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Mother Earth Organic Super Tea Grow Technical Description Seaweed Extract

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Mother Earth Organic Super Tea Grow Technical Description Seaweed Extract Powered By Docstoc
					     Mother Earth Organic Super Tea Grow - Technical
                      Description


A) What is Mother Earth Super Tea?

Mother Earth Super Tea is a Grow or Bloom fertilizer and biostimulant made from natural
materials. Mother Earth Super Tea can be used as a stand-alone fertilizer for vegetative
and blooming cycles, or as a supplement that offers a potent combination of naturally
derived biostimulants.

Made from some of the most potent natural sources of fertilizer found on Earth, Mother
Earth Super Tea offers the modern gardener a concentrated source of primary and
secondary mineral nutrients, micronutrients, metabolic precursors, vitamins and growth
promoters.

Advanced Nutrients formulated Mother Earth Super Tea to include numerous
biostimulants for plant growth, all derived from plant extracts. As we describe below,
these include, tricontonol, betaines, auxins and cytokinins.


B) The Benefits of Using Mother Earth Tea:

Mother Earth Super Tea will enhance the aroma, and bouquet of your fruits and flowers
by providing them with a full spectrum of naturally made fertilizers and biostimulants.

Gardeners that use Mother Earth Super Tea will see growth rates of their vegetative and
blooming plants become enhanced by the naturally sourced nutrients and biostimulants
contained therein.

When planning to formulate Mother Earth Tea, Advanced Nutrients scientists decided to
imitate the lessons offered in nature regarding nutrient cycling and nutrient concentrating
throughout the biosphere.

The living biosphere of Earth has for eons been recycling raw nutrients and
accumulating “living” nutrients in the vast ecologies of the planet. Each rung of life in a
food chain, each organism from the original producer species such as photosynthetic
algae to the top predator in an ecosystem, represents a “concentration” of nutrients.

Advanced Nutrients has created Mother Earth Tea from a select number of these natural
concentrations of nutrients. Through the use of high quality agronomic emulsions, and
solid ground “meals”, Advanced Nutrients has extracted and concentrated some of the
richest bio-materials found on Earth.


C) The Ingredients of Mother Earth Tea:

Mother Earth Tea is an extract of the Earth’s living biosphere. Advanced Nutrients
recognized that nature has supplied us with an abundance of sources of nutrients for
combining into a natural nutrient regimen for gardeners.

We have used some of the most abundant and prolific organisms on Earth to create
Mother Earth Tea in both Grow and Bloom formulations. For example we utilize extracts
of earthworm castings, leonardite, alfalfa meal, sea weed meal, plus two blends of
guano. We also use fish emulsions, which provide all essential minerals for plant growth.

These concentrations of nutrients derived from ‘current’ life on Earth are complemented
with generous amounts of leonardite extract; Leonardite is an ancient material that is the
fossilized liquid extract of prehistoric ecosystems.

The leonardite we use in Mother Earth Super Tea is millions of years old; this yields
humic acid, a highly refined and rarefied material with phenomenal biological activity
when applied to plants.

Mother Earth Super Tea also exploits the biostimulating effects of the by-product from
the industry called “vermiculture” or worm-composting. In making the base-tea for
Mother Earth Tea, Advanced Nutrients utilizes the highest quality worm castings
available from which we extract all soluble biostimulants and bio-chelated nutrients.

Humates made today by worms are added to the Leonardite in Mother Earth Tea. We
combine ancient humates made millions of years ago with freshly bio-synthesized
humates and a myriad of other natural materials to make Mother Earth Tea Grow and
Bloom.

To make this extraction we first start by making a “base-tea” from the natural materials.
After blending these extracts into “grow” and bloom” formulations, combining them with
low-oil fish emulsions, we create a complete macro and secondary nutrient program for
your garden called Mother Earth Super Tea.

The manufacture of the base-tea in Mother Earth Super Tea is also able to extract the
nutrient value from two types of guano; we have blended both seabird and bat guano in
this base-tea.

This combination of guano sources gives your garden the additional nutrient inputs that
result from the specific diets and digestive abilities of birds and bats. We balance the
phosphorus content of the Bloom and Grow formulations of Mother Earth Super Tea by
varying the types of guano we use.

Due to their insectivorous diets, bat guano also contains chitin and also possesses a
higher proportion of nitrogen. Seabird guano avails higher phosphate levels compared to
nitrogen, and includes a diverse input of biologically available nutrients owing to their
marine diets. We will explore the value of each of these ingredients below, explaining
further how Advanced Nutrients has composed Mother Earth Tea.


D) How the Ingredients in Mother Earth Super Tea Work to Nourish Plant Growth:

Advanced Nutrients has chosen the Earth’s most potent soil amendments, used
agronomically all over the world to blend a Grow and Bloom version of Mother Earth
herself.
In Mother Earth Super Tea we have used natural materials made in the “modern-day”, in
recent times by life on Earth such as special plant extracts, and worm castings. We have
selected specific types of guano which are often “aged” materials that accumulate for
decades and centuries before being used as fertilizers. And we have utilized ancient
Leonardite extracts to make solubilized humic acids.

In the sections below we will explain in more detail how these diverse, natural
ingredients offered to us by mother Earth lead to faster, healthier, and more abundant
plant growth. We will start with alfalfa meal from which we extract tricontanol.


Alfalfa Yields Tricontonol, A Key Biostimulant in Mother Earth Super Tea:

Advanced Nutrients has used alfalfa meal as a main constituent of Mother Earth Super
Tea. For every batch of Mother Earth Super Tea we manufacture, we start off with a very
potent organic base-tea made from a large complement of alfalfa meal.

This tea-making-process is many days long and extracts the essences of the alfalfa
meal as much as possible, bringing into solution every cellular component that can be
suspended and solubilized.

The pressed and dried leaves of alfalfa that we use yield many water soluble organic
compounds but most importantly it is a source of Tricontanol. This is a very potent
hormonal stimulant that is recognized by farmers and scientists as a special ingredient
that is concentrated in rapid growing, leguminous alfalfa plants.

The final formulation of Mother Earth Super Tea actually smells like a cup of tea, since
we use ingredients that also deliver tannins and that are rich in organic-acids that
become extracted during the manufacturing.

Before we explore the biochemistry of tricontanol, we should note that the historical
significance of this forage crop. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a fast growing leguminous
plant that is prized as a nutritious forage crop. Alfalfa hay has been cultivated for
thousands of years feeding cattle and sheep since the Bronze Age, and providing
sustenance for horses of many armies.

