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Pakistan Safe Drinking Water Hygiene Promotion Project Rice Germ Oil
USAID Pakistan Safe Drinking Water & Hygiene Promotion Project Technical and Marketing Review of POU Technologies Private Sector Activity: Situation Analysis and Preliminary Evaluation of Potential Partnerships with POU Water Filtration and Purification Technology Companies Muhammad Ali Aziz, Manager, Private Sector Activity January 2008 A. Purpose of the Review The purpose of this technical and marketing review is to focus on identifying multiple methods of Point- Of-Use (POU) water filtration technologies that can provide low-income populations in Pakistan with a range of options for water treatment. Presently, an estimated 250,000 deaths1 occur due to diarrheal infections, a majority of which are attributable to lack of safe drinking water. Access to improved water sources and appropriate POU water purification technologies are prerequisites to safe drinking water for peri-urban and rural communities. The USAID/Pakistan Safe Drinking Water and Hygiene Promotion Project aims to partner with a number of private sector companies to promote POU water treatment technologies that are effective, affordable, and available to potential low-income users. Private sector activities will focus on manufacturers or companies that are currently engaged in designing appropriate POU water filtration technologies or are looking towards commercial market development through effective implementation of marketing strategies. Potential private sector partners will be identified based on this review. B. Background Problem Statement. Access to safe drinking water is a critical health issue for Pakistan, and the country‘s projected population growth over the next 10 years (expected to increase from 150 to 221 million by 2025) will only exacerbate water demand, making access to safe water even more of a challenge. Current data from the Pakistan Planning Department indicates that only 65% of the population has access to improved drinking water, and rural coverage is significantly lower (55%) than urban coverage (80%). According to Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), ―Pakistan has essentially exhausted its available water resources and is on the verge of becoming a water-deficit country. The per capita water availability has dropped from 5,600 m3 to 1,000 m3.‖ The mortality rate for children under five in Pakistan is among the highest in the world, with 101 deaths per 1000 children.4 Water and sanitation-related diseases are responsible for 60% of the country‘s disease burden in children under five, and it is estimated that diarrheal disease kills more than 200,000 children under the age of five each year. The combination of unsafe water consumption and poor hygiene practices results in illnesses which not only contribute to high child mortality and morbidity, but which result in high health costs for treatment. According to UNICEF, 40% of hospital beds are occupied by patients with water borne diseases. Lowered educational achievement due to reduced school attendance by children, and a decrease in the number of working days on the part of adults are also factors related to access to and quality of the drinking water in 1 Pakistan. Unsafe drinking water has also been shown to lead to poverty through loss of economically productive time spent by women and girls to fetch ‗drinkable‘ water from long distances. An Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) study noted that up to 60% of the population may walk up to three kilometers several times each day in order to collect water from open channels, with women and children bearing the brunt of this responsibility. In addition to lack of access to safe drinking water, hygiene practices are also very poor. According to UNICEF (2002), only 54% of Pakistan‘s population has sustainable access to improved sanitation. Washing hands with soap after defecation is estimated to be 48% in urban areas and 25% in rural areas. A number of studies on Pakistan‘s water quality have been carried out over the past several years. Findings have included the presence of fecal coliform bacteria in main distribution lines due to contamination from surrounding leaking sewage pipelines; pollution of ground and surface water in urban and rural areas by sewage and industrial waste; high levels of arsenic, lead and chromium; and bacteriological and fecal contamination of collected water samples. In Pakistan, groundwater is being utilized through open wells, springs, tube wells, hand pumps and infiltration galleries. Groundwater studies carried out in various locations have revealed declining levels of water and lowering of water tables, brackish water that cannot be used for domestic purposes, poor soil health and decreased crop yield due to the pumping of sodic water. Water Quality Standards. The basic purpose of the guidelines or standards is to provide safe drinking water to all citizens. WHO has provided general guidelines for drinking water, which advisory in nature, and are based on scientific research and epidemiological findings. The PCRWR and Pakistan Standards Institution (PSI) have already drafted drinking water quality standards. However, the enforcement of these standards is still pending, despite the fact that water issues are of critical nature and need to be tackled on priority basis. Test parameters for E.Coli, Fecal Coliform, Arsenic, Calcium, Iron, Nitrates, Sodium, Totally Dissolved Solids (TDS) and other contaminants developed by the Pakistan Standards & Quality Control Authority (PSQCA), a government body to monitor water quality status, have no legal binding on the private industry and public sector. WHO Guidelines All water intended for drinking), as well as treated water entering the distribution system, must not have E. Coli or thermo tolerant coliform and total coliform bacteria detectable in any 100 ml sample. In case of large supplies, where sufficient samples are examined, E.Coli or thermo tolerant coliform bacteria must not be present in 95% of the samples taken throughout any 12-month period. Pakistan Safe Drinking Water and Hygiene Promotion Project. To achieve the Millennium Development Goal of ―reducing by 50%, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water‖ and thereby significantly reduce the incidence of mortality and morbidity caused by diarrhea and other life-threatening water-borne diseases, the Pakistan Safe Drinking Water and Hygiene Promotion Project (PSDW-HPP) is being carried out by Abt Associates and its consortia partners – the Academy for Educational Development (AED); The QED Group, LLC; Montgomery, Watson and Harza (MWH), and the Institute for Sustainable Communities (ISC). With the aim of improving the health and well-being of millions of Pakistanis without access to safe drinking water, PSDW-HPP is being implemented in partnership with the Government of Pakistan's (GOP) Ministry of Industries, Production & Special Initiatives. The project is providing technical 2 assistance and extensive capacity building in the areas of hygiene, sanitation promotion and community mobilization to complement the GOPs substantial investments in hardware for safe drinking water. PSDW-HPP is also tasked with using private sector partnerships to extend the availability of low-cost household water purification technologies. The geographic focus of the project is on 31 districts, including three agencies from Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and the earthquake affected areas of North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), FATA and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K)eight earthquake-affected areas. Over a three- year period (2007-2009), it is expected that the project will benefit 30 million people in the target areas. The project‘s major activities include: Providing support to Government agencies, NGO‘s and communities through capacity-building and training in operation and management of water treatment facilities; hygiene and sanitation practices and promotion; water quality testing; community mobilization; planning, cost recovery, and water resources management to ensure that investments in hardware and promotional activities will be sustainable in the long-term. Providing technical assistance on water source protection to prevent water contamination. Demonstrating ways in which social mobilization may lead to sustainability and better management of filtration plants by the communities. Assisting the Ministry of Industry in designing a comprehensive hygiene and sanitation promotion strategy for safe water management, hygienic behavior, and safe sanitation practices. The strategy will be implemented by NGOs through a grant program. Assisting local governments and communities in 31 districts to safely maintain and operate water treatment systems, as well as to promote good personal and household water hygiene to maximize health benefits. Two major accomplishments are envisioned by the end of the project: 1. Program sustainability will be achieved through the participation of both NGO and private sector partners. 