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Pakistan Safe Drinking Water Hygiene Promotion Project Rice Germ Oil

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Pakistan Safe Drinking Water Hygiene Promotion Project Rice Germ Oil

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									      USAID Pakistan Safe Drinking Water & Hygiene Promotion Project

                Technical and Marketing Review of POU Technologies
     Private Sector Activity: Situation Analysis and Preliminary Evaluation of Potential
      Partnerships with POU Water Filtration and Purification Technology Companies

                       Muhammad Ali Aziz, Manager, Private Sector Activity
                                        January 2008

A. Purpose of the Review

The purpose of this technical and marketing review is to focus on identifying multiple methods of Point-
Of-Use (POU) water filtration technologies that can provide low-income populations in Pakistan with a
range of options for water treatment. Presently, an estimated 250,000 deaths1 occur due to diarrheal
infections, a majority of which are attributable to lack of safe drinking water. Access to improved water
sources and appropriate POU water purification technologies are prerequisites to safe drinking water for
peri-urban and rural communities.

The USAID/Pakistan Safe Drinking Water and Hygiene Promotion Project aims to partner with a number
of private sector companies to promote POU water treatment technologies that are effective, affordable,
and available to potential low-income users. Private sector activities will focus on manufacturers or
companies that are currently engaged in designing appropriate POU water filtration technologies or are
looking towards commercial market development through effective implementation of marketing
strategies. Potential private sector partners will be identified based on this review.

B. Background
Problem Statement. Access to safe drinking water is a critical health issue for Pakistan, and the country‘s
projected population growth over the next 10 years (expected to increase from 150 to 221 million by
2025) will only exacerbate water demand, making access to safe water even more of a challenge. Current
data from the Pakistan Planning Department indicates that only 65% of the population has access to
improved drinking water, and rural coverage is significantly lower (55%) than urban coverage (80%).
According to Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), ―Pakistan has essentially
exhausted its available water resources and is on the verge of becoming a water-deficit country. The per
capita water availability has dropped from 5,600 m3 to 1,000 m3.‖

The mortality rate for children under five in Pakistan is among the highest in the world, with 101 deaths
per 1000 children.4 Water and sanitation-related diseases are responsible for 60% of the country‘s disease
burden in children under five, and it is estimated that diarrheal disease kills more than 200,000 children
under the age of five each year.

The combination of unsafe water consumption and poor hygiene practices results in illnesses which not
only contribute to high child mortality and morbidity, but which result in high health costs for treatment.
According to UNICEF, 40% of hospital beds are occupied by patients with water borne diseases. Lowered
educational achievement due to reduced school attendance by children, and a decrease in the number of
working days on the part of adults are also factors related to access to and quality of the drinking water in

Pakistan. Unsafe drinking water has also been shown to lead to poverty through loss of economically
productive time spent by women and girls to fetch ‗drinkable‘ water from long distances. An Aga Khan
Development Network (AKDN) study noted that up to 60% of the population may walk up to three
kilometers several times each day in order to collect water from open channels, with women and children
bearing the brunt of this responsibility.

In addition to lack of access to safe drinking water, hygiene practices are also very poor. According to
UNICEF (2002), only 54% of Pakistan‘s population has sustainable access to improved sanitation.
Washing hands with soap after defecation is estimated to be 48% in urban areas and 25% in rural areas.

A number of studies on Pakistan‘s water quality have been carried out over the past several years.
Findings have included the presence of fecal coliform bacteria in main distribution lines due to
contamination from surrounding leaking sewage pipelines; pollution of ground and surface water in urban
and rural areas by sewage and industrial waste; high levels of arsenic, lead and chromium; and
bacteriological and fecal contamination of collected water samples.

In Pakistan, groundwater is being utilized through open wells, springs, tube wells, hand pumps and
infiltration galleries. Groundwater studies carried out in various locations have revealed declining levels
of water and lowering of water tables, brackish water that cannot be used for domestic purposes, poor soil
health and decreased crop yield due to the pumping of sodic water.

Water Quality Standards. The basic purpose of the guidelines or standards is to provide safe drinking
water to all citizens. WHO has provided general guidelines for drinking water, which advisory in nature,
and are based on scientific research and epidemiological findings. The PCRWR and Pakistan Standards
Institution (PSI) have already drafted drinking water quality standards. However, the enforcement of
these standards is still pending, despite the fact that water issues are of critical nature and need to be
tackled on priority basis. Test parameters for E.Coli, Fecal Coliform, Arsenic, Calcium, Iron, Nitrates,
Sodium, Totally Dissolved Solids (TDS) and other contaminants developed by the Pakistan Standards &
Quality Control Authority (PSQCA), a government body to monitor water quality status, have no legal
binding on the private industry and public sector.

                                           WHO Guidelines

        All water intended for drinking), as well as treated water entering the distribution
        system, must not have E. Coli or thermo tolerant coliform and total coliform
        bacteria detectable in any 100 ml sample. In case of large supplies, where
        sufficient samples are examined, E.Coli or thermo tolerant coliform bacteria must
        not be present in 95% of the samples taken throughout any 12-month period.

Pakistan Safe Drinking Water and Hygiene Promotion Project. To achieve the Millennium Development
Goal of ―reducing by 50%, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water‖
and thereby significantly reduce the incidence of mortality and morbidity caused by diarrhea and other
life-threatening water-borne diseases, the Pakistan Safe Drinking Water and Hygiene Promotion Project
(PSDW-HPP) is being carried out by Abt Associates and its consortia partners – the Academy for
Educational Development (AED); The QED Group, LLC; Montgomery, Watson and Harza (MWH), and
the Institute for Sustainable Communities (ISC).

With the aim of improving the health and well-being of millions of Pakistanis without access to safe
drinking water, PSDW-HPP is being implemented in partnership with the Government of Pakistan's
(GOP) Ministry of Industries, Production & Special Initiatives. The project is providing technical

assistance and extensive capacity building in the areas of hygiene, sanitation promotion and community
mobilization to complement the GOPs substantial investments in hardware for safe drinking water.
PSDW-HPP is also tasked with using private sector partnerships to extend the availability of low-cost
household water purification technologies.

The geographic focus of the project is on 31 districts, including three agencies from Federally
Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and the earthquake affected areas of North-West Frontier Province
(NWFP), FATA and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K)eight earthquake-affected areas. Over a three-
year period (2007-2009), it is expected that the project will benefit 30 million people in the target areas.

The project‘s major activities include:

       Providing support to Government agencies, NGO‘s and communities through capacity-building
        and training in operation and management of water treatment facilities; hygiene and sanitation
        practices and promotion; water quality testing; community mobilization; planning, cost recovery,
        and water resources management to ensure that investments in hardware and promotional
        activities will be sustainable in the long-term.
       Providing technical assistance on water source protection to prevent water contamination.
       Demonstrating ways in which social mobilization may lead to sustainability and better
        management of filtration plants by the communities.
       Assisting the Ministry of Industry in designing a comprehensive hygiene and sanitation
        promotion strategy for safe water management, hygienic behavior, and safe sanitation practices.
        The strategy will be implemented by NGOs through a grant program.
       Assisting local governments and communities in 31 districts to safely maintain and operate water
        treatment systems, as well as to promote good personal and household water hygiene to maximize
        health benefits.

Two major accomplishments are envisioned by the end of the project:

    1. Program sustainability will be achieved through the participation of both NGO and private sector
    2. Behavioral sustainability on the part of target groups will occur as a result of state-of-the-art
       tested behavior change approaches used in the implementation process, combined with innovation
       and creativity.

Women are at the heart of water issues: it is they who are primarily responsible for collecting and
managing water at the household level, and for caring for children and others affected by diarrhea. Efforts
will be made to reach a maximum number of mothers and other important decision makers such as fathers
at the household level to encourage the use POU technologies/products for treating unsafe water to make
it safe for drinking, as well as to promote regular hand washing hygiene practices.

C. Pakistan Investment Climate
Pakistan is a country of 160 million people, the sixth largest population in the world. Its land area is
310,000 sq. kilometers. The average rainfall is less than 10 inches per year which makes water generally a
scarce resource and drinking water an extremely scarce resource.

With the onset of economic liberalization, privatization, deregulation, tax and tariff restructuring, and
major industrial policy changes to address investor concerns, the investment climate in Pakistan has
become very positive and conducive to attracting investment. The government has taken major steps to
accelerate programs to support existing and new investment.

