Tree dieback in Punjab Pakistan Safflower Oiil

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					Mycopath, 2004, 2(1): 1-5
                      Tree dieback in Punjab, Pakistan

                Arshad Javaid, Rukhsana Bajwa and Tehmina Anjum

          Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab,
                               Lahore 54590, Pakistan.

Survey of 10 districts of Punjab viz. Sialkot, Gujranwala, Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Jehlem,
Rawalpindi, Sargodha, and Hafizabad were undertaken from March 2003 to March 2004 to study the
present status of tree dieback incidence in these areas. A total of 21 tree species were found victim of the
dieback disease. The disease incidence, however, varied in different tree species. Furthermore, there was
also difference in disease severity in different surveyed districts of the province. Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.
and Acacia nilotica (Lam) Willd. ex Delile., were found to be the most affected species in all the districts.
Among the commonly grown trees Mangifera indica L., Eucalyptus citriodora Hook., E. camal-dulensis
Dehnh., Populus hybrida M. Bieb., Ficus religiosa L., F. bengalensis L., Bombax ceiba L., Syzygium
cumini (L.) Skeels., Psidum guajava L., and Albizia lebbeck Benth. were found affected with dieback. The
less commonly cultivated species like Toona ciliata (Roxb.) M. Roemer, Heterophragma adenophyllum
Seem. ex Benth. & Hook., Ficus glomerata Roxb., Mimosup elengi, Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn.,
Grevillea robusta Cunn., Ehretia acuminata R. Br., Platanus orientalis L. and Barringtonia acutangula
(L.) Gaertn. were also found victims of the dieback. Termites and fungi were found to be the most
common biotic factors responsible for the disease. Among the abiotic factors generally drought and
environmental pollution seemed to be the main causes for dieback initiation and severity.
Mycopath, 2004, 2(1): 7-10
     Screening for resistance against Ascochyta blight
                        in chickpea

               Sh. Muhammad Iqbal, Ahmad Bakhsh, M. Ashraf Zahid
                          and Abdul Majeed Haqqani

           Pulses Programme, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad

Three hundred and fifty five chickpea germplasm accessions were evaluated for blight resistance at
seedling stage under greenhouse conditions during the Rabi season of 2003-04. Fifteen genotypes
(NCS9904, CM72XILC3279, NCS9911, Dasht, 30173, KK-12, KK-13, FLIP97-116C, FLIP99-48C,
ILC7795, FLIP97-194C, FLIP97-217C, FLIP98-22C, FLIP98-56C and FLIP98-44C) with disease rating 3
were resistant, 81 genotypes were moderately resistant with disease rating 4-5 and 259 were susceptible
having disease rating of 6-9. Eight of the resistant genotypes were identified from accessions obtained from
International Center of Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, Syria, four from National Agricultural
Research Center, Islamabad, two from Gram Research Station, Karak and one from Nuclear Institute for
Agriculture & Biology, Faisalabad.
Key words: Germplasm, greenhouse, resistance, screening, Ascochyta rabiei, blight
Mycopath, 2004, 2(1): 11-14
 In vitro biological control of Fusarium solani – cause of
               wilt in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.
                 Rukhsana Bajwa, Irum Mukhtar and Tehmina Anjum

           Department of Mycology & Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab,
                               Lahore 54590, Pakistan.

Five species of Trichoderma viz. Trichoderma viride Pers. Ex Gray, T. harzianum Rifai, T. koningii Oudem, T.
aureoviride Rifai and T. pseudokoningii Rifai, and three species of Aspergillus viz. Aspergillus fumigatus
Fresenius, A. glaucus Link and A. oryzae (Ahlb.) Cohn were evaluated for their in vitro antagonistic potential
against Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., the cause of wilt disease in Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.). Among
the Trichoderma species T. harzianum showed the best performance followed by T. viride, T. aureoviride, T.
koningii and T. pseudokoningii, respectively, resulting in 52.4, 24,13.7, 9 and 2% reduction in colony growth of
the test pathogenic fungus. Similarly there was 23, 20 and 7.5% reduction in colony growth of F. solani due to
antagonistic effects of A. fumigatus, A. glaucus and A. oryzae, respectively.
Mycopath, 2004, 2(1): 15-19
    Effect of Gibberellin on in vitro growth and biomass
                production of some soil fungi

