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Review of Kenyan Safflower Oiil

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Review of Kenyan Safflower Oiil Powered By Docstoc
					 Review of Kenyan
Agricultural Research

       Vol. 17
 Oilcrops and Nuts



      by
   SWK Nditeru
                                        Contents
Preface                                               vii

Acknowledgements                                      ix

Notes                                                  x
Introduction                                           1
Groundnut                                              2
          Introduction                                 2
          Plant selection and breeding                 2
          Variety testing trials                       2
          Spacing and plant population                 4
          Research on spacing                          4
          Time of planting                             5
          Fertiliser application and nutrient needs    5
          Cropping system                              7
          Diseases                                     7
          Control                                      9
          Insect pests and control measures            9
          Animal damage                                9
          Weeding and weed control                    10
          Seed bulking and storage                    10
          Plant physiology and tolerance to drought   10
          Germination                                 11
          Gene bank                                   11
          Economics of production                     11

Sesame                                                13
          Introduction                                13
          Variety evaluation trials                   13
          Crop improvement                            14
          Cropping systems                            14
          Growing areas and requirements              14
          Spacing and plant population                14
          Fertilisers                                 15
          Time of planting                            15
          Insect Pests                                15
          Diseases                                    16
          Yields                                      16
          Harvesting                                  16



                                                            iii
         Economics of production                     16
         Utilisation                                 16

Sunflower                                            17
         Introduction                                17
         Varieties                                   17
         Plant breeding and selection                17
         Gene banks                                  18
         Varieties, fertilisers and nutrient needs   18
         Spacing                                     18
         Time of planting                            19
         Land preparation                            19
         Cropping patterns                           19
         Sunflower as livestock feed                 20
         Sunflower diseases                          20
         Weed control                                22
         Bird damage                                 22
         Wild animals                                23
         Insect pests                                23
         Water use and tolerance to drought          23
         Plant physiology                            24
         Seed production                             24
         Harvesting problems at Kabete               24
         Storage                                     24
         Oil processing and quality                  24
         Economics of production and marketing       25

Soya bean (Glycine max) (L.) Merrill                 27
         Introduction                                27
         Variety trials                              27
         Plant selection and breeding                27
         Fertiliser application                      27
         Spacing and seed rate                       28
         Intercropping                               29
         Diseases                                    29
         Time of planting                            31
         Crop production                             31
         Plant physiology                            31
         Soya bean quality and utilisation           31

Rapeseed and Mustard                                 33
         Introduction                                33
         Variety evaluation                          33
         Breeding and selection                      34


iv
          Fertiliser requirement                                   34
          Seed rate and planting depth                             34
          Diseases and control methods                             34
          Weed Control                                             34
          Insect pests                                             35
          Oil content and other quality characteristics            35

Linseed                                                            37
          Introduction                                             37
          Varieties                                                37
          Fertiliser requirement                                   37
          Seed rate and spacing                                    37
          Cultivation conditions                                   38

Safflower                                                          39
          Introduction                                             39
          Varieties                                                39

Castor                                                             41
          Introduction                                             41
          Variety Trials                                           41
          Bird Damage                                              42
          Seed production                                          42
          Production and marketing                                 42

Cashew Nut                                                         45
          Introduction                                             45
          Plant selection                                          45
          Vegetative propagation                                   45
          Canopy development and rejuvenation of old plantations   46
          Water use in relation to spacing                         46
          Need for nutrients                                       46
          Spacing and plant population                             46
          Insect pests                                             46
          Diseases                                                 47
          Farming and cropping systems                             47
          Suitability of production areas                          47
          Production for the food industry and utilisation         47
          Economics of production and marketing                    47

Coconut (Cocos nucifera)                                           49
          Introduction                                             49
          Plant selection and variety testing                      49
          Fertilisers                                              49


                                                                        v
        Germination                                             50
        Insect pests                                            50
        Diseases                                                51
        Water use                                               51
        Crop husbandry                                          51
        Production areas                                        51
        Yields of nut, shell and copra                          52
        Utilisation                                             52

Macadamia Nut                                                   55
        Introduction                                            55
        Selection, breeding and varieties                       55
        Plant nutrients and soil conditions                     56
        Propagation                                             56
        Growth regulators and nut yield                         56
        Spacing, pruning and training of macadamia              57
        Inter-cropping                                          57
        Insect pests                                            57
        Diseases                                                57
        Quality                                                 57
        General information on macadamia                        58

Other Oil Crops                                                 59
        Oyster nut (Telfairia pedata)                           59
        Yeheb nut (Cordeauxia edulis)                           59
        Bambara nut (Vigna subterranea)                         59
        Perilla (Perilla frutescens)                            59
        Essential oils                                          59
        Tung (Aleurites fordii, A. montana)                     60
        Non-conventional vegetable oils for fuel in Kenya       61



                                          Tables

        Table 1. Records in the database on variety testing     62
        Table 2. Records in the database on fertiliser trials   65
        Table 3. Variety trials on soya bean                    66




vi
                                           Preface
    These reviews have been produced as part of the Kenya Agricultural Research Database Project
which was funded by the Netherlands government over the years 1992 to 1996. The aim of the project
was to document all investigations and research related to agriculture in Kenya undertaken since the
end of the last century, especially those items which had not been published. The computerised
database now contains around 40,000 records, most of which contain abstracts or summaries, full
bibliographic details, and information about where the documents can be found. We are conscious
however, that many items have not yet been included, especially the earlier material and many
consultancy reports produced by foreign and international donor, development, and research
organisations. Specialists who read the reviews may be aware of important topics which have been
omitted by the reviewer. If this is the case, we would ask that both the reviewer and KARI‟s Library
and Information Services be informed so that the topic can be included in future revisions. Constant
up-date will be required as new research information becomes available with the National
Agricultural Research System in Kenya.
    The central database (KARD) is available in the Library and Information Services unit at the
Headquarters of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute. Copies are also held on computers in the
libraries at the KARI research centres in Muguga, Embu, Katumani, Mtwapa, Kitale, Njoro and Homa
Bay. There are also extra copies available at the National Agricultural Research Laboratories and the
Agricultural Information Centre. It is hoped that use will be made of this database by both public and
private researchers.
    Although the Centre for Arid Zone Studies at the University of Wales in Bangor has acted as the
technical “backstopping” organisation, the project has relied primarily on the work of Kenyan
scientists who wrote the abstracts, edited them and managed the database. The opinions included are
those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the editors, KARI or CAZS. The
project has used the database as the primary source for the production of this series of research
reviews which, we hope, will provide insight into the past research and hopefully point out areas
where future work should be focussed, not only to the advancement of agricultural research in Kenya
and the region, but perhaps more importantly, through promoting cost-effective research, to the
national economy and the well-being and productivity of the nations‟ farmers.

                                                                                          CG Nderitu
                                                                                      Director, KARI
                                                                                              Nairobi
                                                                                               Kenya

                                                                                        January 1996




                                                                                                   vii
                         Explanatory note on the establishment of KARI

       Although KARI was established in 1979 through an amendment to The Science and
       Technology Act (Cap 250), it was not until 1989 that all relevant National Research
       Stations had been consolidated under one management. The description of KARI on
       the back cover of this review should be read in the light of this.

       Dr A M Mailu
       Deputy Director




viii
                                Acknowledgements
    As always, it would be impossible to mention everyone who has contributed to the success of the
project. However I would particularly like to thank the Project Manager in Kenya, Dr. A.M. Mailu,
Deputy Director (Crops) of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute who has provided guidance to
the project and help in overcoming logistical problems, especially in looking for staff to compile and
manage the database. I would like personally to thank all those past and present members of the
database unit who have helped with the compilation and management of the database, especially the
information officers: Ms Angela Kabiru, Mr John Lugovane, Ms Mary Gachihi, Mrs Jane Ireri, Ms
Jacinta Kimwaki, Ms Irene Onyancha and Ms Vivien Ndhoha, and the data entry clerks: Mrs Pauline
Mburu, Mrs Hannah Mwauro, Mrs Margaret Wambale, Mrs Lydia Kibira and (occasionally) Mrs
Philomena Kaudo and Mr Peterson Ndirangu. I should also like to thank all the scientists who wrote
abstracts for the database, the editors who corrected them and the scientists who have written reviews
in the series.
    I am also grateful to Dr AG Chamberlain for his many contributions to the project organisation
and especially the development of guidelines for writing and editing of both the abstracts and the
reviews; to Mr RA Tyler for technical and editorial assistance up to the end of 1996; to T Looms for
desk top publishing of reviews published after January 1997; to Dr EM Young for doing much of the
final editing work for the reviews, and to our finance team who have kept the project accounts. Dr WI
Robinson, the Director of the Centre for Arid Zone Studies, should also be mentioned for his guidance
and strategic involvement in the project.
    Finally, both the Centre for Arid Zone Studies and the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute
would like to express their great appreciation to the government of the Netherlands for funding this
project and also to the staff of the aid section of the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Nairobi for
encouragement, patience with our reporting and requests for extensions, and for their logistical
support.



                                                                                           Paul Smith
                                                                              Project Liaison Officer
                                                                         Centre for Arid Zone Studies
                                                                                  University of Wales
                                                                                          Bangor, UK

                                                                                       February 1997




                                                                                                    ix
                                            Notes

   Documents quoted from the KARD database have been referred to by their internal 5 or 6 digit
acquisition number. The full citation for these references can be obtained by contacting one of the
KARI sites with the database. Other references, not contained within the KARD database when the
reviews were commissioned have been cited in the footnotes of the main text of the review.
   As of February 1996, KARI sites where the KARD database can be accessed are as follows:

KARI headquarters, P.O. Box 57811, Nairobi, Kenya
National Agricultural Research Laboratories, P.O. Box 57811, Nairobi, Kenya
Regional Research Centre, Embu, P.O. Box 27, Embu, Kenya
National Agricultural Research Centre, Muguga, P.O. Box 30148, Nairobi, Kenya
Regional Research Centre, Mtwapa, P.O. Box 16, Kikambala, Kenya
National Agricultural Research Centre, Kitale, P.O. Box 450, Kitale, Kenya
National Plant Breeding Research Centre, P.O. Njoro, Njoro, Kenya
National Dryland Farming Research Centre, P.O. Box 340, Katumani, Kenya
Kenya National Fibre Research Centre, Kibos, P.O.Box 1490, Kisumu, Kenya



Alternatively, the KARD database can also be consulted via :

Centre for Arid Zone Studies, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2UW
Tel: (+44) 1248 382346
Fax: (+44) 1248 364717
E-mail: Cazs@Bangor.ac.uk




x
                                       Introduction
    The development of the oil crop industry in    be increased threefold if they adopted
Kenya has been of considerable importance to       scientifically       developed         appropriate
the country's economy. Kenya is currently          technologies. Prioritisation of oilseed crop
importing over 95% of her vegetable oil            research programmes would greatly facilitate
requirements at a cost of US $ 90 million          and accelerate the generation of production
annually. The consumption of edible oils has       technologies, especially so for those crops
grown at about 13% per annum in recent years       which hitherto have not been accorded priority
but production of oilseeds has been declining      as subjects for research.
since the mid-1980s. Record high yields were           It is evident that the creation of an enabling
registered in 1987 from a cropped area of          policy to favour oilseeds producers,
113,000 hectares and 70,000 tons of oilseed        manufacturers and consumers will play a
were produced. Corresponding figures for           major role in promoting the oilseed crops
1993 were 59,486 hectares and 43,361 tonnes.       industry.
At a population growth of about 3.4% per               Much of the information given in the
annum, it is estimated that Kenya will need        following review has been obtained from
approximately 250,000 metric tonnes edible         summaries of the various research report
oils, 200,000 tonnes of oilseed cake and an        submitted by the Kenya Agricultural Research
additional 500,000 tonnes for other (industrial)   Institute Database (KARD) to the reviewer. It
purposes by the turn of the century. This          is important to note that more information on
demand can only be achieved by shifting to         research might have been included and that
domestic production and processing of              sources of information other than those
vegetable oils.                                    provided might have been consulted. However,
    Kenya has suitable agro-ecological zones       owing to lack of funds and time this has not
with potential for the cultivation of various      been possible and in consequence the review
oilseed crops, nuts and essential oil crops. In    that follows is essentially an account of studies
areas where meaningful research has been           on oil crops that can be found within the
carried out, it has been established that the      KARD database.
presently low yields attained by farmers could
                                       Groundnut

Introduction                                            Inter-varietal crosses of groundnuts were
                                                    made in 1954 with the objective of combining
    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of       the desirable traits of the cultivar Natal Common,
the leguminous oil crops. Synonyms for the          with seed dormancy and other characters
groundnut are earthnut, Manila nut, Chinese nut,    associated with other varieties (Mwitunde,
Goober nut and Peanut. It is a member of the        Matarere, Nambiquares). Crosses were made
Papilionacea family which is the largest and the    between Natal Common and the above varieties.
most important of the three divisions of            Further studies on the F1 obtained from the above
Leguminosae. A large number of wild species are     seeds showed that the testa were important
known to exist in eastern South America, where      factors in determining retention of dormancy
it probably originated. The earliest cultivation    (04562).
was in the pre-Columbian native societies of            Results on the performance of three
Peru between 2000 and 3000 BC. However,             groundnut diploids in 1953 and 1954 are
Africa can be regarded as a substantial centre of   highlighted. Use of colchicine in agar, applied to
diversity.                                          the growing point of Arachis prostrata are
    In Kenya, groundnut production has been         indicated and factors that constrained colchicine
carried out since the beginning of this century.    work with A. glabrata and A. diogoi are
The main growing areas are in the Western and       mentioned (03738; 14).
Nyanza Provinces but patches of cultivation are         Studies in 1981 (229678) showed the
scattered in other provinces. Climatic and soil     relationship between cell size, cell number and
conditions must be taken into account for the       the distance from the root tip to the region of
growing of the crop, which is a labour intensive    phloem initiation in groundnuts.
process. In most homesteads, groundnut is famed         An approach to genetic improvement for
for its confectionery values. As for production     adaptation to drought of species cultivated in
needs, scientists are expected to come up with      semi-arid zones of Senegal was reported in 1988
comprehensive production packages related to        (201983). Other reports on the status of
specific agro-ecological zones of Kenya and with    groundnut production and improvement in
the most productive cultivars so as to make         eastern and central African region and the Indian
groundnut production economical.                    Sub-Continent were highlighted in different
                                                    international fora (202109; 202110; 202627).
                                                        Results from studies on practical application
Plant selection and breeding                        of groundnut mutation breeding in Uganda
                                                    between 1987-90 were highlighted in the
   Groundnut selection work at Kibarani, Coast      International Symposium on the Contribution of
Province in 1942 (00455) involved raising           Plant Mutation Breeding to Crop Improvement
groundnut strains resistant to the wilt disease.    held in Vienna, Austria (200391; 239272;
Selection succeeded and groundnuts were grown       240826).
economically in the coastal region. Germination
and nut weight were found to be closely
correlated.                                         Variety testing trials
   Attempts to breed groundnuts by inter-
specific crossings between A. hypogaea and A.          The importance attached to varietal
diogoi proved impossible according to results       adaptability tests is that they have proved very
reported in 1952 (14868) from Amani Research        useful in selecting cultivars that are adapted to
Station, Tanzania.                                  specific agro-climatic conditions of Kenya.
                                                    Groundnut was introduced in Coast Province at
                                               Groundnut                                               3

Mazeras in 1912 (33298; 33299). As early as               Under irrigated conditions at Hola,
1912, it was reported (32738) that groundnut          Manipintar performed well according to the
production had started to decline in Maragoli and     results obtained form a trial in 1981 (22183) and
Kakamega areas, while at the same time, farmers       1983 (19853). Elsewhere, several reports (02832;
in the Kano Plains commenced producing the            133; 02797; 13913; 33501; 04715) all indicated
crop. By 1955, results from a variety testing trial   that Manipintar was perhaps the dominating
at Kibos helped in the identification of cultivar     cultivar in Kenya's groundnut growing areas.
Homa Bay as the highest yielder (17121). In a             In 1972, a trial was planted at Homa Bay to
similar trial in 1958, cultivars UA/32, S-720 and     test the suitability of groundnuts introduced from
Nyanza Local (Njugu Machon) were the highest          Uganda. The yields were too low (less than 1157
seed yielders (9281). In a 1959 report on a           kg/ha) and therefore none of the introductions
variety trial done at Kitale RRC, cultivar Asiriye    was recommended for the area (22118).
Mwitunde was identified as the best variety for           Manipintar was the highest yielder (2340
the area. In 1960, groundnut variety observation      kg/ha) whereas Serere-116 was the lowest (130
trials at Embu RRC identified the bunch-type          kg/ha) as reported in 1972 (33870) from a trial at
cultivar, B-735, as the most suitable one for the     six different sites. Results from trials between
area (16468) whereas in 1991, ICGVSM-87064            1973-89 by Kakamega RRC, also indicated the
yielded the highest (17136). High yielding            superiority of Manipintar, Makulu Red, Serere-
cultivars were identified for specific areas from     116 and Homa Bay (01111; 17371; 20079).
the results of variety trials conducted by                Selection of an area and further identification
Kakamega RRC from 1965-67 (06418; 06448).             of the surrounding areas for groundnuts
The varieties were Manipintar (for Bondo and          production is at times determined by using
Busia areas) and Red Valencia (for Bungoma).          results obtained from variety testing trials as was
Cultivar Manipintar, a comparatively recent           done in 1975 whereby Oyani and Homa Bay
introduction to Kenya, was recommended for            were identified as potential groundnut producing
growing in the coastal region according to a          areas (11231; 11536; 12047).
report in 1966 (03924; 10607). By 1969 it was             Results from a 1973 variety testing trial
reported (16036; 16543) that cultivar Homa Bay        helped in identifying suitable strains for use in
was equally suitable for growing in the same          Western Kenya (124; 20076).
region. Cultivar Asiriye Mwitunde was reported            Results from a variety trial at Oyani Ndhiwa
to be the highest yielder in Kisii (10737) while      and Rongo Divisions in 1978 involving different
the yielding superiority of Manipintar continued      groundnut cultivars showed that there was a
to be confirmed by Kisii RRC as reported in           variety - site interaction and it was therefore
1966 (028037; 06377) and 1984 (06372). The            recommended that farmers be encouraged to
cultivar also yielded the highest in Busia and        grow the varieties highest yielding in their
Bungoma in 1969 (14423), and at Kakamega in           particular locality (476).
1985 (754; 32228). It appears that Manipintar             Cultivars grown in Kenya fall into three
was the leading cultivar in terms of its yields as    groups of groundnuts namely Virginia, Spanish
well as wide adaptability according to the            and Valencia types (00865). All have different
numerous published reports on the varietal tests      kernel yielding levels as was shown in 1979 at
in Kenya from early 1960s. In 1969, a groundnut       Kakamega RRC where varieties from all the
variety testing trial involving 12 cultivars was      three groups were tested for yields. The yields
planted at Sangalo and Busia. In several trials,      were as follows: Red Valencia (2625 kg/ha),
the cultivar Manipintar yielded the highest with      Serere-116 (2253 kg/ha) Texas Peanut (2400
yields between 1100 kg/ha reported (01361) and        kg/ha), Homa Bay (2928 kg/ha) Bukene (2287
In a 1970 trial, (01367), 1717 kg/ha. Similar         kg/ha), Manipintar (3613 kg/ha) and Makulu Red
observations were made in 1969 (17061) and            (3544 kg/ha). The latter two significantly out-
1972 (01371) at Kakamega RRC. In 1981,                yielded Altika (1481 kg/ha). Variations in the
Manipintar was the highest yielder followed by        number of days to maturity were also studied.
Makulu Red (01387). This confirmed the earlier        Further work on Virginia group was reported in
findings of 1968 (0332; 01680) and 1987 (103).        1992 by Kakamega RRC (31422).
This cultivar was also rated the highest at               Kisii RRC tested several cultivars in a variety
Sangalo and Busia in 1987 (100; 32953).               trial that was conducted between 1980 and 1982
                                                      at Oyani (001406). Those tested included
4                                                Groundnut

Imported Spanish, Nganda Star, Serere-116,              Research on spacing
Manipintar, Makulu Red, Early Rumer, New
Mexican Valencia, Span Cross, Argentina and
                                                            In 1966, results from Kakamega showed that
Dixie Spanish. Performance of the tested
                                                        the best spacing was 45 x 5 cm followed by 30 x
cultivars was however not mentioned. In another
                                                        10 cm (6314; 21902). The 45 x 10 cm spacing
variety trial done in the same area, Asiriye
                                                        was also found to be the best by Kakamega RRC
Mwitunde out-yielded the other cultivars
                                                        in 1969 (300005; 17062) and in 1971 (137) for
(22117). Similar trials and their importance were
                                                        Busia and Sangalo areas. In a spacing trial at
highlighted elsewhere (01818; 01700). It was
                                                        Kakamega in 1969, the inter-row spacings of 10,
reported (33498) that Makulu Red yielded
                                                        20 and 30 cm were studied. Using three
significantly more than all the tested varieties in
                                                        groundnut cultivars at Marachi and Sangalo, it
a trial that was carried out at Kakamega in 1988.
                                                        was found that the best spacing was 30 x 10 cm
On the other hand, the highest unshelled nut-
                                                        (01370). Significant interaction between the
weight of 3,133 kg/ha was reported as having
                                                        varieties and intra-row spacings was recorded in
been obtained from variety Nganda Star at
                                                        a similar trial done in 1972 at Sangalo (19667).
Mtwapa in 1990 (33489). A progress report on
                                                        Detailed results on fertiliser spacing trials
the production of groundnuts presented in the
                                                        between 1969 and 1972 by Kakamega RRC were
1983 workshop on crop improvement in Eastern
                                                        reported (013716; 01382). Other crops included
and Southern Africa, in Nairobi, highlighted the
                                                        in the study were sesame, kenaf, finger millet,
varieties grown in the region (100002).
                                                        maize, papaws, sweet potatoes, beans and
                                                        bananas. Further work on groundnut spacing
                                                        trials at Kakamega Busia and Sangalo in 1970
Spacing and plant population                            (01494) and in 1980 (01496) showed that the 45
                                                        x 10 cm spacing proved the best for cultivars.
    The importance of planting groundnut at the
                                                        Red Valencia and Manipintar. In another trial
required seed rate to obtain optimum plant
                                                        reported from Kakamega in 1980 (00862) to
population is well understood. Spacing of the
                                                        study the interaction between the spacing, plant
plants in the required geometrical formation has
                                                        population and the varieties, it was established
a direct bearing on the yielding levels of the
                                                        that the spacing of 45 x 8 cm was the best for the
cultivar(s) being grown. Each of the groundnut
                                                        site for cultivars Red Valencia, Serere-116 and
types namely (Valencia, Virginia or the Spanish
                                                        Bukene. The findings were in agreement with
type) requires an established spacing pattern
                                                        earlier investigations cited by the authors.
which is in turn, influenced, by the prevailing
soil moisture, type of soil and levels of the               Results obtained at Kakamega in 1972
available nutrients. Researchers in Kenya have          (933872) showed that there was an interaction
addressed themselves to solving this problem and        between the sites and varieties. When conducting
have come up with specific recommendations on           variety testing trials at Oyani and Kisii between
the spacing required for some of the groundnuts         1980-82, the RRC used the 45 x 10 cm spacing
production areas. As new, high yielding varieties       (001406) which was also used by Kakamega
continue to be found, and new growing areas are         RRC in 1990 (01032). A spacing trial was begun
established, the need to conduct more research in       at Kakamega in 1982 (02767) to find the
this area is justified. Presently, the issue of plant   optimum planting spacings for cultivars Red
population and spacing for groundnuts is not            Valencia (bunch type) and Homa Bay (spreader
such a serious production limiting factor when          type) under different inter-row and intra-row
compared to other agronomic issues.                     spacings (60, 45 and 30 cm) and (8, 10, 14 cm).
    A population of between 100,000 and 120,000         By 1983, the same centre recommended the 30-
plants per hectare (80 - 100 kg seed /ha) is            40 cm x 8-10 cm spacings as the best for Red
recommended for the bunch types while the               Valencia (01973). Other trials in 1975 by Kisii
spreading types require a population of 50,000 to       RRC in South Nyanza District established that
60,000 plants per hectare (40 -50 kg/ha). The           the 45 x 10 cm spacing was ideal for the Kisii
spacing of 45 x 10 cm was found to be the most          area (11228; 11230; 11802). For the Homa Bay
suitable compromise for the two types across the        area, the highest yields were obtained from the
country although the spreading types could              inter-row spacing of 30 cm and not from those of
benefit from wider spacing.                             60 and 45 cm according to another report (6355)
                                               Groundnut                                               5