2. Behavioral sustainability on the part of target groups will occur as a result of state-of-the-art tested behavior change approaches used in the implementation process, combined with innovation and creativity. Women are at the heart of water issues: it is they who are primarily responsible for collecting and managing water at the household level, and for caring for children and others affected by diarrhea. Efforts will be made to reach a maximum number of mothers and other important decision makers such as fathers at the household level to encourage the use POU technologies/products for treating unsafe water to make it safe for drinking, as well as to promote regular hand washing hygiene practices. C. Pakistan Investment Climate Pakistan is a country of 160 million people, the sixth largest population in the world. Its land area is 310,000 sq. kilometers. The average rainfall is less than 10 inches per year which makes water generally a scarce resource and drinking water an extremely scarce resource. 3 With the onset of economic liberalization, privatization, deregulation, tax and tariff restructuring, and major industrial policy changes to address investor concerns, the investment climate in Pakistan has become very positive and conducive to attracting investment. The government has taken major steps to accelerate programs to support existing and new investment. Major new business opportunities with strong potential for foreign investment have emerged in a host of sectors as a result of privatization and deregulation in the oil and gas, textiles, leather, garments, IT, chemical and engineering industries. New opportunities have also emerged in the areas of tourism, banking, financial services, fisheries, food processing and consumer goods. In 2006, direct and portfolio investment flows were estimated to achieve a record high of over $5 billion. Pakistan is well poised to become one of the fastest growing business frontiers in Asia. For investors seeking growth and profitability of their investments, Pakistan offers a number of important competitive advantages. In particular, it has a large domestic market of 160 million people. Both the GDP and per capita income have doubled over the past five years. The country also has a long-standing corporate culture with a booming stock market, and a fairly good legal system to protect intellectual property. With abundant land and natural resources and fertile agricultural land, Pakistan has year-round exportable food crops, including cotton, rice, sugarcane and wheat. Although 70% of the workforce is based in rural areas, Pakistan can boast of an educated, well-trained, hardworking labor force. With a reasonably well-developed physical and communication infrastructure, comprehensive road, rail and sea links (including the recently inaugurated Gwadar Seaport as a principal gateway to the Middle East, South Asia and Central Asian Republics), Pakistan offers a cost-effective hub for potential investors both at home and overseas. D. Point-of-Use Water Treatment Technology (POU) Evidence from randomized evaluations assessing the health impacts of various interventions to improve water quality at the point of use suggests that POU (water treatment and purification) technologies are a promising way to reduce diarrheal incidence.1 Randomized impact evaluations of point-of-use water treatment systems observe statistically significant reductions of 20-30% in diarrheal incidence at the household level.2 Drinking water treatment at Point-Of-Use is a public health, hygiene and water supply intervention designed to prevent diarrhea caused by water-borne pathogens. POU water treatment technologies focus primarily on disinfection using one or more of the following methods:3 1. Physical filtration: Ceramic-based water filters and Biosand filters are two examples of physical filtration. These filters are designed to remove E.Coli and fecal coliform bacteria, but do not remove high level of turbidity or chemical contaminants such as arsenic, lead, fluoride, iron, chromium etc. 2. Solar radiation: Examples of these technologies include SODIS and UV. These achieve disinfection only. 1 Semenza et.al., 1998; Quick et.al., 1999;Quick et.al., 2002; Sobsey, Handzel and Venezel 2003; Reller et.al., 2003; Clasen et.al., 2004. 2 Quick et.al.,1999; Reller et.al., 2003. 3 A. Peterson and M. Kremer, CID Working Paper No.140, March 2007, p. 10. 4 3. Silver treatment: These include the colliodal silver ceramic filter and Musaffa silver ionization through silver-impregnated sterilized and refined sand particles. They achieve disinfection by killing E.Coli and fecal coliform bacteria, but do not remove arsenic and chemical contaminants. 4. Chemical filtration: Chlorination through hypocholorous acid is an example of chemical filtration, which kills E.Coli and other bacteria but does not remove turbidity and hazardous chemicals. 5. Coagulation, Precipitation and Floccuation technologies: Examples include PuR, carbon filters, reverse osmosis (RO) and other absorption technologies. These kill E.coli and other harmful bacteria causing diarrhea, remove sediments and particles to improve taste, remove odor and, in the case of PuR, remove 99 % arsenic. Most of the gravity flow filters belong to this category. 6. Ozonation technology. Ozonation is a water treatment process that destroys bacteria and other microorganisms through the infusion of ozone- a gas produced by subjecting oxygen molecules to high electric voltage. Although highly effective, ozone does not remain in the water for very long; as a result, chlorination is required in the distribution system. 7. Combinations of the above POU water filtration and purification technologies. E. Research Methods To identify a range of appropriate POU water filtration technologies, project staff reviewed a variety of relevant publications and research reports, and conducted interviews with key informants in the public, private and NGO sectors in Pakistan. The following reports and publications provided information on the country situation with respect to water quality, demographics and other key issues: PCRWR report on Water Quality Status in Pakistan, 2001-2002, May 2005 (2003-2004 Report). Water Quality Monitoring in District Layyah (Punjab) 2006 – Human Resource Development Society (HRDS). Jamal‘s Yellow Pages- Pakistan. Central Census Organization, Government of Pakistan- District Population Census 1998. The News International, December 15, 2005. The Pakistan Economic Survey, Ministry of Economic Affairs, 2006. Face-to-face interviews, meetings and telephone discussions were held with representatives of the following agencies and organizations: Proctor & Gamble; PSI/Greenstar Social Marketing; US Health Care; PCSIR; Association for Humanitarian Development; Medentech Ireland; Zita International; AGS pharmaceutical Industries; Society for Sustainable Development (SSD); NWFP University of Engineering and Technology; Dawood Industries; Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (RCRWR), Ministry of Science & Technology; So-Safe Water Technologies; Lodhran Pilot Project (LPP) funded by the World Bank/JSDF; Mabzi International Filtration Technologies; Network for Consumer Protection; Drinking Water for Punjab Local Government Department; UNICEF; Alternate Energy Development Board, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Industries; Human Resource Development Society (HRDS) and Laboratories; and Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF). F. Water Filtration and Purification Technologies Available in Pakistan PHYSICAL FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES 1. BioSand Nadi Filter 5 Type: Physical Manufacturer/Distributor. Promoted by Association of Humanitarian Development (AHD) in Sindh. AHD has been working on the development and promotion of safe drinking water systems for rural communities of Pakistan since 2003. Over 820 Nadi filters have been installed in different areas of Sindh, where the most common problems are worms, gastro intestinal bacteria and fungi spread throughout the water supply. Bio-sand filters are an adaptation of slow sand filters developed in