Major new business opportunities with strong potential for foreign investment have emerged in a host of
sectors as a result of privatization and deregulation in the oil and gas, textiles, leather, garments, IT,
chemical and engineering industries. New opportunities have also emerged in the areas of tourism,
banking, financial services, fisheries, food processing and consumer goods. In 2006, direct and portfolio
investment flows were estimated to achieve a record high of over $5 billion. Pakistan is well poised to
become one of the fastest growing business frontiers in Asia.

For investors seeking growth and profitability of their investments, Pakistan offers a number of important
competitive advantages. In particular, it has a large domestic market of 160 million people. Both the
GDP and per capita income have doubled over the past five years. The country also has a long-standing
corporate culture with a booming stock market, and a fairly good legal system to protect intellectual

With abundant land and natural resources and fertile agricultural land, Pakistan has year-round exportable
food crops, including cotton, rice, sugarcane and wheat. Although 70% of the workforce is based in rural
areas, Pakistan can boast of an educated, well-trained, hardworking labor force.

With a reasonably well-developed physical and communication infrastructure, comprehensive road, rail
and sea links (including the recently inaugurated Gwadar Seaport as a principal gateway to the Middle
East, South Asia and Central Asian Republics), Pakistan offers a cost-effective hub for potential investors
both at home and overseas.

D. Point-of-Use Water Treatment Technology (POU)
Evidence from randomized evaluations assessing the health impacts of various interventions to improve
water quality at the point of use suggests that POU (water treatment and purification) technologies are a
promising way to reduce diarrheal incidence.1 Randomized impact evaluations of point-of-use water
treatment systems observe statistically significant reductions of 20-30% in diarrheal incidence at the
household level.2

Drinking water treatment at Point-Of-Use is a public health, hygiene and water supply intervention
designed to prevent diarrhea caused by water-borne pathogens. POU water treatment technologies focus
primarily on disinfection using one or more of the following methods:3

    1. Physical filtration: Ceramic-based water filters and Biosand filters are two examples of physical
       filtration. These filters are designed to remove E.Coli and fecal coliform bacteria, but do not
       remove high level of turbidity or chemical contaminants such as arsenic, lead, fluoride, iron,
       chromium etc.
    2. Solar radiation: Examples of these technologies include SODIS and UV. These achieve
       disinfection only.

  Semenza, 1998; Quick, 1999;Quick, 2002; Sobsey, Handzel and Venezel 2003; Reller,
2003; Clasen, 2004.
  Quick,1999; Reller, 2003.
  A. Peterson and M. Kremer, CID Working Paper No.140, March 2007, p. 10.

    3. Silver treatment: These include the colliodal silver ceramic filter and Musaffa silver ionization
       through silver-impregnated sterilized and refined sand particles. They achieve disinfection by
       killing E.Coli and fecal coliform bacteria, but do not remove arsenic and chemical contaminants.
    4. Chemical filtration: Chlorination through hypocholorous acid is an example of chemical
       filtration, which kills E.Coli and other bacteria but does not remove turbidity and hazardous
    5. Coagulation, Precipitation and Floccuation technologies: Examples include PuR, carbon filters,
       reverse osmosis (RO) and other absorption technologies. These kill E.coli and other harmful
       bacteria causing diarrhea, remove sediments and particles to improve taste, remove odor and, in
       the case of PuR, remove 99 % arsenic. Most of the gravity flow filters belong to this category.
    6. Ozonation technology. Ozonation is a water treatment process that destroys bacteria and other
       microorganisms through the infusion of ozone- a gas produced by subjecting oxygen molecules to
       high electric voltage. Although highly effective, ozone does not remain in the water for very long;
       as a result, chlorination is required in the distribution system.
    7. Combinations of the above POU water filtration and purification technologies.

E. Research Methods
To identify a range of appropriate POU water filtration technologies, project staff reviewed a variety of
relevant publications and research reports, and conducted interviews with key informants in the public,
private and NGO sectors in Pakistan. The following reports and publications provided information on the
country situation with respect to water quality, demographics and other key issues:

       PCRWR report on Water Quality Status in Pakistan, 2001-2002, May 2005 (2003-2004 Report).
       Water Quality Monitoring in District Layyah (Punjab) 2006 – Human Resource Development
        Society (HRDS).
       Jamal‘s Yellow Pages- Pakistan.
       Central Census Organization, Government of Pakistan- District Population Census 1998.
       The News International, December 15, 2005.
       The Pakistan Economic Survey, Ministry of Economic Affairs, 2006.

Face-to-face interviews, meetings and telephone discussions were held with representatives of the
following agencies and organizations: Proctor & Gamble; PSI/Greenstar Social Marketing; US Health
Care; PCSIR; Association for Humanitarian Development; Medentech Ireland; Zita International; AGS
pharmaceutical Industries; Society for Sustainable Development (SSD); NWFP University of Engineering
and Technology; Dawood Industries; Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (RCRWR),
Ministry of Science & Technology; So-Safe Water Technologies; Lodhran Pilot Project (LPP) funded by
the World Bank/JSDF; Mabzi International Filtration Technologies; Network for Consumer Protection;
Drinking Water for Punjab Local Government Department; UNICEF; Alternate Energy Development
Board, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Industries; Human Resource Development Society (HRDS)
and Laboratories; and Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF).

F. Water Filtration and Purification Technologies Available in Pakistan


1. BioSand Nadi Filter

Type: Physical

Manufacturer/Distributor. Promoted by Association of Humanitarian Development (AHD) in Sindh.
AHD has been working on the development and promotion of safe drinking water systems for rural
communities of Pakistan since 2003. Over 820 Nadi filters have been installed in different areas of Sindh,
where the most common problems are worms, gastro intestinal bacteria and fungi spread throughout the
water supply. Bio-sand filters are an adaptation of slow sand filters developed in the West, and have been
tested by various government, research, and health institutions across the world.

Description. The Bio-Sand Nadi filter is an innovative and safe drinking
filter water technique that is cheap, easy to use and primarily intended for
household use. These filters are based on a simple concept: stable layers
of sand can both remove sediments, as well as provide a surface for the
growth of microbes that remove harmful bacteria from dirty water. The
filters are constructed entirely with local materials, and require little
technical expertise for use or maintenance. The Bio-Sand Nadi filter
consists of a 32-34‖ ceramic pitcher with a smaller ceramic pitcher that
sits on top of the filter. The Nadi filter is filled with sand and sieved
through different sizes of mesh that separate large and small particles for
use in the various layers inside the filter. AHD claims that Nadi filters
remove more than 95% of fecal coliforms, 100% of protozoa and
helminthes, 50-90% of organic and inorganic toxicants and almost all
suspended particles. It does not remove arsenic, lead, and other

Flow Rate. 10 -12 liter capacity; 2 liter/hour flow rate.

Maintenance. Since there is no synthetic filtration material, maintenance involves removing the sand and
washing it periodically.

Price. Rs. 800 (US$ 13.33), two-year life.
9 paisa/liter (US$ 0.002), based on two years/12 liters per day.

2. CAWST Bio-Sand Filter

Type: Physical

Manufacturer/Distributor. The Center for Affordable Water and
Sanitation Technology (CAWST) in Calgary, Alberta, Canada
works in collaboration with the Koshish NGO located in District
Sialkot and with The Consumer Network based in Islamabad.
They selected the Vehari District in South Punjab to conduct a trial
of Bio-Sand

Description. The Bio-Sand Filter creates a biological layer on top
of the sand layer that kills bacteria. Viruses are also eliminated
through the absorption process. The filter also removes metals such as zinc, copper, manganese and, to
some extent, arsenic. The drawback of the filter is that the cost is higher than the affordable range. It is

also too heavy to be transported from place to place. A prototype of the Bio-Sand Filter can be seen at the
offices of ―The Network‖ – a consumer protection organization based in Islamabad.

Flow Rate. 2 liters per hour.

Price. Rs.1,500 – Rs.2,000 (US$ 25.00 – $ 33.33)


3. Solar Desalinator (Mith-Khara)

Type: Solar Disinfection and Salt Filtration Technology

Manufacturer/Distributor. The solar desalinator was
designed by the Alternative Energy Development Board
(AEDB), Ministry of Industries Government of Pakistan.