Since it is a legume, alfalfa symbiotically hosts rhizobium species of bacteria in its roots.
Because of this microorganism’s ability to fix elemental nitrogen (N2) from the
atmosphere reducing it to ammonia (NH3), alfalfa can grow vigorously and pack in large
amounts of nitrogen.

Because of this symbiosis alfalfa with thrive even where the soils are low in this macro
nutrient. This symbiosis and the abundant growth of alfalfa will often restore depleted
soils with nutrients for other crops to be grown.

An interesting fact about alfalfa is that it possesses a gigantic genome; geneticists call
alfalfa a “tetraploid” plant since it has four sets of chromosomes instead of the usual 2.
Alfalfa is recognized for its effects on mammals; alfalfa will act as a “galactagogue”
which is a substance that promotes the formation of milk. This plant has been exploited
for its nutritional value for millennia by promoting lactation in domestic cattle.
The wide cultivation of alfalfa that started in the seventeenth century became an
important advance in European agriculture. Alfalfa’s symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-
fixing bacteria and its use as animal feed, greatly improved agricultural efficiency. When
grown on soils where it is well-adapted, alfalfa is the highest yielding forage plant.

In recent times however scientists have analyzed alfalfa for a better understanding of its
properties. Horticulturalists have recognized the growth stimulating effects that result
from utilizing alfalfa meal in their nutrient regimens. From alfalfa meal one can obtain all
the minerals required for plant growth, along with potent bio-organic stimulators.

Scientists have discovered that alfalfa meal contains a potent growth promoting lipid
called tricontanol; this is a long 30-carbon molecule that has an “-OH” (alcohol) molecule
attached to one end. This lipid alcohol is able to promote growth by interacting with the
lipids and proteins in cell membranes, especially the green photosynthetic membranes
of cholroplasts.

For examples of how tricontanol is shown to work, we can explore the scientific
literature; in the journal called Plant Growth Regulation, vol.21 (1997) scientists describe
how Tricontanol works at a molecular level in plant cell membranes. In the article called
“Photosynthesis response to triacontanol correlates with increased dynamics of
mesophyll protoplast and chloroplast membranes” the authors describe how the growth
promoting effects of tricontanol have been recognized:

“There is strong evidence that exogenous application of various long-chain aliphatic
alcohol preparations and especially triacontanol (TRIA) results in remarkable stimulation
of the growth and/or yield of a number of plant species. Photosynthesis has been
implicated as an important response to TRIA [7, 12] and the increased growth and dry
weight were attributed to better performance of photosynthesis and accumulation of
photosynthates.”

The description of tricontanol as a “long chain aliphatic alcohol” means it is an organic
(i.e. carbon-based) molecule, that is both water soluble and lipid (i.e. fat) soluble. This is
a key to it’s action in plants; being lipid-soluble means tricontanol will mix into the lipid
layers that make up the “membranes” of plant cells.

Tricontanol is also water soluble, and so we can extract it with hot water from alfalfa
meal. Once uptaken by plants, this long-chain, carbon-based molecule will then “seek
out” the lipid membranes of plant cells to insert itself into, altering the properties of the
membranes. Once inside cell membranes tricontanol promotes the activity of many
enzymes that are also inserted into cell membranes. The scientists continue to describe
the actions of tricontanol:

“… Houtz et al. [10] have suggested that the increased CO2 assimilation plays an
essential role in (the tricontanol or TRIA) response. In fact, a number of studies have
demonstrated an increased rate of CO2 fixation in a variety of plant species as a result
of nanomolar tricontanol (TRIA) application. A rapid TRIA-induced increase of the
specific activity of ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase (RUBISCO) and
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCASE) has been suggested as a major
mechanism involved in this response [11].”
So the reports in the literature describe how scientists have measured the potency of
tricontanol at levels so minute it would seem impossible to prevent growth stimulation
when even a tiny bit ended up contaminating the garden. Imagine handling a material
that is effective at “nano-molar” amounts, which are at concentrations of 1x10-9 mol per
litre ! If you touched any plant tissue with mere traces of tricontanol on your hands, it
would be affected!

And the means by which tricontanol acts in plants has been closely studied, as
mentioned above. This lipid alcohol promotes two principal enzymes that conduct the
uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere, namely RUBISCO and PEPCase. The enzyme
called RUBISCO is the single most abundant protein on earth and is directly responsible
for the fixation of CO2 gas into the “reduced” of CH2O state inside plant cells. The
scientists continue to describe the actions of tricontanol (TRIA):

“Furthermore, TRIA has been reported to affect several other enzyme systems
especially membrane bound Ca2+/Mg2+-dependent ATPase [15, 16]. (Furthermore)…
NADH-oxidase, a major component of the redox system of plasma membranes,
suggested to be rate limiting to growth [20], has been recently shown to be stimulated by
a direct action of TRIA [21]…. The increased activity of the key respiratory enzyme
malate dehydrogenase (MDH) was also reported as a result of TRIA application [32].”

Again the plant growth promoting actions of tricontanol appear to be associated with
enhancing enzyme activity, specifically those enzymes that are embedded in lipid
membranes inside cells.

These happen to be some of the most important enzymes that transduce energy inside
cells; “ATPases” make ATP, the molecule that stores the energy captured from sunlight
by chlorophyll. The ATP synthesized inside cells is like a stored charge of energy; like a
“battery” of energy to be used in other biosyntheses during growth. Mother Earth Super
Tea will stimulate every cellular membrane in this way, every time you apply it.

In the particular experiment cited above (reported in the journal Plant Growth Regulation,
vol.21) scientists were comparing another lipid alcohol to tricontanol, one called
octacosanol (OCTA). OCTA did not have the same molecular shape and length as
tricontanol and proved to have inhibitory effects in their photosynthetic studies. Their
goals were directed at making more precise experiments to measure the action of
tricontanol (TRIA) both “in vitro” and in intact pea plants, they mention;

“Increased CO2 assimilation and enhanced photosynthesis have been proposed as
major contributions in the overall physiological response of plants to TRIA. Although
increased photosynthesis in TRIA treated plants has been well documented, it has been
suggested that it is probably due to an increase in one of the substrates required for
photosynthesis rather than on initial effect on the CO2 fixation. However, despite these
studies, there is still a lack of consistency regarding the time course and the extent of
photosynthesis stimulation, which may be due to differences in the experimental
protocols, plant species and samples used. The present study re-examines this by
measuring the photosynthetic response to TRIA in vitro and in vivo experiments.”