the West, and have been tested by various government, research, and health institutions across the world. Description. The Bio-Sand Nadi filter is an innovative and safe drinking filter water technique that is cheap, easy to use and primarily intended for household use. These filters are based on a simple concept: stable layers of sand can both remove sediments, as well as provide a surface for the growth of microbes that remove harmful bacteria from dirty water. The filters are constructed entirely with local materials, and require little technical expertise for use or maintenance. The Bio-Sand Nadi filter consists of a 32-34‖ ceramic pitcher with a smaller ceramic pitcher that sits on top of the filter. The Nadi filter is filled with sand and sieved through different sizes of mesh that separate large and small particles for use in the various layers inside the filter. AHD claims that Nadi filters remove more than 95% of fecal coliforms, 100% of protozoa and helminthes, 50-90% of organic and inorganic toxicants and almost all suspended particles. It does not remove arsenic, lead, and other contaminants. Flow Rate. 10 -12 liter capacity; 2 liter/hour flow rate. Maintenance. Since there is no synthetic filtration material, maintenance involves removing the sand and washing it periodically. Price. Rs. 800 (US$ 13.33), two-year life. 9 paisa/liter (US$ 0.002), based on two years/12 liters per day. 2. CAWST Bio-Sand Filter Type: Physical Manufacturer/Distributor. The Center for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST) in Calgary, Alberta, Canada works in collaboration with the Koshish NGO located in District Sialkot and with The Consumer Network based in Islamabad. They selected the Vehari District in South Punjab to conduct a trial of Bio-Sand Description. The Bio-Sand Filter creates a biological layer on top of the sand layer that kills bacteria. Viruses are also eliminated through the absorption process. The filter also removes metals such as zinc, copper, manganese and, to some extent, arsenic. The drawback of the filter is that the cost is higher than the affordable range. It is 6 also too heavy to be transported from place to place. A prototype of the Bio-Sand Filter can be seen at the offices of ―The Network‖ – a consumer protection organization based in Islamabad. Flow Rate. 2 liters per hour. Price. Rs.1,500 – Rs.2,000 (US$ 25.00 – $ 33.33) 7 SOLAR RADIATION TECHNOLOGIES 3. Solar Desalinator (Mith-Khara) Type: Solar Disinfection and Salt Filtration Technology Manufacturer/Distributor. The solar desalinator was designed by the Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB), Ministry of Industries Government of Pakistan. Description. The Solar Desalinator utilizes solar energy for producing desalinated drinking water from saltish/brackish water or sea water independently in each home. It is a portable, easy to carry, low-cost, easy to install and maintain independent solar home desalinator that can be installed and used instantaneously. It is designed for 20 years of life with no component of corrosive material. A black flat surface of long-life, non-corrosive material is used as a base material. The surface is enclosed by clear window glass that allows solar radiation to fall over the black surface and heat it up to stagnation temperature of more than 100 C. The glass cover also serves to reduce heat loss from the surface to the outside air. A small quantity of water flows over the surface and is heated to evaporation temperatures in the airtight enclosure. As the vapors rise, they strike the cooler glass surface and are condensed on the inner side of the cover glass. When enough vapors are condensed, they trickle down into a clean water collection channel attached at the lower end of the glass. The desalinator can have its own support structure or be placed on pre-fabricated flat surface to reduce the cost. This Desalinator can produce up to 5-10 liters/day clean drinking water in summer and around 2-5 liters/day during winter. Flow Rate. 5-10 liters/ day depending on size of base surface area and whether solar units are single/multiple. Maintenance. The black surface of the desalinator must be cleaned frequently to remove any salt deposit by opening the seal. After cleaning the glass is sealed again with the help of silicon sealant. Price. Prototype cost is Rs.3,000 (US$ 50.00); per liter cost is 8 paisas (US$ 0.0013). CHLORINATION TECHNOLOGIES 4. Aquatabs: Effervescent Water Purification Tablets Type: Chemical Manufacturer/Distributor. Aquatabs (sodium dichlorisocyanurate) chlorinated water purification tablets are manufactured by Medentech, Ireland, which also own the registered trademark. They are being imported and marketed in Pakistan through Zita International. However, the sales force and 8 distribution network is limited to urban Rawalpindi, Islamabad and some parts of Punjab and NWFP. There is little sales promotion activity. Description. Aquatabs are available in packs of 20 tablets. Each 33 mg. tablet is used to purify 10 liters of water. The dosage is 2 PPM (Parts Per Million) or 2 mg per liter. The residual concentration of free chlorine (hypochlorous acid) after 30 minutes of contact time as recommended by the WHO maximum guideline value is 5 mg per liter. Aquatabs claims the residual chlorine to be equal to or less than 0.5 mg per liter. The product is available at pharmacies only, although it is not registered as a proprietary drug with the Ministry of Health and is imported as a food item with a 66% import duty and a 15% sales tax. A variant of Aquatabs, marketed as AquaSept, is also sold through wholesalers to poultry farmers for disinfecting drinking water for poultry birds. Flow Rate: 1 tablet treats 5 liters of water. Price. Rs. 50 (US$ 0.83) The cost of each liter of treated water is 50 paisas (US$ 0.008). 5. Aquapura Type. Chemical Manufacturer/Distributor. AGS Pharma and Chemical Industries are local manufacturers of the Aquapura brand and are located in the industrial estate, Peshawar. Aquapura is a local brand registered with the MOH as a drug (medicine) After the earthquake disaster in October 2006, the Ministry of Environment purchased a large quantity of Aquapura (600,000) for the earthquake victims of Azad Kashmir. However, the company did not follow up to monitor user response about product efficacy, quality, and taste, or correct use of the product to treat contaminated water. The company has been in the market for over 10 years but has not yet developed a country-wide distribution network. Aquapura is available through pharmacies/chemists in Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Peshawar, but is not available in Sind and Baluchistan and large parts of the Punjab except Lahore. It is not actively promoted or advertised in the mass media. The company has a limited field force. Description. Two types of tablets are offered: (1) Aquapura 3x10 tablets containing Tricholroisocyanuric Acid 15 mg. - dosage is one tablet for 1.5 liters of tap water; and (2) Aquapura 3x10 Tablets Tricholoroisocyanuric Acid 100 mg (Active ingredient 10 ppm) – dosage is one tablet for 10 liters of drinking water. Aquapura destroys harmful water-borne micro-organisms but does not remove turbidity, arsenic and fluoride from untreated water. Offers solid protection against hepatitis, gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, and intestinal infections. Claims that drinking germ-free water gets rid of 90% of diseases and that clean water will provide protection against all types of viral, fungal, and bacterial diseases. Packing leaflet (insert) in English claims active ingredient 10 ppm and pH value of treated water 6.98-7.2. Flow Rate. In treating water with Aquapura, there is a minimum waiting time of 30 minutes for the bacteria to be eliminated before the water is safe for drinking. The volume of treated safe drinking water can be increased by: (a) using a higher-dosage tablet (for example, 100 mg. tablet for treating 10 liters of water, and (b) using the tablets for treating drinking water in safer household water storage containers. 