Legal Forms for Landlords in Ohio by ner17598

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									Jim Crow and Civil Rights
The African American Experience
Guiding Questions:
 What difference did the rise of Jim
  Crow policies make in the day-to-day
  lives of African Americans at the turn
  of the century?
 How did African Americans respond to
  the racial hostility they experienced in
  the Jim Crow era?
What was Jim Crow?
 The legal and extralegal forms of
  racial segregation
 A system of racial domination
When and where did the Jim Crow
system exist?
 1880s-1900s – codification of the
  separation of blacks and whites
 De jure segregation vs. de factor
 North and South
 C. Vann Woodward, The Strange
  Career of Jim Crow, "segregation
  would have been impractical under
 Discuss this statement
 For additional reading see
 Why race relations worsened in the late
1880s and 1890s is a hotly contested
 it reflected the collapse of the cotton economy, which
  led many whites to search for scapegoats.
 also related to a fear among many southern whites
  that a new generation of African Americans which had
  been born after the Civil War and not been subjected
  to slavery would not defer to white authority.
 a reaction against the increasing economic
  independence of southern blacks. From 1880 to 1900,
  black farm ownership increased from 19.6 to 25.4
  percent, while sharecropping, declined from 54.4. to
  37.9 percent.
   A System of Racial Domination

 Economics
 Politics
 Social
Jim Crow
 Must help students understand that
  Jim Crow was more than a series of
  strict anti-black laws. It was a way of
   List of typical Jim Crow laws
       Barbers. No colored barber shall serve as a barber (to) white
        girls or women (Georgia).
       Blind Wards. The board of trustees shall...maintain a separate
        building...on separate ground for the admission, care,
        instruction, and support of all blind persons of the colored or
        black race (Louisiana).
       Burial. The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be
        buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for
        the burial of white persons (Georgia).

 See “What Was Jim Crow?” by Dr.
  David Pilgrim at
         Jim Crow etiquette
 A black male could not offer his hand (to shake hands) with a
  white male because it implied being socially equal.
   Blacks and whites were not supposed to eat together. If they
   did eat together, whites were to be served first, and some sort
   of partition was to be placed between them.

   Whites did not use courtesy titles of respect when referring to
   blacks, for example, Mr., Mrs., Miss., Sir, or Ma'am. Instead,
   blacks were called by their first names. Blacks had to use
   courtesy titles when referring to whites, and were not allowed
   to call them by their first names.
   If a black person rode in a car driven by a white person, the
   black person sat in the back seat or the back of a truck.
   White motorists had the right-of-way at all intersections.
Race and Place
Social Jim Crowism: Segregated
 Challenges against Segregated Transportation (see
  ―All the Women were White‖)
 Niagara Movement (see next slide)
   The Niagara Movement was organized in 1905 by
      W.E.B. DuBois, William Monroe Trotter, Ida Wells
      Barnett, and other middle-class but militant Black
      intellectuals. It was a repudiation of the conservative
      and stifling leadership of Booker T. Washington and
      the Tuskegee Machine. (see ―The Niagara Movement
      Declaration of Principles‖ at )
   The NAACP was formed in 1909 through the merger
      of two organizations: the Niagara Movement and the
      National Negro Conference.
The black laws / speech of Hon. B.W. Arnett of Greene
County, and Hon. J.A. Brown of Cuyahoga County, in the
Ohio House of Representatives, March 10, 1886.