               Ghazala Nasim *, Memoona Rahman **, Asad Shabbir*
                            and Tabinda S. Cheema*

       *Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab,
                  Quaid -e- Azam Campus, Lahore, 54590 Pakistan
     **Department of the Botany, University of the Punjab, Quaid -e- Azam Campus,
                               Lahore, 54590 Pakistan

Effect of different concentrations of Gibberellin was studied on growth of four species of soil fungi namely,
Aspergillus oryzae, A. terreus, A. niger and Alternaria alternata. The hormone was applied singly in
various concentrations. Increased growth rate and biomass production revealed significant values when
treated with dilute solutions of Gibberellin at 15, 30 and 45 mgL-1 except A. terreus. Fresh weights and dry
weight values were observed appreciably high when Aspergillus terreus was treated with 60 mgL-1
concentration of the hormone solution. The data on fresh and dry biomass revealed that the highest biomass
increase was obtained for Alternaria alternata. Fresh biomass of Alternaria alternata showed 75% increase
when treated with 45 mgL-1 concentration of hormone solution in comparison to control, whereas an
increase of 77.8% was obtained in the case of dry weight. At 60 mgL-1,a significant fresh biomass
suppression of 16.3% and 7.43% was observed for Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus oryzae,
respectively. The highest loss for dry biomass was noticed in Alternaria alternata (33.33%).
Key words: Growth hormone, Gibberellin, in-vitro growth, biomass, fungi
Mycopath, 2004, 2(1):21-24
      Inoculation of Macrophomina phaseolina at three
       stages in sunflower plant and its effect on yield
         components of different sunflower varieties
            K.H. Wagan, M.A. Pathan, M.M. Jiskani* and H.B. Leghari**

    *Department of Plant Pathology, S.A.U. Tandojam, ** Former Graduate Student.

Yield loss studies were conducted by growing the seeds of five sunflower hybrid/varieties, i.e. SC-83, SC-
92, SF-187, SF-177 and HO-1. Plants inoculated with dry culture of Macrophomina phaseolina at sowing,
flowering (60 days after emergence) and ripening time (75 days after emergence). The plant height and
1000-grain weight were significantly reduced in HO-1 variety for plants inoculated at late flowering stage
to early ripening than the sowing in plots. The plants of all varieties inoculated at flowering stage also
matured earlier than the uninoculated plants. The percent oil and protein content also decreased in
inoculated plants of HO-1 followed by SC-92 and SC-83 as compared to SF-187 and SF-177 sunflower
varieties/hybrid. The sclerotia of the fungus multiplied very rapidly when plants inoculated at flowering
stage as compared to other two stages. The maximum yield (kg) per hectare was recorded in SF-177
(2130.00 and 2120.00) followed by SF-187 (2067.00 and 2049.00) sunflower plants inoculated at sowing
time and ripening stage than the flowering stage. The yield losses were significantly increased in HO-1,
SC-92 and SC-83 sunflower varieties. The overall yield loss in all varieties inoculated at flowering stage
was (7.58-45.0%) at ripening (6.59-41.85%) and at sowing (5.54-37.97%) respectively.
Key word: Plant stage, Sunflower, Yield components, Macrophomina phaseolina.
Mycopath, 2004, 2(1): 25-35
  Growth responses of ectomycorrhizal isolates on two
               synthetic culture media
                         Muzna Zahur, A.N. Khalid and A.R. Niazi