9 Price. Aquapura 3x10 tablets containing Tricholroisocyanuric Acid 15 mg – Rs.49 (US$ 0.82) for 30 tablets. Cost per tablet liter - Rs. 1.63 (US$ 0.03) Cost Per Liter of Treated Water - Rs. 1.08 (US$ 0.03) Aquapura 3x10 Tablets Tricholoroisocyanuric Acid 100 mg (Active ingredient 10 ppm) - Rs. 165 (US$ 2.75) for 30 tablets. Cost per Tablet - Rs. 5.50 (US$ 0.09) Cost per Liter of Treated Water - Rs. 0.33 (US$ 0.01) 6. Dettol Water Purification Tablets Type: Chemical Manufacturer/Distributor. Dettol Tablets were manufactured by Medentech (manufacturers of Aquatabs) and the product was branded as ‗Dettol‖ by which wanted to market the tablets under their own brand name. Reckitt & Benckiser test-marketed Dettol in urban areas some time ago. However, a full scale product launch was not undertaken due to the antiseptic aftertaste problem that was revealed during taste trials. Without further improving the aftertaste, management took the product off the retail shelf and put it back in cold storage. The company still has stocks remaining from the initial market test and is willing to reconsider a re-launch if the product‘s potential can be tested and researched in rural markets. Description. Sodium dichlorisocyanuarate, 33 mg. per tablet for treating 5 liters of water. Flow Rate. Effervescent tablets are dissolved in water. The waiting time before water is safe for drinking is 30 minutes. Price. Rs. 50 (US$ 0.83) per box of 20 tablets. FLOCCULATION/DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES 7. PuR “Purifier of Water” Sachet Type: Chemical Manufacturer/Distributor. Proctor & Gamble and CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)/PSI/GreenStar Description. Pur (calcium hypchlorite) treats water through a combined process of disinfection with calcium hypochlorite and flocculation with iron sulfate. CDC laboratory and clinical studies in Guatemala, Kenya, Pakistan, and Bangladesh show that Pur is highly effective in treating surface water turbidity after five minutes of stirring, PuR settles all dirt particles, rendering muddy water crystal clear kills 8 log of bacteria, 4 log of virus, 3.3 log of parasitic microbes. PuR also is 99% effective against arsenic. It also effectively removes lead, but efficacy against fluoride is not yet clinically established. 10 Surveys conducted by PSI/GreenStar revealed that 60% of the population in the villages where PuR was promoted indicated acceptability of the results in terms of efficacy and economy. PuR has the added advantage of treating surface water as well as arsenic. The product is convenient to use and is easily transportable to remote rural areas. Flow Rate. 4 gm sachet for 10 liters of water. Price. Rs. 5 (US$ 0.08) per one 4 gm powder sachet. The cost comes to about 60 paisa (US$ 0.01) per 10 gallons, or approximately 6 (US$ 0.001) paisa per gallon (4 liters) which is highly economical compared to other water purification tablets available in the market. COMBINATION TECHNOLOGIES 8. Spinzer Colloidal Silver Filter Type: Combination: Physical Ceramic with Silver Treatment Manufacturer/Distributor: SSD; Dawood Industries, Peshawar. Description. The project is exploring the potential of developing a marketable Colloidal Silver (CS) filter in Pakistan by identifying prospective partners in the local ceramics industry. Technical advisory support from Nepalese experts in the field may be of assistance in designing and developing a CS filter locally, provided the parties commit to build a sustainable and scalable capacity for production and commercialization of CS filters Flow Rate. 7 liter pot in 19 liter bucket filters at 2 liters/hour. Price. Initial cost Rs 1,800 (US$ 30.00) 20 paisa/liter (US$ 0.003) with a claimed life of two years at 12liters/day for a family of 6. 9. Arsenic Filter Type: Combination: Physical with Arsenic Plus Bacteria Removal Media Manufacturer. The Arsenic Removing Filter was initially developed by the Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) with funds available from UNICEF. The ceramic-based Filter was then produced by PCRWR and distributed in southern areas of the Punjab (such as Rahim Yar Khan) where drinking water sources are arsenic-affected. Description. PCRWR attempted to commercialize the POU water filtration technology by designing PVC and a galvanized steel version of the Arsenic filter with a special Arsenic-Removal Pouch containing PCRWR‘s special recipe. However, due to the high cost of the prototype designs and lack of interest by both UNICEF and the PCRWR management, they failed to attract the private sector to develop partnerships. 11 Flow Rate. 10 liter capacity, 2 liters/hour flow rate Price. Rs.1,500 (US$ 25.00) 18 paisa/liter (US$ 0.003) Based on two-year life at 12 liter usage per day for a family of 6. 10. Musaffa –Water Decontamination Bag (see Appendix A for additional details) Type: Combination: Physical and Silver-Treatment in Sand Medium Manufacturer/Distributor. Musaffa was originally developed as a decontamination bag by the Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Laboratories, Government of Pakistan. The PCSIR Laboratories is one of the largest government-owned labs for scientific and industrial research in Pakistan, and typically develops and commercializes technologies through the private sector. Since the 1960s, PCSIR‘s Karachi Complex has been working on improving the quality of drinking water. In 1988, PCSIR transferred its patented POU water treatment technology (known as the ―the decontamination bag‖) to US Health Care, a company established by two local physicians. US Health Care then branded the decontamination bag as ―Musaffa‖ which in Urdu means ―the Purifier.‖ The company initially placed production orders with PCSIR to supply Musaffa to public relief and donor organizations, but subsequently established their own manufacturing facility in Karachi and currently supplies the product to government agencies, NGOs and private sector organizations. Description. Musaffa is a water decontamination bag that is effective, easy to use, and safe. The bag contains a mixture of silver-treated and untreated sand, and works by oligodynamic action of silver ions for decontamination of water without disturbing the original contents of desirable minerals in the water. The bag is made of a material that does not does not degrade with prolonged contact with water. When the decontamination bag is placed at the outlet of the ―matka‖ (ceramic pitcher), the stored water flows though the contents of the bag. PCSIR claimed that the water flowing through the bag becomes safe for drinking, rendering it free from diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, cholera etc. It has been tested against E.Coli, salmonella typhi, shigella dysenteriae, staphylococcus and klebsiella pneumonia. The efficacy of debacterification is 95+3% +_ at a mean microbial load of 104 per ml when water is passed through the bag at a flow rate of one liter per minute. According to PCSIR, a bag of 1 kg is sufficient to debacterify more than 2500 liters of water. This ensures a 4-6 months supply of germ-free drinking water for an average family of six persons. It is not effective against arsenic. Flow Rate. 1 kg filters 2000 liters of water or effective life of four months for a family of 6-7 using 12-16 liters. Price. Rs. 250 (US$ 4.17) per kg. 12.5 paisa/liter (US$ 0.002) Based on effective life of 2,000 liters. 12 11. TOYOKO Portable Jug and Water Filters Type. Combination: Physical and Adsorption (Carbon) Filtration Manufacturer. Toyoko Jugs are imported by RN Traders, Sialkot and distributed to various points in Sind and Punjab. Toyoko Jug is presently available in Karachi, Peshawar and Lahore through company distributors. The company is still in the early stages of developing a distribution network. Description. The 1.5 liter jug is a convenient travel companion but can also be suitable for home use as it tucks neatly into the refrigerator. The jug uses a 30% resin and 70% first grade active carbon filter featuring effective physical and chemical absorption ability, and disinfects and purifies the water. The importer claims that it detoxifies the water from hydroxybenzene, lead, arsenic, and eliminates lead and arsenic. The resin softens the water and can exchange some heavy metal ion in water such as magnesium, and calcium carbonate. The filtered water can then be stored in a food grade plastic bottle for later use and the jug can be refilled. Flow Rate. Filtering speed is 0.3 liter per minute, which means the jug will have purified drinking water within 3-5 minutes. Maintenance. The filter has a life of filtering 150 times x 1.5 liters or 225 liters (or about every two months). Price: Rs. 425 (US$ 7.08) at retail shops. The company is also marketing 3-stage (Rs.3,000/US$ 50.00) and 6-stage (Rs. 5,000/US$ 83.33) household filtration systems with KDF, DPF and silver-coated filters. 