    Members [of the Ohio House of Representatives] will be astonished
     when I tell them that I have traveled in this free country for
     twenty hours without anything to eat; not because I had no money
     to pay for it, but because I was colored. Other passengers of a
     lighter hue had breakfast, dinner and supper. In traveling we are
     thrown in "jim crow" cars, denied the privilege of buying a berth in
     the sleeping coach. This monster caste stands at the doors of the
     theatres and skating rinks, locks the doors of the pews in our
     fashionable churches, closes the mouths of some of the ministers
     in their pulpits which prevents the man of color from breaking the
     bread of life to his fellowmen.
    This foe of my race stands at the school house door and separates
     the children, by reason of color, and denies to those who have a
     visible admixture of African blood in them the blessings of a
     graded school and equal privileges...We call upon all friends of
     Equal Rights to assist us in this struggle to secure the blessings of
     untrammeled liberty for ourselves and prosperity.
Excerpt of ―The Niagara Movement
Declaration of Principles‖ (1905)
   Protest: We refuse to allow the impression to remain that the
    Negro-American assents to inferiority, is submissive under
    oppression and apologetic before insults. Through helplessness we
    may submit, but the voice of protest of ten million Americans must
    never cease to assail the ears of their fellows, so long as America
    is unjust.
   Color-Line: Any discrimination based simply on race or color is
    barbarous, we care not how hallowed it be by custom, expediency
    or prejudice. Differences made on account of ignorance,
    immorality, or disease are legitimate methods of fighting evil, and
    against them we have no word of protest; but discriminations
    based simply and solely on physical peculiarities, place of birth,
    color of skin, are relics of that unreasoning human savagery of
    which the world is and ought to be thoroughly ashamed.
   "Jim Crow" Cars: We protest against the "Jim Crow" car,
    since its effect is and must be to make us pay first-class
    fare for third-class accommodations, render us open to
    insults and discomfort and to crucify wantonly our
    manhood, womanhood and self-respect.
Economic Jim Crowism
Sharecropping System – the
dominate form of labor relations
 What did black farmers want?
 What did white planters want?
 Cycle of debt
     ―fixing the books‖
     ―settlin‘ time‖
     Debt peonage
     Credit system
     Vagrancy laws
     Convict lease system
     Involuntary servitude
      Sharecropper Contract, 1882

     To every one applying to rent land upon shares, the following conditions must be
     read, and agreed to.
     To every 30 and 35 acres, I agree to furnish the team, plow, and farming
     implements . . . The croppers are to have half of the cotton, corn, and fodder (and peas
     and pumpkins and potatoes if any are planted) if the following conditions are complied
     with, but-if not-they are to have only two-fifths (2/5) . . . All must work under my
     . . . No cropper is to work off the plantation when there is any work to be done on
     the land he has rented, or when his work is needed by me or other croppers.
     . . . Every cropper must feed or have fed, the team he works, Saturday nights,
     Sundays, and every morning before going to work, beginning to feed his team (morning,
     noon, and night every day in the week) on the day he rents and feeding it to including the
     31st day of December. ...for every time he so fails he must pay me five cents.
     The sale of every cropper's part of the cotton to be made by me when and where I
     choose to sell, and after deducting all they owe me and all sums that I may be responsible
     for on their accounts, to pay them their half of the net proceeds. Work of every
     description, particularly the work on fences and ditches, to be done to my satisfaction,
     and must be done over until I am satisfied that it is done as it should be.
     SOURCE: Grimes Family Papers, Southern Historical Collection, University of North
     Carolina, Chapel Hill, in Robert D. Marcus and David Burner, eds., America Firsthand
     (1992), pp. 306—308.
     Continuity or Change?
          Frustrated Sharecroppers
    Robert Curtis Smith (turn of the century) in
         Litwack, Trouble in Mind, p. 134

 If you make a crop and don‘t clear nothin‘ and you
  still wound up won on your sharecrop and on your
  furnish‘ and you try to move, well the police be after
  you then all right. But if you‘re clear well mostly, you
  cant go too far because of the money. If you move, or
  if you try to move, they know if they like the way you
  work they make you pay somethin‘ just for holdin‘ the
  house up. If, after you pay that you want to move,
  well you can‘t go too far because…you gonne need
  money to carry you on to the place where you can get
  work. And if you caint get work at one place you go to
  the next place, but you caint go too far, because you
  aint got enough in hand to go that far.
   Sharecropping in Virginia

