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					Chapter 9
How Did Conflicting Worldviews Lead to the Spanish Conquest of the
Aztec Civilization?
Read pg. 300-302
View video part 1 & 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_YzZaLPxsig

   1. When did Spain start to expand its power across the Atlantic? __________

   2. How do you think the Aztecs received reports of strange men in large boats
      exploring the Yucatan coastline?
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________

   3. Hernan Cortes was twice elected as the ________ of Santiago. Rumours of a
      wealthy civilization in Meso America lead to the Spanish governor of Cuba,
      Diego ____________ to ask Cortes to lead an expedition to discovey these riches.

   4. Why did Cortes order his ships to be burned after reaching Meso America?
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________

Read pg. 303 -304
How did the ambitions of the Aztec and the Spanish lead to conflict?
View video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cYH0_sFFqsw

       1. By the end of the 15th century, the Spanish had claimed the ______ _______
          and Christopher __________ had landed on the Caribbean islands.

       2. Who were Spain’s monarchs during this time?
          _______________________________ & ____________________________

       3. What four actions did these monarchs do to expand Spain’s influence and
          prestige during this time?

              a. _________________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________________
              b. _________________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________________
              c. _________________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________________
              d. _________________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________________

       4. What coast did Cortes land on in the Gulf of Mexico in 1519? ____________
      5. By the end of the 15th century, the Aztec had conquered most of?
         __________-______________ and created a ____________ ______________

      6. The Aztec rulers built the most powerful civilization known in Meso-America
         and continued to (pg. 304):

             a.   _________________________________________________________
             b.   _________________________________________________________
             c.   _________________________________________________________
             d.   _________________________________________________________

      7. Predict what might have occurred when these two societies met for the first
         time in 1519. Give reasons for your predictions based on what you know so
         far about their worldviews and their leaders.
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

Read pg. 305-307
What was the Aztec understanding of the Spanish before their arrival?

      1. The Aztec worldview included a belief in the powers of the gods and
         supernatural signs. How did the Aztecs describe the Spanish and their ships
         according to their rumours and religion?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      2. What Aztec king was in power during the Spanish arrival? _______________

      3. What did the Aztec omen foreshadow to them about the Spanish?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      4. List and describe the 8 Aztec omens.

             a. The 1st Omen
                _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________

      b. The 2nd Omen
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________
      c. The 3rd Omen
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________
      d. The 4th Omen
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________

      e. The 5th Omen
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________


      f. The 6th Omen
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________

      g. The 7th Omen
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________

      h. The 8th Omen
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________
         _________________________________________________________


5. How would you explain the omens experienced by the Aztecs?
   _______________________________________________________________
   _______________________________________________________________

6. Would you find any of these omens frightening? Explain
   _______________________________________________________________
   _______________________________________________________________
   _______________________________________________________________
      7. Why would the Aztec want these omens to be recorded?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      8. What reasons could the Spanish have for wanting them recorded?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

Read pg. 308-312
How did the Spanish conquer the Aztec?

      1. According to Aztec tradition, what did it mean if you offered a more elaborate
         gift to visitors then the one you received?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      2. According to Aztec tradition, when did one become the god on earth?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      3. What happened when Cortés put on the sacred feathered robe?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      4. What was the most noticeable observation the Aztec made about the
         Spaniards appearance and dress?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      5. What was Cortés’s strategy to defeat the Aztec because his people were so
         outnumbered?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      6. What cruel tactic did Cortés implement to force submission and alliance of a
         city?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      7. Which Meso- Amerca society were the enemies of the Aztecs?
         ______________________________
      8. Which two societies allied with the Spanish to conquer the Aztecs?
         ___________________________ & ________________________________

      9. What god did Moctezuma believe Cortes was?
         ______________________________________________________________

      10. What two idealistic feats did Cortes do after he took Moctezuma hostage(in
          the palace and in the main temple)?

             a. _______________________________________________________
             b. _______________________________________________________

      11. How did Moctezuma’s advisors feel after he was taken hostage and what did
          they to about it?
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________

      12. What was the population of the Aztec empire at this time?
          _______________________________________________________________

      13. Approximately how many people lived in Tenochtitlan at this time? ________

      14. Approximately how many people lived in London at this time? ____________

      15. Approximately how many people lived in Florence at this time? ___________

Read pg. 313-316
How did the battles for the empire unfold?