Tricontanol was being tested by these scientists both in the intact pea plant, and using
chloroplast and isolated plant cells grown “in-vitro” or in the lab inside experimental
flasks.
But tricontanol not only promotes the activity of photosynthetic enzymes like RUBISCO
and the energy storing enzymes called ATPases, it also enhances the respiratory
enzymes like MDH that consume energy to power all growth. The scientists describe
these further effects, characterizing tricontanol as a type of phytohormone:

“TRIA has been generally considered to be a secondary plant growth substance and/or
an endogenous plant growth regulator. It was suggested by Ries and Houtz that the
hormonal effect(s) of TRIA might be due to TRIA-induced alterations at the membrane
level. TRIA mediated activation of a number of membrane bound enzymes supports this
assumption ...”

The tricontanol from alfalfa meal that is used to make Mother Earth Super Tea is
therefore able to speed up the metabolic rates performed by certain membrane bound
enzymes since it is a lipid itself. This activity is due to its particular shape as a lipid
alcohol too. The structurally different lipid-alcohol called OCTA had the opposite effect,
usually inhibiting metabolic rates. The scientists continue to describe tricontanol’s effects
in plants:

“More recently Ries and Wert [29] and Ries [27] have suggested that TRIA treatment
causes rapid elicitation of a specific second messenger 9-_- L (+) adenosine, which
could provide extremely rapid physiological responses [30]. The cell membranes and/or
hormone receptors linked to specific intracellular structures are considered to be the first
targets of the hormonal or plant growth regulator action in plants, followed by a signal
transduction pathway which can trigger a cascade of metabolic events [35].”

This means that tricontanol can assist in transmitting chemical messages across
membranes; it does so since it will mix into these lipid bi-layers readily, and has exactly
the right conformation and size to function this way.

A cell membrane usually represents a barrier to other (non-lipid) chemicals, so
tricontanol seems to promote the communication of chemical signals through
membranes. Metabolism runs faster and responds quicker when tricontanol is present in
just nano and micro-molar amounts!

These scientists set out to measure the effects of tricontanol on photosynthesis, and
their results were astonishing! This is what they reported:

“The data … demonstrated that in vitro TRIA-treatment of isolated pea mesophyll
protoplasts caused a substantial increase (166%) in the net CO2 fixation rate after 60
min of TRIA application as compared to the control. An increasing rate of photosynthesis
was observed even after 30 min treatment although the difference between control and
TRIA-treated protoplasts was not statistically significant. A similar trend … in the
photosynthesis response was observed in experiments with leaf pieces subjected to the
same (10-6 M) TRIA concentration. However, the effects were less pronounced than in
isolated protoplasts, the increase of photosynthetic CO2 fixation being 117% after 60
min of TRIA application.”

Within 30 minutes of treating pea plant cells growing in test tubes with a micro molar
amount of tricontanol, effects were noticed, and “in-vitro” within one hour photosynthesis
ramped up 166%!
In intact pea plants the impact of tricontanol was that photosynthesis more than doubled,
increasing to 117% over the control plants! Those are clear demonstrations of how
potent tricontanol is at promoting photosynthesis in intact plants !

Advanced Nutrients included an abundant amount of alfalfa meal extract in Mother Earth
Super Tea specifically to deliver the benefits of tricontanol every time you use it. The
scientists cited above compare their results to previous studies:

“Although difficult to compare with previous studies, since similar measurements have
not been made before, these data are in good agreement with earlier reported rapid
physiological effects of TRIA. Whereas the time course was similar in both systems, the
extent of this increase was lower (117%) in TRIA treated leaf pieces. Most probably this
might be due to slower rate of penetration of TRIA through various membrane barriers in
the leaf pieces to its putative site of action than in isolated protoplasts. Not surprisingly,
in vivo stimulation of the net CO2 uptake in barley plants exposed to 10-6 M TRIA was of
similar magnitude (119%).”

In this study tricontanol treated cells were tested for their “membrane fluidity”. The ability
of tricontanol to increase cell membrane fluidity is due to it being a long lipid molecule
that will embed or intercalate into the cell membrane, spanning its length.

Tricontanol is considered “extremely lipophilic” and would therefore be attracted to “bury
itself” into cell membranes. And this study showed this to be the case for tricontanol, but
not for the structurally different lipid alcohol called OCTA. The scientists continue to
describe tricontanol’s (TRIA’s) site of action:

“Ries and Houtz [28] originally suggested that the growth stimulating or hormonal effects
of TRIA might be due to certain alterations at the membrane level. The fast response to
TRIA and the fact that net photosynthesis was stimulated to a greater extent in isolated
protoplast preparations support the suggestion that the putative initial site of TRIA action
could be localized at the level of plasma membranes. Assuming this, and bearing in
mind that: 1) TRIA is extremely lipophilic and 2) its application activates various
membrane bound enzyme systems, it appeared reasonable to examine the effect(s) of
exogenous TRIA on the physical properties of barley protoplast and chloroplast
membranes.”

Tricontanol is a lipid-soluble molecule with a specific length and conformation enabling it
to squeeze into plant cell membranes, changing their fluidity. The results of the
experiment we have been describing published in the journal Plant Growth Regulation
(vol.21) confirm this:

“… this study clearly indicates that the molecular dynamics and/or fluidity of both
protoplast and chloroplast membranes is markedly enhanced as a result of exogenous
application of TRIA. In addition, it is important to note that the concentration range of
TRIA effective in stimulation of photosynthesis corresponded well to the TRIA
concentrations affecting membrane dynamic properties, thus indicating a good
correlation between the two phenomena.”

And the molecular properties of tricontanol, with its long 30 carbon length are what
confer this ability to promote membrane fluidity. Tricontanol slips into the cellular
membranes’ empty spaces, making them more fluid, more transparent to light (less light
scattering) and more permeable to minerals and nutrients. The scientists explain:

“…it is reasonable to suggest that the fluidity increase is mainly due to the introduction of
long chain molecules of TRIA by inducing a formation of unoccupied or free volumes in
the membranes. These results are consistent with the earlier data indicating that long-
chain alkanols decrease the main phase transition temperature of lipid vesicle
membranes at the low concentration range [34]. … Furthermore, since the 30-carbon
chain of TRIA would be considered as a membrane spanning molecule, the fluidizing or
disordering effect of TRIA could be also described in terms of an unexpectedly large
diffusion coefficient, as reported for molecules which span both layers of membranes
[23]. Several studies provide strong evidence for direct coupling between permeability
characteristics and the degree of order and fluidity within various artificial and biological
membranes [2]. Thus, the increased permeability of TRIA-treated membranes might be
expected.”