compiled in 1975. The spacing of 60 x 10 cm           nutrient needs for groundnuts was started in the
was used in 1991 in a variety trial at Mtwapa         mid-1960s. Information obtained from the
(19671) during which 3133 kg/ha of unshelled          research clearly shows that much remains to be
nuts from the cv. Star was recorded.                  done in this field in order to establish the
                                                      fertiliser types, rates and times of application,
                                                      and their suitability for specific agro-ecological
Time of planting                                      areas of the country. It will also be prudent to
                                                      give concrete recommendations specific for the
    Timely planting is important so that the crop     type of groundnut being grown in such areas.
grows to a planned time schedule that optimises           Perhaps liming was the first attempt to
the use of available rainfall and allows it to be     increase groundnut yields in 1965 (06814) but it
harvested under favourable weather conditions.        was reported that no significant impact was
Pre-planning is also important for the                noticed. Several reports on experiments by Kisii
optimisation of labour utilisation. Results from      RRC showed similar results (17868; 21941;
experimental work to establish the best planting      34714). Kakamega RRC conducted a trial to
time indicated that there are advantages in early     investigate interactions between the varieties and
planting as it culminates in high seed yields         triple superphosphate, but no significant
being obtained in all groundnut producing areas.      differences were found between the treatments
Results obtained in 1966 (19250; 300006) from         (06704). Other reports (22119; 32970; 33500;
variety trials led to high yields being obtained in   33504) confirmed the same. Studies on the
Western and Nyanza Provinces. Studies in 1968         effects of lime application were carried out at
to establish the best time of planting groundnut at   Matuga in 1973 (11049), further reports from the
Sangalo, also showed that early planting resulted     same location (11857) and from Oyani (31627;
in the attainment of high yields (01682). Similar     31705; 31726; 31774) between 1971-73 once
results were obtained in 1973 confirming the          again showed that no significant differences were
same for the Sangalo and Alupe areas (03982).         obtained between the treatments. Results from a
The need to plant early to achieve high yields        trial to study the effect of NPK and calcium at
was supported by results from a variety trial         Sangalo (Bungoma) on groundnut yields
conducted in 1977 at Kisii (05208). Early             conducted in 1969 by Kakamega RRC using
plantings gave higher yields than the late ones       different rates of double superphosphate (0 and 500
according to two reports (06463; 15955).              kg/ha), agricultural lime (0 and 200 kg/ha) and
Decrease in yields was noted when planting time       muriate of potash (0 and 140 kg/ha) showed that
was delayed (06418) at Kisii. In 1973, late           fertilisers produced positive responses for yields
planting reduced the yields at Alupe and Sangalo      (17063; 01364).
(20086). It was established in 1973 (06292) by            In a variety and fertiliser trial in 1972 at
Kisii RRC that timely planting ensures                Bungoma, Bunyala and Sangalo (33861) where
availability of enough soil moisture to facilitate    P2O5 (in form of single superphosphate) was applied
plants growth.                                        at 0, 250 and 500 kg/ha. Cultivars Makulu Red
                                                      yielded the highest, followed by Manipintar and
                                                      Homa Bay. The best fertiliser rates were 250
                                                      kg/ha for single superphosphate and 66 kg/ha for
Fertiliser application and nutrient                   muriate of potash. Different conclusions were
needs                                                 reported (34168) from Hola in 1981 when it was
                                                      indicated that there was no need of applying both
    It has been established that application of       P2O5 and K2O at the site when growing
nitrogen phosphorus, potassium and to some            groundnuts. When conducting variety trials
extent sulphur to groundnut crop, whether singly      between 1980-82 at Oyani, Kisii RRC applied
or in different combinations, leads to increased      P2O5 at the rate of 60 kg/ha. (001406). The same
yields. Effectiveness of the applied nutrients is     rate was applied in similar trials elsewhere
largely determined by the soil type, the soils pH,    (01695). Studies on the effect of application of
temperature, texture, moisture, micro-elements        gypsum and triple-phosphate on groundnut were
present in the soil, trace elements and bio-          undertaken in Kakamega and findings reported in
organisms present in the soil, among others.          1980 (00861). The cultivars used in the studies
Research work in Kenya on fertiliser use and          on the were Red Valencia and Homa Bay and
6                                               Groundnut

results showed no effect or interaction due to         treatments. The rates used were 0, 20 and 40
phosphorus and calcium. The researchers felt           kg/ha. for N; 0, 40 and 60 kg/ha for P2O5 and 20
that the high soil acidity (pH 4.6) could have         and 40 kg/ha for K2O. Results from trials in
lowered phosphorus availability due to fixation.       Kakamega in 1968 (132; 02744) showed that no
Similar observations were made from studies in         benefits were achieved by applying 200 kg of
Coast Province between 1980 (02090) and 1984           single superphosphate and 100 kg sulphate of
(02792). Results from studies to find the effect of    ammonia per hectare in any of the combinations
phosphorus and calcium in 1970 at Kakamega             used. In the same year, an FAO programme on
RRC (0093) showed no response to the fertilisers       fertiliser use was started in Kenya and groundnut
by the varieties tested (01899; 01902; 01975). It      was among the crops included in the studies
was also reported (01102) that no significant          (02659). Further work done by FAO and SIDA
differences were shown in results from the 1990        on production and harvesting of groundnut was
trial to find the effect of soil fertility levels on   given during the technical conferences an
growth and yield performance of four groundnut         groundnuts held in Nairobi in 1987 (239592).
cultivars planted in Ukwala, Siaya. Studies in             Application of different levels of NPK at
1973 at Matuga in Coast Province, involving            Oyani and Homa Bay (06294) in 1973 showed
cultivars Natal Common and Homa Bay, showed            no significant differences between the
that lack of fertiliser application to these           treatments.
cultivars led to increased percentages of empty            According to the 1982 results from a trial to
pods (01187), particularly in Natal Common.            determine the appropriate fertiliser rates and
Results from trials done in Kakamega between           application methods of triple superphosphate it
1980-84 to establish the effects of triple-            was shown that there was an interaction amongst
superphosphate (TSP) and gypsum applications           the varieties, triple superphosphate placement
to groundnuts (01476; 139) showed that                 and the rates (02737).
combination of TSP (at 400 kg/ha) and gypsum               The importance of sulphur in increasing
(at 600 kg/ha) to cv. Red Valencia spaced at 45 x      groundnut yields was shown in 1989 (04163;
10 cm gave the highest yield. However, lower           32787) from results obtained on trials at Mtwapa,
rates of application of TSP (200 kg/ha) and            Matuga and Msabaha. Though no statistically
gypsum (200 kg/ha) gave the highest yields             significant responses were shown at any of the
(1704 kg/ha) of dry pod weight from cv. Homa           sites, it was observed that application of 10 kg/ha
Bay at Boro (01477). Results reported in 1985          of S increased the yields somewhat.
(753) from Kakamega, stated that gypsum had no             Results from a 1977 trial to find the effect of
significant effect on the yields. Results from a       P and K on groundnut yields at Oyani and Homa
1970 trial to investigate the effects of N, P and      Bay showed no significant differences between
lime at Kakamega, Busia, Sangalo and Bondo             the treatments but that higher rates of each
(01478) showed no significant differences in           element tended to decrease the yields (05210).
yields between the treatments. Other results of        Application of P2O5 and K2O at the rate of 80
1972 (18406; 01489), 1981 (01490) and 1987             kg/ha. of each, was recommended for the Homa
(12556) reported from Kakamega showed                  Bay area. Similar results were reported
inconsistency in yielding levels of the cultivars      elsewhere (11233; 11288). Application of 450
tested, when subjected to equal fertiliser             kg/ha of single superphosphate improved
application rates whether in the same or different     shelling at Kakamega RRC in 1986 (14154).
sites.                                                     Results from a fertiliser trial in 1971 at
    Results from a trial to find the effects of N      Vihiga (33531) Chekalini (33534) Sangalo
and P in 1968 at Kakamega (01681) showed that          (33537) and Bondo (33538; 33597) involving
no beneficial trends were noticed on the crop          various quantities of phosphorus and 0, 500 and
from the elements applied. However, it was             1000 kg/ha of lime, showed that modest
reported in 1987 (34589, 34592) that groundnuts        application of phosphorus was useful in soils
benefited from the application of artificial           with low levels of phosphorus. However, the
phosphate at Sangalo. Nitrogen was observed to         results were variable from site to site and no
be necessary during the first month of growth          useful recommendations were made. Reports
according to 1971 findings (558) at Kisii. Results     given in 1981 (33539; 33596; 33638; 33639)
from an NPK trial done at Busia FTC (02585)            from trials to find the effects of applying
showed no significant differences between the          phosphate and gypsum applied at rates of 0, 200,
                                               Groundnut                                               7

400 and 600 kg/ha on groundnuts indicated that        several researchers (22181; 242901.) Results
high seed yields were obtained at applications of     from studies in 1973 at Ahero Irrigation Scheme
between 168-250 kg/ha of P2O5 at Bondo and            on the possibilities of growing groundnuts under
Amagoro. Application of gypsum hardly                 irrigation were highlighted (243359; 243360).
influenced the yields. Results from trials done in    Similar work was done at Hola (32457; 32460)
Hola in 1981 on the application of phosphatic         in 1980. From Uganda it was reported (300497)
and potassium fertilisers on groundnuts showed        that groundnuts was grown in rotation with other
no benefits in applying the two elements at the       crops in 1976. The first experiment on the
site (34168). However, results from a similar         rotation and inter-cropping of maize and
trial at Ndhiwa (S. Nyanza) in 1978 showed that       groundnut was in 1978 at Kisii RRC (05145) but
application of phosphorous at 40 kg/ha.               no significant differences were obtained from the
substantially increased the yields (471). Further     treatments. Results from a maize and groundnut
studies at Kakamega were carried out in 1991          inter-cropping trial in 1984 at Kakamega using
(32947) but no conclusions were made as the           groundnut cultivar Red Valencia, and Maize cv.
data obtained was found to be erratic.                Hybrid 625, demonstrated that it was
    Use of farmyard manure in groundnut               advantageous to grow maize and groundnuts as
growing was recommended in 1969 in Uganda             inter-crops (05735). This was however
(300303) whereby yields were increased by 8%.         contradicted by results obtained in 1985 (764) at
This increase favourably compared with the ones       the same centre which indicated that maize
obtained from complete applications of NPK.           adversely affected yields of groundnut when
Similar results from two 9-year trials to find the    inter-cropped. The latter finding supported
effects of fertilisers, farmyard manure and leys at   results obtained earlier at Kisii in 1979 (473). In
Mwanhala, Tanzania, in 1971, involving a maize-       a cotton and legume inter-cropping trial in 1978
groundnut inter-crop showed the advantages of         at Kibos and Alupe (06024), groundnut was
using nitrogen, phosphorus and farmyard               among the crops whose performance was
manure. They significantly increased the yields       investigated. Possibilities of inter-cropping
of maize and groundnuts (300300).                     groundnut with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and
                                                      tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were studied in
                                                      1979 at Rongo and Oyani (475). It was
Cropping system                                       concluded that both tobacco and groundnut could
                                                      be inter-cropped with beans but beans performed
    Growing of groundnuts as a cash crop in           better when planted as a pure stand. Results
areas around Kibos where forests were being           obtained at Lake Victoria Basin by ICIPE in a
established was recommended in 1914 (33243;           banana-based integrated pest management trial,
11973) and in 1915 (33164). Groundnut grown           showed that groundnut inter-cropped with
as a catch crop in a coffee field yielded half of     bananas yielded poorly when the bananas were
the expected yields as reported in 1916 (34269).      spaced at 3 x 3 m. Yields were however, higher
In 1939, growing of groundnut in rotation with        from the 5 x 5 m spacings (33481). Shelled nut
other crops was being practised in Tanzania           yields of 4 t/ha were obtained by the National
(300266) Planting groundnut in raised ridges          Irrigation Board at Hola and Bura Irrigation
provided advantages at Homa Bay in 1954               Schemes in 1984 (11970). Furrow irrigation,
(20953). Results showed that groundnut planted        though useful in overcoming water shortage,
on a 1 metre and 1.7 metre tie-ridging system         prolonged the growing period of the crop
gave equal yields and yielded significantly more      (21179). A trial at Hola in 1985 (11069)
than those planted in flat ground.                    investigating the possibility of growing
    Elsewhere (06470; 12976) ridging was not          groundnut under irrigation indicated that the crop
found to be beneficial to the groundnut except        grew well when given nine irrigation
that it eased the lifting of the crop at harvest.     applications and when weeded four times.
Groundnuts grew well when inter-planted with
cotton at Kibos in 1955 (17100) but this was
contradicted in later findings (13144). The need      Diseases
to undertake feasibility studies and land
evaluation to assess possibility of growing any          Groundnut is a host to several diseases.
crop, including groundnuts, were mentioned by         Perhaps the most important one is the rosette
8                                              Groundnut

viral disease. Others are fungal and bacterial        from a trial investigating levels of resistance
diseases.                                             against the rosette virus using the Uganda rosette
    Bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum)         resistant cultivars at Busia, Sangalo and Boro
was reported in 1931 (17472) at the coast and by      showed that all the cultivars were attacked by the
1938, it was reported (241643) from Uganda that       virus as reported in 1969 (01372).
it caused serious losses to groundnut yields in the       The above report was however contradicted
areas around Lake Victoria. Its mode of               in 1970 (00932) when it was reported that
transmission at that time was not well understood     although poor kernel yields (less than 600 kg/ha)
and it was recommended that further studies be        were obtained from the 10 cultivars from Uganda
undertaken.                                           tested at Kakamega, the cultivars were found to
    Aphids were found to be the transmitters of       be resistant to rosette and leaf spot. Similar
the rosette virus disease and they had to be          findings were made in 1972 (33871) at the same
controlled. Information showing that use of           centre.
systemic insecticides could not deter aphids from         Studies carried out at the EAAFRO, Muguga
transmitting rosette virus disease from the           and at the Glasshouse Crops Research Institute,
insecticide-treated rosette infected plants. The      England, to isolate the virus causing "rosette
earliest review of the virus diseases of groundnut    moulting" in groundnuts, were reported in 1969
was in 1952 (03528) at EAAFRO, Muguga.                (00543). Although high technology was
Attempts to transmit the rosette virus from           employed during the studies, it was not possible
groundnuts to other legume crops are mentioned        to isolate the viruses. The importance attached to
and it was established that winged aphids were        the groundnut-disease causing viruses, mode of
more responsible for transmitting the disease         disease transmission, and the isolation methods
than the wingless ones through studies conducted      used to obtain the respective strains of the
in 1952 (29) and 1953 (51).                           viruses were highlighted in several reports
    Rust (Puccinia polysora) was reported to          (13024; 13025; 13059) between 1972-1976.
have attacked groundnuts in Tanzania in 1953          Relationships      between     the   viruses    of
(14191). Leaf spot (Cercospora personata and C.       measurements 650 and 750 mm have been cited.
arachidicola) were also identified as important       Mention has also been made of the serological
diseases on groundnuts. Studies on resistance to      relationship between the North American peanut
leaf-spot established that several cultivars          mottle virus and the East African peanut virus.
possessed the resistance, according to results        The results also showed that all the East African
obtained from studies at EAAFRO, Muguga               peanut and soya bean isolates were identical
(03659). The study also examined the relative         (13609; 13612; 230838). The ability of the
prevalence of the two Cercospora spp. on the          cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV) to infect and
crop. Cultivars Barberton and Natal Common            cause serious damage to groundnut was
were seriously affected by Cercospora personata       highlighted in 1975 by Mtwapa RRC (04101;
at Matuga in 1955 (17099). In the 1955                12663) in studies involving rosette resistant
EAAFRO Annual Report (04135), a two-year              varieties from Malawi.
work involving the use of cultivars Mwitunde              It was also established that CMMV did not
and Kanyoma in the control of rosette virus was       occur in areas west of the Rift Valley.
described. Healthy plants were infested with          Inoculation methods applied in 1957 using mottle
ineffective aphids and the course of the disease      virus initially separated from a form of
followed. Attack of groundnut by rosette virus        groundnut rosette virus proved partially
was noticed at Homa Bay in 1958 (9787) and            successful in controlling the attack, spread and
1973 (06289) and in 1959 at Kisii (11469).            severity of the rosette virus in the studied
Methods to separate rosette causing viruses, or       groundnut populations (0599). Rosette incidence
virus strains associated with the rosette were        increased with late planting according to the
given in a report in 1967 (03786). Some local         results obtained in 1965 (06463) at Kakamega.
lesion hosts were also mentioned. A virus             Rosette disease and leaf spot were widespread in
infecting species of Crotalaria (C. juncea and C.     1970 at Sangalo and Choweli areas of Bungoma
intermedia) at Kitale was isolated and its particle   District (00937), at Kisii in 1980 (01695) and in
morphology determined (04027). Preliminary            Kendu Bay of South Nyanza in 1981 (02258).
results suggested that the virus was a member of      Rosette disease was reported having attacked
the group attacking groundnuts. Results obtained      groundnut at the coast in 1971 (001577; 13494)
                                             Groundnut                                              9

and at Busia (10709) where the cultivar, Homa       Insect pests and control measures
Bay was heavily attacked. Rosette incidence was
checked by wider spacings, as established by            Nematodes (eelworms) have been found to
Kakamega RRC in 1980 (00847). This however          attack the groundnut crop. An experiment was
contradicts recommendations made in 1949            carried out at Kibos in 1912 (33363) with the
(13505) that denser plant populations helped        aim of finding the best control method. All plants
control the aphids. It was reported that rosette    grew healthily, including those in the control
disease and leaf spot damaged a groundnut           which had been infested with the eelworms. It
variety testing trial at Oyani and Homa Bay FTC     was reported (21178) in 1976 from Hola
in 1977 and 1981 (05208; 09821), and at Oyani       Irrigation Scheme that termites damaged a
between 1980-1982 (001406; 01700). Early            groundnut trial. Aphids attacked a groundnut
planting was recommended as one of the control      variety trial planted at Kakamega RRC in 1980
measures.                                           (00847). Diazinon 60% EC and Endosulfan 35
                                                    EC were tested for control but no significant
    Diseases affecting groundnut production in      differences were observed between the
Coast Province were reported in 1973 (11037) as     treatments. Results from a 1980 trial at
leafspot, groundnut rosette and root-knot           Kakamega on a comparison of aphid population
nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) It was reported        in early and late planted groundnut under spaced
from Kisii RRC that the important diseases          and dense populations, showed that aphids
observed between 1980-82 were the Sclerotinia       preferred areas with low plant densities and the
wilt (S. sclerotiorum), leaf-mottle (Verticillium   unplanted      bare     earth   areas     (05217).
albo-atrum), rosette virus and leafspot             Consequently, it was suggested that control of
(Cercospora personata). The latter two greatly      rosette viral disease in groundnuts could be
reduced groundnut yields (01449). A similar         achieved by planting the crop at the closest
incidence had been reported in 1953 (14191) in      spacing recommended. Leaf-eating caterpillars
Tanzania. Rosette, leaf spot and wilting on         and web-worms were controlled by the
cotton and groundnuts were also observed at         application of Antracol 70% and Thiodan
Kakamega in 1985 (134). Studies in groundnut        (endosulfan) during the crop‟s growth at Hola in
rust in Kenya were reported in 1979 (2301312).      1981 (34164). Fumigation of groundnuts and
Aspergillus spp. were reported as having attacked   soya beans with methyl bromide to prevent
groundnut in Uganda, especially during periods      deterioration resulting from insect attack failed
of drought, according to a 1992 report (242673).    to give useful results (32082). Aphids, thrips and
                                                    giant hoppers attacked both cotton and
                                                    groundnuts at Kakamega RRC in 1985 (134).
                                                    Report of termites destroying a crop of
Control                                             groundnut was reported at Perkerra in 1992
                                                    (13555).
   Control of Cercospora leaf spot of                   When in storage, most oilseeds, including the
groundnuts in Uganda using fungicides was           groundnut, are attacked by a range of insect
reported in 1975 (221384; 2311385) using            pests. The 1958 report (9833) on these listed the
„Menazon‟ (231559; 231949). Leaf spot and leaf      common ones as:
rust were controlled by Atraco-70 (wettable          Tribolium castaneum (which causes the
powder) at Hola in 1982 (13810).                         greatest damage to groundnuts),
    Growing of resistant cultivars is by far the      Oryzaephilus mercator and
most important control method. Studies on field       Necrobia rufipes.
resistance of groundnut to the rosette disease in       The latter two appeared restricted mainly to
1980 by EAAFRO, Muguga at Siaya (14304)             groundnuts and copra.
showed that resistant lines developed from
Nigeria withstood the attack and that the
resistance also operated against the Kenyan         Animal damage
virus. By 1988, resistant peanut varieties for
semi-arid environments had been produced for           It was reported that elephants damaged
some West African countries (200504).               groundnut trials planted at Lake Kenyatta area in
10                                            Groundnut

Coast Province in 1972 (01596). Moles                seasons, especially in areas with acidic sandy
destroyed groundnut trial planted in 1977 at         soils.
Oyani and Homa Bay FTCs (05208) and at                   Two weedings gave satisfactory yields in a
KARI, Muguga, in 1985 (134).                         groundnut variety trial that was carried out at
                                                     Kakamega RRC in 1989 (01032). Planting was in
                                                     March and harvesting in July.
Weeding and weed control
    Weeds take from the soil, plant nutrients and    Seed bulking and storage
water and they compete for sunlight, harbour
diseases and insect pests and lower the yield and        In order to maintain seed viability, groundnut
quality of crops. For realisation of optimum         has been subjected to bulking programmes. In
yields from a crop of groundnut, it is imperative    1975, a groundnut was bulked by Kakamega
that weeds be controlled as recommended.             RRC (01160) and by Perkerra RRC in 1982
    The importance of frequent and clean             (001527) under irrigation.
weeding of groundnut fields was show from a              Sun-drying of groundnuts below 9% moisture
weeding trial that was carried out in Busia          content, followed by storage in air-tight
(011820) All the weeded treatments gave higher       containers in the unshelled state helped maintain
yields than the unweeded control. The first          seed viability for up to 12 months (00847),
reported groundnut weeding trial (01675) was at      according to findings by Kakamega RRC in
Busia in 1963 but no conclusive results were         1980.
obtained. Weeding frequency involving four               The occurrence of storage fungi and the
hand weedings up to peg formation, followed by       mycotoxins associated with them, and the
two hand-pulling of weeds, gave the highest          appropriate storage moisture contents facilitating
kernel yields in a trial carried out in Busia        the growth of the micro-organism, and the
between 1963 and 1964 (01054). The number of         injuries caused by aflatoxins were reported in
hand weedings ranged from 0-6 and the hoe was        1978 (12215). Control of aflatoxins in groundnut
used for the operation. Results from Kakamega        is specifically discussed.
indicated that weeding is the single most
                                                         When grown in the coastal belt of Kakamega,
important operation to give satisfactory yields in
                                                     groundnut shelling percentage was found to be
1965 (06461).
                                                     low. The highest shelling percentage was 57 %
    Results from a trial on five methods of
                                                     according to a report in 1991 (04273).
weeding groundnuts were given in 1981 (02261).
The experiment was carried out by Kisii RRC at
Oyani. The Ochowo-weeding method gave the
highest yields followed by hand weeding. The         Plant physiology and tolerance to
other weeding method treatments included in the      drought
trial were the use of the hoe, fork 'jembe', and
herbicides. Similar results had been obtained            In studies carried out by EAAFRO, Muguga,
earlier in 1966 by Kakamega RRC (06313).             in 1959 to investigate stomatal behaviour under
    In a trial by Kakamega RRC in 1976 to            conditions of drought, it was observed that at the
investigate and make recommendations on the          vegetative growth stage, groundnuts were as
best herbicide for weed control on groundnut, no     drought resistant as sorghum in that its stomata
useful information could be drawn from the           did not entirely close during severe drought
results obtained (21028). The herbicides tested      (12693).
were Lasso 48% EC, Sunoco Crosspray 11-E,                Unshelled seeds germinated equally well as
Atrazine 500 g/l FW and sulphuric acid. Results      the shelled ones in a 1973 trial (136; 19860) by
from a trial on the use of 16 herbicides for weed    Kakamega RRC. The fungicide 'Agrosan' proved
control were reported (0792) but no mention was      useful in controlling a range of seed-borne fungal
made of the findings. Persistence of herbicides      diseases. Sprouting of groundnut when left for
used on maize on a subsequent crop of groundnut      too long in the field was recorded in 1973 at
was studied in Zimbabwe in 1988 (200095). It         Kisii (17866) and Embu RRC (19359).
was found that the herbicide‟s residual effects          Results from studies to find the effect of
adversely affected kernel yields in subsequent       rhizobial inoculation on nodulation, growth and
                                            Groundnut                                            11

yield of groundnut were obtained in 1984           research centres at +5°C. By 1988, about 4,000
(238347), possibly in Uganda. They showed that     accessions of several crops, including
moisture stress during drought periods inhibits    groundnuts, had been characterised and stored
rhizobial activity.                                (242093; 01160).
    Use of the growth regulator „Cytozome‟,
whether applied to the soil, seed or the crop,
showed no significant effects on the yields as     Economics of production
established by Kakamega RRC in 1985 (752).
                                                       Gross margin analyses based on on-farm
                                                   trials in the Cheplambus area by Perkerra RRC in
Germination                                        1992 (13555) showed that farmers made a profit
                                                   of KShs 3744 per hectare when they grew a crop
   Field tests in 1948 at Kisii Research Station   of groundnuts. In order to obtain maximum
to examine the influence of sodium phosphate       yields, optimum plant populations should be
and superphosphate on seeds of several crops       attained as established in the 1991 studies done
including groundnuts. Different rates of the two   in the area (19283). The need for pigeon pea and
chemicals were used. It was found that placement   groundnut research and development as specified
of the fertiliser next to the seed reduced         in Perkerra RRCs mandate was highlighted in
germination of all test crops. The damage was      1990 (32610). Causes for low groundnut
proportional to the level of the dosage (03450)    production were cited, among them the
and was probably caused by the scorching           fluctuating and low producer prices. Similar
(exothermic) heat from the fertilisers.            studies were done for Western Kenya (32612)
                                                   which recommended that in order to boost
                                                   groundnut production, priority should be given to
Gene bank                                          availing producers with an updated appropriate
                                                   production package, credit facilities and co-
    The gene bank of Kenya was initiated in the    ordinated and organised marketing
1983 and became operational in 1988 within the
framework of KARI. It has two long-term cold
stores for base collections which are maintained
at -20°C. Working collections are maintained at
12   Groundnut
                                               Sesame