How did African Americans respond
to the limits of Southern labor
 Maintain self-sufficiency
 Tenancy
   A tenant owned the crop he produced,
    the sharecropper did not
 Black women‘s labor
 In the rural South, blacks lived in the
  same housing that had been built for
  slaves. What did this housing look
 When did housing improve? How?
 1895-1896, U.S. Department of Agriculture report on
  housing in the Tuskegee region of Alabama:
 Practically all the negroes live in cabins, generally
  built of logs, with only one or at most two rooms. The
  spaces between the logs were either left open,
  admitting free passage of the wind in winter as well as
  in summer, or were chinked with earth or occasionally
  with pieces of board. The roofs were covered with
  coarse shingles or boards and were apt to be far from
  tight. The windows had no sash or glass, but instead,
  wooden blinds, which were kept open in all weather to
  admit the light.
W. E. B. Du Bois (1908)
 As cooking, washing and sleeping go on in the same
  room an accumulation of stale sickly odors are
  manifest to every visitor…A room so largely in use is
  with difficulty to kept clean. ….animals stray into the
  house; there are either no privies or bad ones;
  facilities for bathing even the face and hands are
  poor…The average country home leaks in the roof and
  is poorly protected against changes in the weather. A
  hard storm means the shutting out of all air and light;
  cold weather leads to overheating, draughts, or poor
  ventilation; hot weather breeds diseases….
Georgia farm operator (turn of the
 The original plantation houses of the South,
  I regret to say, were mostly 1-room affairs,
  20 or 25 feet square, and those were
  mostly of logs. The modern house is a
  frame house, boarded and sheathed with 3
  rooms – a general family room, which is
  used only to put the family bed in and then
  a separate bedroom, and a kitchen. The
  general modern tenant house is a 3-room
1901, Georgia commissioner of
 Landlords have been forced to build
  better tenant houses and provide
  them with modern systems that are
  adapted all around, in order to retain
  and keep the best labor. That is really
  the way that a great many of our best
  people succeed in keeping their labor,
  and the better class of labor, by
  making everything around them as
  comfortable as possible.
Sharecropper‘s cabin
The Politics
of Jim Crow
   Disfranchisement and Political
Disfranchisement – 2 Parts
 Disfranchisement I: The Politics and
  Culture of Violence
   Use of violence to suppress black political
 Disfranchisement II: Literacy
  Requirements, property qualifications,
  Poll Taxes, Grandfather Clauses, and
  Understanding Clauses
   Disfanchisment Laws had to be carefully
    crafted to avoid 15th amendment, they
    could not explicitly use race as a barrier to
The Culture of Violence and

   Chain Gangs
    Convict Lease System
Taken from the third chapter of "The Reason why
the colored American is not in the World's
Columbian Exposition," published in 1893
   … the convicts are leased out to work for railway contractors,
    mining companies and those who farm large plantations. These
    companies assume charge of the convicts, work them as cheap
    labor and pay the states a handsome revenue for their labor…
   ..[The] reason our race furnishes so large a share of the convicts is
    that the judges, juries and other officials of the courts are white
    men who share these prejudices. They also make the laws. It is
    wholly in their power to extend clemency to white criminals and
    mete severe punishment to black criminals for the same or lesser
    crimes. The Negro criminals are mostly ignorant, poor and
    friendless. Possessing neither money to employ lawyers nor
    influential friends, they are sentenced in large numbers to long
    terms of imprisonment for petty crimes.
   …Every Negro so sentenced not only means able-bodied men to
    swell the state's number of slaves, but every Negro so convicted is
    thereby disfranchised.
Jackson Weekly Clarion, printed in 1887 the inspection report
of the state prison in Mississippi:

   "We found [in the hospital section] twenty-six inmates, all of whom have
    been lately brought there off the farms and railroads, many of them with
    consumption and other incurable diseases, and all bearing on their persons
    marks of the most inhuman and brutal treatment. Most of them have their
    backs cut in great wales, scars and blisters, some with the skin pealing off
    in pieces as the result of severe beatings.
    Their feet and hands in some instances show signs of frostbite, and all of
    them with the stamp of manhood almost blotted out of their faces.... They
    are lying there dying, some of them on bare boards, so poor and emaciated
    that their bones almost come through their skin, many complaining for the
    want of food.... We actually saw live vermin crawling over their faces, and
    the little bedding and clothing they have is in tatters and stiff with filth.
    As a fair sample of this system, on January 6, 1887, 204 convicts were
    leased to McDonald up to June 6, 1887, and during this six months 20 died,
    and 19 were discharged and escaped and 23 were returned to the walls
    disabled and sick, many of whom have since died."