It is fascinating that tricontanol is required at micro and nano molar amounts; there is just
a tiny bit of “empty space” in the lipid bi-layer of cell membranes that a mere 1x10-6
molar tricontanol can slip in there and massively promote membrane fluidity and
function. When the structurally different lipid alcohol OCTA was used the effects were
not the same. In concluding their report, the scientists studying the effects of tricontanol
on pea plants mention:

“To summarise, it appears evident from the experimental data presented here that the
TRIA-induced alterations of the dynamic properties of both protoplast and chloroplast
membranes and quite possibly their permeability characteristics correlate with the
observed enhancement of photosynthesis under the same concentration range, and
should be considered as an essential part of the integral physiological response to
exogenous application of TRIA. This is in full agreement with the general view of plant
growth regulator action in plants considering the cell membranes as initial site in the
signal transduction pathway [35], and the earlier suggestion of Ries and Houtz [28] that
hormonal effect(s) of TRIA could be due to TRIA-induced alteration at the membrane
level.”

Tricontanol is a long enough molecule that is spans the entire double-layered cell
membrane, and thereby can dramatically influence the sensitivity of the cell membrane
to environmental changes. Tricontanol makes membrane-bound enzymes work better,
and when intercalated into cell membranes it enhances intracellular signalling.


The Value of Seaweed extract in Mother Earth Super Tea:

Advanced Nutrients has not overlooked the other natural resources that mother Earth
provides; in formulating Mother Earth Super Tea we have included the value that
seaweed extract can bring to a plant nutrient program.

When harvested and processed with modern techniques, kelp such as Ascophylum
nodosum that grow abundantly in harsh marine climates, offer amazing growth
enhancements to gardens.

Advanced Nutrients has blended a number of seaweed extracts into the base-tea of
Mother Earth Super Tea. These offer strong phytohormonal inputs to promote all growth
and stress resistance via compounds scientists have discovered called “betaines”.

North Atlantic nations such as Ireland have utilized the abundance of this sea-plant in
agricultural practices for centuries and so it is at the National University of Ireland (NUI)
in Galway that we will find that the use of liquid seaweed extracts on food crops has
been studied extensively. For example, from the online journal “The Seaweed Site” we
find this summary;

“A wide range of beneficial effects have been reported from the use of liquid seaweed
extracts, including increased crop yields, resistance of plants to frost, increased uptake
of inorganic constituents from the soil, more resistance to stress conditions, and
reductions in storage losses of fruit.”

The process Advanced Nutrients uses to manufacture the base-tea in Mother Earth
Super Tea extracts the growth promoting substances in this amazing natural resource.
This creates a concentrate of this material. The scientists describing the value of
seaweed extract continue to elaborate on its benefits;

“Liquid seaweed extracts are used at very high dilution rates which results in only very
small quantities of material being applied to a given area. The active substances in the
seaweed extracts must therefore be capable of having an effect at a low concentration.
… The presence of plant hormones (substances naturally found in small quantities in
plant tissues and involved in, amongst other things, the regulation of growth) has been
suggested as being responsible for, at least some of the observed effects; it has been
demonstrated that commercially-available seaweed extracts have high levels of
cytokinin-like activity.”

Scientific research into identifying the plant-growth-promoting constituents of seaweed
extract has carried on since the 1950’s. Initially purified cytokinins were used side by
side with seaweed extracts to compare effects, but now scientists have identified a
number of plant growth promoting compounds in Ascophyllum nodosum. The scientists
at NUI continue to describe this research:

“Close correlations between results achieved in field trials with the use of a synthetic
cytokinin, kinetin, and seaweed extracts of equivalent cytokinin activities were found
both on the yield of potatoes and in the crude protein of grasses. Similar results were
obtained with the reduction in the rate of "degreening" of limes after post-harvest
immersion of the fruit in seaweed extracts and kinetin solutions of equivalent cytokinin
activity. Further circumstantial evidence supporting the possible involvement of
cytokinins in seaweed extracts was the recent detection of cytokinin-like activity in a
commercial seaweed concentrate prepared from Ecklonia maxima (Laminariales).”

Scientists have analyzed kelp extracts and found that potassium and micronutrients are
abundantly present in this natural resource. And in addition to cytokinins, they also
report that auxins, and gibberellins can be found in seaweed extract:

"…seaweed … can be a good biological source of potassium and trace elements. The
colloids found in sea plants can improve soil filth. Kelp and other sea plants also contain
relatively concentrated amounts of plant auxins, growth regulators and stimulants, such
as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid and cytokinins. These can help promote
rooting in transplants and cuttings, and also help to delay decay in mature crops. Kelp is
a large underwater plant that accumulates a number of nutrients...”

Advanced Nutrients has combined a large amount of Ascophyllm nodosum extract into
the base tea of Mother Earth Super Tea; this will increase metabolic rates and cellular
syntheses in all cells that grow on Mother Earth Super Tea program. This acceleration of
cellular growth will immediately seize upon the rich broth of natural ingredients we have
made into Mother Earth Super Tea Grow and Bloom.

The cytokinins are not the only materials in seaweed extract that promote growth, there
are myriads of algae-derived cellular components; some are lipids being pieces of cell
membranes, and others are proteinacious, or nucleotides and amino acids. All of these
are extracted into solution when making Mother Earth Super Tea’s base.

The reports from the National University of Ireland about seaweed extracts continue to
describe the additional complexities about the myriad of ingredients in seaweed extract
that are plant growth promoting. Cytokinins are part of the phytohormonal input, but
there are also “betaines” or quaternary ammonium compounds that have potent plant
growth promoting effects.

“Betaines” are a class of compound that enhance cell membrane function and
adaptability to stress. These are potent plant-derived growth promoting substances that
confer a huge boost in all aspects of vigour. After treating your gardens with seaweed
extract, conditions that may have caused some stress or that reduced photosynthesis
become part of the range to which the plant can adapt, and continue to grow.

Mother Earth Super Tea is made with seaweed extract to confer these enhanced growth
characteristics to all of your plants, immediately upon being foliarly applied. The betaines
are additional phyto-active molecules that promote cell membrane stability when
stresses occur. The NUI report on seaweed extracts continues to describe betaines:

“Betaines have been recorded for most of the species of marine algae used in the
manufacture of seaweed extracts. Ascophyllum nodosum yields c-aminobutyric acid
betaine, d-aminovaleric acid betaine and laminine whilst Laminaria species have a range
of betaines including glycine betaine. Commercial seaweed extracts have been
examined for their betaine content and the compounds detected were those reported for
the algal species used in the manufacture of the extracts…”

Mother Earth Super Tea Grow and Bloom have seaweed extracts that are processed
through the manufacture of the organic base-tea. This potent tea is steeped and stirred
for many days after an initial “hot” extraction is performed. Every organic molecule that
can be suspended and solubilized from the initial tea-base, including betaines, is then
chelated and suspended into a final solution rich in humates. This forms a potent, natural
nutrient program for all gardens.