Introduction                                                An observation trial reported in 1963 by
                                                        Mtwapa RRC (13489), involved 216 lines from
    Sesame, otherwise know as simsim (Sesamum           Tanzania, 9 from the USA and 7 Kenya local
orientale L.) is probably the most ancient oil          types. Results showed that the best yields were
seed crop. It has existed in Egypt for 6,000 years,     from local strains, Kilifi (766 kg/ha) and Mtwapa
in Syria for 5,000 years and in the Indus Valley        (722 kg/ha).
for 4,500 years. Simsim is believed to have                 In a trial to assess the performance of fifty
originated from East Africa, and this is supported      Venezuelan simsim varieties at Mtwapa, none of
by the existence of a very large number of its          the introduced varieties were found suitable to
wild relatives in Africa. It has made its way           replace the local variety "Morada" which yielded
through west Asia to India, China and Japan and         1,262 kg/ha. Planting was in July at the spacing
these countries have become secondary                   of 45 x 15 cm (16394).
distribution centres. In his travels, Marco Polo            A black-seeded simsim variety trial was
referred to the production of sesame oil in             planted in 1981 at Mtwapa (01064) and a similar
Abyssinia (Ethiopia). In Kenya, the first               one of white-seeded varieties at Kakamega RRC
successful commercial planting of simsim was            in 1989 (01101). At both centres, no useful
carried out in 1850 and in 1852, a French               information of the relative merits of cultivars
company opened a branch in Lamu to export               was obtained.
                                                1
simsim (Oil Crops Production Handbook, p.20) .              In a trial at CARS in 1982 involving 43
                                                        cultivars, Segaranthen, Margo Short and
                                                        Avawaka were considered the best (03937).
Variety evaluation trials                                   Evaluation of exotic sesame germplasm was
                                                        made at Kakamega RRC in 1991 (19431) when
    Testing simsim varieties for adaptation and         all cultivars flowered between 47-80 days.
yield performance in prevailing agro-climatic           Variations in height were also noted.
areas is a prerequisite towards achieving higher            All the 20 lines of simsim imported from
commercial yields. Consequently, reports on the         Israel and planted in Mtwapa in 1988 for
various trials undertaken in the country over the       observational purposes (01153) were very short
past years are described below.                         (15 cm) and only 10 produced seed at harvest.
    As early as 1912, a trial of Black, White and       They were generally susceptible to grasshoppers.
Brown varieties was conducted on 0.5 acre plots             In a trial carried out at Mtwapa in 1988, a
near Mombasa (11703; 33359). All were                   local black variety yielded more then a white
harvested after 118 days of growth and yielded          variety. Mean yield ranged from 98 to 517 kg/ha.
134, 100 and 125 kg/ha respectively.                    (01184). The local black variety was
    A 1962 report describes a trial at Mtwapa to        recommended for growing in the coastal area of
compare the performance and adaptability of             Kenya. It also had the highest 1000 seed weight
three South American and one Mexican variety            (4.56 g) but took the longest time to mature (109
against the local variety and an introduced             days).
cultivar from Tanganyika. It was established that           Low seed yields (60-220 kg/ha) were also
the local variety out-yielded all the others (649       obtained from variety testing trials at Homa Bay,
kg/ha), followed closely by "Morada" from               between 1988 and 1990 (02546). The cause of
Tanganyika (18125).                                     these low yields was attributed to long dry spells
                                                        during the growing seasons.
1
                                                            Evaluation of exotic sesame germplasm was
    Sesame. In: Oil Crops Production Handbook. p. 20.   carried out at Kakamega RRC in 1991 (19431;
    A joint KARI/MoA document for Agricultural          32944). All the cultivars tested flowered between
    Extension Officers, 1992.
14                                                Sesame

47- 80 days two lines (CLSU 37 and SPS115/9)           cultivation     methods     for   simsim       were
out-yielded the local check varieties.                 incompatible with their traditional practices.
   The results of a small-scale trial in which             In Coast Province, simsim is often grown as a
comparisons were made between 30 imports               relay crop after a crop of maize or cassava. It is
acquired through the FAO and a local black-            also grown between coconuts and other tree
seeded variety showed the local to yield better        crops or with grain crops such as maize (1172;
than most of the imported strains (71; 457).           19263). Several plant density and fertiliser trials
                                                       have been conducted and a spacing of 45 x 30 cm
                                                       was recommended if fertiliser was used.
Crop improvement                                       However, the traditional method, which did not
                                                       use fertiliser, was also found to yield well, and
    Continuous crop improvement through the            for this a spacing of 60 x 15 cm was advocated.
testing of both locally available and introduced           Results obtained in 1984 from a maize-
germplasm has played an important part in              simsim relay cropping experiment to determine
identifying high yielding cultivars for specific       spacing requirements and the effect of fertiliser
growing areas of the country. Until now, sesame        application on yields showed significantly
improvement has been restricted to plant               different simsim yields, while those of maize did
selection and virtually no breeding work has           not differ between pure stands and the inter-
been undertaken in Kenya. This is possibly due         cropped ones. Relay cropping was recommended
to the fact that very little interest has been taken   as a worthwhile practice (04229).
in simsim, which for years has been considered a
minor crop of little importance compared to the
cereals, tree and tuber crops for high yielding
areas.
                                                       Growing areas and requirements
    The status of simsim production and                    Heavy rains were reported to have damaged a
improvement in Kenya has been reviewed in a            simsim variety trial at Mazeras, Mombasa in
paper entitled "Sesame Improvement in Kenya"           1912 (33300), indicating the susceptibility of the
published in the Proceedings on Expert                 crop to early downpours.
Consultation on Sesame, in Rome, Italy in 1980
                                                           Results from a 1972 study to evaluate the
(229477).
                                                       possibility of growing various crops at Lake
                                                       Kenyatta area of Coast Province showed that the
                                                       simsim could also be grown profitably (01596)
Cropping systems                                       without the application of fertilisers.
    Throughout Kenya, simsim is hardly ever                A simsim variety trial was adversely affected
grown as a pure stand. It is usually inter-cropped     by drought and web worm at Mtwapa in 1991
or inter-planted with maize or cassava, or else        (04249), both of which reduced plant
sown as a relay or catch cash crop. This may be        populations. Similar observations were made at
because the low yields are uneconomical to the         Homa Bay in 1991 for a variety trial in which the
producers. However, little on no inputs to             highest seed yield was 220 kg/ha (19357).
increase production are used by farmers.               Likewise, the cause of low yields from varieties
    In 1912, simsim was recommended as a catch         tested in Homa Bay by Kisii RRC between 1989
crop in Nyanza Province (Kibos) as it has several      to 1990 was attributed to dry spells that prevail
advantages when compared to other crops                during the growing season (02546). Drought and
(32781). Subsequently, cultivation expanded            web worm had deleterious effects at Mtwapa in
from Nyanza to the Maragoli area in the Western        1991 (04249) and similar observations were
Province                                               made at Homa Bay in which the highest seed
    An attempt was made to introduce simsim in         yield in 1991 was only 220 kg/ha (19357).
Ukambani (Kitui District) in the early 1930s
(16368). This was unsuccessful, possibly
because the local people had most interest in          Spacing and plant population
livestock and confined their cropping to the
production of staples such as maize, beans and            Planting simsim by broadcasting the seed was
pigeon peas. The cropping systems and                  described in 1913 as one of the cultural practices
                                                 Sesame                                               15

followed when planting a variety trial at Kibos,      Time of planting
Nyanza Province (32737).
    Three plant populations (50,000; 100,000 and          In order to maximise output the optimum time
300,000 plants per hectare) were tested at            of planting for each of the simsim growing areas
Msabaha in 1979. Results from the studies             should be established, though this will be
showed that the highest population gave the           influenced by prevailing weather conditions.
highest grain yield (849 kg/ha). Plant                Another factor that must be taken into account
arrangement and time of planting had no               when considering time of planting is the
significant effect on the yields (03448). Farmers     availability of farm labour at the time of harvest,
were consequently advised to plant sesame at 60       so that the crop may be gathered in a timely
x 15 cm to facilitate field operations. Higher        fashion and so reduce pre-harvest losses.
yields were obtained at even higher populations,         The best time for planting simsim at Kibos, in
but this finding was subject to confirmation.         Nyanza Province, was found to be from May
    When planted as a pure stand at 60 x 15 cm,       onwards (32780) according to a 1912 study but
simsim yielded less than when planted at closer       the variety trial at Mazeras (33359) referred to
spacing of 37 and 25 x 30 cm in a maize-sesame        earlier in this paper was planted in April and
fertiliser x spacing trial carried out in 1987 at     harvested in August.
Mtwapa RRC (320; 03009).                                  The highest yields (7,222 kg/ha) in 1979 at
   Plant populations between 100,000 to               Matuga were obtained from simsim planted at
400,000 plants per hectare appeared to be the         the population of 300,000 plants/ha at a spacing
most appropriate according to the results of          of 60 x 15 cm planted in July whereas the lowest
sesame population and plant arrangement studies       yields (213 kg/ha) were obtained from 50,000
performed in 1980 at Mtwapa, Matuga and               plant/ha planted in August (03453).
Msabaha by CARS (03503).                                  Yields decreased from 37 kg/plot for seed
   Spacing of 45 x 30 cm (about 74,000                planted in July (1980) at Mtwapa to 6.6 kg/plot
plants/ha) was found to be superior according to      for the those planted in September (01064) It was
results obtained at Mtwapa RRC (19263).               also observed that a negative correlation existed
                                                      between temperature and yield.
                                                          Also at Mtwapa, in 1981 a trial to establish
                                                      the most suitable month for planting (May to
Fertilisers                                           August) when inter-planted with maize, showed
                                                      that the yields obtained were not significantly
    Results from a simsim fertiliser trial at         different (03145).
Kakamega in 1988 (33495) showed that only no
treatment effects. Lack of response was
attributed to poor management of the trial due to
lack of operational funds.                            Insect Pests
    Results from a study on the relationship              Many pests are known to attack simsim but
between plant density and residues of fertilisers     the most important one in Kenya is the web-
applied to the main crop (maize) on seed yield of     worm (Antigastra catalaunalis). Cropping of
simsim revealed that simsim benefited from the        plants 40 days after flowering is recommended to
fertilisers and high yields were obtained (19263)     reduce the attack of the pest. Late-planted
at Mtwapa.                                            simsim was heavily attacked by web-worm in
    Despite the above findings, there is              1981 at Mtwapa (01064) and at Kakamega
continuing need to undertake well planned and         (01101) where it fed on the pods and leaves.
systematic site-specific fertiliser experiments in    Results from a web-worm control experiment in
all simsim growing areas. The fact that beneficial    1981 at Mtwapa using Thiodan (endosulfan)
effects were noticed on simsim grown in               showed that there was no relationship between
fertilised plots does indicate the possibility of     the number of sprays and sesame seed yield
obtaining high yields from fertiliser applications,   (03160). Web-worm and drought adversely
but the economics of the response must be             affected a simsim variety testing trial planted at
quantified.                                           Mtwapa in 1991 (04240, 19673, 32126).
16                                              Sesame

    Aphids attacked simsim varieties planted in          The dehiscence characteristics of simsim has
1913 according to a report made by the               presented a problem to Kenyan farmers during
Department of Agriculture (12040).                   harvesting. Capsules ripen from the bottom
    As has already been noted, grasshoppers          upwards and when harvesting is delayed the
seriously damaged most of the twenty simsim          capsules split and shed their seeds. Consequently
varieties imported from Israel and planted at        farmers have often harvested their crop when the
Mtwapa in 1988 for observational purposes            seeds are pre-mature and so have obtained
(01135).                                             reduced yields. When harvested at the correct
                                                     time, yields of up to 1000 kg/ha from pure stands
                                                     and about 500 kg/ha from inter-planted crop can
Diseases                                             be obtained. While Kenya farmers do not use
                                                     fertiliser for simsim, research work in other
   Soil borne fungal diseases were found to be       countries has shown that the crop responds well
the major diseases attacking the simsim crop,        to fertilisers. Kenya researchers should therefore
especially during the first three weeks after        explore this area.
planting at Kakamega in 1989 (01101). Such
diseases, especially Phytophthora spp., Pythium
spp. and Fusarium spp. have attacked simsim in       Economics of production
the Coastal Province. Seed dressing with
fungicides before planting in recommended.              Studies carried out in 1989 to investigate the
                                                     extent of sub-optimality in simsim production
                                                     and the competitive price of production at the
Yields                                               farm level showed that a 200% price increase
                                                     would be required to make production a viable
    A yield of 500 kg/ha was obtained from           enterprise in Kwale District (21330).
cultivar 'Ceylon Brown" at Kibos, Nyanza
Province, as early as 1915-16 (33964; 34249).
    Mean seed yield values obtained from a           Utilisation
variety testing trial carried out at Mtwapa in
1988 involving black and white local cultivars          Ufuta Limited, a subsidiary of Kenya
ranged from 98 to 517 kg/ha. (01184).                National Mills had undertaken the promotion of
    Low seed yields were obtained in a variety       simsim seed in the early 1980s. Oil from simsim
testing trial at Homa Bay in 1991. The highest       seed has a long shelf life, as it contains a natural
seed yield was 220 kg/ha. Cause of these low         anti-oxidant. It is a light clear, edible oil with a
yields was attributed to the dry spell experienced   pleasant taste and has many culinary uses
during the crops growth (19357).                     (239490).


Harvesting
                                          Sunflower

Introduction                                          shows: where and when the trial was carried out,
                                                      the number of varieties tested and the name and
    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was first        the yield of the best cultivar. It will be seen that
introduced in Kenya in the early 1920s by             the number of cultivars that have been identified
European farmers, primarily for feeding birds.        as the best in particular trials since the 1940s is
Later on, it was used for compounding livestock       large, probably reflecting the effects of the
feeds. In some areas, the crop was used as forage     environment in particular years at particular
and it is also grown for ornamental purposes. It      locations on cultivars. Recommendation on the
was only in the early 1960s that manufacturers        most suitable cultivar for particular agro-
started crushing sunflower seed for oil               ecological zones are still difficult to make today.
extraction. Today, sunflower is among the
leading oil crops in Kenya and it produces oil
with poly-unsaturated fatty acids, which have         Plant breeding and selection
been credited with beneficial effects in human
nutrition. Sunflower cake is extensively used in          Sunflower breeding was started in Kenya in
compounding livestock feeds and it is also used       1957 at the NARC, Kitale (01737) with the aim
in the industrial sector. Honey collection from       of increasing oil and seed yields as well as
sunflower production areas is a feasible              attaining desirable agronomic traits (02552).
economic enterprise.                                  Selection employed half-sib and head to row
                                                      selection methods. Testing of introductions and
                                                      development of hybrids was also undertaken. It
Varieties                                             has been reported (03332) that breeding through
                                                      selection of local cultivators was given
    Sunflower cultivars are classified into three     prominence in the programme.
groups, those for confectionery purposes, those           Mass selection in maintenance breeding on
for oil production and those for bird-feeds.          the cultivar, Kenya White and studies on
Confectionery types are large seeded and have a       genetically controlled sterility and cytoplasmic
thick kernel. Bird-seed cultivars have a thick        male sterility were initiated (05383) with the aim
husk and low oil content, whereas those for oil       of producing sunflower hybrids locally at the
production have thin husks and a high oil             NARC, Kitale; NHRC, Thika and NPBRC,
content.                                              Njoro. Presently, only a limited hybridisation
    In Kenya, varietal selection and evaluation       programme is being undertaken at Njoro where
studies have been directed to identifying varieties   locally bred hybrids are being developed
that are adapted to specific agro-climatic zones      (11059). Mass selection at NARC, Kitale to
and for the three purposes mentioned above.           improve open-pollinated local varieties has been
However, in some cases the selection of cultivars     reported (15780) while at NHRC, Thika, it has
for oil have been hampered by failure to measure      been reported (18735) that mass selection on a
oil content.                                          Kenya White variety in 1974 was carried out,
    Of the 323 records on the KARD database           during which the wide genetic variability,
that relate to sunflower, about 30% are               especially in oil content, was observed. The gene
concerned with variety testing. The results of        pool obtained, served as a source of materials for
such trials are difficult to summarise, chiefly       further breeding work. Sunflowers maintenance
because of the effects of site and the weather and    breeding following a half-sib selection method
diseases prevailing at the time of the test.          was practised at Njoro in 1984 (19189). Isolated
    Table 1 (see end of book) provides a key to       selected lines with oil content ranging from 34.5
the most important records on variety testing and     to 42.9% were identified, thereby indicating the
18                                             Sunflower

possibility of developing high yielding open-         Varieties, fertilisers and nutrient
pollinated varieties for commercial production in
Kenya. Hybridisation programmes at NPBRC,
                                                      needs
Njoro involved the use of female A lines,
maintainers (B lines) and restorers of fertility (R      Sunflower responds favourably to applied
lines), according to a 1984 report (19198).           nutrients. The degree of response is, however,
                                                      determined by the soil types prevailing, soil
                                                      moisture and to some extent soil temperature.
    Mass selection was used to improve locally
                                                         From the information summarised in Table 2
adapted open-pollinated cultivators (21985). The
                                                      (see end of book), it is clear that P plays a more
method used involved the removal of plants with
                                                      important role than N or K under typical Kenyan
undesirable characters and the remaining ones
                                                      conditions.
were allowed to pollinate freely. Further
selection was carried out on the F1 of those
plants to achieve the desired characteristics. A
description of a half-sib family selection method     Spacing
was also given. It involved the selection and
recombination of the highest yielding lines,              Spacing of sunflower is crucial if maximum
followed by further selection to get the desired      yields are to be obtained from a given agro-
population. It was also mentioned that crossing       climatic zone. Special considerations should be
programmes using materials from introduced            given to the varieties being grown since all are
varieties was started.                                not of the same growth habit. Dwarf cultivars
                                                      need high plant densities whereas the giant tall
    Improvement of line 067 from VNIIMK 8331          cultivars need wider spacings. Areas with
using mass selection was undertaken at NPBRC,         unreliable rainfalls require a lower plant
Njoro (02930). Assessment of the combining            populations than those in the high potential
ability of selected sunflowers cultivars for seed     areas. Presently sunflower is invariably being
yield and earliness components was studied,           grown at the spacing of 75 x 30 cm but there is
including the determination of gene action for        no justification for this. Researchers should
these components in an attempt to find                establish the optimum plant densities for each
associations among all the pairs of studied           agro-ecological zone and for the specific
characters (32295) at the University of Nairobi in    sunflower cultivar being grown in the area.
1983. Analysis showed that gene action for some          Several trials on plant population and plant
characters was non-additive, whereas some of the      densities have been conducted in Kenya. Plant
traits were predominantly influenced by additive      population have been as low as 10,000 per
gene action. The importance of undertaking            hectare (00478). Inter-row spacing of 30 x 90 cm
simple selection and/or recurrent selection in        was used in Western Kenya (001608) whereas in
sunflower improvement was mentioned. A                the Nairobi sunflower performance trials (NSPT)
sunflower breeding programme was started in           the recommended spacing was 75 x 30 cm (44
Uganda as reported (200503) in the seminar on         444 plants per hectare, see 00998;12122).
sunflower improvement, held in Kampala. It was            A trial was carried out to establish the best
stated that a recurrent selection method was used     spacing for sunflower with inter-row spacings of
on the Australia variety, Sunfola.                    45, 60, 75, and 90 cm and intra-row spacing of
                                                      15, 30 and 45 cm Results showed that the 60 x
                                                      15 cm spacing was the best (01340) and greater
                                                      plant density reduced seed yields. It was reported
Gene banks                                            (03878) from NHRC, Thika that spacing of 70 x
                                                      20 cm was the best followed by that of 45 x 30
                                                      cm Other reports (71428; 74074) supported these
                                                      results. At Kakamega however, it was
   For long term storage, sunflower germplasm         established that a spacing of 60 x15 cm was the
is kept at the gene bank at NARC, Muguga at           best for the area (12941). No results were
minus 20ºC (13584).                                   obtained from a spacing trial planted at Kitale in
                                                      1965 since it was destroyed by drought (16965)
                                               Sunflower                                             19

although in 1972, Kitale established a 45 x 30 cm    Land preparation
spacing as being the best for that area (34718)
                                                         Sunflower is a deep rooted crop and will
    The highest seed yield (2,137 kg/ha) was
                                                     benefit from deep ploughing. Results from a
obtained from the 70 x 20 cm spacing at NHRC,
                                                     ploughing depth trial done at NHRC Thika,
Thika in 1975 (16988), out-yielding the control
                                                     involving ploughing depths of 10-15, 20-25, 30-
plot spaced as 75 x 30 cm The cultivar used in
                                                     35 and 40-45 cm showed that the 40-45 cm
the trial was not mentioned. In 1977, it was
                                                     ploughing depth gave the highest yields (03617).
reported from NHRC, Thika, that the highest
                                                     Unfortunately, the investigators did nor indicate
yields were obtained from the plot with the
                                                     why deeper depths were not explored. A mention
spacing of 60 x 30 cm (19152). When closely
                                                     of costs of land preparation and the nature of the
spaced within the rows, sunflower grew poorly
                                                     soil could have been made and would have
with reduced growth parameters especially in
                                                     assisted in the interpretation of the results.
plant height, stem and head diameters and lower
seed weight (19152). Spacings of 60 x 15 cm and
45 x 15 cm were found to be unsuitable for
sunflower. Preliminary results (31235) on a
                                                     Cropping patterns
spacing trial done at NHRC, Kitale in 1974               The highest sunflower yields recorded so far
recommended the spacing of 75 x 20 cm for the        have been from pure stands. Attempts have
area. Under that spacing, sunflower oil and seed     nevertheless been made to grow sunflower in
yields were the highest. From 1985, results of       combination with other crops under different
studies on plant population and planting date on     cropping systems. Although low yields are
the yield components of sunflower at Kabete          obtained from the latter systems, advantages
(University of Nairobi) recommended that plant       have been cited, especially where production is
populations ranging from 50,000 to 75,000 per        being undertaken by small-scale farmers.
hectare gave optimum yields (32747). Results         Research in this field is still needed as new areas
from a spacing trial at Njoro in 1987 (18060)        are opened for cultivation for diversified
investigating inter-row spacings of 45, 60, 75 and   cropping systems.
90 cm and intra-row spacings of 15, 30 and 45            In 1975, sunflower was inter-cropped with
cm showed no significant differences among the       maize, Desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) and
treatments for both the plant height and the head    lupin (Lupinus spp.). Lupin yielded best (50
diameter.                                            kg/ha) when inter-cropped with sunflower
                                                     (00998; 33506) while the maize-sunflower inter-
                                                     crop gave poor yields. Further work on similar
Time of planting                                     trials was continued at the same centre (04032).
                                                         Initial studies to find the effect of inter-
                                                     cropping maize, sunflower, beans and soybeans
   In order to get maximum yields, it is essential   and the relative level of incidence and damage of
that the sunflower crop should be planted on time    sunflower by avian pests were carried out at
according to findings made by Kisii RRC              Njoro (11357). Results showed significant
(02570) where Hybrid 891 was used and gave a         advantages in inter-cropping sunflower with the
seed yields of 3.26 t/ha. Planting early was also    maize and legumes. Incidence of both insect and
found to be crucial at Mtwapa (02864) at the         bird pests were considerably lower and higher
coast and at Thika NHRC (13500).                     seed yields were obtained from both sunflower
    Several reports (03573;16415) showed that        and maize.
first planted seed gave the highest yields from          Studies (11732) were carried out at Njoro and
each of the tested cultivars. Similar results were   Elgon Downs (Endebess) to find the effect of
obtained at Kabete in 1985 (32747) and planting      inter-cropping patterns on the yield of sunflower
delayed by 5 weeks led to reduced seed yields,       and beans. The crops were planted in spatially
by as much as 30% though it resulted in an           arranged treatments. Sunflower was spaced at 75
increase in oil content. This was probably due to    x 30 cm. Beans were planted in single rows,
an increase in temperature in the later periods of   double rows, at random and in the same hills
the season.                                          with sunflower. Results showed that sunflower
                                                     yields were low at Njoro due to drought and
20                                            Sunflower