Why the convict lease system?
 no black crime spree
 Southern governments wanted to control
  the black population.
 The system used by the planter class and
  industrialist to intimidate black
  sharecroppers and provide workers for the
  South‘s growing industry.
 The system reaffirmed white feelings of
  racial superiority
 Helped maintained racial hierarchy of
  southern society.
Other Helpful Websites:
   Especially see sections on ―Jim Crow
    Laws,‖ ―Lynching and Riots,‖ and ―Jim
    Crow Stories.‖ The lesson plans and
    activities are also useful.
 Almost all southern states passed statutes
  restricting suffrage in the years from 1871 to
   But, it was in the 1890s that a formal movement for
     disfranchisement emerged in full force.
   Why the Delay?
       The Fifteenth Amendment
       prohibited states from depriving a citizen of his vote
        due to race, color, or condition of servitude.
    Four main ways disfranchisement was
    Poll Tax , Literacy requirements , Property
     requirements , Residency requirements
Escape clauses
 designed so that poor and illiterate whites
  could still qualify to vote.
 (1) Understanding clause
   Literacy and educational requirements
    2/Vote172.shtml LA Literacy Test
 Grandfather clause
   Could not vote if grandfather could not
    have voted prior to 1867
        African-American Responses
             to Jim Crow Politics
   Booker T. Washington
       The Atlanta Compromise Speech of 1895 (see for document)
   The Washington-DuBois Debate
       ―Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others‖ published within
        The Souls of Black Folk (1903) (see for document)
W.E.B. Du Bois , The Souls of Black
Folk. 1903.Chapter III: Of Mr. Booker T.
Washington and Others
   …it has been claimed that the Negro can survive only through
    submission. Mr. Washington distinctly asks that black people give up,
    at least for the present, three things,—
           First, political power,
           Second, insistence on civil rights,
           Third, higher education of Negro youth,—
    and concentrate all their energies on industrial education, the
    accumulation of wealth, and the conciliation of the South. This policy
    has been courageously and insistently advocated for over fifteen years,
    and has been triumphant for perhaps ten years. As a result of this
    tender of the palm-branch, what has been the return? In these years
    there have occurred:
   The disfranchisement of the Negro.
   The legal creation of a distinct status of civil inferiority for the Negro.
   The steady withdrawal of aid from institutions for the higher training of
    the Negro.
     These movements are not, to be sure, direct results of Mr.
    Washington‘s teachings; but his propaganda has, without a shadow of
    doubt, helped their speedier accomplishment. The question then
    comes: Is it possible, and probable, that nine millions of men can
    make effective progress in economic lines if they are deprived of
    political rights, made a servile caste, and allowed only the most
    meagre chance for developing their exceptional men? If history and
    reason give any distinct answer to these questions, it is an emphatic
Racist Publications and Black
How are African Americans
represented in these photographs?
 Do you see any similarities to
  depicting people as inferior and the
  use of violence against them?
 Negative images used to justify
  discrimination and segregationist
Defending black identity
 Henry M. Turner
 ―A man must believe he is somebody
  before he is acknowledged to be
  somebody…Respect Black.‖ (Litwack,
  Trouble in Mind, p. 462)
Black Progress/Black Resistance
The Quest for an Education
 Discussion starter: Ask students what
  the importance of education is to
  them. How significant is it in their
The Value of an education
 Elderly black woman,‖ deer fesser, please
  accept this 18 cents it is all I have. I save it
  out of my washing this week. God will bless
  you. Send you more next week.‖
 A teacher‘s diary, ―Aunt Hester gave a
  pound of butter and a dime. Grandma
  Williams a chicken. Effie McCoy, a cake and
  five cents; Bessie a dress.‖
 See Richard Wormser, The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow, p.
The value of an education: from
another perspective
 Montgomery Alabama Lawyer, ―It is a
  question of who will do the dirty work…If
  you educate the Negroes they won‘t stay
  where they belong; and you must consider
  them as a race, because if you let a few
  rise it makes the others discontented.‖
 Unknown, ―It tends to make the negro
  unwilling to work where he is wanted and
  desirous of working where he is not
 See Litwack, Trouble in Mind, p. 95
     The Quest for Education
 Why were students afraid?
 One Virginia county man, ―down in my
  neighborhood they are afraid to be caught
  with a book.‖
 Caroline Smith, 1871, Georgia ―They would
  not let us have schools. They (KKK) went to
  a colored man there, whose son had been
  teaching school, and they took evry book
  they had and threw them into the fire; and
  they said they would dare any other
  [negro] to have a book in his house…
                          Booker T.
                          Washington and
                          W. E. B. Du Bois