12. Mabzi UV-820 Purification System Type: Combination: Carbon Adsorption and Gravity Flow Filtration Technology Manufacturer. Mabzi is a leading manufacturer of water and waste water treatment systems with over 30 years of experience. Mabzi offers a combination of advanced water treatment systems featuring ultraviolet sterilization, activated carbon absorption and micro filtration. Its product range includes: electro dialyzer, desalination plants, ion exchanges, reverse osmosis, demineralizers, absorbers, ion- exchangers and water softeners. Mabzi also designs and manufacturers custom-made systems engineered for specific applications. Description. A practical, affordable home water treatment plant that treats water through a three-stage process containing a sediment filter, an activated carbon filter, and the UV-820 water sterilizer. Water passes through the sediment filter, which removes all undissolved particles. It then passes through the activated carbon filter which removes chlorine, ammonia, iron, unpleasant taste, odor, toxic chemicals, etc. The UV Sterilizer sterilizes and destroys bacteria, viruses and phenol. Flow Rate. Water is treated on line at full flow rates, thus no storage is needed. Maintenance. Mabzi claims that its home water treatment system is easy to install, and its initial and maintenance cost is low. 13 Price. For home-use Mabzi offers two-stage, three-stage (D.B.P.) and four-stage water sterilization systems. Prices of the two stage (Rs.4, 000) (US $ 60), three stage (Rs. 7,000) (US $117), and four stage water filtration and purification units are between Rs.10,000-12,000 (US $ 167-200). 13. So-Safe Water U.V. Triple Water Purification System – Model 9311G. Type: Combination: Carbon Absorption and UV Gravity Flow Filtration Technology Manufacturer. So Safe is a technology-driven manufacturing and distribution company in the field of water and waste water treatment systems. So-Safe is the registered trademark of the S- Safe Products Inc., USA. So-Safe is a member of the Water Quality Association, USA and is affiliated with Universal AquaTech, Marlo Inc., Ametek and several other international companies. So-Safe offers both packaged systems, a reverse osmosis system, and complete installation and operation. Description. The U.V. Triple Water Purification System is a top-of-the-line unit for domestic use. It offers extended features including longer cartridge life, protection against heavy metals and enhanced ultraviolet efficacy. The Stage 1 Filter is a Poly Propylene Yarn In-depth Sediment Filter Cartridge with outside core 5-micron and inside core 1 micron that removes dust, rust, silt, scale and suspended particles. The Stage 2 Filter removes organic and inorganic (heavy metals) pollutants in water. It uses two types of media: KDF (Redox alloy medium) removes heavy metals from water by exchanging electrons by redox (oxidation/ reduction) reaction. It also absorbs up to 95% of free chlorine from water, enhancing efficiency of Silver Impregnated SGAC in the cartridge. SGAC removes unpleasant taste, odor from contaminated water and inhibits the growth of bacteria within filter beds and prolongs the useful life of cartridges. In case of arsenic, the filter used is Granular Charged Ferrous Oxide. The Stage 3 Ultraviolet cartridge is used for sterilization by scrambling the DNA-structure of pathogenic micro-organisms which renders them sterile. Flow Rate. 1 gallon per minute Maintenance: The Stage 1 Filter requires replacement after 3 months. Cost: Rs.200 (US$ 3.33) Stage 2 KDF/SGAC cartridge replacement costs: Cost: Rs.2,000 (US$ 33.33) Stage 3 Ultraviolet cartridge. The UV lamp life is 10,000 hours (approximately 2 years). Replacement cost: varies from Rs.2,000-3,500 (US$ 33.33 – $58.33) depending on the model. Price. Rs. 9,000 (US$ 150.00) 14 14. UniSafe Triple Water Purification System Type: Combination Manufacturer. UniSafe filters are being marketed in Pakistan by Universal Technologies, Inc., Imtiaz Center, Main Market Gulberg, Lahore. Description. The company sells 3-stage filters. The first stage filter is polyester in-depth sediment filter useful for removal of dust, rust, silt, scale, and unseen suspended particles. The Stage 2 filter is a Granular Activated Carbon Filter (GAC) equipped with post-filter of 1 micron and the bed of GAC removes up to 99% of EDB, TCE, PCE, THMs and all other organic chemicals, chlorine, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, and unpleasant odor from drinking and cooking water. The Stage 3 Ultraviolet system provides a regular lamp with an output of 30,000 microwatt-seconds per square centimeters (MW sec./cm2) energy and Gold lamp with an output of 50,000 MW sec/cm2. The UV lamps guarantee 100% sterilization and ensure effective control of microbial contamination. Sterilization is achieved by scrambling DNA structures of microorganisms on exposure to ultraviolet light. Flow Rate. Depending on the purification cartridge size (0.5 to 100 micron) and filtration cartridge (10 to 40 inch size), the average flow rate is 1 gallon per minute. Maintenance. The UV lamp has a life of 10,000 hours or approximately two years. Price. Rs. 6,500 (US$ 108.33) for Regular and Rs.8,500 (US$ 141.67) for Gold Models. 15 SUMMARY OF POU TECHNOLOGIES POU Safe Water Potential Flow Rate Price & Cost/Liter Commercial Status Lab Test & Technology Partner(s) Acceptability Status PHYSICAL FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIEIS 1. Nadi Filter Association for 10 -12 Rs. 800 (US$ 13.33) - Donor money for No reliable quality - In Biosand clay-pitcher Humanitarian liters, 2 2 year life assembly of filter. test report or - Ea on top of storage Development liters/hour - Over 820 filters have acceptability study - Co vessel (AHD) flow rate 9 paisa/liter (US$ been installed in Sindh. available from loca 0.002) based on 2 independent - Si years/12 liters/day source ma 2. Bio-Sand Filter - Center for 2 liters/ Rs.1,500 – Rs.2,000 Widely used in - Tested in both - Ki Filter creates a Affordable hour (US$ 25.00 - $ 33.33) development settings in laboratory and in viru biological layer on top Water and various countries field. rem of a sand layer. Sanitation - Trial was me Technology conducted in - Ac (CAWST) - Vehari District in use - Koshish NGO S. Punjab. - On - The Consumer inst Network - Lo - Lo SOLAR RADIATION TECHNOLOGIES 3. Mith-Khara Alternate 5-10 liters/ Prototype cost Prototype cost can be Pilot study done - 20 Solar Energy day Rs.3000 (US$ 50.00); reduced if produced to by AEDB in Sindhi - Po Desalinator Development depending per liter cost 8 paisas scale and /or re-designed villages among car Treats brackish water Board (AEDB) on size of (US$ 0.001). to cut material cost. the community - Ea by evaporation and MOI base households but as - No condensation of surface yet no ma vapors on the glass area and acceptability study panels. whether done. solar units are single/ multiple. CHLORINATION TECHNOLOGIES 4. Aquatabs Manufacturer- 1 tablet Rs.2.50 (US$0.04)/ tab Weak marketing and Some lab tests If su Sodium Medentech (33 mg 50 paisa (US$ distribution done but no ma Dichlroisocyanurate Distributor - Zita tablet) 0.008)/liter acceptability is w International with 20 study. pro mg pro available dist chlorine dist treats 5 pro liters of liter water 16 SUMMARY OF POU TECHNOLOGIES POU Safe Water Potential Flow Rate Price & Cost/Liter Commercial Status Lab Test & Technology Partner(s) Acceptability Status 5. Aquapura AGS Pharma Minimum 3x10 tablets - Registered with the Following the - Pr Tablets containing and Chemical waiting containing MOH as a drug. earthquake in hep Tricholroisocyanuric Industries time for Tricholroisocyanuric - Available through 2006, the Ministry gas Acid destroys harmful safe Acid 15 mg pharmacies/chemists in of Environment typh water-borne micro- drinking – Rs.49 (US$ 0.82) Lahore, Rawalpindi, purchased a large dys organisms. water is for 30 tablets. Islamabad, Peshawar. quantity (600,000) and 30 - Cost per tablet liter - - Not available in Sind, for victims of Azad infe minutes Rs. 1.63 (US$ 0.03) Baluchistan & large parts Kashmir. - Co - Cost per liter of of the Punjab except However, the ma Treated Water - Rs. Lahore. company did not ava 1.08 (US$ 0.02) follow up to stor monitor user 3x10 Tablets response about Tricholoroisocyanuric product efficacy, Acid 100 mg quality, taste, or - Rs. 165 (US$ 2.75) correct use of the for 30 tablets. product to treat - Cost per Tablet - Rs. contaminated 5.50 (US$ 0.09) water Cost per liter of Treated Water - Rs. 0.33 (US$ 0.01) 6. Dettol Water Manufacturer- Waiting Rs. 50 (US$ 0.83) for Test marketed in one Taken off market Rec Purification Tablets Medentech time for box of 20 tablets (33 urban area. No full-scale due to problem willi Marketing - drink-safe mg tablet with 20 mg product launch with aftertaste rela (Sodium Reckitt & water is available chlorine) undertaken. can dichloroisocyanurate) Benkiser 30 res minutes. ma Treats 5 liters water FLOCCULATION/DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES 7. Pur Purifier of Water P&G Global 4 gm Rs.5 per sachet (US$ Commercial, school, and P&G conducted 5 - Re Sachets PSI/Greenstar sachet for 0.08) community level activities Studies, including inac Calcium hypochlorite, Pakistan. 