severe bird damage. Otherwise, no significant       studies on the yield and quality of sunflower
variation was observed on stem diameter, plant      forage for silage making as affected by plant
height and seed yield. Bean seed yield and 1,000    population, nitrogen content, time of harvest and
seed weight significantly differed between the      weed control have been given (231107).
treatments. It was recommended that the best            From a trial to determine the most suitable
spacing for a sunflower - bean inter-crop was 75    silage crops for the marginal rainfall areas of
x 60 cm with two rows of beans along the rows       Kenya, it was reported (13528) that the highest
of sunflowers.                                      DM yield (8.25 t/ha) was obtained from maize
    Results from a sunflower, maize and bean        followed by that of sunflower (8.18 t/ha).
inter-crop trial on insect incidence and damage         Studies to establish the feed value of ground
showed that both were reduced, probably due to      sunflower heads have been carried out at Kitale.
the distribution of the risks (11939).              Results showed that sunflower head contained
    Results from a trial on maize, sunflower and    10.7% protein and 52% starch equivalent
soybeans inter-crop carried out in Kitale from      (05333) and that the crude protein and ether
1960 - 1962 (18177) showed there were highly        extractive fractions of sunflower were well
significant differences in increased maize yields   digested, but not the crude fibre which was less
when sunflower and soybean were planted as          adequately dealt with. Sunflower seed cake is
break crops in the second year.                     rated highly as a source of quality livestock and
    The importance of inter-cropping sunflower      poultry feeds (14290).
with the existing crop in areas with a high human
population density and land scarcity was reported
(18966) from NHRC, Thika. It was also               Sunflower diseases
recommended that spacing intervals between the
various crops within any inter-cropping pattern         Sunflower is attacked by a host of viral,
should be established through research.             fungal and bacterial diseases. Levels of incidence
    From ICIPE, it was reported (19172) that a      and severity of these diseases are largely
crop of forage sunflower was planted in relay to    influenced by the prevailing weather conditions.
a crop of forage maize. The report (231420)         Some of the diseases are seed-borne, some water-
mentions some aspects of the productivity and       borne and others air-borne. Host plants for most
resource use of mixtures of sunflower and fodder    of the disease-causing pathogens have been
radish in inter-cropping systems in the semi-arid   identified. Transmitting agents have been studied
areas.                                              and identified and, where possible, both
    Sunflower was used as a green manure            preventative and curative measures have been
following a seven year mono-cropping trial of       suggested. As new areas are opened up for
pyrethrum. Sunflower was ploughed in at the         sunflower production, it is anticipated that new
seed-set stage and Brome grass (Bromus              diseases will appear and levels of tolerance of
marginatus) was also established (00331).           most of the currently recognised diseases to
                                                    preventive measures will increase.
                                                        Sunflower grown in Coast Province was
Sunflower as livestock feed                         mildly attacked by sunflower leaf rust (Puccinia
                                                    helianthi) (001577) while no disease was
    When cut at flowering and seed-set stages,      reported in an earlier trial from the same region
sunflower has been used as a silage and forage      (00478). It appeared that rust attack was not of
for animal feeds (001602). The characteristics of   economic importance when it occurred at the late
two varieties of forage sunflower, cut at three     stages of plants growth.
stages of growth, namely at pre-flowering, two-         Diseases of sunflower in Kenya were
thirds seed-setting and complete seed-setting,      reported (01321) after a survey was carried out in
were fermented in periods ranging from 0 to 96      the country. Details of the most important
days and analysed for feed value qualities          diseases including their symptoms and control
(06153), particularly the pH and dry matter         measures are given. These were rust (P.
contents. Results showed that forage sunflower      helianthi),    white     leaf   blister    (Albugo
produced the best ensilage during the first two     tragopogonis), leaf and stem spots (Alternaria
stages of growth. Ensilaging qualities were         spp., Phoma spp., Septoria spp.,), head and stem
dependent on the cultivars. Reports on the          rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), leaf necrosis wilt,
                                                Sunflower                                              21

rugose mosaic virus and Verticillium wilt. The         (13087), SYBV susceptible weed hosts were
first occurrence of Phoma in East Africa was           identified and all were in the Compositeae
reported in (16738). Slight damage on sunflower        family. These were, Ageratum conyzoides,
by Sclerotinia wilt and leaf mottle (Verticillium      Bidens      pilosa,    Galinsoga        parviflora,
albo-atrum) was reported (01449).                      Gulumbergia cordolia, Senecio discifolius,
    Heavy infestation by rust was reported in          Sonchus oleraceus and Tagetes minuta. It was
1980 at Hola (32488) where sunflower was               concluded that all were likely hosts of SYBV.
grown under irrigation. Incidence of diseases and          Results from a survey to establish the
pests attacking sunflower have been reported           distribution of SYBV in Kenya showed that the
(03332). Plants in the National Sunflower              virus was found in all the provinces except in
Performance Trial (NSPT) were attacked by a            North Eastern Province (13090). The highest
virus disease and root knot nematodes at Mtwapa        incidence (80%) was in Central and Eastern
as      reported     in     (03938)      and     the   Provinces followed by the Coast (15%) and was
insecticide/nematicide 'Furadan' was applied at        very low in other areas. Laboratory studies to
the rate of ½ teaspoonful to planting holes for        determine the mode of transmission of SYBV by
control (04707). An attempt to control                 aphids (13093; 299109) helped identify Aphis
Sclerotinia attack using an inoculum was               gossypii and Myzus persicae as vectors. The
initiated (05044) at Njoro but it proved               virus was acquired by the vector in a minimum of
ineffective. Report on a disease survey carried        24 hours and it was subsequently transmitted by
out in the Central and parts of Eastern Provinces      the vector after an incubation period of 2 to 4
(05072) cited bacterial stalk rot and Sclerotinia      hours. A minimum inoculation period of 10
wilt as important diseases in sunflower.               minutes was enough to cause infection in
    Among the diseases attacking sunflower, the        susceptible hosts. The virus was rotated
sunflower yellow blotch virus (SYBV) is perhaps        persistently by the vector. Mechanical
the most important one. Results from inoculation       transmission of SBMV from one sunflower crop
studies to identify the hosts of the virus from        to another was not possible, the same conclusion
infected sunflower samples collected from Coast,       was made in 1964 (3351).
Central, Eastern and Rift Valley Provinces of              Results on partial purification and serology
Kenya showed that the causative virus was              studies of SYBV using an enzyme that degrades
transmitted with difficulty to the commercial          cellulose, indicated that SYBV was closely
varieties of sunflower and soybean. No                 related to both the Beet West Yellow Virus
transmission was detected in seeds derived from        (BWYV) and the Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus
the infected plants, and no particles were noticed     (BYDV). Both are luteoviruses (Luteoviridae
in leaf-dip preparations of infected sunflower         spp). (13096; 239105).
(05731). Assessment of crop loss due to                    It was reported that SYBV disease was
infestation by SYBV was on the basis of three          observed at Elgon Downs, Endebess, but its
categories, namely mild blotch disease (MBD),          severity was mild (19354). Elsewhere, downy
severe blotch disease (SBD) and leaf crinkle           mildew (Plasmopora helianthi) attacked an
disease (LCD). Parameters studies were seed            imported variety (code 040) at Njoro in 1978
yield and head diameter. Results showed that           (12122) and in later years (236186). In 1985,
MBD did not cause significant losses in seed           sunflower germplasm, DM1, a resistant
yields in any of the tested varieties, whereas SBD     composite to the 3D mildew race, was registered
caused significant yield losses in two of them.        (238350).
LCD also caused significant losses on all                  In a fungicide evaluation trial to control
cultivars. In the spacing trials no benefits were      Puccinia rust in sunflower, it was found that all
realised by spacing the infected plants wider than     tested fungicides were ineffective (236680).
recommended (05834).                                   Another report (12192) stated that both stem rot
    Studies to determine the nature of the virus       (Sclerotinia spp.) and grey mould (Botyritis
and its mode of its transmission were carried out      cinerea) were important diseases at Njoro in
in 1965, after the virus was observed for the first    1985 where the two diseases attacked the open-
time in East Africa (12444; 16738). Leaf hoppers       pollinated variety, Kenya Fedha.
were identified as transmitters of the virus. It was       In Embu, the most important sunflower
established that seed from infected plants also        diseases were Sclerotinia wilt, and stem (pith)
transmitted the disease. In another report             rot (Erwinia carotovora). Respective incidences
22                                            Sunflower

were rated as ranging from 22-95% and 0-17%          densities on growth and yield of sunflower at
respectively (17194).                                Kabete between 1979-1980 (32493) showed that
    Chemical control of Sclerotinia rot was          the critical weeding times were 2 weeks after the
investigated at Njoro and Ol Joro Orok in 1986       emergence of the crop and 2 weeks after the
(17548; 19029). Results showed that Benlate 50       anthesis stage. Respective optimum plant
(WP) at the rate of 500 g per 100 kg of seed         densities were 74,000 and 55,000 plants per
seemed to control the disease effectively. Results   hectare for the long and short rain season.
from a similar trial using four foliar fungicides        Under restricted availability of soil moisture,
(Sumisclex, Sportak, Alt100 (San 619f), and          two weedings effectively controlled the weeds
Kocide 101) and two seed dressing fungicides         (12122) whereas four weeding operations were
(Raxil 10 WP and Raxil Combi 6 WP) at Njoro          found necessary at Hola Irrigation Scheme where
in 1992 and 1993 (31500) showed that none of         sunflower was grown under 3 irrigations,
the fungicides was effective in controlling the      supplemented by rain (13779).
disease.                                                 Use of herbicide to control weeds in
    Control of Sclerotinia by inoculation was        sunflower using triazines proved unsuccessful as
tried at NPBRC Njoro but without success.            they killed the crop in a trial at Kitale in 1973
Sunflower plants were inoculated with sclerotia      (14940). Herbicides 'Gesagard' and 'Tok‟ were
mixed with the seed, or sclerotia placed on the      fairly successful in controlling weeds at NHRC,
plant (11699). The disease developed abundantly      Thika (13486) surpassing 'Afalon', 'Lasso‟ and
on the two tested cultivars. Similar observations    'Tribunal‟. Stomp (pendimethalin), a pre-emergent
were made in 1991 (20474). Screening varieties       herbicide did not effectively control the weeds at
for resistance by planting them in nurseries         Njoro in 1985 (12192) and a tractor had to be
saturated with an inoculated pathogen was            used for weeding when sunflowers attained 30
suggested as a means of identifying the tolerant     cm height. A 1988 report (18072) on weed
ones according to studies in 1992 at Njoro           control in sunflower from Njoro stated that
(11751). It was observed that severity of the        „Ronstar 25E‟, also a pre-emergent herbicide,
disease was dependent on the variety being           and the post-emergent herbicides 'Fusilade‟,
tested. Screening sunflower cultivars for            'Nabus‟ and „Bass 51701H' all had some control
resistance to Sclerotinia was found to be            of the weeds. However, no yield data was
impossible in the field when the prevailing          recorded due to severe bird damage. 'Eradicane'
weather conditions were dry, as reported (18910)     proved unsuccessful in controlling broad weeds
from Njoro in 1991, since the pathogen was           at Endebess (20950).
unable to grow under such conditions.

                                                     Bird damage
Weed control
                                                         When planted in isolated areas, sunflower is
    Sunflower fields should be kept weed free,       heavily attacked by birds and all varieties are
especially during first 4-6 weeks after the          susceptible (001608). Seed yield losses have
emergence of the crop. Weeds are controlled by       been recorded ranging from 0-100%. Kakamega
hoeing or by use of herbicides. Once the crop        RRC reported 60% seed loss (05116; 1314)
attains the height of 30 cm, further weeding         while NPBRC, Njoro reported 100% loss
might be unnecessary since most of the emerging      (18057). The early maturing cultivar Issanka was
weeds are smothered by the crop.                     used as a guard row to attract birds and keep
    Studies at Kabete (University of Nairobi)        them off the experimental material (03938).
(20336) showed that three continuous weedings        Intensive bird damage was experienced at Njoro
at 4-weekly intervals were necessary in a field      when conducting inter-cropping trials involving
planted with the cultivar Giant White. Important     sunflower and after crops (11732; 11939) in
cost factors due to no weeding (or delayed           1991. Serious bird damage to the variety Kenya
weedings) were incurred due to problems in           Fedha was reported (12192) at Njoro.
harvesting and to fertiliser application                 In studies investigating harvesting problems
procedures.                                          on sunflower at the University of Nairobi, the
    Results of studies to find the effect of         following were reported (20269) as the main
weeding frequencies and different planting           constraints: uneven ripening, shattering losses
                                              Sunflower                                            23

due to bird damage, and lodging. Suggestions on      bollworms, sawflies (Athalia vollenhovenii) and
how to overcome those obstacles were given           semi-loopers (Plusia [Diachrysia] orichalcea).
including application of breeding for attainment         A list of pests and disease of sunflower has
of short sturdy stems but no suggestions were        been compiled (20307) and it consists of
offered on how to control bird damage. To date,      information on insects of the Coleopteran and
breeders have not come up with bird resistant        Lepidopteran orders. Damage by storage pests,
sunflower cultivars. It was reported from            slugs and birds on sunflower, and the appropriate
observations from a sunflower, maize, soybean        control methods are discussed. Insects associated
and drybean (Phaseolus vulgaris) inter-cropping      with sunflower damage have also been described
trial that bird damage on sunflower was              in other papers (e.g. 235575).
significantly reduced by the various crop plant
arrangements (31434). Most birds netted when
the above trial was conducted at the Rift Valley     Water use and tolerance to drought
Institute of Science and Technology were
classified as (Brimstone) canaries (95%) (Serinus        Sunflower is deep rooted and has the ability
sulphuratus) and the rest were grosbeak weavers      to extract water from great soil depths. Results
(Amblyosphiza albifirons) and red-eyed doves         from studies on the relative use of water by
(Streptopelia semi-torquata) (11357).                different crops and cropping systems (03691)
                                                     showed that sunflower extracted more water
                                                     from deeper layers of soil than did maize and
Wild animals                                         beans. Further reports on similar studies (12925)
                                                     confirmed the above, and it was suggested that
  Elephants destroyed sunflower trials at Lake       sunflower growing was possible in the medium
Kenyatta in Coast Province (01596).                  rainfall areas of Kenya. The ability of sunflower
                                                     to tolerate drought was demonstrated by results
                                                     from trials at the University of Nairobi in 1978
Insect pests                                         and 1979 (13678).
                                                         Results      from      studies     on     the
    A survey on insect pest species associated       evapotranspiration rate from a crop of sunflower
with sunflower in Kenya (12216) showed that          (12199), also by the University of Nairobi,
over 80 species preferentially attacked the crop     employed the estimation balance method, and
at different stages of its growth. Though no         based on the values of the Bowen ratio, showed
quantified yield losses were mentioned, it was       that the highest rate for sunflower was reached
stated that serious losses could be incurred.        during the active period of vegetative growth up
Important pests which caused defoliation were        to the attainment of full flowering. Further work
Agrotis spp., Gonocephalum spp. and Plusia           on evapotranspiration of sunflower at NARC,
orichalcea. The major pest at pre-flowering and      Muguga (12989) using neutron scatter equipment
seed-set stages was the African bollworm             showed that sunflower roots are capable of
(Heliothis armigera formerly Helicoverpa             exploring greater volumes of soil for moisture
armigera). Similar studies in 1974 and 1975          and that the roots reached 270 cm soil depth.
(32109) identified over 90 species, with the         Other studies on the ability of sunflower to
bollworm attacking developing seed. Other            withstand drought were carried out (001529) but
injurious insect were weevils, caterpillars, plant   the data obtained was not analysed. The ability
bugs, aphids and whiteflies. The honey bee (Apis     of sunflower to tolerate drought has often been
mellifera) comprised 56% of the Hymenoptera          reported (03332) and it was indicated that
and was an important pollinator. A polyphagous       sunflower is an ideal alternative to wheat in
leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii) from Florida is      marginal rainfall areas.
mentioned (12233), the pest being recorded in            The possibility of growing sunflower under
Hola on sunflower.                                   rainfed conditions supplemented with irrigation
    Results from an inter-cropping trial involving   was demonstrated at Hola and Bura irrigation
sunflower, maize, beans and soybeans (31434)         schemes in the early 1980s (18879) and the
showed no significant differences in larval          1990s (18933). At Hola, yields reached 3 t/ha.
density of attacked plants within the cropping       Between 5 and 7 irrigations were given at the
system. Similar observations were made on            two sites. A similar trial in 1984 was given 6
24                                             Sunflower

irrigations (19890) in both Hola and Bura. It was     the first observed abnormalities were to the
recommended that sunflower could successfully         tapetal cells which showed hypertrophy of the
be grown in the months of June, July and August       nuclei and organelles of the cytoplasm.
in the two areas. Earlier reports from Ahero in       Degeneration of the microspore tetrads and
1970 (243357) and Hola in 1979 (242941) had           microspores appeared as a result from these
recognised the possibility of growing sunflower       disturbances in the normal development of the
under experimental conditions in the two areas        tapetum (237902).
together with rice and soybeans.
    Although a survey in 1978 in the Kunati area
of Meru to determine the suitability for growing      Seed production
cotton, sunflower and groundnuts under
irrigation was carried out and recommendations            Observations on seed production of some
were subsequently made (21184; 242901) the            crops grown in Kenya have been described
scheme has not been started.                          (31771). The crops discussed were bulrush
                                                      millet, grams, groundnuts, Dolichos lablab
                                                      (njahi), pigeon pea, sesame, sorghum and
Plant physiology                                      sunflower.
                                                          Sunflower for seed production of the variety
    Studies on dry matter accumulation in 1972        Shaba (an open pollinated variety) has been
(20316; 20312) at the University of Nairobi           described by NPBRC, Njoro in 1985 (9611).
using the open-pollinated variety, Grey Stripe        Harvesting of heads that had been covered prior
have been conducted. Dry matter contents              to pollination was carried out when the plants
increased rapidly during the first 2 weeks after      attained physiological maturity to avoid bird
flowering, especially in the stem and head. Dry       damage. Seeds were dried, cleaned and machine
matter losses in the stem occurred from the           winnowed.
second to fourth week after flowering. From the
fourth to the sixth week the seed lost dry matter
and this continued up to the eighth week,
probably due to respiratory losses in the longest     Harvesting problems at Kabete
lived parts of the plant. The quality of oil in the
                                                          A study (32104) on the harvesting problems
seed increased rapidly from the second to the
                                                      of sunflower at Kabete in 1976/77 showed that
fourth week and thereafter slowed up, up to the
                                                      bird damage, and to some extent lodging, were
eighth week, probably due to the conversion to
                                                      the main causes to sunflower seed losses. The
other components as indicated by a simultaneous
                                                      study recommended that sunflower harvesting
loss in dry matter.
                                                      take place when the moisture content of seed was
    Other studies by the same investigator
                                                      still high, followed by drying the unthreshed
(20326) but using the cultivar Giant White were
                                                      heads in 1 or 2 layer piles in drying cribs.
in line with the above findings. They concluded
that Giant White reached its generative phase
seven weeks from germination of the seed and
that harvesting could be done when basket             Storage
moisture content dropped to the 80% level when
no seed shattering should be incurred. This view         Careful storage of sunflower seed is essential
was supported by other investigators (e.g.            as under some conditions, microfungi grow on
32104).                                               the seeds thereby lowering quality. Pathogens
    Studies on the influence of the removal of        identified on seed samples taken from the stores
leaves on seed production (20331) showed that         of the National Cereals and Produce Board
leaves in the upper half of the plant are of the      (14998) showed 19 different microfungal genera.
highest importance in providing dry matter for        Predominant species were Aspergillus spp.,
the head and seed. This is especially true for        Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp.
those in the top quarter.                                Damage by storage pests has also been
    Studies of the development of anthers of          discussed in the review on pests and disease of
CMS cultivars AS 2009 and AS 2007 from                the sunflower (20307) and control methods are
Romania and K077S from Kenya showed that              also given.
                                              Sunflower                                               25


Oil processing and quality                           cultivation and chemical weed control were
                                                     highlighted.
    Sunflower oil was extracted with a ram press,        An economic analysis of factors affecting
filtered and stored for a period of up to 6 months   sunflower production in Machakos district,
(34475). The quality of the oil was rated as high    involving a case study of Kibwezi was reported
with commendable consumer acceptability when         in 1989 (21332). Results showed no correlation
compared with commercial sunflower oils.             between sunflower production and other crop
    Oil analysis on samples from the National        enterprises. The gross margin and break-even
Sunflower Performance Trial registered a high        price analysis indicated that the profitability of a
oil content value of 50 % from hybrid H-001,         sunflower - maize enterprise was better than
grown at Matuga in Coast Province (12172). Oil       from other crops. The price of sunflower seeds
content ranged from 20.0 to 44.7% in nearly all      given to the farmers was higher than the
the 236 samples analysed at Njoro (03710). The       computed break-even price.
samples were representatives of all NSPT sites           Results from case studies of contract farming
across the country.                                  and out-grower schemes in Kenya mentioned that
    Results indicated that cultivars attained        sunflower production among other crops was
higher oil content values when grown in hot          uneconomical under the prevailing socio-
humid areas than in the high altitude ones.          economic conditions and lack of policy in favour
Although no mention is made on protein content,      of producers, manufactures and consumers
it is known that a negative correlation exists       (240862).     In    another     report    (240863)
between oil and protein content. The latter tends    introduction of a Contract Farming Act in Kenya
to increase when cultivars are grown in high         to facilitate the growing of sunflower, among
altitude areas. A similar trend was observed         other crops, was advocated.
when the cultivars were grown at Ol Joro Orok,           A 1974 report (32289) on a survey on aspects
which is a high altitude area (19151). There, oil    of production and marketing of sunflower in
content ranged from 33.5 to 41.7%.                   Kenya conducted in Bungoma, Trans-Nzoia and
                                                     West Pokot districts showed that the profitability
                                                     of sunflower production was very low. Reasons
Economics of production and                          contributing to this included low seed yields due
                                                     to low level of inputs and the high cost of
marketing                                            marketing the produce. It was suggested that high
   Sunflower production packages were                yielding cultivars be made availed to the farmers.
reviewed in a document entitled „Considerations      Farmers should use fertilisers and better prices
on seed bed preparation sowing, post planting        should be offered to them and individuals should
cultivation and weed control in sunflower‟           be encouraged to pool resources when marketing
(20302). Detailed information on the topics          the seed, it was contended.
mentioned above, including issues on time of             The growing significance of sunflower in
planting, planting depth, seed emergence and         world trade was reported in 1969 (245279) and
temperature effects, planting rates and seed         mention was made in 1987 (243655) that South
quality, planting methods, costs on planting,        African nations were advancing towards self-
                                                     sufficiency in sunflower production.
26   Sunflower
                Soya bean (Glycine max) (L.) Merrill

Introduction                                            Plant selection and breeding
     Although soya bean has been cultivated                 Studies involving the determination of
globally for many years, it was only introduced         combining ability of local soya bean varieties
to Kenya at the beginning of this century.              and 25 introductions from USA were undertaken
Kenyan farmers are yet to be made aware of the          at Kitale in 1967. The objective of the studies
full production, processing and utilisation             was to breed a crop suitable for combine
potential of the crop. Research on soya bean in         harvesting. Initial steps in the programme
Kenya has also not been very well co-ordinated.         established that the best time for pollination at
What little information that is presently available     Kitale was between 9.00 a.m and 11.00 a.m. at a
in the KARD database has been reviewed and              temperature of 15.6 - 18.3°C and 75-91% relative
presented in this document.                             humidity. Some of the local varieties attained 30-
     The protein content of soya bean ranges            100% seed set (15784; 21407).
between 30-59%. It is also a source of vegetable            It was reported in 1968 and 1969 that six soya
oil, with an oil content ranging between 14-24%.        bean varieties were added to the existing
It is also rich in nearly all the 10 essential amino-   collection at NARS Kitale (02539). Initial seed
acids, vitamins and minerals. Soya bean                 bulking was undertaken, followed by plant
derivatives can be found in fats, margarines and        selection and crossings to get single plant F2
shortenings in processed foods and as meat              generations. Double crosses were also made.
analogues, milk substitutes and proteins. Soya              Selection of soya bean by application of
bean flours (either defatted or straight) are basic     mutation breeding using gamma-rays was used in
materials for a wide range of protein foods for         the improvement of cultivar Bukalasa-4 in Egypt
human and livestock feeds. Other uses include           in 1977 (231295). Selection for resistance
the manufacture of plastics, paints, resins, soaps      against shattering, for earlier maturity and for
and pharmaceuticals. Soya bean is currently the         shorter plant heights were the objectives.
world's most important grain legume in terms of             Further aspects of soya bean breeding were
total production and in value of international          given in 1978 in papers entitled „Factors that
trade.                                                  influence out-crossing in soya bean‟ (230914)
                                                        and „The causes of genetic male sterility in three
                                                        soya bean lines‟ (230913).
Variety trials                                              The use of adaptability trials to test new
                                                        introductions for suitability in new agro-climatic
    There have been many variety trials in Kenya        zones was emphasised in 1986 (11542) at Kisii
and information on these can be found in the            RRC. Similar recommendations had been made
references cited in Table 3 (see end of book),          earlier at the centre in 1962 and 1965.
which give a summary of major findings.                     The International Institute for Tropical
    The wide variation in yield from site to site       Agriculture in Ibadan, Nigeria recommend that
and from year to year undoubtedly reflects              improvement of soya bean germplasm diversity
differences in growing conditions as much as            be achieved by incorporating introductions from
variety and it is difficult to pick out a superior      other parts of the world (2000291), the material
cultivar from the information available in the          obtained to be used in the national breeding
database. The records cited in Table 3 contain in       programmes.
some cases information on the growth habit of
soya beans and their earliness.
28                                              Soya Bean


