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									Prevention of Illicit Discharge
  Within Manhattan, Kansas

 Ellen Calhoun, Ryan Flickner,
A. Meredith Smythe, Kelsi Steele
   Project Overview
   Project Objectives
   National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
   Illicit Discharge
   Common Illicit Discharges
   Clean-Up Procedure
   Environmental Impact
   Employee Training
   Emergency Procedure
   Haz-Mat
   Conclusions and Recommendations
Project Overview

 Our Service Learning project was to assist
  the City of Manhattan in establishing an illicit
  discharge prevention plan that fulfills a
  minimum control measure established
  through NPDES.
Project Objectives
 Define regulations presented in NPDES

 Develop a plan for the prevention of illicit discharges
  into the stormwater sewer

 Formulate a list of potential contaminants, the actions
  required, and the environmental impact of the

 Formulate a spill prevention and spill clean-up
National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES)

 Established by Federal Water Pollution
  Control Act (FWPCA) Amendments of 1972

 Requires that facilities that release pollutants
  into waters of the US to obtain a permit

 Has 4 goals…
National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES)
                    Goal 1
                      Eliminate the
                       discharge of pollutants
                       into navigable waters
                       of the United States
National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES)
 Goal 2
   Protect fish, shellfish
    and wildlife
National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES)
                    Goal 3
                      Provide safe water for
                       recreational purposes
National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES)
 Goal 4
   Prohibit the release of
    toxic discharges
National Discharge Pollutant
Elimination System (NPDES)
 Permit (EPA definition)
     “a license for a facility to discharge a specified
      amount of a pollutant into a Office of
      Wastewater Management - Water Permitting
      receiving water under certain conditions;
      however, permits may also authorize facilities
      to process, incinerate, landfill, or beneficially
      use sewage sludge.”
National Discharge Pollutant
Elimination System (NPDES)
 Types of Permits
     Individual
          Customized to the specific facility
     General
          Envelop multiple facilities within a specific

Currently Manhattan, Kansas has neither type
 of permit on record with the EPA website
Illicit Discharge
 Any discharge into a storm water drain or
  treatment plant that is not composed entirely
  of storm water

 Exempt items: wetlands, diverted stream
  flows, springs

 Exempt under certain conditions: foundation
  drains, landscape irrigation, individual
  residential care washing, sidewalk washing,
  as well as flows from emergency fire fighting
Common Illicit Discharges
 Our focus: oil, grease, gasoline, paints, yard
  wastes, garbage, household chemicals, and

 Cause for concern: chlorinated pool water,
  cigarette butts, sanitary sewer flows,
  commercial car wash wastewater,
  construction debris, and food wastes
 Clean-Up Procedure

 Yard Waste – Compost

 Garbage
   Paper Litter – Recycle
   Plastic Bottles – Recycle

                                Source: http://www.bidisposal.com/images/YARDWASTE.jpg
Clean-Up Procedure
 Motor Oil, Gasoline,                                          Source:
  Grease, Paint                                                 m/cmc_upload/HDUS/E

      Shut off all possible                                    130232_3.jpg

       ignition sources
      Transfer excess
       pollutant into spill proof
      Remove remaining
       residue use an               http://www.phasmidsincyb
       absorbent such as            iculite.JPG

       earth, sand, or
Clean-Up Procedure
 Acid/Base
     Neutralize an acid with soda ash, sodium
      bicarbonate, or lime
     Neutralize a base with citric acid or dilute
      hydrochloric acid
 Liquid Detergent
     Transfer into another container
     Remove residue with absorbents
     Flush with water
Safety Equipment
                                    Source: http://www.dick-

 Safety Goggles

 Rubber or Nitrile Gloves
 Respirator                                                       tion/images/ya127c.jpg

 Protective Clothing

Environmental Impact
 If any discharge enters the stormwater sewer
  contact the National Emergency Response

 Absorbent pillow can be used to contain the
  pollutant until remediation can occur

 It is important to act quickly to prevent
  substantial damage to the ecosystem.
Employee Training
 Employee training is crucial in pollution prevention

 The EPA recommends at a minimum the following in
  a program
         Maintenance training
         Maintenance schedules
         Long-term inspection training
         Procedure for properly disposing of waste when
          removed from storm sewers
         Ability to transfer knowledge through public education
         Finance planning for enough funding
Employee Training
 Options for training
         Visual: posters,
          bulletin boards

         Verbal: employee
          meetings, courses

         Field training:
Employee Training
 Record process of training programs
 Senior management involvement is vital
Employee Training
 Advantages
     Cost effective
     Easily implement able
     Able to be Duplicate/ can be standardized
 Disadvantages
   Senior management apathy
   Employee lack of motivation
   Lack of Incentives to become involved
   List all illicit disposal incidents that have been
    reported but not yet investigated and place in one of
    the following categories:
    1.   Hazardous, affecting public health and safety
    2.   Hazardous, affecting the environment (receiving
         waters, air, etc…)
    3.   Hazardous, affecting property
    4.   Hazardous, other
    5.   Non-hazardous, affecting public health and safety
    6.   Non-hazardous, affecting the environment (receiving
         waters, air, etc…)
    7.   Non-hazardous, affecting property
    8.   Remaining incidents
 Emergency Procedure

 Contact the Fire
  Department immediately
  with information
      Type/cause of incident
      Types of chemicals
      Resources available on
      Possible injured         Source:
       personnel                s/willabase.jpg

 Hazardous Materials Division
     Within the Kansas State Fire Marshal’s Office
     Supports local first responders by isolating
      hazardous materials
          Accidents and/or Acts of Terrorism
 Kansas Haz-Mat Response Team
   Within the state boundaries, regardless of
    local government jurisdiction
 Regional Response
     Coffeyville        Overland Park
     Colby              Salina
     Emporia            Sedgwick County
     Ford County        Seward County
     Hays               Topeka
     Manhattan          Wellington
     Newton
 Kansas State Fire Marshal’s Office
     Teams can respond to most areas in Kansas
      within an hour or less
     Can haz-mat incidents and accidents as well
      as terrorist events
          Chemical
          Biological
          Radiological
          Nuclear (CBRN)
 To Request a Response Team
     Call the toll-free hotline
          (1-866-KHAZMAT)
     Call the group pager
          (785-357-3261)
     website
          (www.myairmail.com)

            Both hotline and website
           forward to the group pager
 Manhattan has accomplished two out of the six
  minimum control measures.
      Public education and outreach
      Public participation and involvement
 Recommendations to accomplish next minimum
  control measure
      Two or more city workers become trained in hazardous
       materials protocol
      Obtain a MSDS database
      Keep on hand absorbents such as: sand, earth and

 Dr. Alok Bhandari, Team Advisor
 Steve Hampton, Assistant City Engineer

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