      1. During the celebration of the annual festival honouring the god
         Huitizilopochtli, Pedro de Alvarado (who replaced Cortes temporarily), did
         what?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      2. What was the result of #1 above? What did the Aztecs do as a result?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      3. What was Cortes doing during this time?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
4. Cortes returned and convinced Moctezuma to persuade the Aztecs to let the
   Spanish return in peace. What was the result of Moctezumas attempt of
   peace?
   _______________________________________________________________
   _______________________________________________________________
   _______________________________________________________________
   _______________________________________________________________

5. In June ____, the Spanish tried to escape Tenochtitlan in the middle of the
   night making their way across a causeway. The Aztecs attacked the Spanish.
   _____ Spanish and _____-_____ Tlaxcalans were killed. This huge loss of life
   was referred to as the _______ _______ by the Spanish. This translates into
   English as __________ ______.

6. After this battle the conquistadors and the Tlaxcalan allies retreated to
   _______________ for 5 months to recover from their wounds.

7. What were the Aztecs dying from at this time? ________________________

8. What percentage of the residents of Tenochtitlan died due to this illness
   during these 5 months? ___%

9. The final battle took place between the Aztecs and the alliances of the
   Spanish, Tlaxcalans, and Texcoco people. How long did this siege last? _____

10. What was one of Cortés’s tactics in defeating the Aztecs?
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________

11. The Aztecs who survived the plague now finally died of this?
    _______________________________________________________________

12. What date did the Aztecs surrender? _________________________________

13. What did the Spanish do to Tenochtitlan after the siege ended?
    _______________________________________________________________

14. Who became governor of New Spain in 1522, three years after he initially
    reached its shores? _____________________________________________

15. Explain the role of disease epidemics in the defeat of the Aztec.
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
Read pg. 317-321
Why did Moctezuma and Cortes make the decisions they did?

        1. Cortes reached Meso-America with only 500 soldiers and yet he was able to
defeat thousands of Aztec warriors.
        a. Do you think the defeat of the Aztec was inevitable? Why or why not?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
        b. In what ways did the Aztec worldview contribute to their defeat?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

      2. a. Evaluate Moctezuma as a leader. What were his strengths and his
weaknesses?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

      b. What could he have done differently to avoid the conquest?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

       c. Do you believe Moctezuma really thought Cortes was Quetzalcoatl? Provide
reasons for your opinion.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

       3. Using your knowledge about the Reconquista, could you have predicted
Cortés’s behaviour toward the Aztec? Explain your answer.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
   5. Did the worldview of Cortes and his men justify the actions of his treatment of the
      Aztec? Explain.
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________

   6. Moctezuma believed that killing on the battlefield showed disrespect for human
      life. How would Moctezuma explain that a human sacrifice did not reflect
      disrespect for human life, but killing one’s enemies did?
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________

   7. Why was Dona Marina named La Malinche by the people of Meso-America?
      __________________________________________________________________
      __________________________________________________________________

Read pg 322-327
What Impact Did the Conquest Have on Aztec Society?

      1. After Spain claimed the land of the Aztec and named it
         __________________, the conquistadores were given huge haciendas.

      2. Define hacienda:
         _______________________________________________________________

      3. What were the Aztec and other conquered Indigenous societies forced to do
         by the conquistadores?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      4. After the death of Queen Isabella, King Ferdinand carried out his wife’s last
         wishes. State her final will and testament?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________

      5. How did King Ferdinand carry out her wishes?
         _______________________________________________________________
         _______________________________________________________________
6. What 3 rules were implemented to prevent abuse of the workers of New
   Spain?

       a. _________________________________________________________
          _________________________________________________________
       b. _________________________________________________________
          _________________________________________________________
       c. _________________________________________________________
          _________________________________________________________

7. The Spanish viewed the Aztecs as _________. Therefore they wanted to
   quickly convert the population to _____________________.