Fertiliser application                                 (01473; 01947), produced the best yield, though
                                                       the effects of P were not significant.
    Application of fertilisers in Trans-Nzoia was          At Njoro, work to investigate the effects of N
found to be only necessary in poor soils. It was       and P in 1992 and 1993 showed that where
recommended that 23 kg/ha of P2O5 was needed           residual fertility effects were pronounced, it was
to sustain a healthy crop of soya beans (31671).       difficult to establish the critical low levels of N
This conclusion was drawn from results obtained        and P needed for the crop (10940; 31431).
from trials conducted at WARS, Kitale in l959
and l960. Further trials in l961 in the same area
indicated that l56 kg/ha of triple superphosphate      Spacing and seed rate
was needed on newly opened land (31869).
    In N, P and lime trials conducted at Kisii             Results obtained at Kisii in 1965 (16422)
RRC in 1971 and 1972, where different rates of         recommended the spacings of 45 or 30 x 10 or 8
the three fertilisers were applied, it was found       cm with 2 seedlings per hill. Similar work on a
that only the application of N and lime tended to      soya bean spacing, fertiliser and breeding had
increase yields, though differences were not           been reported earlier from NARS Kitale in 1964
statistically different (31699; 445; 22149).           (16698) but no indicative performance
    Studies at Kisii and Homa Bay in 1973 to           parameters were given.
find the effect of lime, N and P showed no                 In 1971, results showed that closer spacing of
significance differences between the treatments.       30 x 30, 20 or 10 cm gave better yields though
Application of lime, however, increased yields at      not significantly different from widely spaced
both sites (06298). Similar results were received      plantings (01811). Similar observations had been
during the short rains season at the same site         made earlier in 1967 (0965) at Kisii.
(11861).                                                   Inter-row spacings of 30 to 45 cm and intra-
    Application of different phosphate rates (0,       row spacing of 10 cm was, however,
15, 30 and 15 kg/ha) in combination with               recommended by Kakamega in 1972 (01386).
inoculum did not show any significance                     A spacing of 30 x 10 cm resulted in the
differences in crop yields as shown in results on      cultivar, Hill, giving the highest seed yields at
work done in 1973 at WARS, Kitale (19882).             Sangalo, Busia and Kakamega in 1972 (338664).
    In a 1974 fertiliser spacing trial using the       However, spacings closer than this led to poorer
cultivar B. Congo as the test variety, and             yields, as was found in 1967 (382).
involving 3 different levels of applications of P,         Results based on the trials in 1973 to
K and three inter-row spacings, it was found that      establish optimum spacing for soya beans at
application of the fertilisers was not useful.         Kakamega showed that short growth cultivars
However, it was noted that at Kisii, yields            needed closer spacings (30 x 10 cm), whereas the
increased under closer spacings with the 30 cm         tall cultivars needed wider spacings of (45-50) x
inter-row spacing being the best. (06350).             (10-20) cm Cultivars Hill and Voster represented
    In 1979, fertiliser-spacing trial results showed   the two growth groups respectively (19860).
that K did not influence the yield, whereas P2O5,          In 1973/74 a trial was conducted to find the
at the rate of 120 kg/ha, and at the 30 x 10 cm        effect of plant population, spacing and weeding
spacing increased soya bean yields significantly       on yield. It was shown that weeding for four
(01820). Work done at Busia FTC (02588)                weeks adequately controlled weeds. Plant
indicated that an application of about 60 kg P2O5      populations used were 1 million, 250,000 and
gave satisfactory yields though this was not           111,111 plants/hectare. The highest yield was
significantly different from other treatments.         obtained from the 1 million plant population. The
    Results from an NPK trial done in 1979 at          hypothesis that a high population helps to control
Kisii and Homa Bay showed that all the elements        weeds could not be proved (20940).
had the effect of increasing the yields of soya            Results on a spacing trial in 1974 indicated
beans. The effect, however, was site specific.         that cv. Hill gave highest seed yields when
The best combination of N and K was at the rate        planted at the spacing of 30 x 10 cm at
of 30 kg/ha and l20 kg/ha. respectively (00481).       Kakamega (00913; 01114). Further results on
    Application of 150 kg/ha of P in the form of       spacing trials at various sites (Kakamega, Busia,
single superphosphate to the cultivar B. Congo.        Sangalo) involving cvs. Perry-41, Hill and
                                                Soya bean                                             29

Vorster, indicated that there was a varietal x site    confirmed the appropriateness of a maize/soya
interaction.                                           bean intercrop. Reduction (05149) of soya bean
    Results from a variety x spacing trial carried     yields was reported in 1982 (01378; 01977) at
out in 1974 at Kisii (06347) using the cvs. Hill       Kakamega in 1984 (02790) and at Kisii in 1979
and Belgian Congo, established that soya bean          (04176) as a result of inter-cropping.
may be grown at closer inter-row spacings than             In an intercropping trial of cotton and soya
the norm of 45 cm. Further work (06350)                bean at the Cotton Research Station, Kibos in
reported that an inter-row spacing of 30 cm was        1977, it was reported (05267) that cash returns
ideal for the short growing cultivar. The widest       calculated based on farmers sale prices were
spacing of 75 x 20 cm from a spacing trial at          cotton AR: KSh 3.75/kg; cotton BR: KShs
NHRC Thika in 1974 was recommended for the             1.85/kg and soya beans: KShs 1.89/kg.
area (18832). In 1981, variety testing trials at           A detailed account was given on variety and
Kisii were planted at the spacing of 45 x 10 cm        fertiliser intercropping trials done on maize,
(09807) and fairly good yields were obtained.          groundnuts, soya beans, dwarf beans, sunflower,
    For the taller growing cultivars a spacing of      sweet potatoes and sorghum at Kakamega
45 x 10 was recommend for the same area in             (01382).
between 1975 and 1983 (18886; 06403) for                   Issues related to the intercropping of soya
South Nyanza Province and for western Kenya            beans with cereal crops in Eastern Central and
(125). A study in Uganda in 1990 (200579) at           Southern Africa were highlighted in workshops
Namulonge Research Station showed that there           on research methods for cereal/legume
was a negative correlation between plant density       intercropping held at Lilongwe (Malawi) under
and the number of branches, as well as the             the sponsorship of CIMMYT in 1989 (200400;
number of pods per plant.                              200403).
    A spacing of 30 x 5 cm gave significantly
different high seed yields at Njoro in a trial to
find the effects of spacing and plant population       Diseases
on soya bean yield attributes in 1993 (31433). It
was observed that wider inter-row spacings             Viral diseases
resulted in significantly low yields per unit area
and a spacing of 90 x 30 cm gave the lowest                Fumigation of soya beans in the 1960s using
yields.                                                methyl bromide showed no significant
                                                       differences between the treated and untreated
                                                       seed (32082).
Inter cropping                                             Parasitic plants of Cuscuta spp. were
                                                       discovered to transmit virus disease during
    Results of studies in 1984 to assess the effects   studies (12636) undertaken at EAAFRO Muguga
of applying N fertiliser to a maize and soya bean      in 1964. Crops affected were soya bean, maize
inter-crop under different configurations showed       and cassava, where the transmitted diseases
that N did not affect growth and yield                 manifested themselves as writhes bloom in soya
components of soya beans. Intercropping,               bean, streak virus in maize and mosaic in
however, reduced soya bean yields by 87%               cassava. Further studies (14240) at Muguga in
compared to sole cropping. Application of N at         1974 showed that clitoria yellow vein virus was
135 kg/ha to the maize intercrop increased the         transmissible to soya beans.
yields by 91% and 40% in two testing seasons.              In a trial done in 1967 to determine the
Intercropping without applied N did not reduce         combining of local and 25 American varieties at
maize yield (00038). Similar conclusions               NARS, Kitale (21407), it was noted that some of
regarding the reduction of soya bean yields in a       the local varieties were badly affected by blight,
soya bean:maize inter-crop had been reported in        rust and bacterial pustules.
1979 and were confirmed in 1985 at Kisii (480;             Soya bean stunt virus was studied by Muguga
16879).                                                staff in Uganda in 1970. Severe leaf distortion
    The recommended inter-row spacing was 90           and yellow mottles of varying severity were
cm (with 3 maize seeds per hill simultaneously         reported (00467). Virus isolates were obtained,
planted with 3 soya bean plants) and an intra-row      characterised and their mode of transmission
spacing of 70 cm. Another report (00177)               studied. Serologically, the virus was not related
30                                              Soya Bean

to any of the 70 other isometric viruses. Further      attacked by the pests (birds included) than in the
studies were carried out in the same year in           plots with the various intercropping patterns
Kenya and the UK (00543).                              (31434). It appears that the tall crops somehow
    Soya beans were affected by sunflower              served as guards while predator's taste
yellow blotch virus, as established in studies         preferences could have been interfered with by
carried out in Eastern, Central, Rift-valley and       the obstructing different crop species.
Coast provinces of Kenya in 1980 (05731)
    The occurrence of Pseudomonas syringae on          Bird and animal damage
dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soya bean in            In 1989, soya bean spacing x variety trials
Kenya was discussed in 1980 (236032).                  planted at the NHRC Thika and the RRC
    Casual organisms contributing to the               Kakamega were eaten by porcupines and birds in
deterioration of stored soya bean seed, and the        both sites (04762) and unidentified wild animals
accompanying loss of viability, was attributed to      destroyed a soya beans trial at NPBRC Njoro in
the presence of microfloral growth and the             1987 (17295).
toxicities emanating from them, according to
results obtained from studies carried out in           Inoculation
Uganda in 1983 to establish the causes of
                                                           In a variety trial conducted at Sotik in 1960
deterioration of stored seed (237867). The
                                                       (10735) seed of five varieties was inoculated and
microflora associated with the deterioration were
                                                       nodulated well. Use of inoculum of Rhizobium
identified. It was established that seeds in cold
                                                       (nodular strain) at Wambugu FTC, Nyeri, was
storage     (5C) consistently had higher              effective. High nodulation was recorded and the
germination percentage than those stored at            pink coloration in the nodules was associated
ordinary laboratory temperatures (23°-25°C).           with the presence of nitrogen fixing bacteria.
The heaviest fungal invasions occurred after 10        Variety Vorster, despite having had poor
months of storage.                                     germination, yielded 2220 kg/ha., which was
    In Uganda, the incidence of diseases, root         rated as good for the area in 1966 (20091).
nodulation and lodging were reported in 1990               It was observed that the overall effect of
(200021).                                              inoculation was quite marked and was associated
                                                       with the planting date in a soya bean time of
Insect pests                                           planting and inoculation trial at Kisii RRC in
    In a trial on soya bean variety testing trial in   1967 (00446).
1931, (15874) locusts damaged the variety                  It was reported in 1969 (14449) that
Ototan. The use of aldrin as a seed dressing to        inoculation led to increased seed yields and was
protect against beanfly at Kitale in 1973 is           associated with rainfall and planting dates. In a
mentioned in some reports (19878 and 19882).           spacing x inoculation trials done in the late
    Aphids and stalk-borers severely attacked the      1960s, at Kisii (00370, 14451) no significant
crop of soya beans in Homa Bay in 1973                 differences were found between the spacing and
(11859). Further studies at Thika, Kabete and          inoculation treatments.
Kakamega identified a total of 84 insect species           Use of inoculum in combination with
on soya beans. The beneficial and destructive          inorganic fertilisers was found useless in 1973 in
ones were identified from the collections.             western Kenya (03977) but had no effect on
Twenty-two (22) insects species were considered        yields. The same result was found in a similar
to be potential pests and their names are given.       experiment in the same area in 1973 (19867) in a
The insect abundance and incidence of                  phosphate fertiliser trial. Inoculation showed no
occurrence varied with geographical location of        beneficial effect on yields in a trial at Kisii
the crop and the seasons (12225). Looper               (11782) but this was attributed to dry weather in
caterpillars attacked the crop at Kisii in 1969        May when the plants were flowering.
(14451).                                                   Use of inoculum did not show any significant
    In a trial conducted in 1993 at NPBRC Njoro        differences in crop yields according to studies
to assess the damage by insect pests in an             done at NARS Kitale in 1973 (19882).
intercropping trial of maize, soya beans, beans            The potential and constraints of inoculation
and sunflower, it was shown that plants in pure        of grain legumes in Kenya (e.g. soya beans and
stands were more seriously and preferentially          kidney beans) using Rhizobium japonicum were
                                               Soya bean                                            31

cited and discussed in 1981 (235833). The                 Late maturing varieties yielded better at
prevailing perspectives in nitrogen fixation were     NPBRC Njoro, and Elgon Downs (at Endebess)
also highlighted.                                     than the early maturing ones planted at Njoro,
    Inoculating soya beans with single strains or     Endebess and Lanet in 1987 (18288) and at
combined strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum          Njoro, Katumani and Kisii between 1985 and
is a function of the best individual strain. Three    1987 (19284).
strains of B. japonicum (S-14-S, SX-S and SRJ-            The need to grow cultivars in specific suited
S, a strain obtained from Kenya) were used in         to specific agro-climatic zones was underlined
Ghana, in 1988, to find the response of soya bean     from studies to assess the performance of
to B. japonicum inoculation in three different        varieties between 1985 and 1987 at Kisii, Njoro
soils and in single, double or triple combinations.   and Katumani (19284).
Nodules formed by the most competitive strain,            In a seminar held at Namulonge Research
SRJ-S, were also the most effective in nitrogen       Stataion (Uganda) in 1991, the main constraints
fixation (239945). Elsewhere (06268), it was          facing Ugandans on soya bean research,
reported that inoculated seeds germinated better      production, processing, utilisation and marketing
than the uninoculated ones. Nodulation of soya        were highlighted (200565). Similar problems are
bean root in Uganda highlighted in 1990               applicable to the Kenyan situation and the study
(200021).                                             will therefore be of use to any Kenyan in the
                                                      field of soya bean undertakings.
                                                          Studies at Kakamega in 1991 established that
Time of planting                                      Upper Midlands (UM-2) were more suitable for
                                                      growing soya beans than the low highlands (LH-
   The best time for planting soya beans in Kisii     2) zone (09679). Early maturing varieties
(South Nyanza) is February as established in          performed better than late maturing ones at
studies (06268) performed in 1967.                    Alupe (LM-2) because of the short growing
   The best times for planting soya beans at          season into which they fitted well. This was
Kakamega was found to be from early-March to          concluded from results obtained, in 1992, from a
Mid-April, based on the 1973 trial findings           variety trial that was carried out at the site
(19878).                                              (31425).
                                                          Poor yields of about 320 kg/ha were obtained
                                                      at Murinduko sub-station near Embu (18464).
Crop production
    A copy of „Notes on Kenya Agriculture (III)‟      Plant physiology
released in 1958 describes standard production
methods for oilseed (including soya beans),              Results from studies to investigate the effect
pulses and root-crops. (00527)                        of plant age on root penetration abilities using
    Soya bean grown on black cotton soils in          soya bean and maize crops showed that the
Homa Bay gave unshelled seed yields ranging           ability of soya bean to penetrate compacted soil
from 1440 - 2700 kg/ha in 1974 (06344) Variety        layers was influenced by the strength of the
Hill and S-MIP matured in 97 days while 245-          layers. (05515), hence for the need for good
M(2) and Lili took 117 days to mature.                seedbed preparation.
    Based on good yielding performance of
cultivars imported from America in 1975, Kisii
region was recommended for the commercial             Soya bean quality and utilisation
growing of soya beans. Most of the cultivars
yielded above 2,000 kg/ha (11226).                       Use of soya bean flour in making bread in the
    A review on soya bean production in Nyanza        home was described in 1939 (350). Specific
province in Kenya was documented in 1974              proportions of the ingredients required, which
(31402; 229888). Use of irrigation to grow soya       included soya bean flour, milk, sugar, wheat
beans within the NIB fields was proposed and          flour, salt and yeast were given.
trials were carried out at AIRS Ahero in 1981            Analysis on seed from cultivars grown at
(34173). However, no conclusive results were          NHRC. Thika in 1974 showed that EAI-1435 had
reached.                                              the highest protein content (45.6 %) and Hill had
32                                             Soya Bean

the lowest (33.5%). Paa-100 gave the highest oil      emphasis to Uganda. Cited factors include
content (14.4 %) (16762). This study showed           unsuitable weather conditions, especially during
that there is a negative correlation between          harvest; insect and disease pests at pre-harvest,
protein and oil content. Results on a variety         harvesting and post-harvesting times; mechanical
adaptability test in 1988 involving 18 cultivars at   damages during harvesting and quick loss of seed
NPBRC Njoro had mean protein and oil content          viability when stored under high temperatures
values of 32.6 % and 14.5 % respectively              and high relative humidity (200920).
(19121).                                                  In 1946, soya bean was proposed (00311) as a
    The potential of soya beans to contribute to      pulse which had a capability of improving
Kenya's protein needs for both humans and             nutritional food-values for the rural people.
livestock was underlined in 1985 (32934). The         Similar recommendations on the utilisation of
overall place of soya bean-based raw materials in     soya bean in human foods were made in 1989 in
the formulation of animal feeds in Kenya have         an International Conference of agricultural
been discussed by Unga Feeds Limited (33073).         economists (100200). During the national
    Incorporating of soya bean meal to quantities     conference on the status of and Prospects of the
of 20-25% with 75-80% maize-meal by weight,           Food Industry in Uganda, held at Makekere
proved acceptable in palatability and in              University in 1988, soya bean was mentioned as
nutritional status of the compounded meal which       one of the high protein crops for feeding both
was found suitable for making the maize based         humans and livestock (200844). Extrusion
food, ugali. Increasing the amount of soya bean       cooking of soya bean in a corn/soya bean mix for
meal correspondingly increased the amount of          gruel purposes was mentioned in the USA in
the flatus-causing sugars (raffinose and              1991 (200902).
stachyose) as was reported in 1986 (see 239241;           There seems to be little information on oil
243675; 245959).                                      analysis. One example, for variety Belgian
    Stored soya bean seed quality problems and        Congo was 16.4% of oil when analysed at Njoro
their remedies under tropical and sub-tropical        in 1978 (12127).
environments were given in 1987 with special
                              Rapeseed and Mustard

Introduction                                           from cultivars „Echo‟, „Polar‟, „Niller‟ and
                                                       „Target‟.
    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and mustards              Results on oil analysis in 1978 at Njoro
(Brassica campestris, B. juncea and B. carinata)       showed that all rapeseed varieties had relatively
are important crops for the production of edible       high oil content (12127).
oil in many countries. They occupy sixth place             Data collected from mustard-rapeseed
after soyabeans, seed cotton, oil palm, groundnut      observation plots planted at Endebess in 1987
and sunflower in the world's production of             showed that the highest rapeseed yielder was cv.
oilseeds. These crops are widely adapted.              „Regent‟ (followed by mustard cultivar „R-
Presently, the leading rapeseed producers are          2625‟) (18279).
China, Canada, India, France, Germany, Poland,             Results from a trial to evaluate semi-dwarf
United Kingdom, Sweden and Argentina. In               rape lines showed that all the four lines had good
Kenya, rapeseed has not been widely accepted by        yielding potential, according to findings made in
farmers due to the low producer prices offered to      1987 at Njoro (18283). Consequently, the lines
the farmers. The yield levels obtained, are            were recommended for inclusion in the national
however, comparable to those of many countries         rapeseed performance trial.
of the world. Research on rapeseed and mustards            High seed yields were obtained in a trial
has been conducted at NPBRC Njoro for the last         carried out at Njoro, Eldoret and Mau Narok
twenty years or so, and only limited information       (17015), the highest yielders were „Molo
is available in the various research disciplines. It   Collection‟ (2260 kg/ha), „Mides‟ (1530 kg/ha)
is imperative that researchers should move into        and „SV-71/1225‟ (1030 kg/ha).
the various agro-climatic zones of the country             Results based on data collected over a 4 year
and establish the best rapeseed and mustard            performance evaluation trial showed that the best
production packages for them.                          B. napus cultivars were „Willi‟ and „Crista‟
                                                       while „DS+V‟, „SV- 73/604‟ and „SV-72/1002‟
                                                       were the best B. campestris cultivars. The latter
Variety evaluation                                     were recommended for production in the
                                                       marginal rainfall areas of Kenya due to their
    Oilseed rape is classified as Brassica juncea      earliness (19237).
(Indian type), Brassica carinata (Ethiopia type),          While conducting a rapeseed and mustard
Brassica campestris (Polish type) and (Brassica        observation trial at Njoro in 1988, it was
napus) (Argentina type). The performance of 24         observed that B. napus, B. campestris and B.
varieties of B. napus and B. campestris types was      juncea all performed favourably in the
evaluated in high and medium potential areas in        attainment of physiological maturity (19609).
1982 by NPBRC, Njoro. Results showed that the              Improved mustard introductions from Canada
variety „SV 73/100633‟ was the earliest to             were planted in a cage at Njoro in 1992 and
mature and had the highest crude oil at Njoro          assessed for the important agronomic characters.
while at Nyandarua, the cultivar „Target‟ out          Of the 13 introductions, six were from crosses
yielded all the other cultivars and it also had the    between European and Pakistan material while
highest oil content (12133).                           the other seven were zero erucic acid types,
    Mean seed yield value ranging between 450          which were of early maturity (80 days), non-
kg and 1620 kg/ha were obtained from the               shattering and having yellow seed (10767).
cultivars „SV 75/1002‟ and „Nugget‟,                       In a variety evaluation trial in 1992 at Njoro,
respectively, from a variety trial carried out at      Endebess, Mau Narok and Timau, high yields
Njoro (12898). Other high yields were obtained         were obtained at Njoro where mean seed yield
                                                       values ranged from 1603 to 2364 kg/ha. cvs.
34                                        Rapeseed and Mustard

„Westar‟, „Bruto‟, „Mulaka‟ and „Cressor‟ each        Seed rate and planting depth
yielded over 2 t/ha (19046).
    Other reports containing information on               In a weed trial conducted in 1983/84 at Mau
varieties have been production (10895; 19395;         Narok, the rapeseed variety „Regent‟ was planted
20147; 31575).                                        at the rate of 8 kg/ha (04116) and at depth of 2
                                                      cm by drilling (06534).
                                                          From a rapeseed seed rate trial carried out at
Breeding and selection                                Njoro in 1986, involving 6 cultivars and seed
                                                      rates of 4, 8, 12, 16 and 12 kg/ha, it was observed
   Maintenance breeding through selection of          that the 12 kg/ha seed rate gave the highest yield
naturally selfed populations was undertaken on        (18347). Although low seed rates performed as
rapeseed germplasm purification at Njoro, as          well as the higher ones, it was advisable to avoid
reported in 1985 (12175).                             the low rates to escape possible insect damage
   Seven rapeseed and mustard genotypes were          and high weed competition at the early stages of
studied for the purposes of making appropriate        the crop's growth.
crosses in a hybridisation programme at Njoro in
1987 (18286). Some of the genotypes included in
the studies were „ZEM-1‟, „Gulliver‟, „Candle‟,
„Topaz‟ and „Andor‟.                                  Diseases and control methods
   Purification, maintenance and seed increases
                                                          Seeds were dressed with Fernasan D for
of germplasm lines which included 33 varieties
                                                      protection against fungal attack when conducting
of B. napus, 18 of B. juncea and 2 of B.
                                                      the national rapeseed performance trial at Njoro
campestris was carried out at Njoro in 1993
                                                      in 1985 (19395) and crop rotation was suggested
(31572).
                                                      as the chief method of controlling black leg
                                                      disease in rapeseed (21826; 231383).
                                                          Results from a trial to determine the efficacy
Fertiliser requirement
                                                      of seed dressing fungicides (Benlate 50% WP,
    Moderate yields of rapeseed were obtained at      Rovral 50% WP and Bravocarb) and 4 foliar
Eldoret Agricultural Research Station in a            fungicides on the control of black leg in rapeseed
fertiliser trial that was carried out in 1969         showed that all fungicides were ineffective
(001426). It was concluded that rapeseed had          according to the 1988 findings at Njoro (19033).
potential in the area.                                    In a trial to evaluate fungicides in the control
    Results from a trial to determine the effect of   of black leg in rape, involving three foliar
N, P, and K on the yield of rapeseed indicated        fungicides (Alto 100, Alto Combi, Pronchlaraz
that phosphate was the major nutritional factor       Sportak) carried out in 1992 at NPBRC Njoro,
affecting yields at Njoro as reported in 1976         none of the fungicides proved effective possibly
(01342).                                              due to poor weather conditions (11941)
    Nitrogen applied at the rates of 20, 40, and 60   characterised by drought.
kg/ha progressively increased seed yields of              It was reported from Njoro (12898) that black
rapeseed according to the results obtained in a       leg (Leptosphaeria maculans) and white rust
trial to find the rates and application methods of    (Albugo candida) were the most common
nitrogen on the crop. The fertiliser was broadcast    diseases observed in a rapeseed variety trial.
in the trial carried out in 1992 at NPBRC Njoro       Studies to determine yield losses due to white
(10770).                                              leaf spot (Pseudocercosporella capsellae) of
    Results from studies to find the effects of       rapeseed, and use of fungicides for its control
applying N, P and K at different rates showed         were conducted at NPBRC Njoro (17552).
that at Njoro, the application of phosphorus gave     Disease development was very slow even in
a significant increase on the yield of rapeseed.      weather conditions that prevailed during the
However, the increase of N and P and their            growth of the crop.
interaction were not significant (12948). No
results were obtained from the other
experimental sites, namely Kisii, Kakamega, Ol        Weed Control
Joro Orok and Narok.
                                           Rapeseed and Mustard                                        35

    It was reported from NARS Kitale that both          Brevicoryne brassicae were among the most
sunflower and rapeseed tolerated low doses of           notorious pests recorded. Ichneumonidae
atrazine, alachlor, metalachlor and propachlor in       dominated the parasitic population while
a herbicide screening trial carried out in 1973         Coccinellidae, were the most abundant predators.
(14940).                                                The honeybee (Apis mellifera) displayed
    Results from trials to determine efficacy of        superiority over the other pollinators. Several of
herbicides in controlling Kenya cress (Bromus           the varieties examined suffered more insect
pectinatus) in rapeseed showed that Ronstar was         damage than the others and losses in yield
ineffective whereas the pre-emergent herbicide,         significant. „Topaz‟ was the most susceptible
Treflan and post-emergent, Stomp were effective         variety while yield loses due to damage in
as reported from Mau Narok in 1983 (04116) and          „Midas‟ and „Target‟ were the lowest among the
1987 (04123). Another post emergent herbicide           six varieties examined.
'Joker' effectively controlled Bromus in 1983
(04128).
    Fusilade provided complete control of               Oil content and other quality
Bromus in a weed trial carried out at Mau Narok         characteristics
between 1983 and 1984 (06534) at the rate of 2
litre/ha. It was also reported that Avadex BW, a           Results on oil analysis from rapeseed samples
pre-emergent herbicide, effectively controlled the      taken from the 1984 performance trial conducted
Bromus in a trial conducted in Mau Narok in             at Njoro, Mau Narok, Ol Joro Orok, Eldoret,
1983 and 1984 (06643) and that no crop injury           Molo and Melili (and which involved 9 cultivars)
was observed. Eptan, another pre-emergent               showed that high oil content was recorded from
herbicide, only achieved partial control of the         the cultivars „Westar‟ (44.9%), „Regent‟ (44.8%)
Bromus in a trial carried out in 1983 and 1984 at       and „Niklas‟ (44.7%). „Westar‟, „Niklas‟ and
Mau Narok (102).                                        „Gulliver‟ gave the best crude oil production
                                                        (20147).