Description. The Solar Desalinator utilizes solar energy
for producing desalinated drinking water from
saltish/brackish water or sea water independently in each
home. It is a portable, easy to carry, low-cost, easy to
install and maintain independent solar home desalinator
that can be installed and used instantaneously. It is
designed for 20 years of life with no component of
corrosive material. A black flat surface of long-life, non-corrosive material is used as a base material. The
surface is enclosed by clear window glass that allows solar radiation to fall over the black surface and
heat it up to stagnation temperature of more than 100 C. The glass cover also serves to reduce heat loss
from the surface to the outside air. A small quantity of water flows over the surface and is heated to
evaporation temperatures in the airtight enclosure. As the vapors rise, they strike the cooler glass surface
and are condensed on the inner side of the cover glass. When enough vapors are condensed, they trickle
down into a clean water collection channel attached at the lower end of the glass. The desalinator can
have its own support structure or be placed on pre-fabricated flat surface to reduce the cost. This
Desalinator can produce up to 5-10 liters/day clean drinking water in summer and around 2-5 liters/day
during winter.

Flow Rate. 5-10 liters/ day depending on size of base surface area and whether solar units are

Maintenance. The black surface of the desalinator must be cleaned frequently to remove any salt deposit
by opening the seal. After cleaning the glass is sealed again with the help of silicon sealant.

Price. Prototype cost is Rs.3,000 (US$ 50.00); per liter cost is 8 paisas (US$ 0.0013).


4. Aquatabs: Effervescent Water Purification Tablets

Type: Chemical

Manufacturer/Distributor. Aquatabs (sodium
dichlorisocyanurate) chlorinated water purification tablets are
manufactured by Medentech, Ireland, which also own the
registered trademark. They are being imported and marketed in
Pakistan through Zita International. However, the sales force and

distribution network is limited to urban Rawalpindi, Islamabad and some parts of Punjab and NWFP.
There is little sales promotion activity.

Description. Aquatabs are available in packs of 20 tablets. Each 33 mg. tablet is used to purify 10 liters of
water. The dosage is 2 PPM (Parts Per Million) or 2 mg per liter. The residual concentration of free
chlorine (hypochlorous acid) after 30 minutes of contact time as recommended by the WHO maximum
guideline value is 5 mg per liter. Aquatabs claims the residual chlorine to be equal to or less than 0.5 mg
per liter. The product is available at pharmacies only, although it is not registered as a proprietary drug
with the Ministry of Health and is imported as a food item with a 66% import duty and a 15% sales tax. A
variant of Aquatabs, marketed as AquaSept, is also sold through wholesalers to poultry farmers for
disinfecting drinking water for poultry birds.

Flow Rate: 1 tablet treats 5 liters of water.

Price. Rs. 50 (US$ 0.83) The cost of each liter of treated water is 50 paisas (US$ 0.008).

5. Aquapura

Type. Chemical

Manufacturer/Distributor. AGS Pharma and Chemical Industries are
local manufacturers of the Aquapura brand and are located in the
industrial estate, Peshawar. Aquapura is a local brand registered with
the MOH as a drug (medicine) After the earthquake disaster in
October 2006, the Ministry of Environment purchased a large
quantity of Aquapura (600,000) for the earthquake victims of Azad Kashmir. However, the company did
not follow up to monitor user response about product efficacy, quality, and taste, or correct use of the
product to treat contaminated water. The company has been in the market for over 10 years but has not
yet developed a country-wide distribution network. Aquapura is available through pharmacies/chemists in
Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Peshawar, but is not available in Sind and Baluchistan and large parts of
the Punjab except Lahore. It is not actively promoted or advertised in the mass media. The company has a
limited field force.

Description. Two types of tablets are offered: (1) Aquapura 3x10 tablets containing Tricholroisocyanuric
Acid 15 mg. - dosage is one tablet for 1.5 liters of tap water; and (2) Aquapura 3x10 Tablets
Tricholoroisocyanuric Acid 100 mg (Active ingredient 10 ppm) – dosage is one tablet for 10 liters of
drinking water. Aquapura destroys harmful water-borne micro-organisms but does not remove turbidity,
arsenic and fluoride from untreated water. Offers solid protection against hepatitis, gastroenteritis,
typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, and intestinal infections. Claims that drinking germ-free water gets rid
of 90% of diseases and that clean water will provide protection against all types of viral, fungal, and
bacterial diseases. Packing leaflet (insert) in English claims active ingredient 10 ppm and pH value of
treated water 6.98-7.2.

Flow Rate. In treating water with Aquapura, there is a minimum waiting time of 30 minutes for the
bacteria to be eliminated before the water is safe for drinking. The volume of treated safe drinking water
can be increased by: (a) using a higher-dosage tablet (for example, 100 mg. tablet for treating 10 liters of
water, and (b) using the tablets for treating drinking water in safer household water storage containers.

         Aquapura 3x10 tablets containing Tricholroisocyanuric Acid 15 mg – Rs.49 (US$ 0.82) for 30
         Cost per tablet liter - Rs. 1.63 (US$ 0.03)
         Cost Per Liter of Treated Water - Rs. 1.08 (US$ 0.03)

         Aquapura 3x10 Tablets Tricholoroisocyanuric Acid 100 mg (Active ingredient 10 ppm) - Rs. 165
         (US$ 2.75) for 30 tablets.
         Cost per Tablet - Rs. 5.50 (US$ 0.09)
         Cost per Liter of Treated Water - Rs. 0.33 (US$ 0.01)

6. Dettol Water Purification Tablets

Type: Chemical

Manufacturer/Distributor. Dettol Tablets were manufactured by Medentech (manufacturers of Aquatabs)
and the product was branded as ‗Dettol‖ by which wanted to market the tablets under their own brand
name. Reckitt & Benckiser test-marketed Dettol in urban areas some time ago. However, a full scale
product launch was not undertaken due to the antiseptic aftertaste problem that was revealed during taste
trials. Without further improving the aftertaste, management took the product off the retail shelf and put it
back in cold storage. The company still has stocks remaining from the initial market test and is willing to
reconsider a re-launch if the product‘s potential can be tested and researched in rural markets.

Description. Sodium dichlorisocyanuarate, 33 mg. per tablet for treating 5 liters of water.

Flow Rate. Effervescent tablets are dissolved in water. The waiting time before water is safe for drinking
is 30 minutes.

Price. Rs. 50 (US$ 0.83) per box of 20 tablets.


7. PuR “Purifier of Water” Sachet

Type: Chemical

Manufacturer/Distributor. Proctor & Gamble and CDC (U.S. Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention)/PSI/GreenStar

Description. Pur (calcium hypchlorite) treats water through a
combined process of disinfection with calcium hypochlorite and
flocculation with iron sulfate. CDC laboratory and clinical studies in
Guatemala, Kenya, Pakistan, and Bangladesh show that Pur is highly effective in treating surface water
turbidity after five minutes of stirring, PuR settles all dirt particles, rendering muddy water crystal clear
kills 8 log of bacteria, 4 log of virus, 3.3 log of parasitic microbes. PuR also is 99% effective against
arsenic. It also effectively removes lead, but efficacy against fluoride is not yet clinically established.

Surveys conducted by PSI/GreenStar revealed that 60% of the population in the villages where PuR was
promoted indicated acceptability of the results in terms of efficacy and economy. PuR has the added
advantage of treating surface water as well as arsenic. The product is convenient to use and is easily
transportable to remote rural areas.

Flow Rate. 4 gm sachet for 10 liters of water.

Price. Rs. 5 (US$ 0.08) per one 4 gm powder sachet. The cost comes to about 60 paisa (US$ 0.01) per 10
gallons, or approximately 6 (US$ 0.001) paisa per gallon (4 liters) which is highly economical compared
to other water purification tablets available in the market.


8. Spinzer Colloidal Silver Filter

Type: Combination: Physical Ceramic with Silver Treatment

Manufacturer/Distributor: SSD; Dawood Industries, Peshawar.

Description. The project is exploring the potential of developing a marketable Colloidal Silver (CS) filter
in Pakistan by identifying prospective partners in the local ceramics industry. Technical advisory support
from Nepalese experts in the field may be of assistance in designing and developing a CS filter locally,
provided the parties commit to build a sustainable and scalable capacity for production and
commercialization of CS filters

Flow Rate. 7 liter pot in 19 liter bucket filters at 2 liters/hour.