 Identify significant differences in the early lives of
  Washington and Du Bois. Where was each man born?
  Who was born a slave? Where did they go to school?
  What early experiences played a role in shaping their
  differing philosophies on elevating African-Americans
  in American society?
 Contrast the educational theories of both men. What
  did each man believe should be the purpose of
  education for African Americans?
Booker T. Washington
 Washington was "born a slave on a plantation in
  Franklin County, Virginia..." (Up From Slavery) in
  1856. After emancipation, he and his family moved to
  Malden, West Virginia. The nearby Kanawha Sapines
  salt furnaces provided wage work for many freed
  slaves in West Virginia, including members of
  Washington's family. A prominent white family, the
  Ruffners, hired the young Washington as a domestic.
  Washington later said the lessons he learned from
  them were "... as valuable to me as any education I
  have gotten anywhere since."
 see
from "Nineteenth Annual Report of the Principal of the
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute" by Booker T.

 The chief value of industrial education is to give to the
  students habits of industry, thrift, economy and an
  idea of the dignity of labor. But in addition to this, in
  the present economic condition of the colored people,
  it is most important that a very large proportion of
  those trained in such institutions as this, actually
  spend their time at industrial occupations. Let us
  value the work of Tuskegee by this test...Our students
  actually cultivate every day, seven hundred acres of
  land, while studying agriculture. The students
  studying dairying, actually milk and care for seventy-
  five milch cows daily...and so I could go on and give
  not theory, nor hearsay, but actual facts, gleaned
  from all the departments of the school.
from "The Primary Needs of the Negro Race" by Kelly

 The first great need of the Negro is that the choice
  youth of the race should assimilate the principles of
  culture and hand them down to the masses below.
  This is the only gateway through which a new people
  may enter into modern civilization...The Roman youth
  of ambition completed their education in Athens; the
  noblemen of northern Europe sent their sons to the
  southern peninsulas in quest of larger learning...The
  graduates of Hampton and other institutions of like
  aim are forming centers of civilizing influence in all
  parts of the land, and we confidently believe that
  these grains of leaven will ultimately leaven the whole
W. E. Burghart Du Bois, "The Talented Tenth,"
September 1903

   The Negro race, like all races, is going to be saved by its
    exceptional men. The problem of education, then, among Negroes
    must first of all deal with the Talented Tenth; it is the problem of
    developing the Best of this race that they may guide the Mass
    away from the contamination and death of the Worst, in their own
    and other races. …..
   How then shall the leaders of a struggling people be trained and
    the hands of the risen few strengthened? There can be but one
    answer: The best and most capable of their youth must be
    schooled in the colleges and universities of the land. We will not
    quarrel as to just what the university of the Negro should teach or
    how it should teach it — I willingly admit that each soul and each
    race-soul needs its own peculiar curriculum. But this is true: A
    university is a human invention for the transmission of knowledge
    and culture from generation to generation, through the training of
    quick minds and pure hearts, and for this work no other human
    invention will suffice, not even trade and industrial schools.
The Niagara Movement and the
 Niagara Movement – 1905
 NAACP – 1909
   Heirs to the 19th century abolitionist movement
 NAACP mission ―to ensure that African
  Americans be physically free from peonge,
  mentally free from ignorance, politically
  free from disfranchisement, and socially
  free from insult.‖
 Booker T. Washington declined to join, so
  did Ida B. Wells
Discussion Question
 Do you think that you could have lived as a
  black person in the Jim Crow South?
 How would you have coped?
 What would you have done to survive?
  What would have been the most difficult
  thing for you as a young black person to
  have accepted or coped with in Virginia at
  the peak of Jim Crow?
 Answer the same questions from the
  perspective of a young white person.
Going North – The Great Migration
 Two phases
 Phase 1 – 1900-1915
 Phase 2 – WWI to 1930
The Chicago
 April 7, 1917
 Albert Alex Smith,
  "They Have Ears But
  They Hear Not," The
  Crisis, XXI
  (November, 1920),
  p. 17.
Great Migration
 One Way Ticket          I pick up my life
  (Langston Hughes)
                           And take it on the
 I pick up my life,       train,
  And take it with me,     To Los Angeles,
  And I put it down in     Bakersfield,
  Chicago, Detroit,
  Buffalo, Scranton,       Seattle, Oakland,
  Any place that is        Salt Lake
  North and East,          Any place that is
  And not Dixie.
                           North and West,
                           And not South.