Insect pests                                            Glucosinolates, myrosinase activity and
                                                        lysine availability
    Results of a survey of insects associated with
oilseed rape in Kenya, with reference to                    Studies to find the effect of processing on
susceptibility of six rape varieties to insect attack   glucosinolate content, myrosinase activity and
were highlighted in 1978 (14302). The survey            lysine availability in rapeseed meal produced in
was conducted in localities situated in high and        Kenya were carried out at Nairobi University in
medium altitude areas. Detailed faunistic and           1979 (04064). Both the defatted seed and
varied susceptibility studies were carried out on       processed     meal      contained    9.0     mg/g
experimental plots. About 60 of those found             glucosinolates. The pre-press processed meal still
were phytophagous species and only a few were           contained 30% of residual myrosinase activity
considered serious pests of this crop. Agrotis          and had 15% reduction in lysine availability.
segetum, Athalia spp., Heliothis armigera and
36   Rapeseed and Mustard
                                            Linseed

Introduction                                          04756; 09533; 12042; 31503; 33245; 33355;
                                                      33371; 33383; 33384; 12042).
    Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an                It was reported that the variety PRAB can
important dual purpose crop grown for                 yield 791 kg/ha of seed while cv. Red Wood has
processing industrial vegetable oil and fibre         yielded less (107 kg/ha) in a variety evaluation
(flax). The crop is an annual one and grows well      trial conducted in 1969 and 1970 (01084) at the
in areas characterised by temperate climates. The     Eldoret Agricultural Research Station. The
main linseed growing countries include the USA        highest yield obtained was 1443 kg/ha Other,
and Russia.                                           more recent studies of varieties are given (02958;
    In Kenya, linseed seed yields in excess of        12902; 17016; 17058) and refer to studies carried
1000 kg/ha have been obtained from research           out in the 1970s.
experimental plots which compares well with
those obtained elsewhere. Research in Kenya
should be directed to achieving high seed             Fertiliser requirement
yielding cultivars with high oil content of good
quality.                                                  In a variety testing trial conducted at Eldoret
    Linseed for fibre (flax) should attain the        between 1969-1970, a fertiliser rate of 100 kg/ha
necessary heights and be non-lodging. Breeding        of a compound fertiliser with N: P: K ratio of
to acquire hybrid populations resistant to            11:5.4:0 was applied (01084) by the drilling
diseases should be started. Currently, research       method.
work on the maintenance, introduction and                 No response was observed from linseed plots
characterisation of linseed germplasm for oil is      receiving 167 kg/ha of double superphosphate in
being carried out at NPBRC, Njoro. Research           a fertiliser application trial conducted in 1969
work on linseed for fibre production is centred at    (01427) at Eldoret Agricultural Research Station.
the National Fibre Centre at Mwea Tebere in           However, liming produced positive yield
Kirinyaga District.                                   increases. Similar findings were obtained when
    From the following review, it will be noted       the trial was repeated in 1970 (22023).
that only limited research work has been
undertaken     on      varietal    evaluation  for
adaptability,    fertiliser     requirements  and     Seed rate and spacing
application rates and seed planting rates.
Consequently, scientists should address research          In a variety testing trial carried out in 1969
on all issues related to linseed production and       (01084), the seed rate of 60 kg/ha. was used on
develop comprehensive production packages for         all the six tested varieties. The seeds were drilled
the crop, to benefit farmers in the diverse agro-     in rows spaced at 20 cm. The trial was conducted
ecological areas of Kenya.                            at Eldoret Agricultural Research Station.
                                                          Results from a seed rate trial using the
                                                      cultivar Hezeldena (which grew to 100 cm in
Varieties                                             height), and conducted at Eldoret in 1970
                                                      (01109) showed that the best yields were
    Several early reports, dated before 1940, refer   obtained from seed rates of 90 kg/ha and 40
to trials in which the perfomance of varieties        kg/ha, which were 1404 kg/ha and 1393 kg/ha
from Russia and Ceylon were studied (e.g. Riga,       respectively. A seed rate of 40 kg/ha was
Peskoff; Ceylon Dwarf Brown, Ceylon Dwarf             recommended for practical purposes. Results
White) but the results probably have little           from the same trial, when repeated at the same
relevance to current systems of production (e.g.
38                                              Linseed

site, confirmed the 40 kg/ha seed rate as the best
for the area (21850).


Cultivation conditions
    Linseed planted in 1950 at Gituamba,
Muranga District, to find whether it could grow
under cold temperatures failed to mature before
the onset of the cold in the month of July
(31849). Several of the early reports (see above)
refer to difficulties of harvesting and fungal
diseases due to high rainfall (e.g. 33245; 04756).
                                          Safflower

Introduction                                         arid and semi arid areas of Kenya once the above
                                                     issues are streamlined.
    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is valued           The review on safflower is only based on the
for it's oil which in quality compares favourably    varietal evaluation work, for which few reports
with olive oil. Production of safflower is           were available.
undertaken in several countries of the world
including the USA, India and several countries in
the Middle East. The crop does well in altitudes     Varieties
below 1000 meters above sea level and tolerates
drought, especially when planted in deep soils.          Results from a varietal trial conducted at
Seed yields, well above 4,000 kg/ha have been        Njoro in 1984 which had 14 varieties showed
reported by KARI researchers from NPBRC              that high yields were obtained from the old
Njoro and Wanguru, Mwea. The KARD database           cultivars which were being maintained at
contains two entries (02010; 20187) that discuss     NPBRC. These were „UTE‟ (5,391 kg/ha),
the case for safflower production in Kenya.          „Gilla‟ (5,382 kg/ha), „Oleic Leed‟ (5,196 kg/ha)
Presently, much of the research work on              „US-10‟ (4,796 kg/ha) and „UFSTP-1‟ (4700
safflower is being conducted at the NDFRC in         kg/ha). The highest yielder among the
Katumani. As further research thrusts are made       introductions was „Staffold-317‟ (1,350 kg/ha).
to promote the production of safflower, issues       Planting was at a spacing of 40 cm between the
related to the development of spineless cultivars    rows and seeds were drilled and later thinned to
with high seed yields and high oil content need to   the distance of 10 cm between the plants.
be addressed in order to facilitate harvesting by    Fertiliser applied was DAP at the rate of 150
hand. Control of insects and bird pests will be      kg/ha. One irrigation was provided to promote
important areas to be addressed by the               germination (19110; 19036). Seed was treated
researchers. Policy makers should organise a         with the fungicide "Fernasan D" prior to
well co-ordinated marketing system with              planting. In 1987 and 1988, also at Njoro, 24
conducive producer prices. Safflower has a           cultivars were compared, the best being „W-541‟
potential for being produced economically in the     at 896 kg/ha (17294; 19113).
40   Safflower
                                              Castor

Introduction                                           to 6 months before the first fruits could be
                                                       harvested. Shattering of capsules occurred with
    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an important       ease within only a few hours when exposed to
source of vegetable oil that has several industrial,   the sun and low seed yields (280 kg/ha) were
and medicinal uses. The oil is also extensively        obtained (32602). In 1915, the above cultivar,
used in the aviation industry as a lubricant.          code named „Native Small‟ yielded 560 kg/ha
Castor is considered to have originated from East      (33204).
Africa. Presently, leading producers of castor oil         In a varietal trial carried out in Mtwapa in
are Egypt, India and China. In Kenya, castor           1962 (18126) involving four castor varieties, cv.
grows widely and wildly in virtually all the high,     „Kafin‟ yielded the greatest amount of seed
medium and low rainfall areas of the country.          (1,473 kg/ha). The other high yielding cultivar
Growing of castor has been practised in Kenya          was „Gnomda‟ (1,392 kg/ha). Though yields
for centuries until recently when the market for       were reduced through pest damage, „Kafin‟ again
the castor bean declined. Climatic conditions and      performed best in 1963 (143491).
soils are ideal for growing of the improved                Several dwarf castor lines were used in trials
cultivars, especially composites and hybrids,          by EATEC between 1962-1965 at Soy Farm
which are particularly acceptable to farmers if        (02278) to investigate varietal adaptability, time
good prices and an organised market are                of planting, plant populations, fertiliser
available.                                             requirements, weed problems and pest control.
    The low yield level of the few cultivars           The best cultivars were „Hazera No. 1‟ and
presently being grown have been disincentives to       „Hazera No. 4‟ from Israel and the hybrids „D-
the would-be growers. Research on castor has           25‟ and „Pacific-4‟ from South Africa.
been given low priority in Kenya and much is               Results from a castor oil observation trial
needed in this field to make the production of the     conducted at Mtwapa in 1965 showed the
crop economically viable. A comprehensive              advantages of growing the synthetics and hybrids
production package to suit producers,                  since most of them grew within five months and
manufactures and consumers in Kenya should be          yielded over 1200 kg/ha of seeds (17024).
compiled by all interested parties with the            Leading cultivars were 1123 (synthetic) and the
leading roles being played by researchers and          hybrid, „Hazera-1‟.
agricultural extension workers.                            In a variety trial at Mtwapa in 1966 (10614)
    The limited research done on castor has been       involving local varieties and hybrids imported
on variety evaluation and adaptability tests,          from the USA, it was shown that the American
selection work, trials on spacing and plant            hybrids, „Baker hybrid 44‟, „Baker hybrid 411‟
population, fertiliser applications, control of        and „Lynn‟, all matured within 120 days whereas
insect pests and disease, seed production and on       the local check, of perennial growth, continued
surveys on production and marketing.                   to fruit even after the completion of the trial.
    Presently, research work on castor is being            Results from a variety trial conducted at
undertaken by the National Dryland Farming             Kabete in 1970 showed that imported cultivars
Centre, Katumani in Machakos.                          matured earlier than the local ones but they had a
                                                       lower mean oil content (041155).
                                                           The highest yields (506 kg/ha) obtained in a
Variety Trials                                         castor varietal trial planted at Mtwapa and
                                                       Msabaha in 1972, was from cv. „N-319‟.
   Studies in 1914 (11981) at Kibos on an                  The highest seed yield was obtained from cv.
indigenous    castor (collected from the               „KC-17‟ (797 kg/ha) in the 1987 early maturity
surrounding area) showed that the crop took up         variety trial whereas cv. „KV-11‟ yielded 539
42                                                Castor

kg/ha in the late maturity variety trial at Njoro      spp., Euproctis spp., Aonidiella andersoni and
(18296; 18299). The low seeds yield was                Xyleutes capensis are mentioned. The nature of
attributed to severe bird damage.                      their attack and extent of yield losses caused by
                                                       damage from the important pests is indicated.
Breeding and plant selection                           Both chemical and biological control methods
    It was reported in a workshop held at Embu in      for some of the pests are discussed in detail.
1985 (02015) for agricultural researchers and              Control of insects was achieved by spraying
extension workers that Katumani Research               “Endosulphan” onto the growing castor in a trial
Centre was undertaking a castor improvement            conducted at Mtwapa in 1965 (17024).
programme aimed at developing suitable                     Rust (Melanospora ricini) and insect
composites and hybrids for growing in the              infestation were observed on a crop of castor
dryland areas. Favourable qualities, including         planted at Kabete in 1970 (04155) and in 1972
drought tolerance, high seed yields, high oil          (001577; 001597) where it was also reported to
content and non-shattering, were aimed for.            have attacked the crop in Taita Taveta and
Local land races were collected in 1980 and a          Mwatate.
few introductions were procured. Preliminary               It was reported that 'Thiodan' was used to
tests identified a few elite lines which required      control insects in castor oil variety trials carried
further improvement.                                   out at NPRC Njoro in 1988 (19116). Traces of
                                                       trust were also observed on the castor but the
Spacing, plant population and seed rate                attack was of no economic importance.
    Results from a spacing trial conducted in
1969 at Eldoret ARC using the cultivar „Hazera‟
at spacings of 2 x 1 m; 1 x 0.3 m, 1 x 0.45 m; 1 x     Bird Damage
0.6 m, and 1 x 1 m showed that the highest seed
                                                          Castor oil bean is attacked by birds in all the
yields (908 kg/ha) were obtained from the 1 x 0.3
                                                       growing areas. As reported from Njoro in 1987
m spacing followed by 806 kg/ha from the 1 x
                                                       (18299), cv. KC-18 was severely attacked by
0.45 m spacing (01429).
                                                       birds possibly because the seeds were small and
    The spacing for the cultivars planted in the
                                                       therefore easily eaten.
early maturity variety trial at Njoro was 1.5 x 1.5
m whereas the late maturity variety trial was
planted at the spacing 2 x 2 m as reported in
1987 (18296; 18299).                                   Seed production
                                                          An article entitled "Castor Production in
Fertiliser requirement
                                                       Kenya" describes the growth and development of
    The variety „Hazera‟ was planted in a spacing      castor, its diverse uses, products and by products.
trial carried out at Eldoret ARS in 1969 with 222      Statistics of castor production in Kenya have
kg/ha of double superphosphate and top-dressed         been highlighted. Use of improved varieties is
with 168 kg/ha of ammonium sulphate or nitrate         considered as well as future research thrusts and
(01427; 01429).                                        extension policy to favour promotion of the crop
                                                       (00748).
Insect pests and diseases
    Castor oil die back was reported to have
attacked the crop in 1957 (05130) in the wetter        Production and marketing
areas of Coast Province. Attempts to identify the
causative organisms resulted with none being               In a survey conducted in the Lake Kenyatta
identified. Bacterial wilt is mentioned in one         area of Coast Province in 1972 to determine the
record (11581) but castor was shown to be              most suitable crops for the area, castor was
resistant in another (12760).                          identified as one of the crops with potential for
    Results of a survey of insect pests of castor in   the area (01596).
Kenya were summarised in a report compiled in              Calculations on production costs for castor by
1958 (9849). Various insect species which              Mtwapa RRC in 1972 showed that growing of
included Nezara spp., Acrosternum spp.,                the crop was bordering on unprofitable gross
Adelphocoris spp., Apidae spp., Chrotogonus            margins (33948).
                                               Castor                                             43

   Planting from late May to the end of June           A report on Katumani castor improvement
produced the highest yields from a spacing of       programme was presented in 1985 (02015;
100 x 30 cm and application of 111 kg/ha of         20185) in the proceedings of a workshop for
double superphosphate. Weeds were controlled        agricultural and extension officers held at Embu.
with herbicides and insecticides and fungicides     Cited in the report are the required growing
were sprayed during the crop's growth. A pre-       conditions, processing, utilisation and marketing
harvest defoliant was used to accelerate drying.    of castor seed, and research thrusts needed to
Methods of hand and mechanical harvesting and       achieve high yielding cultivars in the diverse
hulling are also discussed in the report (02278).   production areas.
44   Castor
                                          Cashew Nut

Introduction                                                Studies on the quality of nuts from selected
                                                        cashew nut trees at Mtwapa in 1981 (01070)
    The Cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) is          showed that high yielding trees produced nuts of
an important crop in East Africa. The leading           relatively low weights, ranging from 3.7 to 7.9 g.
cashew nut producers are Mozambique, Tanzania               Introduced varieties from India were assessed
and Kenya which currently supply 75% of the             at Mtwapa in 1982 and 1983 for yield (05676,
world's demand. Of these, Mozambique is the             466, 62). Their performance was good and they
chief producer. The nut is a popular                    consistently yielded more than the local
confectionery and is readily marketed and               cultivars, which gave an average of 5
demand still exceeds supply. Production levels,         kg/tree/season, with the introduced “Wynad
however, are low due to poor management of the          Kerela” attaining the highest nut yield of 12.9
crop. Only very little research work has been           kg/tree/season.
carried out on the cashew nut and this could be             Studies over five seasons were made of 101
the explanation for the low level of yield in all       selected trees at Mtwapa. The yield from the best
production areas. A general overview is provided        single tree was 76.9 kg (a mean of 15.4 kg per
in a report submitted at a conference held in the       season) but other trees produced nothing in some
Seychelles in 1983 (202536) and in 1984 at              seasons. In the 1966/67 season, the best tree
CAB'S first Scientific Conference in Arusha,            yielded 22.5 kg (03933). At the same centre in
Tanzania (238088).                                      1983, yields of up to 55 kg/tree were recorded
    This review highlights areas that have been         from a single season's harvest (61). These figures
researched and discusses topics that will be of         illustrate the range of productivity of cashew.
interest to researchers, producers, manufactures            Improvement of cashew nut production
and policy makers in the cashew nut industry.           through selection and improved selection method
                                                        was highlighted in a presentation made in 1985
                                                        at the Ninth African Symposium on Horticultural
Plant selection                                         Crops in Mahe (234541).

    In the early 1960s, the criteria established to
select parent trees for breeding purposes were          Vegetative propagation
based on the appearance of the nuts and their
quality, the health status of the mother trees, and        An early attempt to vegetatively propagate
their growth, vigour and stem diameter (16054).         cashew by grafting, (side whip, tongue and side
    In 1980, individual cashew trees were               veneer) proved unsuccessful in 1972 at Mtwapa
selected for nut yields at Mtwapa and those             (01060). Root stock were planted in polythene
giving 10 kg or above were retained for further         bags filled with one third sand and two thirds
breeding work (03119).                                  clay plus lime. Half of these were shaded, others
    In 1980, the first cycle of a recurrent selection   were used under full daylight. Grafts failed to
programme was established and germination               take, though the whip and tong grafts under
percentage was good, ranging from 43 to 90%             shade were the slowest to do so. Despite the use
with an average of 80% (03124).                         of fungicide, deaths were caused by fungal
    Clonal selection was employed at the Coast          disease. The production of root stock using
Agricultural Research Station in 1980 and               polythene bags filled with lime, coconut coir
experiments to verify the high yielding nature of       waste and sand has been described (06328),
selections established (03135). Results were,           seedlings being ready for use after three months.
however, not given since the plants had not yet         The growth of root stock seedlings has been
reached the fruiting stage.                             studied (03463) and it has been shown that
46                                            Cashew nut

seedling height increased steadily until the 17th    Water use in relation to spacing
week after sowing.

    The problems of grafting appear to have been         Studies on the water balance of cashew nut
overcome shortly afterwards as a 1981 paper          trees in relation to spacing in the Nachingwea
(01069) reports the yields of 9 trees produced by    area in 1969 (02659) showed that they were
grafting. In the period 1973 to 1981, the best       liable to suffer severe water stress on canopy
yield for the trees totalled 164 kg, which was       closure. Optimal spacing was thought to depend
thought to be better than that from                  on prevailing agro-climatic conditions, including
conventionally produced plants.                      soil type and depth and likely rainfall. In
                                                     contrast, an analysis of yield data from 1970 to
                                                     1977 and the corresponding rainfall at Mtwapa
   Results from studies reported in 1982 to          showed that 1000 mm of rainfall was the
assess the effectiveness of air layering showed      threshold beyond which a strong negative
that when properly carried out, this technique       influence was evident (03440). It was proposed
could be a cheap way of propagating cashew           from the findings that cashews be grown in areas
(05697). Another report (235520) discussed „new      where this amount is not often exceeded. The
cultivation techniques‟.                             same conclusion was reached at the coast
                                                     (31591) and may be due to the effects of rain on
                                                     flower set (16054).

Canopy development and
rejuvenation of old plantations                      Need for nutrients

   Reports on studies of canopy development              In studies reported in 1988 on foliar diagnosis
were given in 1970 (230366) and in 1979              of nutrient deficiencies in cashew nut in the
(03469). Pruning of the lower branches of the        Western Province of Zambia, it was found that
canopy in cashew nuts led to compensatory            deficiencies in Zn, Fe, Mn and B existed and
growth being made at higher levels and actual        gave rise to five different sets of symptoms.
losses due to the pruning were estimated to be no    Levels of P, K, Mn, Mg, Zn and B of healthy
more than 5 and 10%, as reported in 1970             trees in the district were below those of leaves
(03457) from Mtwapa.                                 from Brazil, Kenya and Madagascar (240508).