The importance of betaines as a stimulant for growth and vigour has been noted by
scientists, and they report on these compounds in the journal Plant Physiology, vol.120
(1999). In an article called “Betaines and Related Osmoprotectants - Targets for
Metabolic Engineering of Stress Resistance” scientists describe these “osmoprotectant”
molecules:
“Osmoprotectants (also termed compatible solutes) occur in all organisms from
archaebacteria to higher plants and animals. They are highly soluble compounds that
carry no net charge at physiological pH and are nontoxic at high concentrations.
Osmoprotectants serve to raise osmotic pressure in the cytoplasm and can also stabilize
proteins and membranes when salt levels or temperatures are unfavourable.
Osmoprotectants therefore play important roles in the adaptation of cells to various
adverse environmental conditions (Yancey, 1994). Chemically, there are three types:
betaines and allied compounds, polyols and sugars (e.g. mannitol and trehalose), and
amino acids such as Proline.”

“Osmoprotectants” are essential to the Kelp plant that must withstand cold marine
waters and dessication on rocky shores. But since they are plant derived compounds,
applying them to other plant species confers the same properties. The scientists
continue to characterize betaines found in seaweed extracts:

“Betaines are amino acid derivatives in which the nitrogen atom is fully methylated, i.e.
they are quaternary ammonium compounds. …the three best-known betaines from
plants are glycine betaine, Proline betaine (stachydrine), and b-Alanine betaine, as well
as choline-O-sulfate and DMSP (Rhodes and Hanson, 1993). … (These) compounds in
differ in their taxonomic distribution … For instance, Glycine betaine is widespread
among both flowering plants and algae, whereas DMSP is rare in higher plants but
common in algae. Certain crop plants such as rice, soybeans, and potatoes lack
significant amounts of betaines or any other osmoprotectant. This deficiency is the
rationale for recent interest in using metabolic engineering technology to install the
synthesis of osmoprotectants in such crops in order to improve their tolerance to
drought, salinity, and other stresses. The levels of betaines and other osmoprotectants
typically rise during exposure to stresses such as salinity, water deficit, and low
temperature because the biosynthetic enzymes are stress induced. Osmoprotectants
are largely confined to the cytoplasm (including organelles) and are almost absent from
the vacuole, which generally occupies about 90% of the cell volume. For example, the
halophyte Atriplex gmelini was found to have 320 mm Glycine betaine in the cytoplasm,
but only 0.24 mm in the vacuole (Matoh et al., 1987). Isolated chloroplasts of various
species have also been shown to contain high concentrations of Glycine betaine or
DMSP, particularly when isolated from salt-stressed plants…”

So this is a sign of their function in plant cells, betaines are over 100 times more
concentrated in the watery cytoplasm, and almost absent from the main storage
organelle called the vacuole. Betaines are metabolites that are required in high amounts
where living processes are ongoing all the time. In the cytoplasm they have complex
roles in promoting membrane activity, membrane resilience upon exposure to various
stresses.

The scientists reviewing betaines continue:

“The protective properties of betaines were first recognized in experiments in which they
were supplied to bacteria whose growth was inhibited by high salt concentrations (Le
Rudulier et al., 1984). Typical data for Gly betaine and DMSP are shown in Figure 2: In
media containing 0.6 m NaCl, the bacteria grow very slowly unless supplied with one of
these compounds, which they take up from the medium and accumulate to intracellular
levels of .1 m. The physicochemical basis for this striking osmoprotective effect is not
fully understood, but there is good evidence that it lies partly in the exclusion of
osmoprotectant molecules from the water layer in contact with protein surfaces
(Timasheff, 1992). This creates a situation in which native (i.e. folded) protein structures
are thermodynamically favoured because they present the least possible surface area to
the water. Most other solutes such as NaCl or MgSO4 interact directly with protein
surfaces and favour unfolding, which leads to denaturation. Osmoprotectants also have
Cryoprotectant and heat-protectant properties, and exclusion from protein surfaces is
probably part of the protective mechanism in these cases as well (Carpenter and Crowe,
1988; Winzor et al., 1992).”

Betaines are so heavily concentrated inside cells, in the cytoplasm of plant cells where
they ‘coat’ the protein surfaces embedded in cell membranes to protect them from the
effects of water. Water will hydrolyse and disrupt protein shape when osmotic changes
occur and water molecules pour into cells.

Your gardens can always benefit from foliar feedings with Mother Earth Super Tea’s
fulvic acid based blend of seaweed extracts and natural ingredients. Sea weed extract
and fish emulsion are however further complemented by krill meal that also forms an
essential part of Mother Earth Super Tea’s tea-base.


“Global Worming”, Vermiculture Makes a “Modern” Source of Humates:

Mother Earth Super Tea has a strong complement of worm castings used in the process
of manufacturing the base-tea. This base-tea is an extraction process that brings into
solution all the nutrients that reside in the materials we “steep” and brew.

One of the main ingredients in this base-tea is worm castings; this is the digested waste
that remains after earthworms have eaten the organic wastes from compost piles. This
material has passed through the body of the earthworm which enriches it with a form of
humates that is unlike humic acid from leonardite; the unique class of humates in worm
castings are made specifically by the digestive processes in the earth worm.

The modern industry of vermiculture, or worm farming has been developed to a point
where it is relied on by many agri-industries to generate precious worm castings. All farm
manure can be speedily processed into worm castings and this end-product can be
immediately re-used or sold to amend farmer’s fields. All bio-solids generated by all
domesticated animals and humans can be best disposed of and detoxified in this
fashion; vermicomposting is another name for this process.

Vermicomposting is what is going on in everyone’s backyard compost pile. But farmers
and municipalities employ the lowly earthworm in hoards, containing them in large
industrial sized vermicomposters to do amazing amounts of work at transforming
biological waste into nutritious food for plants.

We can find a good description of vermiculture techniques in the “Manual of On-Farm
Vermicomposting and Vermiculture” by Glenn Munroe at the Organic Agriculture Centre
of Canada. In his introduction he defines these two terms:

“Vermiculture is the culture of earthworms. The goal is to continually increase the
number of worms in order to obtain a sustainable harvest. The worms are either used to
expand a vermicomposting operation or sold to customers who use them for the same or
other purposes (see “On-Farm Vermiculture” later in this manual).