10 liters of in 8 urban cities by one done in low- bac iron sulfate removes water 60 paisa/liter (US$ social marketing co- income area in hea arsenic coagulation/ 0.01) partners PSI/Greenstar Karachi that pes flocculation. showed high - Pr acceptability. pro However, demos - Ac done for women in use households and imp school activity by wat GreenStar focus - Tr 17 SUMMARY OF POU TECHNOLOGIES POU Safe Water Potential Flow Rate Price & Cost/Liter Commercial Status Lab Test & Technology Partner(s) Acceptability Status mainly on urban sur areas. ars - Ea tran rem COMBINATION TECHNOLOGIES 8. Spinzer Colloidal SSD & possibly 7 liter pot - Initial cost - Rs 1, 800 R&D stage but can be Some lab test Sho Silver (CS) Filter Dawood in 19-liter (US$ 30.00) ready-to-market after reports available a su Colloidal silver -coated Industries, bucket technical improvements but no low clay pot in PVC bucket Peshawar. filters at 2 - 20 paisa/liter (US$ acceptability study tech liters per 0.003) with claimed life yet done. Product hour. of 2years at 12 still in liters/day for family of 6 development stage and needs technical improvements. 9. Arsenic Filter Funded 10 liter Rs.1,500 (US$ 25.00) Limited quantity supplied No study available - Ea Clay pitcher By UNICEF, capacity to UNICEF. from UNICEF or - Lo with arsenic removal developed 2 liters per 18 paisa/liter (US$ PCRWR on the me media on top of by NWQL, hour flow 0.003) based on 2- acceptability and storage vessel. PCRWR rate year life at 12 liters use performance of per day for family of 6 Arsenic filter in Arsenic-specific areas such as RYK 10. Mussaffa Water PCSIR/ 1 kg Rs. 250 (US$ 4.17) Production supplied on Aga Khan Health Eas Disinfectant US Health Care filters per kg order from donors, Services study Effe .01% Oligodynamic Karachi, Sindh 2,000 NGOs, government and done for the Aga Cos Silver ions in sterilized liters of 12.5 paisa/liter (US$ private sector Housing Board in eco sand water or 0.002) based on Northern Areas effective effective life of 2000 but no Eas life 4 liters. acceptability study months for done. a family of 6-7 using 12-16 liters 11. Toyoko Portable Jug Importer – 0.3 liters Rs. 425 (US$ 7.08) Distribution network is in Lab tests done by - Co and Water Filters RN Traders per minute early stage. HRDS found bot 30% Resin and 70% improvement in trav first grade active taste only. No - Re carbon filter bacteriological - Pu tests done. pro min 12. Mabzi UV-820 Manufacturer – Water is For 2-stage filter Rs Commercially available. N.A. - No Purification System Mazbi treated on 4,000 ($60) nee 3-stage process line at full For 3-stage filter - Ea containing sediment flow rates Rs.7,000 (US $ 117) - Lo filter, carbon filter, and For 4-stage gravity ma UV sterilizer. flow filter unit Rs.10,000-12,000 ($167-200) depending on UV lamp life, 18 SUMMARY OF POU TECHNOLOGIES POU Safe Water Potential Flow Rate Price & Cost/Liter Commercial Status Lab Test & Technology Partner(s) Acceptability Status ranging from 5,000 to 10,000 hours. 13. So-Safe Water U.V. S-Safe Products Average Rs 4,000 for 2-stage - Commercially available. N.A. - Ef Triple Water 1 gallon/ filter (US$ 66), elim Purification System minute Rs.7000 for 3- stage - Product line includes mic Stage 1 Filter - Poly filter ($117) and 4- Water Filters, Sediment pat Propylene Yarn In- stage for Rs. 10,000- Removal Cartridges, - Ea depth Sediment Filter 12,000 ($167-$200 Granular Activated - Li Cartridge with outside per unit. Carbon Cartridges, Taste tast core 5-micron and / Odor / Chemical inside core 1 micron. Rs.200 (US$ 3.33) for Processing Specialty Stage 2 Filter - KDF replacement stage 1 Cartridges, UV and SGAC. Stage 3 filter (every 3 mos.) Sterilizers, Reverse UV cartridge Osmosis Plants, scrambles the DNA Rs.2,000 (US$ 33.33) Wastewater Treatment structure of pathogenic for replacement stage Plants and related spare micro-organisms 2 cartridge. parts Rs.2,000-3,500 (US$ 33.33-$58.33) for replacement stage 3 UV cartridge (every 2 years). 14. UniSafe Triple Water Universal Average 1 Rs. 6,500 (US$ - Commercially available. N.A. - Ef Purification System Technologies, gallon per 108.33) for regular elim Stage 1 filter - Inc., Lahore minute mic polyester in-depth Rs. 8,500 (US$ pat sediment filter; Stage 2 141.67) for Gold Model - Ea filter - Granular - Li Activated Carbon Filter tast (GAC); Stage 3 UV system - regular lamp with output of 30,000 microwatt-seconds per square centimeters (MW sec./cm2) energy and Gold lamp with output of 50,000 MW sec/cm2. 19 G. CONCLUSION To address the problem of the lack of safe drinking water for Pakistan‘s low-income populations, the USAID Pakistan Safe Drinking Water & Hygiene Promotion Project undertook an investigation and evaluation of point-of-use water filtration technologies that could potentially be made available to these populations via the private sector. The review focused on five categories of technologies that are appropriate for household use: (1) physical filtration, (2) solar radiation, (3) chlorination, (4) flocculation/disinfection, and (5) combinations of these technologies. To gather information on the range of products available in-country with respect to each of these categories, project staff conducted key informant interviews with officials in the public, private and NGO sectors, and reviewed relevant publications and research reports. Within the above five categories, the project identified 14 POU technologies, with a focus on the type of technology; method of operation and water flow rate; the status of and potential partnerships with private sector manufacturing, distribution and/or marketing activities; and the cost of each product, including maintenance costs. The 14 technologies were further assessed to determine their commercial status, laboratory test and acceptability status, and the advantages and disadvantages of each product. The project‘s next step will be to select one or two of the 14 identified technologies for possible collaborative implementation.. 20 H. REFERENCES 1. Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS), 2001-2002 2. USAID PSDW-HPP Project Brief. 3. Environment Health Project (EHP), Strategic Report 10, Bureau of Global Health. 4. WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation, Global Water Supply & Sanitation Assessment, 2000, Report. 5. Agha Khan Development Network (AKDN) Study- Water & Sanitation Program. 6. UNICEF (2002). 7. Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) (PS-1932-2002, Second Revision)_ 8. Technical Brief –Nadi Filter- Association for Humanitarian Development (AHD), April 27, 2007. 9. PSDW-HPP Implementation Plan for Year 1 (2007-08). 10. Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PLSM) Survey, 2004-05, Government of Pakistan, Federal Bureau of Statistics, June 2005. 11. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of Pakistan Islamabad- Report on Water Quality Status, May 2005. 12. USAID PSDW-HPP, Revised Technical Proposal. 13. Websites: WHO, UNICEF, IRC, www.safewaterpak.com (PSDW-HPP). 14. The News International, Pakistan‘s Leading English Language Newspaper, December 15, 2005. 15. Pakistan Economic Survey, 2005-2006. 16. Efficiency Report on Filter Jug Toyoko- The Water Clinic- Human Resource Development Society (HRDS). HRDS also runs modernized microbiological and chemical testing laboratory. 17. Environmental health project (EHP) Strategic Report 10, Advancing Hygiene Improvement for Diarrhea Prevention: Lessons Learned, October 2004. 18. EHP Joint Publication 8, The Hygiene Improvement framework- A comprehensive Approach for Preventing Childhood Diarrhoea, May 2004. 19. Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST), Calgary, Alberta. 20. AGS Pharmaceutical Industries, Peshawar, Manufacturers of AquaPura Tablets. 21. Medentech, Ireland, Manufacturers of Aquatabs. 22. Proctor & Gamble (P&G) Pakistan, Manufacturers of Pure Sachets. 23. PSI/GreenStar Social Marketing Organization. 24. So-Safe Water Technologies, Manufacturers of So-Safe Gravity Flow Filters, Karachi. 25. Mabzi, Manufacturers of Mabzi Brand Gravity Flow Filters, Karachi. 26. Reckitt & Benckiser Company, marketers of Dettol Tablets. 27. UniLever Pakistan, Manufacturers of Pureit Table Top Filters. 28. Board of Investment (BOI), government of Pakistan, Karachi. 29. Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. 