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					 Biorenewables Initiative



Plant
Sciences
 Sciences
Institute
                 Biorenewables Initiative




From: Robin Graham
Oak Ridge National Labs
  Biorenewables Initiative
           Leaders




Larry      Basil       Kendall
Johnson    Nikolau     Lamkey
                             Plant
                             Sciences
                           Institute
          Biorenewables Initiative
             DOE Vision and Roadmap




Plant       Production       Processing          Utilization
Science
           PSI                    Bioeconomy
                                    Initiative
                     Farm gate                    Plant
                                                  Sciences
                                                 Institute
Biorenewables Initiative




                            From: James
                            McMillan et
                            al. 2004




                           Plant
                           Sciences
                       Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
 Oils          Lignocellulose




                           Plant
                           Sciences
                         Institute
              Biorenewables Initiative
                         Improve oil production




                  Protein                         Oil
Reducing the
tradeoffs between
protein, oil and yield               Yield               Plant
                                                         Sciences
                                                        Institute
            Biorenewables Initiative
                    Improve oil production




               Protein                       Oil
Molecular markers
                                Yield               Plant
                                                    Sciences
                                                   Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
    Ready-made biodiesel




                            Plant
                            Sciences
                           Institute
       Biorenewables Initiative
                    Ready-made biodiesel

           Normal conversion of soybean oil to biodiesel
                    (reaction with methanol)


3          +
methanol                                            soybean oil
                         catalyst

           3                                    +
                      methyl ester                  glycerol
               lower viscosity, more volatile
                                                           Plant
                                                           Sciences
                                                         Institute
     Biorenewables Initiative
             Ready-made biodiesel



     soybean oil
                                    Jojoba

     biodiesel

Introduce wax synthases in
soybeans from other plants


     wax ester
                                     Plant
                                     Sciences
                                    Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
    Ready-made biodiesel




                  Eliminate cost of conversion
                  estimated to be $0.60/gal.

                  Eliminate glycerol byproduct,
                  increase carbon yield.




                                     Plant
                                     Sciences
                                   Institute
   Biorenewables Initiative
Cold tolerant/oxidative stable oils and lubricants




                              cold




         http://www.notrans.iastate.edu/images/oil_main.jpg
                                                               Plant
                                                               Sciences
                                                              Institute
                                Biorenewables Initiative
                    Cold tolerant/oxidative stable oils and lubricants


                                                                   Introduce bacterial genes
                                                                  encoding enzymes involved
                                                                  in branched chain fatty acid
                                                                      synthesis in soybean

                                                                  Bacillus genes encoding 3-ketoacyl-
                                                                  acyl carrier-protein synthase III (KASIII)




                                                                  Branched chain fatty acids


http://technolog.it.umn.edu/technolog/spring2002/biodiesel1.jpg
                                                                                             Plant
                                                                                             Sciences
                                                                                          Institute
   Biorenewables Initiative
Cold tolerant/oxidative stable oils and lubricants



                       Soybean oil biodiesel,
                       mp -2°C (28°F).



                       Biodiesel with branched fatty acids,
                       mp -15°C (5°F).



                                                 Plant
                                                 Sciences
                                                Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
   Properties of modified oils


                  Determine optimum branching
                  and fatty acid chain length for
                     biodiesel and lubricants



                   Chain length


                   Branching


                                         Plant
                                         Sciences
                                       Institute
  Biorenewables Initiative
        Summary: soybeans and oils

Enhance oil production; reduce the trade-offs with
protein production

Develop ready-made biodiesel; methyl esterification in
plants

Develop cold tolerant/oxidative stable oils; branched
chain fatty acid synthesis in plants

Determine optimum branching and fatty acid chain
length for biodiesel and lubricants


                                                     Plant
                                                     Sciences
                                                 Institute
         Biorenewables Initiative
Corn and ethanol


Bioenergy and
biobased products
from fermentation




                                    Plant
                                    Sciences
                                Institute
            Biorenewables Initiative
                    7.5   Corn and ethanol

                  US
B gal/yr




           4.0
             US
             1.7

                 Iowa
           2005 2012
                                              Plant
                                              Sciences
                                             Institute
   Biorenewables Initiative
Corn and ethanol




                          Grain

Crop residues

       Alternative
       crops                  Plant
                              Sciences
                          Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
                                  What it takes
                                  to make 10 ml
                                  of ethanol




                                       Plant
                                       Sciences
       Rod Bothast                   Institute
       USDA outlook forum, 2005
      Biorenewables Initiative
What crop qualities will enhance ethanol production
from grain?