Vermicomposting is the process by which worms are used to convert organic materials
(usually wastes) into a humus-like material known as vermicompost. The goal is to
process the material as quickly and efficiently as possible.

These two processes are similar but different. If your goal is to produce vermicompost,
you will want to have your maximum worm population density all of the time. If your goal
is to produce worms, you will want to keep the population density low enough that
reproductive rates are optimized…”

Avid worn farmers or “vermiculturists” speak of promoting “Global Worming” .! This pun
is intended to address the importance of earthworm species worldwide. This is a brilliant
pun since worms actually help sequester carbon, and measurably increase the soil’s
carbon: nitrogen ratio ! Glenn Munroe at the Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada
continues to describe earthworm farming:

“There are an estimated 1800 species of earthworm worldwide (Edwards & Lofty, 1972).
This manual will focus on just one. Eisenia fetida (Savigny) is commonly known as
(partial list only): the “compost worm”, “manure worm”, “redworm”, and “red wiggler”.
This extremely tough and adaptable worm is indigenous to most parts of the world and
can be found on most Canadian farms wherever piles of manure have been left to age
for more than a few months.

Commercially raised worms are usually of the epigeic type. E. fetida is certainly not the
only epigeic worm, but it is the one most often used for composting purposes in Northern
climates. It can handle a wide temperature range (between 0 and 35 deg.C) and can
actually survive for some time almost completely encased in frozen organic material (as
long as it can continue to take in nourishment). Its cocoons (eggs) have been shown to
remain viable after having been frozen for several weeks. In addition, it can take a lot of
handling and rough treatment. Perhaps most importantly, like most if not all litter-
dwelling worms, the compost worm has the capacity for very rapid reproduction. This is
an evolutionary necessity for a creature whose natural environment is extremely
changeable and hazardous and whose natural supplies of food are of the “boom or bust”
variety. All of these characteristics make E. fetida the natural choice for those who wish
to do their vermicomposting outdoors, year-round, in climates with harsh winter
conditions.”

Advanced Nutrients uses worm castings produced by vermicompost companies that
utilize controlled conditions to produce high quality castings. They have to manage the
process like a farm-business planning to support constant manufacturing of castings
while they conduct “vermiculture” as well. Growing billions of baby worms is essential to
continually process the farm biosolid waste materials that feed these marvellous
creatures.

There and pronounced advantages that worm castings or “vermicompost” offer to
farmers and gardeners, as our author continues to explain:

“Why should an organic farmer be interested in vermiculture and/or vermicomposting?
The answers are several and may not apply to all organic producers. In summary, they
are as follows:
• Vermicompost is superior to most composts as an inocculant in the production of
compost teas; • Worms have a number of other possible uses on farms, including value
as high-quality animal feed; • Vermicomposting and vermiculture offer potential to
organic farmers as sources of supplemental income.

Global “worming” is absolutely a “Green” industry. It promotes all ecosystems when the
earth and soils are restored by earth worms. Because vermicomposting can utilize all
local waste materials and bio-solids it will generate immediate benefits when applied on
any scale.

Mother Earth Super Tea uses worm castings, extracting their benefits into a soluble
state and concentrating them into a form you can use in your garden. Hydroponic
gardens are the ones that are most significantly lacking in sources of these kinds of soil-
based nutrients.

Our global worming expert Glenn Munroe describes the world-wide use of
vermicomposting:

“Because of the benefits described above, farmers around the world have started to
grow worms and produce vermicompost in rapidly increasing numbers. Warmer climes
have tended to predominate so far, with India and Cuba being the leaders to date.
Vermicomposting centres are numerous in Cuba and vermicompost has been the largest
single input used to replace the commercial fertilizer that became difficult or even
impossible to import after the collapse of the Soviet Union (Cracas, 2000). In 2003, an
estimated one million tonnes of vermicompost were produced on the island (Koont,
2004). In India, an estimated 200,000 farmers practice vermicomposting and one
network of 10,000 farmers produces 50,000 metric tonnes of vermicompost every
month. In the past decade, farmers in Australia and the West Coast of the U.S. have
started to use vermicompost in greater quantities, fuelling the development of
vermicomposting industries in those regions. At the same time, scientists at several
Universities in the U.S., Canada, India, Australia, and South Africa have started to
document the benefits associated with the use of vermicompost, providing facts and
figures to support the observations of those who have used the material.”

Worm castings are a key ingredient in Mother Earth Super Tea, and the formulation we
use concentrates the soluble nutrients from this material. Because of our methods that
make a base-tea from high quality worm castings, all hydroponic gardens can be
nourished with Mother Earth super Tea.


Vermiculture and The Scientific Analysis of Worm Castings:

Advanced Nutrients has researched the most recent findings in the field of vermiculture,
and after analyzing the criteria scientists have developed, we have sourced the highest
quality vermicompost products available. We use these worm castings as a key
ingredient in making the base-tea for Mother Earth Super Tea.

For an example of scientific studies in vermiculture we can turn to the journal called
Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol.6 (1988) where an article is published called “Chemical
changes during vermicomposting (Eisenia fetida) of sheep manure mixed with cotton
industrial wastes”. In this study, scientists describe the kinds of research that
investigators have conducted about the process of vermicomposting towards various
industrial applications:

“Various studies have been focused on the use of earthworms in the stabilization of
organic residues such as sewage sludge, animal wastes, crop residues and industrial
refuse… Under favourable conditions, wastes are converted into a homogeneous mass
(castings) which may form a good soil conditioner with high nutritional value for plants.
The vermicomposting process is a result of the combined action of the earthworms and
of microflora living in earthworm intestines and in the growth medium (Grapelli et al.
1983).”

Earthworm castings are the enriched end product of a life processes that all gardeners
can appreciate; it happens at macro’ and microscopic scales. Earthworms eat bacteria in
the soil, often selecting their diet or choosing which types of “rotting” vegetation to graze
through. The combined action of macro-level foraging and micro-organisms in the
earthworm’s gut is life seething to produce more nutritive value for itself.