Price. Initial cost Rs 1,800 (US$ 30.00)
20 paisa/liter (US$ 0.003) with a claimed life of two years at 12liters/day for a family of 6.

9. Arsenic Filter

Type: Combination: Physical with Arsenic
Plus Bacteria Removal Media

Manufacturer. The Arsenic Removing Filter
was initially developed by the Pakistan
Council for Research in Water Resources
(PCRWR) with funds available from UNICEF.
The ceramic-based Filter was then produced by PCRWR and distributed in southern areas of the Punjab
(such as Rahim Yar Khan) where drinking water sources are arsenic-affected.

Description. PCRWR attempted to commercialize the POU water filtration technology by designing PVC
and a galvanized steel version of the Arsenic filter with a special Arsenic-Removal Pouch containing
PCRWR‘s special recipe. However, due to the high cost of the prototype designs and lack of interest by
both UNICEF and the PCRWR management, they failed to attract the private sector to develop

Flow Rate. 10 liter capacity, 2 liters/hour flow rate

Price. Rs.1,500 (US$ 25.00)
18 paisa/liter (US$ 0.003)
Based on two-year life at 12 liter usage per day for a family of 6.

10. Musaffa –Water Decontamination Bag (see Appendix A for additional details)

Type: Combination: Physical and Silver-Treatment in
Sand Medium

Manufacturer/Distributor. Musaffa was originally developed as
a decontamination bag by the Pakistan Council of Scientific
and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Laboratories, Government of
Pakistan. The PCSIR Laboratories is one of the largest
government-owned labs for scientific and industrial research in
Pakistan, and typically develops and commercializes
technologies through the private sector. Since the 1960s, PCSIR‘s Karachi Complex has been working on
improving the quality of drinking water. In 1988, PCSIR transferred its patented POU water treatment
technology (known as the ―the decontamination bag‖) to US Health Care, a company established by two
local physicians. US Health Care then branded the decontamination bag as ―Musaffa‖ which in Urdu
means ―the Purifier.‖ The company initially placed production orders with PCSIR to supply Musaffa to
public relief and donor organizations, but subsequently established their own manufacturing facility in
Karachi and currently supplies the product to government agencies, NGOs and private sector

Description. Musaffa is a water decontamination bag that is effective, easy to use, and safe. The bag
contains a mixture of silver-treated and untreated sand, and works by oligodynamic action of silver ions
for decontamination of water without disturbing the original contents of desirable minerals in the water.
The bag is made of a material that does not does not degrade with prolonged contact with water. When
the decontamination bag is placed at the outlet of the ―matka‖ (ceramic pitcher), the stored water flows
though the contents of the bag. PCSIR claimed that the water flowing through the bag becomes safe for
drinking, rendering it free from diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, cholera etc. It has been
tested against E.Coli, salmonella typhi, shigella dysenteriae, staphylococcus and klebsiella pneumonia.
The efficacy of debacterification is 95+3% +_ at a mean microbial load of 104 per ml when water is
passed through the bag at a flow rate of one liter per minute. According to PCSIR, a bag of 1 kg is
sufficient to debacterify more than 2500 liters of water. This ensures a 4-6 months supply of germ-free
drinking water for an average family of six persons. It is not effective against arsenic.

Flow Rate. 1 kg filters 2000 liters of water or effective life of four months for a family of 6-7 using 12-16

Price. Rs. 250 (US$ 4.17) per kg.
12.5 paisa/liter (US$ 0.002)
Based on effective life of 2,000 liters.

11. TOYOKO Portable Jug and Water Filters

Type. Combination: Physical and Adsorption (Carbon) Filtration

Manufacturer. Toyoko Jugs are imported by RN Traders, Sialkot and distributed to various points in Sind
and Punjab. Toyoko Jug is presently available in Karachi, Peshawar and Lahore through company
distributors. The company is still in the early stages of developing a distribution network.

Description. The 1.5 liter jug is a convenient travel companion but can also
be suitable for home use as it tucks neatly into the refrigerator. The jug
uses a 30% resin and 70% first grade active carbon filter featuring effective
physical and chemical absorption ability, and disinfects and purifies the
water. The importer claims that it detoxifies the water from
hydroxybenzene, lead, arsenic, and eliminates lead and arsenic. The resin
softens the water and can exchange some heavy metal ion in water such as
magnesium, and calcium carbonate. The filtered water can then be stored in
a food grade plastic bottle for later use and the jug can be refilled.

Flow Rate. Filtering speed is 0.3 liter per minute, which means the jug will have purified drinking water
within 3-5 minutes.

Maintenance. The filter has a life of filtering 150 times x 1.5 liters or 225 liters (or about every two

Price: Rs. 425 (US$ 7.08) at retail shops. The company is also marketing 3-stage (Rs.3,000/US$ 50.00)
and 6-stage (Rs. 5,000/US$ 83.33) household filtration systems with KDF, DPF and silver-coated filters.

12. Mabzi UV-820 Purification System

Type: Combination: Carbon Adsorption and Gravity Flow Filtration Technology

Manufacturer. Mabzi is a leading manufacturer of water and waste water treatment systems with over 30
years of experience. Mabzi offers a combination of advanced water treatment systems featuring
ultraviolet sterilization, activated carbon absorption and micro filtration. Its product range includes:
electro dialyzer, desalination plants, ion exchanges, reverse osmosis, demineralizers, absorbers, ion-
exchangers and water softeners. Mabzi also designs and manufacturers custom-made systems engineered
for specific applications.

Description. A practical, affordable home water treatment plant that treats water through a three-stage
process containing a sediment filter, an activated carbon filter, and the UV-820 water sterilizer. Water
passes through the sediment filter, which removes all undissolved particles. It then passes through the
activated carbon filter which removes chlorine, ammonia, iron, unpleasant taste, odor, toxic chemicals,
etc. The UV Sterilizer sterilizes and destroys bacteria, viruses and phenol.

Flow Rate. Water is treated on line at full flow rates, thus no storage is needed.

Maintenance. Mabzi claims that its home water treatment system is easy to install, and its initial and
maintenance cost is low.

Price. For home-use Mabzi offers two-stage, three-stage (D.B.P.) and four-stage water sterilization
systems. Prices of the two stage (Rs.4, 000) (US $ 60), three stage (Rs. 7,000) (US $117), and four stage
water filtration and purification units are between Rs.10,000-12,000 (US $ 167-200).

13. So-Safe Water U.V. Triple Water Purification System – Model 9311G.

Type: Combination: Carbon Absorption and UV Gravity Flow
Filtration Technology

Manufacturer. So Safe is a technology-driven manufacturing and
distribution company in the field of water and waste water
treatment systems. So-Safe is the registered trademark of the S-
Safe Products Inc., USA. So-Safe is a member of the Water
Quality Association, USA and is affiliated with Universal
AquaTech, Marlo Inc., Ametek and several other international
companies. So-Safe offers both packaged systems, a reverse osmosis system, and complete
installation and operation.

Description. The U.V. Triple Water Purification System is a top-of-the-line unit for domestic use. It offers
extended features including longer cartridge life, protection against heavy metals and enhanced ultraviolet
efficacy. The Stage 1 Filter is a Poly Propylene Yarn In-depth Sediment Filter Cartridge with outside core
5-micron and inside core 1 micron that removes dust, rust, silt, scale and suspended particles. The Stage 2
Filter removes organic and inorganic (heavy metals) pollutants in water. It uses two types of media: KDF
(Redox alloy medium) removes heavy metals from water by exchanging electrons by redox (oxidation/
reduction) reaction. It also absorbs up to 95% of free chlorine from water, enhancing efficiency of Silver
Impregnated SGAC in the cartridge. SGAC removes unpleasant taste, odor from contaminated water and
inhibits the growth of bacteria within filter beds and prolongs the useful life of cartridges. In case of
arsenic, the filter used is Granular Charged Ferrous Oxide. The Stage 3 Ultraviolet cartridge is used for
sterilization by scrambling the DNA-structure of pathogenic micro-organisms which renders them sterile.

Flow Rate. 1 gallon per minute

    The Stage 1 Filter requires replacement after 3 months. Cost: Rs.200 (US$ 3.33)
    Stage 2 KDF/SGAC cartridge replacement costs: Cost: Rs.2,000 (US$ 33.33)
    Stage 3 Ultraviolet cartridge. The UV lamp life is 10,000 hours (approximately 2 years).
       Replacement cost: varies from Rs.2,000-3,500 (US$ 33.33 – $58.33) depending on the model.