          Department of Botany, University of the Punjab Lahore 54590, Pakistan

Thirty-three different ectomycorrhizae isolated from rhizosphere of 12 tree species have been tested for in
vitro isolation on MMN and MEA synthetic media. Out of these, twenty-seven mycorrhizae have
successfully been cultured on MMN and MEA media. Six ectomycorrhizae did not show any response on
MEA medium. Successful isolation of most of the ectomycorrhizal species on both media show their non
specificity for nutrients . Six species, that show no response on any of the media, due to the nonavailability
of particular nutrients in the medium. These ectomycorrhizal isolates have been tested for their growth,
culture and hyphal characteristics so as to select the most suitable species having rapid growth rate in
synthetic media.
Key words: Ectomycorrhizae, MMN, MEA, isolates, cultures.
Mycopath, 2004, 2(1): 37-425
    Seasonal variation of AM fungal colonization in
 Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plants suffering
         from Ratta Roag (Red rot) disease.
   Ghazala Nasim, Ghulam Abbas and Muhammad Babur Mahmood Shah

  Department of Mycology & Plant Pathology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam
                         Campus, Lahore 54590, Pakistan

In a survey conducted to assess the AM infections of sugarcane plants suffering from Ratta Roag (Red
Rot), from various sugarcane-fields in and around District Jhang four categories of plants for disease
incidence were identified as healthy, partially diseased, diseased, and severely diseased. A significant
change in pattern of AM infection was recorded. Percentage frequencies of arbuscules, vesicles, intra-
matricular mycelium and external spores exhibited a gradual increase from initial to final stages of the
studies. Various AM structures showed a significant variation with the passage of time in the extent of
infection. The diseased plants showed a significant difference in AM infection as compared to normal
Mycopath, 2004, 2(1): 43-50
      Mycoflora associated with the biodeterioration of
                picture walls at Lahore Fort
                            Bajwa, R., Javaid, A and Shah, M.H.

          Department of Mycology and Plant pathology, University of the Punjab,
                    Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore 54590, Pakistan

A total of 25 fungal species belonging to 10 genera were found associated with biodeteriorating picture
walls at Lahore fort. These included 13 species of Aspergillus, two species each of Alternaria, Drechslera
and Fusarium, and one each of Acremonium, Curvularia, Helminthosporium, Mucor, Trichoderma, and
Dematium. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus were highly frequent and
apparently major cause of biodeterioration. No much pronounced variation in fungal flora among the
selected sites was evidenced. A great variation in variety of the fungal flora was, however, evident on 7
different type of growth media employed viz. corn meal dextrose agar (CMDA), Czapek’s dox agar (CZA),
oat meal agar (OA), malt extract agar (MEA), potato dextrose agar (PDA), rose bengal agar (RBA) and
sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA). Maximum fungal colony count was observed on CZA while highest
fungal diversity was recorded on MEA. The fungal flora was isolated by two methods namely tape plate
and scratch method, the later method appeared to be more reliable than the former.
Mycopath, 2004, 2(1): 51-54
       Seed-borne mycoflora of safflower (Carthamus
    tinctorius L.) and their impact on seed germination
                        M. Ismail, M. Irfan Ul-Haque and A.Riaz

        Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi

The incidence and frequency of fungi on safflower seed with their role in seed germination was
investigated. Three samples each of five safflower cultivars/lines were collected from National Oil
Development Programme (NODP), NARC Islamabad. Eleven different fungal species belonging to seven
genera i.e., Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Helminthosporium and Rhizopus
were observed. The incidence and frequency of these fungi varied with cultivar and lines with maximum
fungal prevalence in Thori-78 (7.7) and minimum in Dholka Sindh (5.4). Maximum germination was
noticed on Dholka Sindh (85%) with least fungal incidence (23%) and minimum seed germination was
observed on Thori-78 (60%) with higher fungal incidence (55%).
Key words:- Carthamus tinctorius,. Safflower, Seed germination, Seed mycoflora.

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Description: Tree dieback in Punjab Pakistan Safflower Oiil