Vermicomposting is described further by the scientists that conducted studies involving a
detailed chemical analysis of how the worms work on soils:

“Earthworms accelerate composting by bioturbation and aeration, giving a final product
less rich in nitrogen and organic matter but enhanced with available nutrients to plants.
However, there are only a few literature references concerning the changes in chemical,
biochemical and microbiological parameters during vermicomposting. The purpose of
this study was to determine the variations in chemical composition of sheep manure
alone and in combination with industrial cotton wastes during 12 weeks of
vermicomposting. These substrates are of major importance in the Barcelona area due
to the highly developed textile and ovine livestock industries, which produce large
quantities of cotton wastes and sheep manure.”

This kind of scientific research has shown that the effects of earthworms digesting these
kinds of biological wastes creates unique compositions of organic molecules combined
with mineral elements found nowhere else on earth.

The specialized microbial flora of the earthworm gut is a main reason earthworm
castings are so biologically potent and effective at stimulating plant growth. The
scientists continue to explain their methods, so imagine conducting such experiments
with worms;

“Field experiments were carried out on a farm producing commercially available
earthworm compost, located in Calders (Barcelona, Spain) and following the commune
production method. Windrows (6 m long, 0.6 m wide and 0.4 m high) of sheep manure
alone and mixed with flock cotton residues at a ratio of 3 : 1 were used. The experiments
were carried out in the presence and absence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, and
continued for 12 weeks (earthworms obtained from Prisma Agropecuaria S.A., Manresa,
Spain). The initial number of earthworms in the windrows was about 3000/m 2, including
eggs, larvae and adults. Samples were collected in sterilized closed glass bottles of 1-
1itre capacity each 2 weeks and then air-dried and homogenized.”
These scientists set up controlled vermicompost piles adjacent to non-worm composts
and analyzed the chemical composition of the heap, as it changed every 2 weeks for
three months. They measured the % of reduced nitrogen created predominantly by
amino acids and organic molecules with the “amine” or NH2 group in their structure.
Other basic soil science parameters were also measured, for example;

“Moisture content was determined by drying at 105 °C, the ash content by heating at
550°C, total N by the Kjeldahl method in a Kjeltec Auto 1030 Analyzer and oxidizable C
by oxidation with dichromate according to the method of Schollenberger (1931) revised
by Hesse (1971). The pH was measured by a Crison pH-meter digital 501 using
suspensions of the material in water, in the ratio 1 : 5 (w: v). Conductivity was
determined by a Crison conductimeter 522 and cation exchange capacity (CEC) by the
method of Bower et al. (1952). Humic substances were extracted according to Kononova
(1966). Available P was analyzed by the colorimetric method with molybdenum in
sulphuric acid (Peech et al. 1947) and K + and Na + were determined with a Corning-
EEL flame photometer.”

Imagine sampling and then back at the lab, taking all these measurements from a
seething vermicomposting pile of sheep manure ! These scientists also tested what
adding plant matter would do to the vermicomposting process.

But one of the most important set of measurements these scientists made was how
many microbes inhabited the castings coming from the earthworm’s gut. They tried to
correlate microbial counts with all the changes that earthworms make on soil. This was
measured in “colony Forming Units” or CFU.

The contents of the worm’s gut were ten to one hundred times less “populated” by
microbes than the surrounding manure and manure-cotton-waste compost piles were.
The CFU of the manure outside was 1.0 x 108 or x109 CFU/gram of soil. These
intestinal bacteria are the “magical metabolic engines” that transform the surrounding
medium into new nutrients.

In these studies it also turned out that earth worms are “picky eaters” and like to graze
on the bacteria that make soft rots of plant matter. Microbial action is what actually
solubilizes mineral nutrients again, making them available to plants.

The “special ability” of these intestinal-microbes is to also render these minerals
chelated in humate-bound forms. The scientists describe this further:

“The increase in mineral nutrients (P, Na, and K) of the castings indicates that
earthworms accelerated the mineralization of organic matter. Changes in the microbial
population (CFU) were observed during the vermicomposting, with a marked decrease
after 8 weeks. These results are in agreement with those reported by Grapelli et al
(1983), who suggested that earthworms selectively favour the microorganisms that are
responsible for the transformation of organic substances (i.e. plant decaying matter) in
soils.”

The scientists analyzed their worm castings and vermicomposting process for a number
of plant growth promoting substances, both organic and mineral. They point out that
worms are able to synthesize their own version of “humic substances” and measure its
levels.
Worm castings contained up to 19% humic substances compared to the manure that
contained 12-14%; these additional humates are biosynthesized by microbes inside the
worms.

Humates are biologically beneficial class of molecules which are found to be always
present after soil is digested by earthworms. As we read on the overall results of this
controlled verimcompost experiment are impressive. The scientists conclude with:

“Both types of vermicompost, compared with the materials from which they were
derived, showed a lower pH, greater CEC, lower concentrations of soluble salts, organic
matter and N and higher concentrations of total humic acids and mineral nutrients.”

This amazing transformation is accomplished in 8 - 12 weeks; earthworms are fertilizer
factories, and they biosynthesize new humates with their intestinal microbes. This
incorporates the “organic matter” containing “oxidizable carbon” that bacteria build into
themselves and additional humic acid molecules. The bacterial growth acidifies and
reduces pH of the manure (9.1) into castings with a neutral pH of 7.2.. The scientists
continue:

“The lower pH and oxidizable C (i.e. carbohydrates of sugars in the castings) and the
greater CEC may be related to the high level of total humic acids. During the
vermicomposting process the mineralization rate appeared to be accelerated, as may be
deduced from the increase in ash concentration. The vermicomposts were enriched in P,
K and Na. Total N decreased but the decrease was partly balanced by a conversion into
nitrate N...”

Mother Earth Super Tea contains the richness of worm castings, extracting minerals and
humates into a concentrated base-tea. This worm casting extract is a super-juice made
by mother Earth’s Eisenia fetida, her living biological-factories. To biosynthesize
humates without earthworms it would take millions of years and crushing geological
pressures, but these amazing creatures double humic acid content in 12 weeks !

These freshly-made, earth worm biosynthesized humates are not identical to the types
found in products like Advanced Nutrients’ Grandma Enggy’s H2 Humic acid. They are
similar in size (105 atoms or more), but earthworm castings have humates that are
shaped differently and have varying amounts of acidic COOH groups.

Ancient humates from leonardite require a rigorous extraction effort, involving
pressurized filtration and industrial equipment, whereas a rich vermiculture of Eisenia
fetida can do it in a few months !. The vermiculture scientists finally say:

“The final values of the parameters measured indicate that the products obtained have a
high fertilizing value. A comparison of their chemical properties shows that manure alone
exhibited better fertilizing quality than castings obtained from manure mixed with cotton
residues. This indicates that the characteristics of vermicompost depend on those of the
original material.”