Price. Rs. 9,000 (US$ 150.00)

14. UniSafe Triple Water Purification System

Type: Combination

Manufacturer. UniSafe filters are being marketed in Pakistan by
Universal Technologies, Inc., Imtiaz Center, Main Market Gulberg,

Description. The company sells 3-stage filters. The first stage filter is
polyester in-depth sediment filter useful for removal of dust, rust, silt,
scale, and unseen suspended particles. The Stage 2 filter is a Granular
Activated Carbon Filter (GAC) equipped with post-filter of 1 micron and the bed of GAC removes up to
99% of EDB, TCE, PCE, THMs and all other organic chemicals, chlorine, insecticides, pesticides,
herbicides, and unpleasant odor from drinking and cooking water. The Stage 3 Ultraviolet system
provides a regular lamp with an output of 30,000 microwatt-seconds per square centimeters (MW
sec./cm2) energy and Gold lamp with an output of 50,000 MW sec/cm2. The UV lamps guarantee 100%
sterilization and ensure effective control of microbial contamination. Sterilization is achieved by
scrambling DNA structures of microorganisms on exposure to ultraviolet light.

Flow Rate. Depending on the purification cartridge size (0.5 to 100 micron) and filtration cartridge (10 to
40 inch size), the average flow rate is 1 gallon per minute.

Maintenance. The UV lamp has a life of 10,000 hours or approximately two years.

Price. Rs. 6,500 (US$ 108.33) for Regular and Rs.8,500 (US$ 141.67) for Gold Models.

                                                                     SUMMARY OF POU TECHNOLOGIES

        POU Safe Water           Potential      Flow Rate        Price & Cost/Liter        Commercial Status            Lab Test &
         Technology              Partner(s)                                                                            Acceptability

1.   Nadi Filter          Association for       10 -12         Rs. 800 (US$ 13.33)       - Donor money for           No reliable quality   - In
     Biosand clay-pitcher Humanitarian          liters, 2      2 year life               assembly of filter.         test report or        - Ea
     on top of storage    Development           liters/hour                              - Over 820 filters have     acceptability study   - Co
     vessel               (AHD)                 flow rate      9 paisa/liter (US$        been installed in Sindh.    available from        loca
                                                               0.002) based on 2                                     independent           - Si
                                                               years/12 liters/day                                   source                ma

2.   Bio-Sand Filter           - Center for     2 liters/      Rs.1,500 – Rs.2,000       Widely used in              - Tested in both      - Ki
     Filter creates a          Affordable       hour           (US$ 25.00 - $ 33.33)     development settings in     laboratory and in     viru
     biological layer on top   Water and                                                 various countries           field.                rem
     of a sand layer.          Sanitation                                                                            - Trial was           me
                               Technology                                                                            conducted in          - Ac
                               (CAWST) -                                                                             Vehari District in    use
                               - Koshish NGO                                                                         S. Punjab.            - On
                               - The Consumer                                                                                              inst
                               Network                                                                                                     - Lo
                                                                                                                                           - Lo

3.  Mith-Khara            Alternate             5-10 liters/   Prototype cost            Prototype cost can be       Pilot study done      - 20
    Solar                 Energy                day            Rs.3000 (US$ 50.00);      reduced if produced to      by AEDB in Sindhi     - Po
    Desalinator           Development           depending      per liter cost 8 paisas   scale and /or re-designed   villages among        car
    Treats brackish water Board (AEDB)          on size of     (US$ 0.001).              to cut material cost.       the community         - Ea
    by evaporation and    MOI                   base                                                                 households but as     - No
    condensation of                             surface                                                              yet no                ma
    vapors on the glass                         area and                                                             acceptability study
    panels.                                     whether                                                              done.
                                                solar units
                                                are single/

4.  Aquatabs            Manufacturer-           1 tablet       Rs.2.50 (US$0.04)/ tab    Weak marketing and          Some lab tests        If su
    Sodium              Medentech               (33 mg         50 paisa (US$             distribution                done but no           ma
    Dichlroisocyanurate Distributor - Zita      tablet)        0.008)/liter                                          acceptability         is w
                        International           with 20                                                              study.                pro
                                                mg                                                                                         pro
                                                available                                                                                  dist
                                                chlorine                                                                                   dist
                                                treats 5                                                                                   pro
                                                liters of                                                                                  liter

                                                                SUMMARY OF POU TECHNOLOGIES

        POU Safe Water         Potential     Flow Rate      Price & Cost/Liter          Commercial Status             Lab Test &
         Technology            Partner(s)                                                                            Acceptability

5.   Aquapura                AGS Pharma      Minimum      3x10 tablets                - Registered with the        Following the         - Pr
     Tablets containing      and Chemical    waiting      containing                  MOH as a drug.               earthquake in         hep
     Tricholroisocyanuric    Industries      time for     Tricholroisocyanuric        - Available through          2006, the Ministry    gas
     Acid destroys harmful                   safe         Acid 15 mg                  pharmacies/chemists in       of Environment        typh
     water-borne micro-                      drinking     – Rs.49 (US$ 0.82)          Lahore, Rawalpindi,          purchased a large     dys
     organisms.                              water is     for 30 tablets.             Islamabad, Peshawar.         quantity (600,000)    and
                                             30           - Cost per tablet liter -   - Not available in Sind,     for victims of Azad   infe
                                             minutes      Rs. 1.63 (US$ 0.03)         Baluchistan & large parts    Kashmir.              - Co
                                                          - Cost per liter of         of the Punjab except         However, the          ma
                                                          Treated Water - Rs.         Lahore.                      company did not       ava
                                                          1.08 (US$ 0.02)                                          follow up to          stor
                                                                                                                   monitor user
                                                           3x10 Tablets                                            response about
                                                           Tricholoroisocyanuric                                   product efficacy,
                                                           Acid 100 mg                                             quality, taste, or
                                                           - Rs. 165 (US$ 2.75)                                    correct use of the
                                                           for 30 tablets.                                         product to treat
                                                           - Cost per Tablet - Rs.                                 contaminated
                                                           5.50 (US$ 0.09)                                         water
                                                          Cost per liter of
                                                          Treated Water
                                                          - Rs. 0.33 (US$ 0.01)

6.   Dettol Water            Manufacturer-   Waiting      Rs. 50 (US$ 0.83) for       Test marketed in one         Taken off market      Rec
     Purification Tablets    Medentech       time for     box of 20 tablets (33       urban area. No full-scale    due to problem        willi
                             Marketing -     drink-safe   mg tablet with 20 mg        product launch               with aftertaste       rela
     (Sodium                 Reckitt &       water is     available chlorine)         undertaken.                                        can
     dichloroisocyanurate)   Benkiser        30                                                                                          res
                                             minutes.                                                                                    ma
                                             Treats 5
7.  Pur Purifier of Water P&G Global    4 gm              Rs.5 per sachet (US$        Commercial, school, and      P&G conducted 5       - Re
    Sachets               PSI/Greenstar sachet for        0.08)                       community level activities   Studies, including    inac
    Calcium hypochlorite, Pakistan.     10 liters of                                  in 8 urban cities by         one done in low-      bac
    iron sulfate removes                water             60 paisa/liter (US$         social marketing co-         income area in        hea
    arsenic coagulation/                                  0.01)                       partners PSI/Greenstar       Karachi that          pes
    flocculation.                                                                                                  showed high           - Pr
                                                                                                                   acceptability.        pro
                                                                                                                   However, demos        - Ac
                                                                                                                   done for women in     use
                                                                                                                   households and        imp
                                                                                                                   school activity by    wat
                                                                                                                   GreenStar focus       - Tr

                                                                         SUMMARY OF POU TECHNOLOGIES

         POU Safe Water              Potential      Flow Rate        Price & Cost/Liter           Commercial Status             Lab Test &
          Technology                 Partner(s)                                                                                Acceptability
                                                                                                                             mainly on urban       sur
                                                                                                                             areas.                ars
                                                                                                                                                   - Ea
8.  Spinzer Colloidal        SSD & possibly         7 liter pot    - Initial cost - Rs 1, 800   R&D stage but can be         Some lab test         Sho
    Silver (CS) Filter       Dawood                 in 19-liter    (US$ 30.00)                  ready-to-market after        reports available     a su
    Colloidal silver -coated Industries,            bucket                                      technical improvements       but no                low
    clay pot in PVC bucket Peshawar.                filters at 2   - 20 paisa/liter (US$                                     acceptability study   tech
                                                    liters per     0.003) with claimed life                                  yet done. Product
                                                    hour.          of 2years at 12                                           still in
                                                                   liters/day for family of 6                                development
                                                                                                                             stage and needs