                                              Plant
                                              Sciences
                                            Institute
Biorenewables Initiative




   High fermentable hybrids
                               Plant
                               Sciences
                              Institute
                               Nutrition Initiative
                                        Modify starch structure




http://mse.iastate.edu/images/microsc
opy/bot7.jpg

           Corn

         Milling

     Liquefaction
 Saccharification
  & fermentation
                                        http://www.c heng.cam.ac.uk/research/group
                                        s/polymer/RMP/nitin/Internalstructure.jpg     Plant
                                                                                      Sciences
      Distillation
                                                                                     Institute
        Biorenewables Initiative
                   Enrich DDG fraction
      Corn
     Milling
  Liquefaction
Saccharification
 & fermentation
   Distillation

Ethanol DDG
                   Distiller’s Dry Grain
                   $85/ ton on Jan 24, 2006    Plant
                                               Sciences
                                              Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
  What about lignocellulose?




                                Plant
                                Sciences
                               Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
  Comparison of grain to stover

                                          Starch vs.
                                          lignocellulose




                                         Plant
                                         Sciences
           From: Gary Nowakowski 2005   Institute
         Biorenewables Initiative
Making ethanol from the non-starch fraction of corn grain

                                    Lignocellulose:
                                    Corn kernel fiber
                                    No incremental supply chain costs
                                    Potential 10% yield increase
                                    4.5 M gal/yr for each ethanol plant
                                    Minimal incremental capital
                                    DDG weight reduced 44%
                                    No increase in corn acres


                                                            Plant
                                                            Sciences
                    Rod Bothast
                    USDA outlook forum, 2005
                                                         Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
     Corn and ethanol

                             Lignocellulose: Corn
                             stover
                             Recalcitrant material: long
                             regarded as a poor source of
                             fermentable material for biofuels
                             New pretreatment technologies
                             and inexpensive enzymes have
                             changed the picture




                                               Plant
                                               Sciences
       Rod Bothast
       USDA outlook forum, 2005
                                             Institute
       Biorenewables Initiative
                   How corn stover is treated
   Corn fiber

 Pretreatment

  Enzymatic
saccharification

 Fermentation

Ethanol recovery    From: John Sheehan et al. 2001

                                                      Plant
                                                      Sciences
                                                     Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
    Powerful new enzymes




                                       From:
                                       McMillan , 2004




   CBH1 exoglucanase from T. reesei    Plant
                                       Sciences
                                      Institute
      Biorenewables Initiative
What crop qualities will enhance ethanol production
from lignocellulose?

Biomass

Biomass

Biomass!

                                              Plant
                                              Sciences
                                            Institute
      Genomics Initiative
        Breed for biomass




B73             F1          Mo17
                                    Plant
                                    Sciences
                                   Institute
               Biorenewables Initiative
Plants are not working at full capacity and can fix more carbon




                             Photosynthesis is
  From: Layne and Flor, J.
  Am. Hort Sci. 120, 583     “sink limited”        Plant
                                                   Sciences
                                                 Institute
           Biorenewables Initiative
              Where can the carbon be stored?

                                  Plant cell walls




                                 Ragweed anther

From: Taiz & Zeiger, Plant
Physiology, 1991
                                 Copyright: Dennis Kunkel,
                                 Scientific American         Plant
                                                             Sciences
                                                         Institute
      Biorenewables Initiative
What crop qualities will enhance ethanol production
from lignocellulose?

Biomass

Biomass
                          What about lignin
Biomass!                  and hemicellulose?