For Images and Maps about
Migration North see
 Great Migration lesson plan --
Migration Series by Jacob Lawrence
"Interview of Jacob Lawrence"
from African American Frontiers: Slave Narratives and Oral Histories
Alan Govenar
ABC-CLIO (Santa Barbara, 2000) @

    My family was a part of the migration. That is, my mother, my sister,
  and my brother. My father and my mother were separated. I was born
   in Atlantic City, New Jersey. They were moving up the coast, as many
  families were during that migration. And I was part of that. We moved
         up to various cities until we arrived—the last two cities I can
  remember before moving to New York were Easton, Pennsylvania, and
     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. And then we finally settled in New York
      City. So that was my upbringing. My young years were spent just
        doing that: traveling as part of the migration, and that was it.
  I was aware of people moving, older people like my mother's peers—I
  would hear them talk about how another family has arrived. And these
   were the people who would mention the fact that they had been here
     a few years and they were seeing the new migrants coming in and
    settling or moving on. And I didn't realize what it was at the time, of
      course; it's only in later years that I realized what was going on.
The Music of the Great Migration
 Harlem Music lesson Plan--
 Harlem childrens games lesson plan -
“Times Is Gettin Harder”: Blues of the
Great Migration

Times is gettin' harder,             Soon as I gather my cotton and
Money‘s gettin' scarce.                  corn,
Soon as I gather my cotton and       I‘m bound to leave this place.
    corn,                            Me and my brother was out.
I‘m bound to leave this place.       Thought we‘d have some fun.
White folks sittin' in the parlor,   He stole three chickens.
Eatin' that cake and cream,          We began to run.
Nigger‘s way down to the kitchen,    Times is gettin' harder,
Squabblin' over turnip greens.       Money‘s gettin' scarce.
Times is gettin' harder,             Soon as I gather my cotton and
Money‘s gettin' scarce.                  corn
                                     I‘m bound to leave this place.

(find at Historymatters.gmu– see also:"Sir I Will Thank You with
 All My Heart": seven Letters from the Great Migration
 What life was like for African
  Americans in the Jim Crow North in
  the early the 20th century?

Chicago, Illinois, July 1941 LOC
Prints and Photographs Division
Chicago Housing

      Chicago, Illinois, July 1941 LOC
      Prints and Photographs Division
Torched school in New Jersey
from Scott Nearing, Black America (New York: The Vanguard
Press, 1929)
The New Negro
African American Responses:
Organized Protest
 National Urban League --1910 in New
  York City
 Churches
 Universal Negro Improvement
  Association -- 1914
African American Responses:
   Complex factor: WWI
       W.E. B. Dubois ―Returning Soldiers‖ May 1919
       ―We are returning from war! The Crisis and tens of thousands
        of black men were drafted into a great struggle. For bleeding
        France and what she means and has meant and will mean to
        us and humanity and against the threat of German race
        arrogance, we fought gladly and to the last drop of blood; for
        America and her highest ideals, we fought in far-off hope; for
        the dominant southern oligarchy entrenched in Washington,
        we fought in bitter resignation. For the America that
        represents and gloats in lynching, disfranchisement, caste,
        brutality and devilish insult—for this, in the hateful upturning
        and mixing of things, we were forced by vindictive fate to
        fight also.
       But today we return! We return from the slavery of uniform
        which the world's madness demanded us to don to the
        freedom of civil garb. We stand again to look America
        squarely in the face and call a spade a spade. We sing: This
        country of ours, despite all its better souls have done and
        dreamed, is yet a shameful land.‖
     Red Summer
     ―If We Must Die‖ (1919) Claude McKay