9.    Arsenic Filter               Funded           10 liter       Rs.1,500 (US$ 25.00)         Limited quantity supplied    No study available    - Ea
      Clay pitcher                 By UNICEF,       capacity                                    to UNICEF.                   from UNICEF or        - Lo
      with arsenic removal         developed        2 liters per   18 paisa/liter (US$                                       PCRWR on the          me
      media on top of              by NWQL,         hour flow      0.003) based on 2-                                        acceptability and
      storage vessel.              PCRWR            rate           year life at 12 liters use                                performance of
                                                                   per day for family of 6                                   Arsenic filter in
                                                                                                                             areas such as
10.   Mussaffa Water               PCSIR/           1 kg           Rs. 250 (US$ 4.17)           Production supplied on       Aga Khan Health       Eas
      Disinfectant                 US Health Care   filters        per kg                       order from donors,           Services study        Effe
      .01% Oligodynamic            Karachi, Sindh   2,000                                       NGOs, government and         done for the Aga      Cos
      Silver ions in sterilized                     liters of      12.5 paisa/liter (US$        private sector               Housing Board in      eco
      sand                                          water or       0.002) based on                                           Northern Areas
                                                    effective      effective life of 2000                                    but no                Eas
                                                    life 4         liters.                                                   acceptability study
                                                    months for                                                               done.
                                                    a family of
                                                    6-7 using

11.   Toyoko Portable Jug          Importer –       0.3 liters     Rs. 425 (US$ 7.08)           Distribution network is in   Lab tests done by     - Co
      and Water Filters            RN Traders       per minute                                  early stage.                 HRDS found            bot
      30% Resin and 70%                                                                                                      improvement in        trav
      first grade active                                                                                                     taste only. No        - Re
      carbon filter                                                                                                          bacteriological       - Pu
                                                                                                                             tests done.           pro

12.   Mabzi UV-820                 Manufacturer –   Water is       For 2-stage filter Rs        Commercially available.      N.A.                  - No
      Purification System          Mazbi            treated on     4,000 ($60)                                                                     nee
      3-stage process                               line at full   For 3-stage filter                                                              - Ea
      containing sediment                           flow rates      Rs.7,000 (US $ 117)                                                            - Lo
      filter, carbon filter, and                                   For 4-stage gravity                                                             ma
      UV sterilizer.                                               flow filter unit
                                                                   ($167-200) depending
                                                                   on UV lamp life,

                                                                     SUMMARY OF POU TECHNOLOGIES

         POU Safe Water            Potential       Flow Rate      Price & Cost/Liter       Commercial Status            Lab Test &
          Technology               Partner(s)                                                                          Acceptability
                                                                ranging from 5,000 to
                                                                10,000 hours.
13.   So-Safe Water U.V.         S-Safe Products   Average      Rs 4,000 for 2-stage     - Commercially available.   N.A.              - Ef
      Triple Water                                 1 gallon/    filter (US$ 66),                                                       elim
      Purification System                          minute       Rs.7000 for 3- stage     - Product line includes                       mic
      Stage 1 Filter - Poly                                     filter ($117) and 4-     Water Filters, Sediment                       pat
      Propylene Yarn In-                                        stage for Rs. 10,000-    Removal Cartridges,                           - Ea
      depth Sediment Filter                                     12,000 ($167-$200        Granular Activated                            - Li
      Cartridge with outside                                    per unit.                Carbon Cartridges, Taste                      tast
      core 5-micron and                                                                  / Odor / Chemical
      inside core 1 micron.                                     Rs.200 (US$ 3.33) for    Processing Specialty
      Stage 2 Filter - KDF                                      replacement stage 1      Cartridges, UV
      and SGAC. Stage 3                                         filter (every 3 mos.)    Sterilizers, Reverse
      UV cartridge                                                                       Osmosis Plants,
      scrambles the DNA                                         Rs.2,000 (US$ 33.33)     Wastewater Treatment
      structure of pathogenic                                   for replacement stage    Plants and related spare
      micro-organisms                                           2 cartridge.             parts

                                                                Rs.2,000-3,500 (US$
                                                                33.33-$58.33) for
                                                                replacement stage 3
                                                                UV cartridge (every 2
14.   UniSafe Triple Water       Universal         Average 1    Rs. 6,500 (US$           - Commercially available.   N.A.              - Ef
      Purification System        Technologies,     gallon per   108.33) for regular                                                    elim
      Stage 1 filter -           Inc., Lahore      minute                                                                              mic
      polyester in-depth                                        Rs. 8,500 (US$                                                         pat
      sediment filter; Stage 2                                  141.67) for Gold Model                                                 - Ea
      filter - Granular                                                                                                                - Li
      Activated Carbon Filter                                                                                                          tast
      (GAC); Stage 3 UV
      system - regular lamp
      with output of 30,000
      microwatt-seconds per
      square centimeters
      (MW sec./cm2) energy
      and Gold lamp with
      output of 50,000 MW


To address the problem of the lack of safe drinking water for Pakistan‘s low-income populations, the
USAID Pakistan Safe Drinking Water & Hygiene Promotion Project undertook an investigation and
evaluation of point-of-use water filtration technologies that could potentially be made available to these
populations via the private sector.

The review focused on five categories of technologies that are appropriate for household use: (1) physical
filtration, (2) solar radiation, (3) chlorination, (4) flocculation/disinfection, and (5) combinations of these
technologies. To gather information on the range of products available in-country with respect to each of
these categories, project staff conducted key informant interviews with officials in the public, private and
NGO sectors, and reviewed relevant publications and research reports.

Within the above five categories, the project identified 14 POU technologies, with a focus on the type of
technology; method of operation and water flow rate; the status of and potential partnerships with private
sector manufacturing, distribution and/or marketing activities; and the cost of each product, including
maintenance costs. The 14 technologies were further assessed to determine their commercial status,
laboratory test and acceptability status, and the advantages and disadvantages of each product.

The project‘s next step will be to select one or two of the 14 identified technologies for possible
collaborative implementation..


  1.    Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS), 2001-2002
  2.    USAID PSDW-HPP Project Brief.
  3.    Environment Health Project (EHP), Strategic Report 10, Bureau of Global Health.
  4.    WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation, Global Water Supply
        & Sanitation Assessment, 2000, Report.
  5.    Agha Khan Development Network (AKDN) Study- Water & Sanitation Program.
  6.    UNICEF (2002).
  7.    Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) (PS-1932-2002, Second Revision)_
  8.    Technical Brief –Nadi Filter- Association for Humanitarian Development (AHD), April 27, 2007.
  9.    PSDW-HPP Implementation Plan for Year 1 (2007-08).
  10.   Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PLSM) Survey, 2004-05, Government of
        Pakistan, Federal Bureau of Statistics, June 2005.
  11.   Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), Ministry of Science & Technology,
        Government of Pakistan Islamabad- Report on Water Quality Status, May 2005.
  12.   USAID PSDW-HPP, Revised Technical Proposal.
  13.   Websites: WHO, UNICEF, IRC, (PSDW-HPP).
  14.   The News International, Pakistan‘s Leading English Language Newspaper, December 15, 2005.
  15.   Pakistan Economic Survey, 2005-2006.
  16.   Efficiency Report on Filter Jug Toyoko- The Water Clinic- Human Resource Development
        Society (HRDS). HRDS also runs modernized microbiological and chemical testing laboratory.
  17.   Environmental health project (EHP) Strategic Report 10, Advancing Hygiene Improvement for
        Diarrhea Prevention: Lessons Learned, October 2004.
  18.   EHP Joint Publication 8, The Hygiene Improvement framework- A comprehensive Approach for
        Preventing Childhood Diarrhoea, May 2004.
  19.   Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST), Calgary, Alberta.
  20.   AGS Pharmaceutical Industries, Peshawar, Manufacturers of AquaPura Tablets.
  21.   Medentech, Ireland, Manufacturers of Aquatabs.
  22.   Proctor & Gamble (P&G) Pakistan, Manufacturers of Pure Sachets.
  23.   PSI/GreenStar Social Marketing Organization.
  24.   So-Safe Water Technologies, Manufacturers of So-Safe Gravity Flow Filters, Karachi.
  25.   Mabzi, Manufacturers of Mabzi Brand Gravity Flow Filters, Karachi.
  26.   Reckitt & Benckiser Company, marketers of Dettol Tablets.
  27.   UniLever Pakistan, Manufacturers of Pureit Table Top Filters.
  28.   Board of Investment (BOI), government of Pakistan, Karachi.
  29.   Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
  30.   US Health Care, Manufacturers of Musaffa silver-coated sand Decontamination Bags, Karachi.
  31.   Agha Khan Development Network (AKDN), Health Study of Musaffa for AK Housing Board.
  32.   Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR), Islamabad.
  33.   Informational Interviews, Meetings and Correspondence with Greg Allgood, Keith Zook, Victor
        Lara of P&G and PSI/GreenStar, Mr. Zafar of Zita International (Distributors of Aquatabs), Mr
        Abdul Ghafoor of AquaPura, Mr Ali Mansoor Zaidi of Mabzi, Ms. Naila Ismail of Unilever
        Pakistan, Mr. Asad Siddiqui of Reckitt Benckiser, Mr. Adeeb Zaki of GreenStar Social
        Marketing, Mr. Ronald Inayat and Ms. Mubashira Khalid of Proctor and Gamble Pakistan, Mr.
        Saqib Hafeez of the Board of Investment (BOI), Mr. Muhammad Saeed, chief Population Census
        and Mr. Karamat, Chief of Planning & Development, Local Government and Community
        Development, Government of the Punjab.