                                               Plant
                                               Sciences
                                            Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
   How much lignin in stover?
                                        Composition of
                                        corn stover




                       From: John
                                            Plant
                                            Sciences
                       Sheehan et al.
                       2001               Institute
           Biorenewables Initiative
     Arabidopsis mutants with defects in lignin accumulation

wt                  irx4                        wt          irx4




          Mutants are limp, produce fewer xylem elements


                                                                   Plant
                                                                   Sciences
                               From: Jones et al. (2001)
                               Plant Journal 26, 205-216.    Institute
           Biorenewables Initiative
    Maize mutants with defects in lignin accumulation

                           Brown midrib (bmr) mutants (Lechtenberg
                           et al., 1972)
                           four bmr mutants have been identified:

                             * bm1 (Jorgenson, 1931)
                             * bm2 (Burnham and Brink, 1932)
                             * bm3 (Emerson et al., 1935)
                             * bm4 (Burnham, 1947)

                           * Lower yields: Whole plant silage and grain
                             * Susceptibility to lodging
                             * Poor early season vigor
                             * Delayed flowering
                             * Slower early season growth rates


From: Scotseed.net                                            Plant
                                                              Sciences
                                                           Institute
  Biorenewables Initiative
       Don’t get rid of the lignin!

   Corn fiber

 Pretreatment        Lignin

  Enzymatic
saccharification     heat

 Fermentation

Ethanol recovery
                                       Plant
                                       Sciences
                                      Institute
   Biorenewables Initiative
   Lignin reduces the need for fossil fuel
Miles using 10,000 BTUs of fossil fuel energy

Petroleum      Gas (1.73 miles)


Corn     EtOH (2.97 miles)


Switchgrass      EtOH (5.86 miles)


Stover      EtOH (12.1 miles)



                                                 Plant
                                                 Sciences
                     Based on: NREL 2002
                                                Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
 How much hemicellulose in stover?
                                        Composition of
                                        corn stover




                       From: John
                                            Plant
                                            Sciences
                       Sheehan et al.
                       2001               Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
 Don’t get rid of the hemicellulose

                                      New bugs
                                      convert
                                      hemicellulose
                                      products to
                                      ethanol




                                        Plant
                                        Sciences
          Rod Bothast
          USDA outlook forum, 2005
                                      Institute
 Biorenewables Initiative
Develop more uniformity in composition

                                   Corn stover: It’s a
                                   heterogeneous
                                   feedstock




                                     From: John Sheehan
                                     et al. 2001



                                          Plant
                                          Sciences
                                         Institute
 Biorenewables Initiative
     Alternative crops: Switchgrass




                                      Switchgrass
Crop residues
     or
     Dedicated
     biomass
     crops?                                Plant
                                           Sciences
                                         Institute
Biorenewables Initiative

                                 Clonally propagated
                                 switchgrass




                                            Plant
                                            Sciences
       From: B. Conger
       University of Tennessee
                                          Institute
Biorenewables Initiative

                                      Hybrid
                                      grass


                                      Giant
                                      Miscanthus




                                         Plant
                                         Sciences
        From: Stephen P. Long, UIUC    Institute
Biorenewables Initiative
  Composition of switchgrass




                                Plant
                                Sciences
           From: Dale 2005     Institute
                   Biorenewables Initiative
        A whole world of chemicals can be made from the
        products of fermenting plant material




                                                             Acetyl CoA

Replacing those made
from petroleum

From: http://library.thinkquest.org/11226/image/acetyl.jpg
                                                                           Plant
                                                                           Sciences
                                                                          Institute
     Biorenewables Initiative
A whole world of chemicals can be made: polyketides




                                                    Plant
                                                    Sciences
                   Gokhale R. S and Tuteja D.
                   (2001) Biotechnology, 10, 341
                                                   Institute
                                     FOOD
          Something
Biorenewables InitiativeFEED
          for everyone




                                      Plant
                                      Sciences
           From: John Sheehan 2005   Institute
  Biorenewables Initiative
        Summary: corn and ethanol

Breed for biomass; reduce inputs

Produce more fermentables; develop better starches;
enrich DDG fractions

Strive for more uniformity in composition of biomass

Develop alternative biomass crops

Develop technologies for the production of valuable
chemicals from products of fermentation

                                                   Plant
                                                   Sciences
                                                Institute
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Description: Institute Soybean oil0