30. US Health Care, Manufacturers of Musaffa silver-coated sand Decontamination Bags, Karachi. 31. Agha Khan Development Network (AKDN), Health Study of Musaffa for AK Housing Board. 32. Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR), Islamabad. 33. Informational Interviews, Meetings and Correspondence with Greg Allgood, Keith Zook, Victor Lara of P&G and PSI/GreenStar, Mr. Zafar of Zita International (Distributors of Aquatabs), Mr Abdul Ghafoor of AquaPura, Mr Ali Mansoor Zaidi of Mabzi, Ms. Naila Ismail of Unilever Pakistan, Mr. Asad Siddiqui of Reckitt Benckiser, Mr. Adeeb Zaki of GreenStar Social Marketing, Mr. Ronald Inayat and Ms. Mubashira Khalid of Proctor and Gamble Pakistan, Mr. Saqib Hafeez of the Board of Investment (BOI), Mr. Muhammad Saeed, chief Population Census Organization, and Mr. Karamat, Chief of Planning & Development, Local Government and Community Development, Government of the Punjab. 21 APPENDIX A Addresses and Contact Information for POU Water Purification and Filtration Technologies 1. Aquatabs: Manufacturers: Medentech Ltd., Waxford , Ireland. Tel: +353- 5360040; Fax: + 353-41271. Contact Persons: Paul Edmonson, Technical Director, Michael Gately, Marketing and Sales Manager. 2. Aquatabs: Sole Distributor for Pakistan : Zita International, 205 Firdousi Road, Rawalpindi Cantonment: Tel: 92-51-5564044, 92-51-4317146, Sales: 0300-5065711 3. AquaPura Tablets: Manufacturers: AGS Pharma and Chemical Industries (Pvt.) Ltd., 58-A, Industrial Estate, Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan. Tel: 0092-91-279835, Fax: 0092-91-275723. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com. 4. So-Safe Water Technologies: So-Safe House, C-47, 11th Commercial Street, Phase-2 Extension, DHA Karachi. UAN: 111-111-600. Tel: 092-21-5384420-22, 092-21-5899295-98. Fax: 92-21-5892455, Email: Karachi@so-safe.net. Website: www.so-safe.net. 5. Colloidal Silver Filter: NWFP University of Engineering & Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan. Contact Person: Dr. M.A.Q. Jahangir Durrani, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering. Office Telephones: 092-91-9216941. 092-21-9216796. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. www.nwfpuet.edu.pk. Dr. Durrani‘s team develop the first prototype of Colloidal Silver Filter for UNICEF-funded R&D. Current Developer and Designer for Commercial Launch: Society for Sustainable Development (SSD) 6. PuR “Purifier of Water” Sachets: The Proctor & Gamble Company, 2-P & G Plaza, TN2-240, Cincinnati: OH 45202. Greg Allgood, Program Director, Tel: 513-884-0958, Mob: 513-983-1223. Keith M. Zook, Group Manager, Children‘s Safe Drinking Water: Global Sustainability, Tel: (513)-983-9390, Fax: (513)-945, 3860. Mobile: (513)-602-7689. Email: email@example.com 7. PuR Pakistan Distributor: PSI/GreenStar Social Marketing Pakistan (Guarantee) Limited, Head office, 21-C, Zamazama Commercial Lane, No.5, Phase V, D.H.A. Karachi-75600.. Tel 92-21-5838841, 5376081-85. Website: www.greensatr.org.pk Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Toll free: 0800-111-71. Islamabad Regional Office: No.1-A, Street 8, Sector F-8/3, Islamaabd. Tel: 92-51-2280713, 2280651. Contact Person: Victor Lara. 8. Home Solar Desalinator: Alternative Energy Development Board, 344-B, Prime Minister‘s Secretariat, Government of Pakistan. Tel: 092-51-9223427, 092-51-9008504, Fax: 092-519205790, Mobile: 0300- 8564625. Email: email@example.com 9. Musaffa Decontamination Bag: Patent Technology Owners: Pakistan Industrial and Scientific Research Laboratories Complex, off University Road, Karachi-75280. Tel: 092-21-475001-2, 092-21-479585-6, Director General: Tel; 091-21-476309. Manufacturers: US Health Care, 18, C.P. Berar Housing society, Block 7/8, Amir Khusro road, Karachi. Pakistan. Tel: 092-21-111-222-444, 092-21-4534356, Fax: 92-21- 4536330. Contact Person: Musaffa Team Leader: Farhan Anis. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. 10. Nadi BioSand Filter: Association for Humanitarian Development (AHD), House No: 186/B, Block-C, Unit 2, Latifabad, Hyderabad, Sindh. Pakistan. Tel: 92-22-2933236, Fax: 92-22-8330582, Email: email@example.com. Website: www.ahdpak.org A 11. Arsenic Filter: Original model designed for UNICEF by Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), Ministry of Science & Technology, F6/2, Islamabad. Tel: 092--51-9218992, Fax: 092-51-9218939. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Website: www.pcrwr.gov.pk. 12. Dettol Tablets: Marketing and Distribution company: Reckitt Benckiser (Pakistan) Limited, 12th floor, State Life Building No.11, Abdullah Haroon Road, Karachi-74400. Tel: 92-21-5687121, Fax: 92-21- 5686364. Email: email@example.com 13. Biosand Filter: Canadian Centre for Affordable Water & Sanitation Technology (CAWST), No: 12- 2916, 5th Avenue, NE, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. T2A, 6K4. Tel: `0403-243—3245. Fax: 1-403-243-6199 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Website: www.cawst.org Collaborating NGO (1) in Pakistan: KOSHISH Welfare Society, Khanan wali, Tehsil Pasroor, Sialkot. Tel: 92-52-6211103, Fax: 92-21-6211103, Mob: 0301-6166424, Email: email@example.com. Collaborating NGO (2) The Network for Consumer Protection, 40-A, Ramzan Plaza, G-9 markaz, Islamabad. Pakistan. Tel: 092-51-2261085, Fax: 92-51- 2262495. Website: www.thenetwork.org. 14. Toyoko Filter: Importers RN Traders, Silakot. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. www.brita.com B APPENDIX B Musaffa Water Decontamination Bag Introduction. The Musaffa Water Decontamination bag was originally developed by the Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Laboratories, Government of Pakistan. As one of the largest government-owned laboratories for scientific and industrial research in Pakistan, PCSIR focuses on developing and commercializing technologies through the private sector. Since the 1960s, PCSIR‘s Karachi Complex has worked to improve the quality of drinking water. In response to the UN‘s designation of 1980-1990 as the International Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, PCSIR undertook a project to develop inexpensive technologies for drinking water in rural areas. This project involved: Evaluating the quality of a large number of ground and surface water samples. Developing different technologies for treating potable water. Establishing sub-centers in Lahore, Islamabad and Peshawar for demonstration, testing, extension, and feedback on the performance of the technologies. The Decontamination Bag was one of the technologies developed under the project. A safe, effective and easy-to-use technology, the bag contained silver-coated, sterilized fine sand particles that were considered appropriate for rural areas. Since silver does not affect taste, odor or color of the treated water, the decontamination bag was believed to be acceptable to potential consumers. In 1988, PCSIR transferred its patented Decontamination Bag to US Health Care, a company established by two Pakistani physicians. US Health Care branded the bag as ―Musaffa,‖ which in Urdu translates to ―the Purifier.‖ The company initially placed production orders with PCSIR to supply Musaffa to public relief and donor organizations, but subsequently established its own manufacturing facility in Karachi and began commercial production in 1992. US Health Care currently supplies the Musaffa Bag to government agencies, NGOs and private sector organizations. The Bag is the first patented POU water treatment technology in Pakistan. How it Works. The Musaffa Water Decontamination Bag‘s mixture of silver-treated and untreated sand works by the oligodynamic action of silver ions to decontaminate water without disturbing the original contents of the water‘s desirable minerals. The bag is constructed of a material that does not degrade from prolonged contact with water. When placed at the outlet of a ―matka‖ (ceramic pitcher), stored water flows though the bag‘s contents. PCSIR claimed that the water flowing through the bag becomes safe for drinking, thereby protecting consumers from diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, cholera, etc. The bag has been tested against E.Coli, salmonella typhi, shigella dysenteriae, staphylococcus and klebsiella pneumonia. The efficacy of debacterification is 95+3% +_ at a mean microbial load of 104 per ml when water is passed through the bag at a flow rate of one liter per minute. According to PCSIR, a bag of 1 kg is sufficient to debacterify more than 2500 liters of water. This ensures a 4-6 month supply of germ-free drinking water for an average family of six persons. The bag is not effective against arsenic. Introduction of Musaffa as a “Matka” POU Water Treatment Technology. PCSIR established a task force to disseminate the Musaffa POU water treatment technology, establishing 13 sub-centers throughout four Pakistani provinces. Matka technology was distributed in more than 80 villages and towns in Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan. At the sub-centers, PCSIR sought the active collaboration of welfare associations, councilors, and rural development agencies in conducting a POU technology demonstration program. The communities in these provinces used a variety of sources to access drinking water, including canals, wells, hand pumps, streams and ponds. The POU technology was disseminated by PCSIR in collaboration with the Pakistan Council of Appropriate Technology and Social Welfare Department. Feedback obtained from the Council revealed three distinct advantages of the technology: C 1. The decontamination bag provided a tap supply that is free from hand contamination. 