Mother Earth Tea contains the liquid extract of the highest quality worm castings used
agronomically. They complement the leonardite, guano and alfalfa meal and seaweed
meals also used in our special formulation for Mother Earth Super Tea.
Seabird and Bat Guanos are Key Ingredients in Mother Earth Super Tea:

Advanced Nutrients has included a very high quality agronomic seabird guano in the
formulation of Mother Earth Super Tea. We add a specific amount of bat guano as well
to balance the nitrogen and phosphorus ratios between the Grow and Bloom versions of
Mother Earth Super Tea. The use of both bat and seabird guanos occurs in the making
of the base-tea; this filtered extract constitutes a major portion of Mother Earth Super
Tea.

In addition to mineral nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, magnesium,
sulphur and calcium, the extracts of guanos from seabirds and insectivorous bats will
yield chitin. Chitin is a potent elicitor of plant immunity, and it rapidly stimulates beneficial
fungi in the soil (such as some Trichoderma) to grow and secrete more chitinase
enzymes. This will further protect plant roots from pathogenic fungi.

Scientists have studied the effects of seabird guano on the ecologies of many
environments where seabirds are dominant predators. One report of interest is called
“Nutrient Fluxes from water to land: seabirds affect plant nutrient status on Gulf of
California islands”, since it examines the way plant growth is promoted on these desert
islands by seabirds. This report was published in the journal called Oecologia, viol 118
(1999) states the following about the effects of seabird guano:

“Seabirds use >50 desert islands in the Gulf of California to nest or roost... These islands
receive large quantities of guano, which substantially increase soil concentrations of N
and P. Enriched soils then provide nutrients to the local flora, thus altering the nutrient
concentrations, pools, and biomass of live plants and detritus. Such enrichment likewise
occurs on islands in other archipelagos: guano increases N and P in soils …and
enhances plant growth and primary productivity...”

Seabirds are near the top of the food chain in these environments, and their rich and
varied diets create a very complex mineral and organic mixture in their guano. One of
the primary food choices for these birds is molluscs like squid:

“Because seabird diets consist primarily of fish and squid, they excrete nutrient-rich
guano, high in N and P. For example, guano deposited on islands in the Gulf of
California averages approximately 9% N and 11% P2O5, depending on which seabirds
are present . Our observations suggested that guano greatly enhances plant growth on
Gulf islands, but only during wet years…. In 1992 and 1993 (wet years), islands where
seabirds nest or roost supported 1.1- to 1.7-fold more plant (annuals and perennials)
cover and 9.6- to 12.0-fold more plant (annuals) biomass than other islands (Polis et al.
1997b).”

They report that plants growing on seabird-inhabited islands had significantly higher
nutrient status. First they consider the cactus Opuntia:

“Tissue nutrient concentrations of plants … were positively correlated with guano cover
and soil nutrients. Slow-growing, long-lived Opuntia had 2.4-fold higher N concentrations
and 2.1- fold higher P concentrations on bird versus no bird islands (Table 2). Moreover,
a positive relationship existed between guano cover and both N and P in Opuntia ..”

The scientists also examined faster growing plants such as the grass called Atriplex, and
found higher levels of nutrients as well when seabirds existed on the islands:

“Short-lived Atriplex barclayana had 2.4-fold higher N concentrations and 1.8-fold higher
P concentrations on bird versus nonbird islands. Nutrient concentrations in Atriplex were
likewise related to guano cover. Significantly positive linear relationships existed
between soil N and P and Atriplex N and P, respectively.”

The scientists studying seabird islands also found that the enhanced nutrition offered by
the seabird guano had predictable outcomes on the plant biomass. Enormously higher
amounts of plant life grew where guano had provided nutrients, which they describe:

“Biomass of annual plants in 1995, a wet year, was 11.8-fold greater on bird islands than
on nonbird islands. Further, a strong, positive, linear relationship existed between plant
biomass and guano cover. When biomass and nutrient concentrations were combined to
calculate nutrient pools, bird islands had 36.1-fold more mass / area±1 of N and 45.3-
fold more mass / area±1 of P in annual plants than nonbird islands… Nutrient pools were
also highly correlated with guano cover on these islands”

These are dramatic comparisons ! One can measure plant-biomass increases of 11 to
36 times when native plant growth is nourished with guano, compared to when no guano
is present !

Advanced Nutrients has sourced various guano types of both bat and seabird origin;
these are combined in specific ratios to make the base-tea in Mother Earth Super Tea.
Insectivorous bats have unique guano high in phosphorus and chitin, whereas seabirds
generate guano with higher nitrogen levels.

In making Mother Earth Super Tea, we extract all the mineral nutrients and the complex
organic molecules, such as chitin, that are available in guano. These are rendered
soluble along with the alfalfa meal, worm castings, seaweed extract, leonardite extract
and filtered fish emulsion; Mother Earth’s most potent materials for plant nutrition.


How to Use Mother Earth Super Tea:

Use Mother Earth Super Tea Grow or Bloom according to the growth stage you are in.

As a stand alone fertilizer Mother Earth Super Tea can be mixed at a rate of 7.5 – 15.0
ml per litre.

When using Mother Earth Super Tea to supplement a base nutrient program, mix 2.0 –
5.0 ml of Mother Earth Super Tea Grow or Bloom in every litre of water you apply to
roots.

This concentrated formulation can be used as a foliar feed when mixed at a rate of 1.0 –
2.0 ml per litre if water.
Outstanding Features of Mother Earth Super Tea:

Mother Earth Super Tea can be used as a stand-alone nutrient formulation, or as an
additive to an existing base-nutrient formulation.

Macro and micro nutrients are derived from natural sources; various types of guano and
fish emulsions are the main materials we process to derive a complete mineral nutrient
profile.

Mother Earth Super Tea also contains a suite of naturally derived biostimulants;
tricontanol, auxins, cytokinins, and betaines.

Both reduced carbon (carbohydrates) and reduced nitrogen, as amino acids, are
supplied by Mother Earth Super Tea; these will feed both plants and beneficial microbes
in the root zone.

Mother Earth Super Tea has chitin; this carbohydrate enables plants to acquire
“systemic resistance” by acting as an elicitor of the plant’s immune system. Also this
carbohydrate will stimulate certain beneficial, mycorrhizal fungi like Trichoderma that can
then further protect roots from pathogenic fungi.

Mother Earth Super Tea is made in both “Grow” and “Bloom” formulations; by using the
appropriate one, growers can augment their base-nutrient program in synchrony with the
growth stage of their garden.

				
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