    The productivity of cashew nuts is known to
drop after the age of 20 years. Consequently at
Mtwapa RRC in 1979 (80; 03460; 03132) a              Spacing and plant population
study on the effects of coppicing and heavy
pruning of 10 year old trees which had closed
                                                         In a cashew nut selection trial undertaken
canopies was carried out, in an attempt to
                                                     between 1962 and 1967 trees firstly planted at a
rejuvenate the trees. Trees were cut to 30, 100 or
                                                     spacing of 6 x 6 m and thereafter thinned to 12 x
150 cm and it was established that coppicing
                                                     6 m, not surprisingly gave low yields per hectare
height did not influences the canopy diameter of
                                                     (16054) after thinning. Trees in a spacing
the re-growth. The effects of removing half the
                                                     reported by Mtwapa RRC (03121) were planted
canopy resulted in good re-establishment of the
                                                     at spacings in the range of 6 x 6 m to 15 x 15 m.
trees, but hindered flowering and fruiting, as
                                                     There were no differences in yield per hectare,
reported in 1980 from Mtwapa RRC (03130). By
                                                     but individual trees at the lower densities yielded
1983 (80), the heavily pruned trees yielded on
                                                     more per tree. Results obtained from trials at
average about 28 kg compared to controls at 34.5
                                                     Mtwapa on cashew hedgerow cropping systems
kg. Other treatments had not started yielding by
                                                     in 1979/83 (57; 467; 03157) recommended a
that time.
                                                     spacing of 6 x 6 m between the trees.
                                              Cashew nut                                               47


Insect pests                                         in the shade. The cashew tree in agroforestry at
                                                     the Kenya Coast was highlighted in a seminar
    An overview of the pest situation in the early   held in Nairobi in 1980 (234713).
1960s has been given by Wheatley (02236), who
identified four major and many minor pests. In
1972, a similar article was produced by Adams        Suitability of production areas
(06331).
    The coreid bug (Pseudotheraptus wayi) was            Conclusions drawn from land suitability
identified as damaging cashew nuts along the         evaluation studies in 1986 on the soils in the
coastal strip (05251). In 1971, a study on the       Kilifi-Kwale coastal area showed that for cashew
rearing of the pest in captivity was undertaken      growing, all soils were moderately to marginally
and the report (06329) indicates the use of          suitable except the Cambisols (238975; 241017;
cashew as a feed.                                    33302).
    The mirid bug (Helopeltis anacardii) was             Absence of well defined land-ownership in
reported (001583) as having caused damage on         Malindi was found to be a disincentive to would-
cashew nuts at the coast in 1972 but the extent of   be cashew nut producers in the area, according to
the damage was not given.                            a report published in 1988 (202207).
    The cashew weevil (Mecocorynus loripes
Chevrolat), was reported to have infested
coppiced cashew stumps in large numbers at           Production for the food industry
Mtwapa in 1980 (31586) and control methods           and utilisation
were suggested.
                                                        Information under this heading is diverse. A
                                                     review of information on cashew nut production
Diseases                                             in Kenya and suggestions for its further
                                                     development as a cash crop in Coast Province
   Major crop losses due to infestation of fungal    was given in 1979 (30978). The historical
diseases under the prevailing moist conditions       background of cashew nut industry in Kenya and
were described in 1972 (001583). The diseases        other general information, including the methods
were blossom rot (Colletotrichum spp., Mucor         of processing cashew nuts, based on the
                                                                2
spp., Botrytis spp.) and die back of inflorescence   “Oltremare s.p.a” system was given by Kenya
which was followed by entry of Glomerella            Cashew Nuts Limited (30971). A consultancy
angulata, Botryodiplodia theobromae and              report on cashew nut production in Uganda was
Phomopsis spp.                                       given in 1985 (228171) and a report on cashew
                                                     nut production in Kenya and Tanzania was made
                                                     in 1990 by the Hainan investigation team
Farming and cropping systems                         (200850).
                                                        A review of production and research into
    A paper discussing cashew production in          cashew nut and its shell liquid (CNSL) and
Kenya was compiled in 1979 (30991). It               experiments aimed at developing secondary
highlights crop husbandry production packages,       commercial products, e.g. paints and lacquers,
cropping systems and gives an account of             are described (239997). The liquid contains
research on selection and breeding programmes        about 90% anacardic acid and such materials
aimed at increasing yield levels for higher          compare favourably with the existing products in
profitability. A 1981 report (31143) on similar      performance and physical characteristics.
issues includes the recommendation that
agricultural extension services be made available
to cashew nut producers.
    Use of cashew nut trees to provide shade for
pasture crops of legumes and grasses was
evaluated in 1980 at Mtwapa (03182). Positive
effects were observed on the grasses which
                                                     2
increased their dry matter yields. Legume forages        originating in Italy - “oltremare” is Italian for
however, showed decreased yields when grown              “overseas”
48                                           Cashew nut


Economics of production and                         socio-economic problem, but price and the lack
                                                    of an efficient organised marketing system was
marketing                                           the greatest barrier.
    In 1969, it was pointed out that the creation       Other reports under this heading include: “A
of an organised market for cashew nuts was one      study of cash-cropping in Coast Province”
of the factors needed to improve the economics      (30978); “A report on the monetary importance
of production (244435). An economic analysis of     attached to cashew production in Kenya”
production and marketing of cashew nuts carried     (243701); “The gross margins of cashew nut
out in 1981 and 1982 in Kilifi District (17224)     cultivation in Kenya” was are mentioned in the
showed that an increased price incentive was        1984 edition of the India-based “Cashew
needed to motivate farmers into increasing          Journal” (228648).
production. Low production levels were also
caused by organisational, technological and
                           Coconut (Cocos nucifera)

Introduction                                          Plant selection and variety testing
    Coconut is possibly the leading oil crop in           Between 1978 and 1981, an observation trial
Kenya. It has been grown in the East Coastal          involving dwarf and tall coconut hybrids
strip for several millennia. This tree has been       introduced from Côte d‟Ivoire was planted at
linked with the mode of life of coastal people for    Mtwapa and Msabaha (03127, 03467). It was
sustaining their survival and as a means for their    observed that the hybrids developed better at
livelihood. The tree provides building poles,         Mtwapa than at Msabaha and it was suggested
fronds for thatching houses, fibre coir for           that the cause could have been due to the poorer
cordage and apparel. The fruit, in its pre-mature     climatic conditions at Msabaha. Selection of seed
state, provides 'milk‟ while its inner kernel is      nuts from vigorous and heavy bearing trees was a
dried into copra from which oil for culinary,         criterion used in improving coconut plantations
cosmetic and industrial use is extracted.             from as early as 1913 at the Kenyan Coast
Coconut-based products have high market               (19871).
values, indicating the importance of the coconut          The amount of copra and the number of fruits
as a cash earner for the producers.                   per palm were used at Mtwapa in 1980 as criteria
    Research on coconut in Kenya has been             for selecting lines for high yields (30973). Trees
carried out haphazardly, especially in the post-      producing over 51 fruits per palm were
independence period. Old plantations are not          considered fit for selection purposes.
being rejuvenated and old, low yielding plants            In 1977, studies at Tezo Roka Settlement
are seen all along the coast. The short, dwarf        Scheme (31411) in Kilifi district involving the
coconut cultivars have not attracted the interest     study of palms selected at random showed that
of the growers and the control of diseases and        husk percentage of the fruit varied significantly
insect pests still remains a problem. Processing      from tree to tree and therefore seemed an
of copra-based products to the required standards     important criterion for selection. The selected
still needs to be taught to the local people.         trees were estimated to yield 2.4 times that of the
    A general review of research work on              randomly selected trees, at a level of 72 nuts per
coconuts (and cashew nuts) at the Kenya coast         annum. Similar studies were carried out in 1980
was highlighted during the 9th-symposium on           by the same researchers (31760).
horticultural crops held at Wageningen,                   Dwarf coconut palms in Kilifi were shown to
Netherlands in 1985 (202536). Growth and              have originated from dwarf parents in the area. A
development of coconut palms and their relation       number of such parents were proposed for
to fertiliser application were also reviewed in the   inclusion in the collection at Kikambala RC for
same workshop (202428).                               use in breeding work (31588).
    In the First African Workshop on the Coconut          In an observation experiment to establish the
held in 1991 in Arusha and Dar es Salaam,             range of performance of trees at Mtwapa in 1978
Tanzania, issues related to the theme "Working        and 1979 (58), it was observed that the poorest
towards a better future for the African coconut       palm yielded 5 nuts while the highest yielded 84
farmer" were discussed (241393). The                  nuts. Yields obtained in 1978 were higher than
proceedings will be of use to all those involved      those obtained in 1979.
in the field of coconut research, production,             Trunk, leaf and inflorescence characteristics
processing and utilisation.                           and their variation from tree to tree at Mtwapa
                                                      were categorised in 1980 (229962).
50                                             Coconut


Fertilisers                                          history and methods to control, both biological
                                                     and chemical. An account of diseases and pests
    It was reported in 1981 that results from a 15   of coconuts dated 1980 is also given in another
year factorial N P K fertiliser application trial    report (229801). A report by CAB International
carried out at Mtwapa showed no significant          Institute for Biological Control on studies of
differences in yield. Controls without fertilisers   coconut pests in various Commonwealth
yielded a mean of 26 nuts per palm as compared       countries (00109) between 1985 and 1986
to 25 nuts from a plot with 40 kg/ha of N            includes Kenya.
(01134).                                                 As early as 1913, fears were expressed about
    A trial was initiated at Mtwapa in 1980 to       the danger posed by the rhinoceros beetle which
assess the productivity of mature coconut trees      was devastating coconut plantations at the coast
treated with nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus      (19895). Rhinoceros beetle was cited as the
at various levels. Treatment with minor elements,    principal agent causing the loss of healthy
such as calcium and magnesium, were to be            coconut trees at Gazi in 1955 (17863). It was
superimposed later (03166).                          estimated that 15% of palms in well managed
    In 1979, experiments were conducted at           estates were not bearing any fruits due to the
Mtwapa to study the influence of fertiliser on the   damage incurred.
productivity and plant characters. The rates were        Control of rhinoceros beetle using traps
0, 20, 40 and 80 kg/ha of N; 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha      fumigated with carbon disulphide and through
of P2O5, and 0, 60 and 120 kg/ha of K2O. Results     biological control by deployment of a fungus
showed that treatment combinations were not          indigenous to Samoa which attacks the larvae of
significantly different though an interaction        the beetle was attempted in the period from 1913
between N and K was observed (14146, 469; 79).       to 1914 in Coast Province (11278).
The use of fertilisers is also considered in other       In 1957, work undertaken in Coast Province
reports (e.g. 229961).                               to investigate the cause of the attacks showed
                                                     that rhinoceros beetle infestation appeared to be
                                                     worse in Kilifi district, but was less serious at
Germination                                          Kwale. Destruction of the breeding places as a
                                                     control method was suggested (05161).
   Studies at Mtwapa RRC in 1977 to compare              In 1978, a review on the control of rhinoceros
two methods of planting coconut showed that the      beetle in Kenya was undertaken (20273). Crop
conventional method of removing part of the          rotation and the destruction of breeding sites,
husk at the germ was superior to the Tanzanian       especially dead trees trunks were considered the
method of pre-soaking the nuts in water for 14       most effective method for reducing the beetle
days (01084). A contrary finding was however         population.
reported in studies carried out in 1978 (14127).         A review of the literature on the coconut stink
   In an assessment of the germination of the        bug, on its biology, damage to coconuts, its
East African tall coconut and the dwarf East         predators and parasites and chemical control was
African Orange coconut, it was observed that         produced by scientists at Mtwapa RRC in the
both types germinated equally well, though the       early 1980s (30984). The KARD database
dwarf type had slower germination. These             contains several records referring to damage by
studies were performed at Mtwapa RRC in 1980         the insect. For example, it is mentioned in a
(03154) and at Kikambala (31761), where similar      fertiliser trial conducted at Mtwapa in 1981
information was obtained.                            (01134) when both stored nuts and small nut-lets
                                                     in the field were effected (03114).
                                                         The first mention of initiation of studies to
Insect pests                                         quantify the effects of Pseudotheraptus wayi at
                                                     the Kenya coast was apparently in 1951 (32094)
   The rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes monoceros          where it was reported that the bug was an
Olivier) and the coreid insect, the coconut stink    important factor in reducing coconut yields.
bug (Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown) have been               Control of coconut stink bug by the use of a
the major coconut pests in the Coast Province        predaceous ant was tried in 1956 in Coast
and Kenya as reported in 1961 (00482). The           Province but the trial was discontinued due to the
document contains an account of their life           failure of the ants to multiply as required. During
                                               Coconut                                             51

the studies, it was established that both the        Water use
cashew and mango trees served as alternate hosts
to the bug (05251). Attacked nuts reduced copra
yields by 20% (17861).                                   Lack of sufficient moisture during critical
                                                     growth periods caused coconuts nut-shedding as
   Chemical control measures using DDT and           was noticed in 1931 (17468) at the coast.
Dieldrin have been employed (18414) with             Gumming was also thought to be associated with
Dieldrin showing good residual kill.                 moisture stress, but more particularly with
   In 1981, an attempt to breed the endemic egg      deficiencies of some nutritional element in the
parasite, Ooencyrtus albicrus as a biological        soil.
control for Pseudotheraptus spp. failed to give
                                                         A study in 1959 to establish the relationship
any useful results (9364).
                                                     between female flower production, rainfall
   The dwarf variety of coconut (Cocos nucifera      distribution and cultural production practices
(Palmae)) was found to host the African              showed that a highly significant positive
armyworm (Spodoptera exempta Walker) in              correlation exists between flower production and
1981 studies (229676).                               yield. Female flower production varied from
                                                     palm to palm under similar ecological and
   While chemical control methods exist they         cultural conditions. There was also a seasonal
are not cost effective. Of the biological control    variation shown to be correlated with amount of
methods only crop sanitation and use of a virus      rain falling between the 7th and 9th month prior
that attacks Oryctes appear to offer promise for     to opening of the inflorescence. Clean hand-
Kenya.                                               weeding led to a 60% yield increase. (15962).

                                                        In 1972, drought severely affect coconut trees
                                                     along Mombasa-Nairobi road killing many trees
Diseases                                             (001591).

    A general account of the pests and diseases of
coconuts in Kenya was produced in 1980
(229801). Earlier in 1931, diseases affecting        Crop husbandry
production, including “gumming” and “nut
shedding”, were investigated. These were                 A practical guide to coconut growing and
considered to be physiological diseases due to       management was written in 1954 (00431). It
stresses caused by moisture and nutritional          begins with an account of soils and climatic
deficiencies (17468).                                conditions necessary for growing coconuts. Soils
   It was reported (19895) in 1913 that seeds        should be deep alluvial loamy sand, well-drained
imported from Pemba and Ceylon (now Sri-             and rich in humus. Water supply during the
Lanka) died out due to infestation by bud rot        season and husbandry measures, such as land
(Phytophthera spp.).                                 preparation,     planting,     cultivation   and
                                                     intercropping of coconuts with other crops, are
    In an observation trial to investigate the       described. Major coconut pests are also
performance of coconut hybrids accessed from         mentioned, the most important ones being the
the Ivory Coast at Mtwapa and Msabaha in 1982,       rhinoceros beetle and coreid bug (see above). An
the trees were attacked by the lethal bole rot       account of intensive multiple-cropping with
(Marasmiellus cocophilus) (05651). A survey to       coconuts in India (230421) may provide
investigate and confirm the existence of palms       additional information useful in Kenya.
infected with bole rot was carried out in Kwale
District in 1983. The pathogen was collected in         The three main coconut production systems in
Msambweni, isolated and identified. Further          Kenya have identified in a 1981 review (30979):
experiments including inoculation methods to         monocrop; intercropping with an annual crop(s)
study the behaviour of the pathogen were             and mono-cropping with grazing of ground cover
suggested (00059).                                   throughout the year.
52                                              Coconut


Production areas                                      Yields of nut, shell and copra
                                                          Storage of copra in bags in a room with a
    In 1913, the progress of young coconut trees
and the establishment of coconut plantations          concrete floor, for three months after drying by
along the Kenyan coastal belt were described          smoking, gave the highest oil content and
(19871; 32842). The number of established trees       saponification value but the lowest acid value
in the bearing stage was estimated to be about        and unsaponifiable matter (12665). Samples
                                                      which had been sun-dried had the highest
one million. The threat posed to the coconut
industry by rhinoceros beetle was mentioned and       moisture content (15.3%), while samples stored
control measures suggested.                           in bags on a concrete floor had the lowest
                                                      moisture content (7.2%), as shown in 1969 study
    As early as 1914, it was evident that coconut     at the National Agricultural Laboratory.
production could be economical along the Kenya            The importance attached to proper drying of
coast due to its favourable agro-climatic             nuts and copra to a moisture content of below
conditions. Problems deterring the rapid up-take      7% to prevent fungal attack by Aspergillus spp.,
of production by local people included the            Penicillium spp., Mucor spp. and Cladosporium
continuous tapping for 'mnazi', bush fires, lack of   spp. has been emphasised (03618).
interest in growing the crop in large blocks and          Yield records made in 1983 at Mtwapa
limited knowledge of quality copra production,        showed that one tree produced a "record" number
among others. Attack by rhinoceros beetle was         of 65 nuts and that three of these weighed more
also mentioned as a limiting factor in production     than 1 kg each (04049). These parameters were
(19241). However the future of the industry was       used at the centre to select high yielding coconut
seen as promising.                                    lines, trees producing more than 51 nuts being
    The fact that six coconut trees planted at        chosen (30973).
Kibos satisfactorily flowered and gave fruits             In a trial conducted at Mtwapa in 1980 to
seven years later showed that coconuts could be       determine the yield of coconut, it was reported
grown in areas next to Lake Victoria, as reported     that an average of 21.25 nuts were produced per
in 1931 (32719).                                      palm per year. That was equivalent to 2623 nuts
                                                      per hectare, capable of providing 414 kg copra at
   In 1931, the acreage under coconut in Kenya        a moisture content of about 2% (03160).
was reported as 8,121, down from 8,499 reported           In a yield trial in 1981 at Mtwapa, it was
in the previous year (17415). Output of copra,        established that husk percentage varied between
however increased to 4,736 from 3810 cwt.             40 and 64% (03116). A experimental study of the
    A physical land evaluation study of the           drying of nuts and copra is reported in 03151.
Chonyi-Kaloleni area of Kilifi District was
reported in a MSc thesis (13717), which contains
an analysis of its suitability for coconut and        Utilisation
cashew nut production. A further study of the
suitability of Kaloleni for growing coconuts was          Among the products mentioned in 1913 were
carried out in 1981 (229255). Special reference       substitutes for butter and lard made from refined
to plant characteristics and nutrient status in       coconut oil (19871). Methods of utilisation of
relation to soil type and recommendations for         coconut products an by-products were to be
appropriate cropping systems were made.               taught to the indigenous people in 1913 (19895),
                                                      so as to make them understand the many uses of
    Results based on a soil survey conducted in       the crop. The making of margarine from the oil
Kilifi District in 1986 (238975) to assess land
                                                      was shown to the local people (32842).
suitability for different uses established that the       In a trial at Molo in 1973 to test different
soils were only marginally suitable for the           substances as media of root cuttings of fruit tree
growing of the coconuts. Similar studies carried      crops, coconut fibre was among the tested
out in 1988 showed that several areas in both
                                                      materials. It was found unsuitable since it only
Kilifi and Kwale were rated as very good,             supported 9.12% rooting as compared to 81.5%
marginal or moderately suitable for the crop.         for a standard gravel. (19392).
Similar results were obtained from studies done           As a cash earner, coconut plays a major role
in Kilifi and Kwale in the same year (33302).         in raising the living standards of people
                                          Coconut                                            53

especially in the developing world, as         discuss international co-operation in multi-
emphasised in 1981 (237349) in a conference    purpose tree germplasm held in Nairobi, under
held in Geneva on trade in vegetable oils.     the sponsorship of ICRAF (228384; 228746).
    Coconut is considered as a multi-purpose       The coconut is famed for it's milk, copra and
tree, as cited in 1984 during a workshop to    as a source of fibre (coir) (03154)
54   Coconut
                                   Macadamia Nut

Introduction                                        improve the poor yield in the existing
                                                    plantations, as reported in 1980 (17031).
    The first introductions of macadamia                Root stock selection at Thika, as reported in
(Macadamia ternifolia, M. integrifolia and M.       1990 (11989) when several varieties (KMB-3,
tetraphylla) into Kenya took place in 1940s.        KRG-1, MRG-8, Embu-1, KMB-4, KRG-15,
Unfortunately, it did not flourish because of the   MRG-20, KMB-5, MRG-2, MRG-25 and KMB-
poor quality of the nuts harvested, lack of         9) including M. tetraphylla varieties (KRG-T2,
adapted varieties and marketing problems            EMB-T1, KRG-T4, KRG-T5 and KRG-T3) were
(03313).                                            used. In a survey carried out in 1990 to select
    The nut is high in oil and is valued for its    mother trees with high yields and superior
confectionery uses. The nut is cracked to remove    quality, only one tree, MRG-A, was selected
the kernel which is subsequently roasted for        (20214).
consumption.                                            In another rootstock selection trial involving
    The first plantations of macadamia were         16 clones and varieties, germination percentages
established at Thika on Bobs Harris‟ farm and       were used to determine the best clones as
later at the National Horticultural Research        reported in 1991 (31271) from Thika. Soaking
Station, Thika for research purposes. To date,      the nuts for 3 days followed with placement in
only limited research has been carried out and      polythene bags prior to planting gave the highest
much remains to be researched if a                  germination percentage. Nuts that were scarified
comprehensive production package is to be           and soaked for 3 days had the lowest
developed.                                          germination.
                                                        In yet another selection of macadamia, the
                                                    selection criteria included nuts having an average
Selection, breeding and varieties                   diameter of 22.5-27.5 mm and trees having a
                                                    seed yield of over 50 kg of in-shell nuts/year for
    The selection of macadamia nut was              14-15 year old trees in high potential areas and
highlighted in 1975 (236591) when the then          40 kg/year in the low potential areas, as reported
ongoing programme was discussed.                    in 1991 (31294) from NHRC, Thika.
    Further selection of macadamia clones using         Macadamia does not breed true to type, as
tree vigour and nut quality as the criteria was     was reported in 1991 (03313) from NHRC,
carried out in 1979 (01456) at NHRC, Thika.         Thika. The best time to carry out crossing work
The clones selected were AHL-1, Chania-1,           in macadamia hybridisation programme was
Chania-3, Kandara-1, Kiahuria-5, Murang'a-1,        found to be during cloudy weather, as reported in
Chania-4, Embu-1, Meru 1, and Meru 2. The           1991 (31272).
most recent records in the KARD database                Work on pollen storage for the breeding of
(11524; 31275) contain accounts of the studies      trees suited to high altitudes is given in another
conducted in 1990 which showed that most            report (19879).
currently recommended strains were satisfactory,        Studies on macadamia adaptability trials at
but KRG-1 produced immature nuts, possibly          Thika in 1972 (02011) on four Hawaiian clonal
owing to the age of the trees.                      varieties (246, 333, 508 and 669) showed that the
    Selection of high quality mother trees was      highest yielders were clones 333 and 508 which
also carried out in 1972 by NHRC, Thika from        yielded 6.4 and 5.3 kg/tree respectively.
trees planted in Kiambu and Murang'a Districts.         Results on yields from a trial to evaluate
The trees were used as sources for materials for    yielding levels of Hawaiian macadamia clones
vegetative propagation or top-working to            showed that variety 333 yielded the highest
                                                    (10 kg/tree) but had the lowest kernel quality, as
56                                            Macadamia Nut

reported in 1973 (17043) and in 1977 (19844)           depended on the age and variety of the cutting
from NHRC, Thika.                                      material used.
   In a varietal adaptability trial reported in 1991      Results from a propagation trial involving
from Thika (31269), parameters studied included        cuttings from an eight year old seedling in 1964
the thickness of the shell (which should be less       at Molo Horticultural Research Station, showed
than 3 mm) nut weight (4.5 to 8.0 g) and kernel        that apical shoots with three leaves gave the best
percentage (over 40%).                                 results with 51.6% rooting (02373).
                                                          According to a report made in 1977 at NHRC
                                                       Thika (04677; 11355) on results obtained from a
Plant nutrients and soil conditions                    nursery grafting trial using the side wedge
    Trials at Thika to find the effect of nitrogen     method, it was observed that 90% of the takes
and potassium application on macadamia                 were obtained during the dry season. High
flowering and fruit formation in 1990 (18976)          humidity led to increased fungal growth and
were investigated. Another trial to study the          damage on the unions.
effect of N, P and K on macadamia growth and              Further studies in 1990 (11984) to compare
yield was carried out in 1990 (18980) where it         top wedge, side wedge, splice and veneer
was reported that visual observations showed           grafting methods showed that wedge method was
that yellowing of macadamia occurred in the            the best as it gave 90-100% success. Best results
treatments with no nitrogen applications. In a         were obtained when scion material was kept at a
similar trial at the same site, results of leaf        temperature of 5-10°C for at least two weeks.
analysis did not show marked differences               Young, green material when used for grafting by
between the treatments, as reported in 1991            the side wedge or shoot tip methods did not
(9682).                                                prove satisfactory (31338).
    In 1969, it was reported from NARL, Nairobi            Results from a trial to establish the best
that analysis of several plant samples from            temperature for germination identified 32°C as
various crops, including macadamia, for Fe, Mn,        the optimum. Most germination occurred 35 days
Cu and Zn, was performed (03670).                      after planting, as reported in 1990 (11987;
    Analysis of soil samples collected from            19724) from Thika. In studies to find the effect
macadamia-growing areas in western and central         of temperature and depth of seeding on
Kenya, showed that pH ranged between 4.5 and           germination of macadamia seed, done in 1991, at
6.5 and were suitable for the crop, as reported in     Thika (31341) it was found out that the highest
1990 (11713) from NHRC, Thika. Further                 percentage germination was attained at
studies in 1991 (9662) showed pH values of 4.1         temperatures between 30-32°C.
to 5.2 and application of agricultural lime when
establishing a macadamia orchard was
recommended.
    Mulching of macadamia (11553) has also
                                                       Growth regulators and nut yield
been investigated.
                                                          Growth regulators (hormones) were applied
                                                       to macadamia to increase the yields were
                                                       reported in 1990 (11717; 31268) from Thika.
Propagation
                                                       Cytokinin applied at a concentration of 600 ppm
   Results obtained from studies to select             gave the highest number of fruits (62110) after
superior root stocks showed that seven days            one week of application.
soaking of the seed in water improved                     Studies on plant growth regulators (cytokinin,
germination as reported in 1991 (20466) from           benzylamino purine (BA), gibberellic acid (GA),
NHRC, Thika. Cracked seeds germinated poorly           brassinolide, and prohexadione (KUH 833F)
due to fungal infection.                               were carried out to find their effects on plant
   Attempts to use the rooting agents, indole          growth and fruit set as reported from NHRC
butyric acid (IBA) and ethychlozate to promote         Thika in 1991 (9667). Results obtained showed
rooting in macadamia were made at NHRC,                that there was severe pre-mature nut drop in
Thika, according to 1990 reports (11843; 20413,        macadamia and none of the growth regulators
20421 and 20462). Rooting was variable and             was effective in controlling it.
                                            Macadamia Nut                                             57


