
      Uranium                0.000224     0.0243     0.000101    0.0109     108
      Limestone                                         530       5.59    0.0105
      Potash                   49.5          0.637      79.3       1.02   0.0129
      Biomass                                           305     0.000965 3.16x10-6
             TOTAL                           1,190               2,200
             NORMALIZATION                   0.54                  1
   GP2                          TOXICITY POTENTIAL
Group of Pollution
   Prevention                          Palm                 Soybean
                                                                         Weighting
                               (kg/FU)    weighed      (kg/FU)   weighed  factor
      Diesel                     20.7      29,900        97.6    140,837   1,443
      Nitrogen fertilizers       33.1      38,264        5.30     6,127    1,156
      Phosphatic fertilizers     33.1      24,825        5.30     3,975     750
      Potassic fertilizers       33.1         0          5.30       0        0
      Limestone                                          53.0     5,300     100
      Solvent (hexane)                                   2.67     5,006    1,875
      Agrotoxics                0.42           1,426    24.97     84,748   3,394
             TOTAL                            94,415             245,993
             NORMALIZATION                      0,38                1
   GP2                             LAND USE
Group of Pollution
   Prevention                     Palm               Soybean
                                                                    Weighting
                             (m2.year) weighed (m2.year) weighed     factor
      Area II*                 -2,510      -3,765     -6,660 -9,990   1.50
      Area III*                2,500       5,625       6,630 14,916   2.25
      Area IV*                 0.787        3.98        1.79  9.06    5.06
      Area V*                   5.27        40.0        21.1   160    7.59
          TOTAL                             1,904             5,095
          NORMALIZATION                     0.37                1
      *Gruppe Energie-Stoffe-Unwelt et al: Ökoinventare von Energiesystemen,
      Bundesmat für energie-wirtschaft (Schweiz), ENET, 1996
   GP2
Group of Pollution
   Prevention
                                    RISK POTENTIAL


                                                    Risk potential
                 Fertilizers                  Palm              Soybean
                 Crop production           0.0000213            0.0000239
                 Oil production             0.00639             0.0000315
                 Heavy metals (ml H2O)     0.000574             0.000238
                           TOTAL           0.006985             0.0002934
                           NORMALIZATION       1                   0.042
   GP2
Group of Pollution
   Prevention




                                       Energy consumption
                                                  1



                      Uso da terra 1                        1 Emissions
                                                                          PALM
                                              0                           SOYBEAN

                       Materials 1
                                                            1 Toxicity
                     consumption
                                                              potential

                                                1
                                          Risk potential
   GP2                     ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATOR
Group of Pollution
   Prevention                       Palm              Soybean
                                                                   Weighting
                                       weighed             weighed Factor (%)
     Energçy consumption     0.37       0.0291      1       0.0785    7.85
     Total emissions           1        0.307      0.67     0.206    30.67
     Natural resources       0.54       0.139        1      0.257    25.70
     Toxicity potential      0.38       0.070        1      0.185    18.45
     Land use                0.37       0.0112       1      0.0302    3.02
     Risk potential           1          0.143     0.04    0.00572   14.31
           TOTAL                        0.699                0.762
           Average                                 0.731
           NORMALIZATION                   0.958            1.043
   GP2
Group of Pollution
   Prevention
                               ECONOMICAL INDICATOR


                                               LC Costs (US$/FU)
                                           Palm             Soybean
                 Agricultural subsystem   343.72              420.22
                 Transport subsystem       3.10               51.99
                 Oil subsystem             13.62              20.17
                          TOTAL           360.44              492.38
                          NORMALIZATION    0.73                 1
   GP2
Group of Pollution
   Prevention
                          ECOEFICIENCY MATRIX COORDINATES




                                            Palm       Soybean
                 Environmental coordinate   0.87         1.13
                 Economical coordinate      0.95         1.05
   GP2
Group of Pollution
   Prevention




                                                          0,0
                     Environmental impacts (normalized)




                                                                                                 PALM
                                                          1,0
                                                                                                 SOY




                                                          2,0
                                                                2,0            1,0         0,0
                                                                      Costs (normalized)
   GP2
                               CONCLUSION
Group of Pollution
   Prevention




            Palm oil is more eco-efficient than than soybean oil as

            raw material for     biodiesel production in Brazilian

            conditions.
   GP2                 Life Cycle Assessment VIII
Group of Pollution
                              'Calculating Consequences Beyond the Box'
   Prevention




               THANK YOU


Group of Pollution Prevention- (55)(11)3091.2213
University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
                                                                   30 Sep – 2 Oct 2008
Eduardo Toshio Sugawara – eduardotoshio@gmail.com                  Seattle
Luiz Alexandre Kulay – luiz.kulay@poli.usp.br
Gil Anderi da Silva - ganderis@usp.br

				
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Description: presentation Slide Soybean oil