8. Over time, what faith replaced the religions of Meso-America?
   _______________________________________________________________

9. In what ways was the Spanish conversion of the Aztecs similar to the way the
   Canadian government treated the First Nations in the 19th and 20th century?
   _______________________________________________________________
   _______________________________________________________________
   _______________________________________________________________
   _______________________________________________________________
   _______________________________________________________________
   _______________________________________________________________

10. What establishments did the priests implement to serve communities?
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________

11. In what year did Mexico regain its independence from Spain? _____________

12. Who was Father Bartolome de Las Casas?
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________

13. What writing was de Las Casas famous for? ___________________________

14. He was the first person in the Americas to become famous working for
    _______________________________________________________________

15. By the end of the 16th century what percentage of the population died mainly
    from diseases brought to the New World by the Europeans? ______________
16. List 5 adaptations the surviving Aztecs began to adapt to the new society.

       a.   _________________________________________________________
       b.   _________________________________________________________
       c.   _________________________________________________________
       d.   _________________________________________________________
       e.   _________________________________________________________

17. Who were the “Mestizos?”
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________

18. What modern Canadian group would be comparable to the “Mestizos?”
    _______________________________________________________________

19. What reactions do you have to the quotes from Cortés’s letters to the king
    describing the hardships of the conquistadors and the Aztec?
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________

20. What ideas or beliefs are presented in the Aztec poem on page 323? What is
    your reaction?
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________

21. Historians have presented Dona Marina in two very different ways: the
    mother of modern Mexico and the betrayer of Ancient Mexico. Having now
    read the outcome of the conquest, which description do you feel best describes
    her? Explain.
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
    _______________________________________________________________
       22. What insights about the worldview of the Spanish are provided by the laws
           that King Ferdinand enacted in 1512?
           _______________________________________________________________
           _______________________________________________________________
           _______________________________________________________________
           _______________________________________________________________

       23. Did the conquistadors deserve their large land grants and the landholding
           system because of the risks they took on behalf of Spain during the conquest?
           _______________________________________________________________
           _______________________________________________________________
           _______________________________________________________________
           _______________________________________________________________

       24. Explain how Father Bartolome de Las Casas might be called a human rights
           activist.
           _______________________________________________________________
           _______________________________________________________________
           _______________________________________________________________
           _______________________________________________________________
           _______________________________________________________________


Read pg. 328-329

Choose either the Aztec Jaguar Warrior, a Roman Catholic Priest in the New World or
Hernan Cortés and create a movie about the Spanish conquest of the Aztec using the
perspective of the person you chose. You may use www.xtranormal.com or film one by
yourself at home. Include many details, feelings, and accurate perspectives. Plan your
movie below before you start. You have 3 periods to work on this.

Movie Title: _____________________________________________________________
Person chosen: __________________________________________________________

Introduction (scene 1)
      -Preparing to meet the unknown

       -(scene 2) The first meeting

Middle (scene 3)
      -Battles for control




Conclusion (scene 4)
Read pg. 330-331
Classroom discussion on “how to locate authentic primary sources” on the internet.

Read pg. 332-333, 336-337

       1. Define genealogies (pg. 329):
          _______________________________________________________________

       2. Define protectorates:
          _______________________________________________________________

       3. List 3 factors that lead to the downfall of Moctezuma:

              a. _________________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________________
              b. _________________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________________
              c. _________________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________________
                 _________________________________________________________

       4. List the changes that occurred in the Aztec way of lifefollowing their defeat
          by the Spanish. How did these changes reflect the Spanish worldview?
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________

       5. How does the Western view of human rights differ from the worldviews of the
          Aztec and the Spanish in the 1400s and 1500s?
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________
          _______________________________________________________________

				
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