Spacing, pruning and training of                     parasitic effects of the wasp have also been
                                                     reported (10828; 31353).
macadamia
                                                        Results from laboratory tests to evaluate
   It was reported that macadamia was planted at     insecticides for control of stink bug showed that
the spacing of 10 x 10 m in an intercropping trial   "Sumithion", “Rogor E”, “Thiodan” and “Decis”
with beans at Thika in 1991 (31355). This is the     all controlled the bug as reported in 1991
spacing presently being used for all the varieties   (31351) from Thika.
of macadamia but there is a need to identify
optimum spacings for the various cultivars in           It was reported from NHRC Thika that two
specific agro-ecological zones of Kenya.             major species of nut borers (Cryptophlebia
   Establishment of a macadamia tree with well       leucotreta and Ephestia sp.) attacked macadamia
balanced framework of bearing branches was           nuts in 1991 (31354). Results from similar
found useful as it led to increased fruit set (5.0   studies done in Eastern, Central and Coast
nuts/cluster against 3.6 nuts/cluster in the         provinces (Taita Taveta area) in the same year
control) and development of new shoots as            showed that there were significant differences
reported in 1990 (11714) from NHRC, Thika.           between varieties and amount of husk damage.
Results obtained in 1991 from the same trial         Husk damage was also correlated to kernel
showed that the pruned tree had an average fruit     damage (9680).
set of 5.1 nuts/cluster and yielded 51 kg/tree
while the un-pruned control had an average of            Studies on weevils attacking macadamia in
3.2 nuts per cluster and yielded 39 kg/tree          Kenya in 1990 (11931; 31349). Results showed
(31357).                                             that two species of weevils, namely, Phoromitus
                                                     largus and Nematocerus spp. were the important
                                                     ones in Kenya. Population studies to monitor the
Inter-cropping                                       weevil populations were carried out and methods
                                                     of sampling data for analysis and control
    In 1990, macadamia was inter-cropped with        measures suggested. Croton macrostachys was
beans in a trial at NHRC, Thika (11718) The          cited as an alternative host to the weevils.
variety of the planted bean was Rose Coco            Similar findings were made in 1991 (9681) and
spaced at 50 x 10 cm and this trial appears to       (16633) reports on the incidence of weevils
have been more concerned with the yield of           throughout Kenya.
beans, which was damaged by antelope, than
with the effects on the trees. Another mention of
macadamia in an intercropping situation is its use
as a shade tree for coffee (17933).                  Diseases

                                                        In studies done in 1990 at NHRC Thika
Insect pests                                         (11933) to find the causes of macadamia decline,
                                                     it was established that Phytophthora spp. were
    In 1974, it was reported from a macadamia        responsible for the decline and that gall tissues in
plantation in Ruiru, that a sap sucking bug was      macadamia were not caused by Agrobacterium
attacking the young macadamia nuts (12173).          spp.
The symptom was shrivelling of the kernel.
Damage was rarely evident externally but was            Further studies on the pathogen were done at
apparent once the mature nut was cracked. Traps      Thika and reported in 1991 (31342; 31345;
were laid out and the trapped bugs were              31347; 31349). Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands
identified as Bathycoelia natalicola Dist.           was positively confirmed as the causative
(Pentatomidae: Hemiptera).                           organism of the macadamia decline. The
    Stink bug attacked macadamia at NHRC             fungicides "Ridomil" and "Aliette" successfully
Thika as reported in 1990 (12072). Wasps were        controlled the disease but there was a
used as biological controls while it was             recommendation that cultural control methods be
recommended that seedlings should be sprayed         used especially by small scale farmers.
regularly with insecticides. Studies of the
58                                           Macadamia Nut


Quality                                                  Results from a quality analysis trial on
                                                      macadamia nuts in 1971 showed that generally
    Results from a laboratory study to determine      both the total and reducing sugar contents were
chemical changes that occur in macadamia nuts         higher in M. tetraphylla, five times more than in
when under storage were reported in 1970              M. integrifolia. The kernel to nut ratio by weight
(14291) at NHRC, Thika. They showed that              was also superior in M. tetraphylla while oil
macadamia nuts stored under ambient                   content was generally higher in M. integrifolia
temperature undergo adverse changes when              (21944).
initial moisture content of the kernel has not been
reduced by drying.
    Analyses were carried out in 1972 (14836) to      General information on macadamia
determine nut quality using nuts from M.
integrifolia and M. tetraphylla. It was shown that       In a 1980 a paper entitled: “The National
the respective oil contents were 76.9 and 77.8%       Horticultural Research Station, Thika: playing a
respectively. The corresponding mean kernel to        major role in Kenya's rapidly developing
nut ratios were 33.2 and 35.9. Acid values were       horticultural industry” was published and a note
0.41 for M. tetraphylla. Iodine numbers were          on macadamia growing was included (243759).
70.0 and 79.4 while saponification values were           Other references to macadamia are recorded
220.4 for M. integrifolia and 234.6 for M.            (16824; 19836; 19881; 243467; 245862; 34072
tetraphylla.                                          and 34611), mostly to do with prospects for nut
                                                      production.
                                   Other Oil Crops

Oyster nut (Telfairia pedata)                        International Conference      on   Crop Genetic
                                                     Resources of Africa.
    A detailed account on various aspects related
to the oyster nut was given in the 1939 review
(900487). Among the issues discussed are areas       Perilla (Perilla frutescens)
suitable for production, favourable soils and
climatic conditions, biological aspects of the           In 1923, an experiment to evaluate yield
plant, insect pests and diseases and the necessary   performance of perilla was conducted in Kenya
disease control methods. Economics of                using transplanted seedlings which were grown
production, chemical analysis of the nut, it's       following recommended practices. The crop
possible uses and grading methods for                attained the height of 20 cm at harvest and
confectionery trade are given.                       yielded about 1000 kg/ha (34679).


Yeheb nut (Cordeauxia edulis)                        Essential oils
   Observations on the performance of nine           Introduction
yeheb bushes planted at Mwakiki, between 1968            Presently, Kenya spends a substantial amount
and 1970 at Coast Province was carried out in        of its foreign exchange to purchase essential oils,
1995 (18392). Top nut yield was 2676 kg/ha           especially for the Kenyan perfume industry, or
based on a plant density of 1000 plants per          on the importation of perfumes made elsewhere.
hectare. The nut, which has a sweet taste,           Local production of essential oils is very limited
appeared to have limited possibilities for the       and very little is known about them by Kenyans.
dessert trade.                                       Given the high incomes that make the world
                                                     trade in essential oils so important and profitable,
                                                     the country would be justified in starting to
Bambara nut (Vigna subterranea)                      exploit its available resources. So far only
                                                     limited research has been carried out on the crops
    Results from eco-physiological experiments       that produce the essential oils. Notwithstanding,
for improving land use patterns in the arid and      a few crop species have been identified as having
semi arid lands of South-East Kenya,                 the potential to produce the oils. Production
recommended the growing of tepary beans and          technology has not yet been fully developed and
bambara nut, amongst other crops. (234056).          the crops pose challenging but researchable areas
Bambara required 75 days of adequate water           to bridge the gaps in knowledge.
supply to give minimum acceptable yields in two          Studies carried out at the NARC in Kabete in
out of three years and was therefore limited to      1931 (17427) established that Kenya was rich in
the second rainy season in the Machakos and Voi      indigenous scented plants, but most of them had
Districts and the first rains in Mariakani. This     oils that are either similar to other oils more
was concluded from studies to find the response      easily produced or are distinctly unpleasant. The
of bambara to different durations and intensities    most promising ones appeared to be the East
of water stress under controlled environmental       African cedar. (Juniperus procera), and
conditions conducted in 1988 by CABI (240083).       „Muhugu‟ (Brachylaena hutchinsii). The most
    Documentation on bambara germplasm               promising exotic ones were geranium, lemon
diversity and prospects for crop improvement in      grass, peppermint and lavender.
tropical Africa was highlighted in 1988 (301217)         Verbena (Verbena officinalis), an ornamental
in Nigeria during the proceedings of the             herbaceous plant was identified as a source of
60                                             Other Oil Crops

essential oils in 1989. A taxonomic description         Vetiver grass
of the new V. officinalis subsp. africana has been           Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) was
reported (231378). Specimens were found in              introduced in Mtwapa in 1967, as reported in
Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia,              1972 (32257; 06336) where five yield trials were
Zimbabwe, Natal and Transvaal.                          conducted. Planting of root splits was at a
                                                        spacing of 90 x 30 cm and yields of clean roots
                                                        ranged from 10 to 9 t/ha. Harvesting was by
Geranium                                                lifting the plants either by hand or by use of
                                                        mechanised sub-soiler. A yield of 30 kg/ha of
    Geranium propagation trials were first              vetiver oil with a value of KSh 130 per kg gave a
performed in 1949 (32040) at NHRC Thika and             return of KSh 3900/ha
in 1960-64 at Molo HRC (16442; 02347). The                   Results obtained from a fertiliser trial on
value of dipping geranium internodal cuttings           yield levels of vetiver that was carried out at
into fungal solutions was evaluated. The cuttings       Mtwapa between 1969 and 1970 (22116; 00562)
were treated with Captan, Captan plus Seradix,          it showed that the best mean yield (1.7 t/ha) was
Seradix alone or left untreated. Results showed         obtained from applications of 375 kg/ha sulphate
that those treated with Captan plus Seradix had         of ammonia, 16.8 t/ha of farmyard manure and
the highest survival rate which ranged from 44 to       125 kg/ha of double superphosphate. The highest
74%.                                                    yield was 2.5 t/ha and it was concluded that very
                                                        good yields could be obtained from the crop
    In a geranium oil fertiliser trial carried out at   under proper management and husbandry.
Sotik involving application of nitrogen and
phosphate, it was found that the highest oil yield      Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.)
(10.3 kg/ha) was obtained from the combined
application of 498 kg/ha of nitrogen and 249                 Studies to find the effects of nitrogen and
kg/ha of phosphate. The yield increase was not          phosphorus applications and their interaction on
significant but gave an extremely economic              the performance of camomile were conducted at
return, as reported in 1960 (10733).                    Kabete, University of Nairobi between 1986 and
                                                        1990 (18275; 16940). Results showed that
    A trial was carried out at Molo in 1962 and         vegetative growth and dry matter of the crop
1963 to observe the effects of manure, nitrogen         were significantly increased by nitrogen
and phosphorus application as well as spacing on        application but not by phosphorus. The
the yield of green fresh matter and oil from a          interactions between N and P did not
geranium (cv. „Bourbon‟). Results showed no             significantly      influence    plant     growth,
direct relationship between the yield of the green      development, yield and quality of the essential
matter and oil distilled and that no significant        oil.
differences in yields of fresh matter were
observed between the treatments. It was also            Coriander (Coriandum sativum)
noted that yield decreased with increasing age              Results obtained from a spacing, farmyard
(20159; 15805). Similar results were obtained           manure and phosphate trial carried out at NHRC
from the same trial when conducted at NHRC              Thika in 1991 (10857) indicated that coriander
Thika in 1962 (18089).                                  yields showed response to farmyard manure,
                                                        phosphorus fertiliser and a combination of the
   Perhaps the first report of studies on               two. Closer spacing resulted in increased fresh
geranium production in Kenya was made in 1937           herb yield but decreased seed yield.
(20523) in the paper entitled „Essential oils from
Exotic Plants: Geranium oil‟. The paper
highlighted several sources of the plant strains,       Tung (Aleurites fordii, A. montana)
crop management practices, oil processing
methods and the oil qualities. The report also              Tung oil trees were grown on an experimental
mentions that geranium, besides being used for          basis in East Africa in 1935 (00410). Two
the production of essential oils, was also used for     species of tung (A. fordii and A. montana) were
ornamental purposes.                                    tried in Kenya and in the southern highlands of
                                                        Tanzania in 1936 (01713). Prospects for
                                            Other Oil Crops                                          61

commercial production were mentioned. Growth         Non-conventional vegetable oils for
performance of the introduced tung oil seed was
difficult, possibly due to the short day length,
                                                     fuel in Kenya
especially for A. fordii. Grafting of scions to         In studies carried out in the 1980s to screen
rootstocks of other trees or stocks of other         seed of indigenous Kenya plants for the presence
species was recommended.                             of potential fuel oils, sixteen out of the 60 those
                                                     screened had more than 20% oil and five had
Avocado (Persea gratissima syn. P.                   more than 40% (238329). Physical and chemical
americana)                                           properties of the oils were determined and it was
   Avocado fruit is extensively used in many         indicated that many had potential use as liquid
Kenya household as a fruit, that is nutritious in    fuels, although their high viscosity could cause
calories due to its high oil content. Much           flow problems. Nine species with seeds
research work has been accomplished in Kenya         containing more than 30% oil content were
(34679) and the avocado is virtually grown in the    identified as the important ones. These were
every province of Kenya. It is a source of foreign   custard apple (Annona squamosa), Arecastrum
exchange when exported, and a leading                romanzoffianum (a palm), neem (Azadirachta
ingredient in the cosmetic industry.                 indica), Balanites aegyptiaca, Calodendrum
                                                     capense, Craibbia ellioti [C. brownii], Croton
                                                     megalocarpus and Passiflora edulis.
Table 1. Records in the database on variety testing
                                    No.
Record   Date      Location         varieties    Best                       Yield
001608   1948      Kitale           3            not stated                 no data
00478    1961-64   Eldoret/Kitale   not stated   White 655                  no data
00836    1980      Kakamega         not stated   for seed: 049              1406 kg/ha
                                                 for oil : 053              565 l/ha
00918    1979      Kakamega         17           for oil: 301A              950 l/ha
                                                 for seed: Kensun White     2289 kg/ha
01373    1972      Kakamega         16           030 A-C2                   1886 kg/ha
02570    1991      Several sites    13           H-891                      3264 kg/ha
02864    1985      Coast            26           not stated                 no data
02926    1977      Thika            14           H02B                       40.4 Q/ha
02931    1977      Njoro            18           Ireg. C. Hungary           33.8 Q/ha
02934    1977      Njoro            18           Dark Stripe                28.7 Q/ha
02956    1977      Njoro            15           Peredorik 1969             29.1 Q/ha
                   Thika                         USSR 1652                  10.5 Q/ha
                   Embu                          USSR 1652                  15.5 Q/ha
03938    1982      Coast            20           026                        928 kg/ha
                                                                            (Diseased)
04707    1991      Mtwapa           3            H893                       no data
05116    1972      Kakamega         10           Dark Stripe                3194 kg/ha
                                                                            (Bird damage)
06326    1975      Coast            6            106?                       1596 kg/ha
06333    1971      Mwakiki          13           4th. Kyle Kenya White      no data
                   Mtwapa                        030AxKw (M1) C3
                   Msabaha                       Grey Stripe
06359    1983      Wanguru          20           for oil: Hybrid 345        1377 kg/ha (?)
10901    1978      Njoro            26           0334                       no data
                   Nyandarua                     0334                       no data
11509    1991      7 sites          no data      across all sites: Hybrid   no data
                                                 891, S-430 and H-896
11539    1986      Kisii            5            Kenya Fedha                no data
12122    1978      Njoro            no data      for seed: 005              no data
                                                 for oil: H201              no data
12897    1977      Njoro            10           H02B, Vympel, Mayak        no data
12900    no data   Njoro            12           across both sites: 064     17.5 Q/ha
                   Ol Joro Orok




                                                 62
Table 1 (continued)
                               No.
Record   Date      Location    varieties   Best                        Yield
12901    1977      Njoro       16          049                         43.4 Q/ha
                   Solai                   033A                        31.1 Q/ha
                   Thika                   no information              no data
                   Marrira                 no information              no data
14512    1981      Several     no data     for oil and seed: H301A     1761 kg/ha

15070    1975      Thika       16          no information              no data
                   Embu                    Luci                        24.4 Q/ha
                   Mtwapa                  no information              no data
16987    no date   Thika       no data     Smena                       14.65 Q/ha
                   Embu                    Luci                        24.4 Q/ha
                   Mtwapa                  Saluit                      7.85 Q/ha
17017    no date   Njoro       7           Vympel                      16.1 Q/ha
17165    1990      Murinduko   14          across sites for seed: S-   no data
                   Meru                    400
17275    1980-81   Wanguru     about 100   Sunbred 254                 no data
                                           Sorem 82
                                           Sigco 890
17277    1979-81   Wanguru     no data     H-338                       3172 kg/ha
17278    1980      Wanguru     no data     H-301                       seed: 3.5 t/ha
                                                                       oil: 1.48 t/ha
18879    1984      Hola        36          Top Flor                    2761 kg/ha
                   Bura                    AS-504                      2701 kg/ha (?)
19167    1984      Matuga      11          IS-7101                     1281 kg/ha
19170    1984      Njoro       11          for seed: IS-7101, IS-      no data
19174                                      3107
                                           for oil: IS-7000, IS-3107   no data
19181    1984      Njoro       18          for seed: Ken 8908          1218 kg/ha
9648                                       for % oil: IS-3107          (drought)
                                           for oil: Ken 8938           no data
19184    1984      Endebess    18          for seed: IS-3107           3673 kg/ha
                                           for % oil: Ken 008          no data
                                           for oil: IS-3107            no data
19193    1984      Njoro       11          for seed: IS-3107           1223 kg/ha
                                           for % oil: H-345            no data
                                           for oil: IS3107             no data
19195    1984      Garissa     5           301A                        no data
                   Meru        15          Ken 8998                    no data
19266    1981      Wanguru     no data     H-345                       3365 kg/ha
                                                                       oil: 1407 kg/ha
19354    1991      Several     13          H-891                       3.26 t/ha




                                           63
Table 1 (continued)
                                  No.
Record   Date      Location       varieties   Best                   Yield
19900    1981      11 sites       25          H-345. H-301A          no data
21758
21590    1991      Mtwapa         13          S-530                  2278 kg/ha
32128
31427    1992      5 sites        no data     Shaba, Fedha best at
                                              lower/mid-altitudes;
                                              hybrids at Baraton
31529    no date   8 sites        14          S-430                  1841 kg/ha
32048    1949      Ol Joro Orok   4           Mars                   no data
32488    1980      Hola           8           S-345-4                2694 kg/ha
33777    1993      Kisii          13          S-455                  2208 kg/ha
33894    1972      Kakamega       16          Dark Stripe            3194 kg/ha
33940    1972      Mtwapa         6           for seed: 057 x KW     1348 kg/ha
                   Msabaha                    for % oil : 067        35.3%
242106   1990      Tanzania                   Kenya K030A released
                                              as „Kobe‟




                                              64
Table 2. Records in the database on fertiliser trials
Record   Date      Location         Nutrient    Response
02563    1969      Trans Nzoia      N, P        Variety influenced response to both N and P
12930
16492
00478    1966      Eldoret/Kitale   N, P        Response to N and P; N as top-dressing not
                                                economic
01596    1972      Lake Kenyatta    N, P        Little response to N and P. Later
                                                applications best
16989    1975      Thika            P           Response up to 120 kg P205/ha
05721    1973-74   Kabete           N, P, K     N increased DM production but reduced
16770                                           seed yield. P increased see yield. K effects
                                                variable. Major seasonal effects.
09520    1992      Njoro            N, P        No results due to drought and bird damage
12944    1976      4 sites          N, P        Positive response to P only at Njoro. N at up
1341                                            to 80 kg/ha and K at up to 40 kg/ha had no
                                                effect. Bird damage to crop
14914    1975      Thika            N, P, K     Response to N and P, with or without K at
16414                                           planting or as top-dressing
17166    1990      Embu             N, P        Negative effects due to high N. Response to
                                                P noted
18094    1962      Busia            N, P        Lodging increased due to N. No response to
                                                P
18174    1962      Kitale           N, P        No responses noted
18970    1977      Thika            N, P        No effect on see yield, but increase in
                                                biomass
18975    1977      Thika            N, P, K     Complex interactions, but response to all
19123                                           nutrients
19152
20941    1954      Kitale           N, P        Response to P, no response to N
32491    1986      Kitale           P           Response to P




                                               65
Table 3. Variety trials on soya bean
 Reference   Date of report     Location            No. cvs. on test     Best cv.      Max yield
  12524
   9313          1961          Kakamega                    3            B. Congo       1,754 lb/ac
  19711          1963             Sotik                    5            B. Congo            -
   492           1964             Sotik                    5            B. Congo       1,038 lb/ac
  16377          1965          Homa Bay                    6           Hernon Local     899 lb/ac
  06321          1966         Siriba, Butere               6            B. Congo       9.52 bags/ac
                              and Bungoma                                             (200 lb bags?)
  06401          1967          Kakamega                    5            Delmer 43      6.7 bags/ac
                                                                       Hokkaido 48
  16483          1967             Kisii                    9               Hill       1,548 lb/ac48
  02738          1967            Uyoma                     -              Voster            -
                                 Maseno
                                 Bukura
  02735          1968          Kakamega                    6             Perry 41           -
                                Sangalo                                   Voster
   2540          1969          Kakamega                    3               Hill             -
                                 Busia
  02540          1969            Kitale                    -               Hill             -
  14428          1969            Uyoma                     6              Voster       Up to 6.13
                                 Maseno                                                 bags/ac
                                 Bukura
  14431          1969          Kakamega                    6              Perry         Up to 7.4
                                Songalo                                                  bags/ac
  16533          1969            Kitale                    6               Hill         32.5 Q/ac
  14447          1969             Kisii                    8             BC/1/66       1,594 lb/ac
  32229          1971            Kisii                     7            B. Congo            -
                               Homa Bay                                    Hill             -
                                Keroka                                  Dorman              -
  21130          1971            Oyani                     8               Hill             -
                                  Seme
                                 Kolwa
                                 Keroka
  01374          1972            Yala                      7            T1 Black        10.5 Q/ha
                               Kakamega                                  Voster         19.0 Q/ha
                                Malakisi                                  Hill           3.1 Q/ha
  221170         1972          Homa Bay                    -            B. Congo        755 kg/ha
                                 Kisii                                                 2,396 kg/ha




                                               66
Table 3 (continued)
 Reference   Date of report   Location          No. cvs. on test     Best cv.      Max yield
  18411          1972          Oyani                   7               Hill             -
                                Seme
                               Kolwa
                               Keroka
  18413          1972           Kisii                  7            B. Congo         2.2 t/ha
  33863          1972           Yala                   7             Perry 41     Not clear from
                              Kakamega                                               abstract
                               Malakisi
  06296          1972           Kisii                  4                ?          2,395 kg/ha
                              Homa Bay                              B. Congo        755 kg/ha
  04178          1973         Homa Bay                 8             Vorster       2,471 kg/ha
  11859          1973         Homa Bay                 7            B. Congo            -
  12052          1975           Kisii                 12           Jupiter 2387         -
                                                                    B. Congo
  03606          1975          Thika                   6            B. Congo            -
                               Embu                                Jupiter 2281
                                                                     Delmar
                                                                   Old Delmar
  05207          1977         Homa Bay                12              Ica Lili          -
                                                                    204-M-2-I-
                                                                       M(2)
                                                                   203-I-5-M(8)
  16499          1977         Kisii area              12            B. Congo            -
                                                                   Jupiter 2281
                                                                     Delmar
                                                                   Old Delmar
  02942          1977          Njoro                  16            N/SYB/3         26.4 Q/ha
                                                                     Blyvoor
                                                                     Perry 41
                                                                      Bunia
                                                                    N/SYB/28
   472           1978           Kisii                 12           Jupiter 2281    1,973 kg/ha
  10870          1978          Njoro                  24           Wilson Black         -
   479           1979         Homa Bay                12            203-I-5-5-     1,877 kg/ha
                                                                      M(8)
  001407         1982           Kisii                 12              Hill              -
                                                                    EAI-3711
  001408         1982         Homa Bay                12           Wilson Black         -
  06311          1983           Kisii                 24             H-1-3         2,537 kg/ha
                              Homa Bay                12            Bukalasa       1,459 kg/ha
  06537          1984         Kakamega                17             Bossier       3,350 kg/ha




                                           67
Table 3 (continued)

 Reference   Date of report     Location           No. cvs. on test     Best cv.      Max yield

  01018          1984             Kisii                  12           Masterpiece         -
                                                                      Lot No. 4085
                                                                        Bossier
                                                                         KE6C

  01072          1984            Ringa                   12             Bossier           -
                                                                       Perry 41
                                                                      Wilson Black

  20141          1984           Wanguro                  12            EAI/5622      1,222 kg/ha
                                 Meru                                  EAI/3711      1,805 kg/ha
                                 Kisii                                 NSYB/14       2,405 kg/ha
                                                                      MMUT 176

  21693          1984           Wanguru                  18              Hood        1,317 kg/ha
                                 Meru                                    Hood        1,804 kg/ha
                                 Kisii                                Soya bean/17   1,577 kg/ha

  300053         1984          Kakamega                  13            TGM-272       125 g/plant

   751           1985          Kakamega                  14             Bossier           -
                                                                       Pic-pickett

   9620          1985            Njoro                    4                 -             -

  16119          1986             Kisii                  12           Bukalasa (1)        -
                                                                      EAI-3685 (2)        -
                                 Ringa                                  Vorster           -

  33497          1987          Kakamega                   4            B. Congo           -

  19284          1987             Kisii                 2x12            K 6570       >2,000 kg/ha
                                Katumani                              TGX 930-9C           -
                                 Njoro                                Wilson Black    1,120 kg/ha

  06023          1987          Kakamega                  17            B. Congo           -
                                                                        Bossier

  01162          1989          Kakamega                  17               Hill        521 g/plot

  32940          1991          Kakamega                  17            B. Congo           -
                              Baraton Univ.                            TGM-272

  10772          1992            Njoro                   25           Wilson Black   1,018 kg/ha

  31547          1993            Lanet                   75                 -             -
                                 Njoro



                                              68

				
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Description: Review of Kenyan Safflower Oiil