                                  APPENDIX A
Addresses and Contact Information for POU Water Purification and Filtration Technologies

 1. Aquatabs: Manufacturers: Medentech Ltd., Waxford , Ireland. Tel: +353- 5360040; Fax: + 353-41271.
    Contact Persons: Paul Edmonson, Technical Director, Michael Gately, Marketing and Sales Manager.

 2. Aquatabs: Sole Distributor for Pakistan : Zita International, 205 Firdousi Road, Rawalpindi Cantonment:
    Tel: 92-51-5564044, 92-51-4317146, Sales: 0300-5065711

 3. AquaPura Tablets: Manufacturers: AGS Pharma and Chemical Industries (Pvt.) Ltd., 58-A, Industrial
    Estate,   Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan. Tel: 0092-91-279835, Fax: 0092-91-275723. e-mail:

 4. So-Safe Water Technologies: So-Safe House, C-47, 11th Commercial Street, Phase-2 Extension, DHA
    Karachi. UAN: 111-111-600. Tel: 092-21-5384420-22, 092-21-5899295-98. Fax: 92-21-5892455, Email: Website:

 5. Colloidal Silver Filter: NWFP University of Engineering & Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan. Contact
    Person: Dr. M.A.Q. Jahangir Durrani, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering. Office Telephones:
    092-91-9216941. 092-21-9216796. Email:
    Dr. Durrani‘s team develop the first prototype of Colloidal Silver Filter for UNICEF-funded R&D.
    Current Developer and Designer for Commercial Launch: Society for Sustainable Development (SSD)

 6. PuR “Purifier of Water” Sachets: The Proctor & Gamble Company, 2-P & G Plaza, TN2-240,
    Cincinnati: OH 45202. Greg Allgood, Program Director, Tel: 513-884-0958, Mob: 513-983-1223. Keith
    M. Zook, Group Manager, Children‘s Safe Drinking Water: Global Sustainability, Tel: (513)-983-9390,
    Fax: (513)-945, 3860. Mobile: (513)-602-7689. Email:

 7. PuR Pakistan Distributor: PSI/GreenStar Social Marketing Pakistan (Guarantee) Limited, Head office,
    21-C, Zamazama Commercial Lane, No.5, Phase V, D.H.A. Karachi-75600.. Tel 92-21-5838841,
    5376081-85. Website: Email: Toll free: 0800-111-71.
    Islamabad Regional Office: No.1-A, Street 8, Sector F-8/3, Islamaabd. Tel: 92-51-2280713, 2280651.
    Contact Person: Victor Lara.

 8. Home Solar Desalinator: Alternative Energy Development Board, 344-B, Prime Minister‘s Secretariat,
    Government of Pakistan. Tel: 092-51-9223427, 092-51-9008504, Fax: 092-519205790, Mobile: 0300-
    8564625. Email:

 9.   Musaffa Decontamination Bag: Patent Technology Owners: Pakistan Industrial and Scientific Research
      Laboratories Complex, off University Road, Karachi-75280. Tel: 092-21-475001-2, 092-21-479585-6,
      Director General: Tel; 091-21-476309. Manufacturers: US Health Care, 18, C.P. Berar Housing society,
      Block 7/8, Amir Khusro road, Karachi. Pakistan. Tel: 092-21-111-222-444, 092-21-4534356, Fax: 92-21-
      4536330. Contact Person: Musaffa Team Leader: Farhan Anis. Email:

 10. Nadi BioSand Filter: Association for Humanitarian Development (AHD), House No: 186/B, Block-C,
     Unit 2, Latifabad, Hyderabad, Sindh. Pakistan. Tel: 92-22-2933236, Fax: 92-22-8330582, Email: Website:

11. Arsenic Filter: Original model designed for UNICEF by Pakistan Council of Research in Water
    Resources (PCRWR), Ministry of Science & Technology, F6/2, Islamabad. Tel: 092--51-9218992, Fax:
    092-51-9218939. Email: Website:

12. Dettol Tablets: Marketing and Distribution company: Reckitt Benckiser (Pakistan) Limited, 12th floor,
    State Life Building No.11, Abdullah Haroon Road, Karachi-74400. Tel: 92-21-5687121, Fax: 92-21-

13. Biosand Filter: Canadian Centre for Affordable Water & Sanitation Technology (CAWST), No: 12-
    2916, 5th Avenue, NE, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. T2A, 6K4. Tel: `0403-243—3245. Fax: 1-403-243-6199
    Email:; Website:         Collaborating NGO (1) in Pakistan: KOSHISH
    Welfare Society, Khanan wali, Tehsil Pasroor, Sialkot. Tel: 92-52-6211103, Fax: 92-21-6211103, Mob:
    0301-6166424, Email: Collaborating NGO (2) The Network for Consumer
    Protection, 40-A, Ramzan Plaza, G-9 markaz, Islamabad. Pakistan. Tel: 092-51-2261085, Fax: 92-51-
    2262495. Website:

14. Toyoko Filter: Importers RN Traders, Silakot. Email:

                                             APPENDIX B
                               Musaffa Water Decontamination Bag

Introduction. The Musaffa Water Decontamination bag was originally developed by the Pakistan
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Laboratories, Government of Pakistan. As one of
the largest government-owned laboratories for scientific and industrial research in Pakistan, PCSIR
focuses on developing and commercializing technologies through the private sector. Since the 1960s,
PCSIR‘s Karachi Complex has worked to improve the quality of drinking water. In response to the UN‘s
designation of 1980-1990 as the International Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, PCSIR undertook a
project to develop inexpensive technologies for drinking water in rural areas. This project involved:

       Evaluating the quality of a large number of ground and surface water samples.
       Developing different technologies for treating potable water.
       Establishing sub-centers in Lahore, Islamabad and Peshawar for demonstration, testing,
        extension, and feedback on the performance of the technologies.

The Decontamination Bag was one of the technologies developed under the project. A safe, effective and
easy-to-use technology, the bag contained silver-coated, sterilized fine sand particles that were considered
appropriate for rural areas. Since silver does not affect taste, odor or color of the treated water, the
decontamination bag was believed to be acceptable to potential consumers.

In 1988, PCSIR transferred its patented Decontamination Bag to US Health Care, a company established
by two Pakistani physicians. US Health Care branded the bag as ―Musaffa,‖ which in Urdu translates to
―the Purifier.‖ The company initially placed production orders with PCSIR to supply Musaffa to public
relief and donor organizations, but subsequently established its own manufacturing facility in Karachi and
began commercial production in 1992. US Health Care currently supplies the Musaffa Bag to government
agencies, NGOs and private sector organizations. The Bag is the first patented POU water treatment
technology in Pakistan.