2. The bag kills bacteria that cause water-borne diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery. 3. The bag provides filtered water that is safe for drinking. Ceramic pitchers were commonly used in the rural areas of Pakistan to collect storage water. The sizes and shapes of the pitchers varied from area to area. PCSIR attempted to introduce a pitcher fitted with a tap for in conjunction with the dissemination of the Musaffa technology; however, while promoting ―matka‖ POU technology, it was observed that ceramic pitchers were gradually being replaced by plastic and metallic water coolers due to change in lifestyles. During 1982-87, PCSIR manufactured and distributed more than 12,000 bags (1 kg size). In 1988, the laboratory produced 10,000 decontamination bags, 7,000 of which were supplied to the Scientific and Technological Development Corporation of Pakistan (STEDEC) for marketing purposes. STEDEC is a subsidiary of PCSIR. E.Coli as the Test Organism for Evaluation of Musaffa. E. Coli was chosen for testing the disinfection efficiency of the silver-coated sand mixture because most studies on the bacterial effectiveness of silver had used it as the test organism. Contaminated water from different sources (canals, wells, rivers, ponds) was placed in pitchers and containers made of various materials: ceramic, plastic and galvanized steel. Bags were placed in the containers near the container wall, close to the tap, in the center at the bottom, and above the tap. Experiments carried out by PCSIR to evaluate the performance of the Musaffa bag demonstrated that the particle/grain size of the medium (sand) played an important role in enhancing the bactericidal effectiveness of the silver particles. Variables that significantly affected disinfection were the mesh size of the sand and the ratio of the silver-coated sand to the non-coated sand particles in the sand mixture through which contaminated water was passed. Of the various mesh sizes used, 3040 showed better results. The appropriate particle size provides the surface area for the silver deposit to release sufficient silver ions in the contaminated water to serve as a disinfectant. The impregnated silver slowly and gradually decreases as the water passes through the bag, coming in contact with the silver-coated bag until the concentration becomes too low to disinfect water. Observations on Microbiological Testing of Musaffa by PCSIR. In addition to microbial testing, chemical analysis of the treated and untreated samples was carried out. Following a comprehensive evaluation of the decontamination bag, the following observations were made by P.C.S.I.R. 1. If the bag is placed against the outlet/tap and the water is drained after 1-2 hours at a flow rate of 250-500 ml per minute, the contaminated water having pH 6.5-8, TDS 250-2500, turbidity 5-10 NTU, coliform MPN/dl 3-1100 reduce to 95 +_3% (coliforms become <3) and fecal coliform bacteria count MPN/dl 3-1100 reduces to zero. 2. When a new bag is used, wetting of the sand mixture (by allowing about 10 liters of water to pass through it) is essential. The wetting ensures the release of a sufficient quantity of silver ions from the bag for disinfection. 3. If the bag is placed at the bottom of the container and not against the tap, the water should be used after 4-6 hours after placing the bag in the container. 4. If the bag is clipped/fixed to the outlet/tap (inside the container) in such a manner that the water must first pass through the bag before pouring from the tap, the flow rate will reduce but bacteria, D coliform and fecal coliform will be removed within minutes (an Aga Khan Housing Board study found the efficiency time to disinfect was within five minutes). 5. If the turbidity of contaminated water is less than 10 NTU, the bactericidal efficiency is not affected and there is no need to wash the bag for a month (also confirmed by the Aga Khan Housing Board study). The deposition of dirt and silt on the bag retards the release of silver ions, thereby affecting the efficiency. 6. If the bag is properly placed, its performance against E.Coli and other bacteria such as salmonella, shigella, klebsiella, pseudomona improves significantly. WHO Conference on Identifying POU Water Treatment Technologies. In October 1995, WHO experts attending a conference in Egypt on ―Improving the Quality of Drinking Water at Home Level,‖ identified 17 POU technologies in nine countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region for improving the quality of drinking water. Based on sufficient scientific data, Musaffa was among the four POU water treatment technologies considered as the most appropriate, simple and effective method for point-of-use drinking water disinfection. The WHO experts also proposed that controlled trials be conducted on Musaffa in low-income urban and suburban communities. The WHO‘s Diarrheal Disease Control Program (CDD) at regional and global levels has focused attention on reducing mortality rates in infants and young children. One priority intervention is to improve the quality of drinking water available at homes in low-income communities in rural, peri-urban and urban areas. WHO was therefore interested in identifying indigenous, inexpensive, effective and acceptable methods commonly practiced by community residents. In 1994, Dr. M.H. Wahdan, WHO‘s Director of Disease Prevention and Control for the Eastern Mediterranean Region) contacted US Health Care and PCSIR to learn more about the Musaffa POU water treatment technology. In collaboration with Mr. Naeem Mahmood, Principal Scientific Officer of the PCSIR Karachi Complex, and Dr. Arjumand Faisal, CDD Technical Officer, US Health Care and PCSIR developed a protocol for a community trial of Musaffa in December 1995, along the lines recommended by WHO. US Health Care-Owners of the Musaffa Brand. US Health Care was established in 1988 by two local physicians, Dr. Khurshid Nizam and Dr. Shamimur Rehman, who established Pakistan‘s first Yellow Pages Business Directory, as well as an events marketing business (the EC Commerce Gateway) which organized international events, conferences and exhibitions in key industrial sectors including health care. Since the Musaffa Bag was transferred to the company, US Health Care has focused on manufacturing the product for various government agencies and NGOs including the Government of Pakistan, UNICEF, OXFAM, WHO, USAID (Flood Relief Project), PIA, Aga Khan Housing Board, Edhi Welfare Trust, The Flood Relief Commissioner, Coast Guard, Army, Navy and Air Force. In addition, over a dozen private sector firms have ordered the Bag. US Health Care has not ventured into the consumer market for several reasons. First, the company lacked consumer product marketing experience and an effective marketing strategy. Secondly, US Health Care has narrowly focused on orders for Musaffa from government relief agencies and international donors. Thirdly, the company has been unwilling to risk investing its financial resources on marketing Musaffa, which would require development of a nationwide sales and distribution network and provision of unsecured credit to distributors. However, US Health Care is currently marketing a range of gravity flow filters to middle- and high-income households in Karachi, Pakistan‘s largest city. These 1-stage, 2-stage and 3-stage filters also contain Musaffa technology in addition to their sediment-removing and carbon filters. More than 10,000 consumers have purchased these products at prices that range from Rs. 2000- 3500, depending upon the type of filter. E
"Pakistan Safe Drinking Water Hygiene Promotion Project Rice Germ Oil"