How it Works. The Musaffa Water Decontamination Bag‘s mixture of silver-treated and untreated sand
works by the oligodynamic action of silver ions to decontaminate water without disturbing the original
contents of the water‘s desirable minerals. The bag is constructed of a material that does not degrade from
prolonged contact with water. When placed at the outlet of a ―matka‖ (ceramic pitcher), stored water
flows though the bag‘s contents. PCSIR claimed that the water flowing through the bag becomes safe for
drinking, thereby protecting consumers from diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, cholera, etc.
The bag has been tested against E.Coli, salmonella typhi, shigella dysenteriae, staphylococcus and
klebsiella pneumonia. The efficacy of debacterification is 95+3% +_ at a mean microbial load of 104 per
ml when water is passed through the bag at a flow rate of one liter per minute. According to PCSIR, a bag
of 1 kg is sufficient to debacterify more than 2500 liters of water. This ensures a 4-6 month supply of
germ-free drinking water for an average family of six persons. The bag is not effective against arsenic.

Introduction of Musaffa as a “Matka” POU Water Treatment Technology. PCSIR established a task
force to disseminate the Musaffa POU water treatment technology, establishing 13 sub-centers throughout
four Pakistani provinces. Matka technology was distributed in more than 80 villages and towns in Sindh,
NWFP and Balochistan. At the sub-centers, PCSIR sought the active collaboration of welfare
associations, councilors, and rural development agencies in conducting a POU technology demonstration
program. The communities in these provinces used a variety of sources to access drinking water,
including canals, wells, hand pumps, streams and ponds. The POU technology was disseminated by
PCSIR in collaboration with the Pakistan Council of Appropriate Technology and Social Welfare
Department. Feedback obtained from the Council revealed three distinct advantages of the technology:

    1. The decontamination bag provided a tap supply that is free from hand contamination.
    2. The bag kills bacteria that cause water-borne diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery.
    3. The bag provides filtered water that is safe for drinking.

Ceramic pitchers were commonly used in the rural areas of Pakistan to collect storage water. The sizes
and shapes of the pitchers varied from area to area. PCSIR attempted to introduce a pitcher fitted with a
tap for in conjunction with the dissemination of the Musaffa technology; however, while promoting
―matka‖ POU technology, it was observed that ceramic pitchers were gradually being replaced by plastic
and metallic water coolers due to change in lifestyles.

During 1982-87, PCSIR manufactured and distributed more than 12,000 bags (1 kg size). In 1988, the
laboratory produced 10,000 decontamination bags, 7,000 of which were supplied to the Scientific and
Technological Development Corporation of Pakistan (STEDEC) for marketing purposes. STEDEC is a
subsidiary of PCSIR.

E.Coli as the Test Organism for Evaluation of Musaffa. E. Coli was chosen for testing the disinfection
efficiency of the silver-coated sand mixture because most studies on the bacterial effectiveness of silver
had used it as the test organism.

Contaminated water from different sources (canals, wells, rivers, ponds) was placed in pitchers and
containers made of various materials: ceramic, plastic and galvanized steel. Bags were placed in the
containers near the container wall, close to the tap, in the center at the bottom, and above the tap.
Experiments carried out by PCSIR to evaluate the performance of the Musaffa bag demonstrated that the
particle/grain size of the medium (sand) played an important role in enhancing the bactericidal
effectiveness of the silver particles. Variables that significantly affected disinfection were the mesh size
of the sand and the ratio of the silver-coated sand to the non-coated sand particles in the sand mixture
through which contaminated water was passed. Of the various mesh sizes used, 3040 showed better

The appropriate particle size provides the surface area for the silver deposit to release sufficient silver
ions in the contaminated water to serve as a disinfectant. The impregnated silver slowly and gradually
decreases as the water passes through the bag, coming in contact with the silver-coated bag until the
concentration becomes too low to disinfect water.

Observations on Microbiological Testing of Musaffa by PCSIR. In addition to microbial testing,
chemical analysis of the treated and untreated samples was carried out. Following a comprehensive
evaluation of the decontamination bag, the following observations were made by P.C.S.I.R.

    1. If the bag is placed against the outlet/tap and the water is drained after 1-2 hours at a flow rate of
       250-500 ml per minute, the contaminated water having pH 6.5-8, TDS 250-2500, turbidity 5-10
       NTU, coliform MPN/dl 3-1100 reduce to 95 +_3% (coliforms become <3) and fecal coliform
       bacteria count MPN/dl 3-1100 reduces to zero.
    2. When a new bag is used, wetting of the sand mixture (by allowing about 10 liters of water to pass
       through it) is essential. The wetting ensures the release of a sufficient quantity of silver ions from
       the bag for disinfection.
    3. If the bag is placed at the bottom of the container and not against the tap, the water should be
       used after 4-6 hours after placing the bag in the container.
    4. If the bag is clipped/fixed to the outlet/tap (inside the container) in such a manner that the water
       must first pass through the bag before pouring from the tap, the flow rate will reduce but bacteria,

       coliform and fecal coliform will be removed within minutes (an Aga Khan Housing Board study
       found the efficiency time to disinfect was within five minutes).
    5. If the turbidity of contaminated water is less than 10 NTU, the bactericidal efficiency is not
       affected and there is no need to wash the bag for a month (also confirmed by the Aga Khan
       Housing Board study). The deposition of dirt and silt on the bag retards the release of silver ions,
       thereby affecting the efficiency.
    6. If the bag is properly placed, its performance against E.Coli and other bacteria such as
       salmonella, shigella, klebsiella, pseudomona improves significantly.

WHO Conference on Identifying POU Water Treatment Technologies. In October 1995, WHO
experts attending a conference in Egypt on ―Improving the Quality of Drinking Water at Home Level,‖
identified 17 POU technologies in nine countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region for improving the
quality of drinking water. Based on sufficient scientific data, Musaffa was among the four POU water
treatment technologies considered as the most appropriate, simple and effective method for point-of-use
drinking water disinfection. The WHO experts also proposed that controlled trials be conducted on
Musaffa in low-income urban and suburban communities.

The WHO‘s Diarrheal Disease Control Program (CDD) at regional and global levels has focused attention
on reducing mortality rates in infants and young children. One priority intervention is to improve the
quality of drinking water available at homes in low-income communities in rural, peri-urban and urban
areas. WHO was therefore interested in identifying indigenous, inexpensive, effective and acceptable
methods commonly practiced by community residents.

In 1994, Dr. M.H. Wahdan, WHO‘s Director of Disease Prevention and Control for the Eastern
Mediterranean Region) contacted US Health Care and PCSIR to learn more about the Musaffa POU water
treatment technology. In collaboration with Mr. Naeem Mahmood, Principal Scientific Officer of the
PCSIR Karachi Complex, and Dr. Arjumand Faisal, CDD Technical Officer, US Health Care and PCSIR
developed a protocol for a community trial of Musaffa in December 1995, along the lines recommended
by WHO.

US Health Care-Owners of the Musaffa Brand. US Health Care was established in 1988 by two local
physicians, Dr. Khurshid Nizam and Dr. Shamimur Rehman, who established Pakistan‘s first Yellow
Pages Business Directory, as well as an events marketing business (the EC Commerce Gateway) which
organized international events, conferences and exhibitions in key industrial sectors including health care.
Since the Musaffa Bag was transferred to the company, US Health Care has focused on manufacturing the
product for various government agencies and NGOs including the Government of Pakistan, UNICEF,
OXFAM, WHO, USAID (Flood Relief Project), PIA, Aga Khan Housing Board, Edhi Welfare Trust, The
Flood Relief Commissioner, Coast Guard, Army, Navy and Air Force. In addition, over a dozen private
sector firms have ordered the Bag.

US Health Care has not ventured into the consumer market for several reasons. First, the company lacked
consumer product marketing experience and an effective marketing strategy. Secondly, US Health Care
has narrowly focused on orders for Musaffa from government relief agencies and international donors.
Thirdly, the company has been unwilling to risk investing its financial resources on marketing Musaffa,
which would require development of a nationwide sales and distribution network and provision of
unsecured credit to distributors. However, US Health Care is currently marketing a range of gravity flow
filters to middle- and high-income households in Karachi, Pakistan‘s largest city. These 1-stage, 2-stage
and 3-stage filters also contain Musaffa technology in addition to their sediment-removing and carbon
filters. More than 10,000 consumers have purchased these products at prices that range from Rs. 2000-
3500, depending upon the type of filter.


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