   If we must die, let it not be like hogs
    Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot,
    While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,
    Making their mock at our accursed lot.
    If we must die, O let us nobly die,
    So that our precious blood may not be shed
    In vain; then even the monsters we defy
    Shall be constrained to honor us though dead!
    O kinsmen we must meet the common foe!
    Though far outnumbered let us show us brave,
    And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow!
    What though before us lies the open grave?
    Like men we'll face the murderous, cowardly pack,
    Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!
The Harlem Renaissance and the
―New Negro‖
 paintings by Jacob Lawrence and
  Aaron Douglas
 sculptures by Augusta Savage
 picture quilts by Faith Ringgold
 Poetry by Langston Hughes
 Lesson plan --
More websites
 Portrait of Place, Portrait of a Family
Between the Wars
 ―Direct Action during the Depression
  contrasted sharply both quantitatively and
  qualitatively with the history of such tactics
  during the entire preceding century‖ A.
  Meier and E. Rudwick
   Increase in Black Political Awareness
     Newspaper circulation doubled
     NAACP membership increased
   Increased militancy
     Marcus Garvey – UNIA
      ―Don‘t Buy Where You Can‘t Work‖ (1929-1941)
      Harlem Riot- 1935
The Fight for Civil Rights: Toward a
Social Movement (pre-Brown)

 Focus: The early twentieth-century civil rights
  efforts of African American – with particular
  attention on individual acts and local
  organization such as church groups, and
  national organizations (i.e. NAACP , NUL and
 Goal: Help students understand that long
  before the African American struggle for rights
  became a mass movement, local resistance in
  black communities took many forms.
Rising Black Militancy
 Langston Hughes (1931) ―Tired‖
    I am so tired of waiting,
    Aren‘t you
    For the world to become good
    And beautiful and kind?
    Let us take a knife
    And cut the world in two—
    And see what worms are eating
    At the rind.
World War II and the Rise of
African-American Protest Politics
  A. Philip Randolph and the March on Washington
  B. The president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
     Porters, a primarily black union, was A. Philip
     Randolph (1889-1979).
 March 1941, Randolph proposed a new civil
  rights strategy: a massive march on
  Washington D. C.
 Three demands:
     The immediate end to segregation and discrimination in
      federal government hiring.
     An end to segregation of the armed forces.
     Government support for an end to discrimination and
      segregation in all American employment.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
 Est. 1942 on the University of Chicago campus.
 The creation of CORE marked the beginning of
  a mass movement for civil rights.
   Interracial founders committed to Gandian
     techniques of ―nonviolent direct action‖
   Their tactics provided an important example
     for later civil rights activists.
   strikes, demonstrations, boycotts
      ―Don‘t Buy Where You Can‘t Work‖ (1929-1941)
      Sit-ins by Howard Univ. students (1943-1944
Jackie Robinson: Civil Rights
 The first black man to "officially" play
  in the big leagues,
   First game with Dodgers in 1947
Barbara Johns and Beyond: Rising
Expectations, 1951-1959

1.   Barbara Johns, April 23, 1951
2.   Brown v. Board of Education, May 1954
3.   Montgomery Bus Boycott, December 1955
4.   Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas,
     September 1957

Key Point: ―Students took the initiative in seeking to
   transform legal rights into tangible racial advances.‖
The Brown Decision
 Immediate Reaction to the Decision:
  Comparing Media Coverage
      Compare and contrast different regions‘ newspaper
      How did Virginia newspapers report the decision?
 Get Local
      Were Loudoun County schools segregated?
      Was segregation de jure (by law) or de facto (in fact)?
       Make sure the students understand that even if schools
       were not legally segregated (de jure), they could have
       been segregated in fact (de facto) because people of color
       were excluded from moving into certain neighborhoods and
       communities, and the segregated communities created
       segregated schools.
      How and when did the schools become integrated?
African Americans in Montgomery
Protest Segregation Transportation
 Half a century before the 1955-1956
  Montgomery Bus Boycott African Americans
  in the city had conducted a two-year
  boycott when the city council enacted a
  trolley-car segregation bill. ―Like the bus
  boycott of 1955-1956, the Montgomery
  streetcar boycott of 1900-1902 was part of
  a larger regional black protest against Jim
  Crow urban transit.‖
       (August Meier and Elliott Rudwick, ―The Boycott Movement Against Jim Crow
        Streetcars in the South, 1900-1906,‖ Journal of American History, 55, 4
        (March 1969), 756. (pdf)
   Slide from presentation by Elsa Brown, 2002
Known Streetcar Boycotts
   Atlanta, 1892-1893                   Houston, 1903-1905
   Augusta, 1898                        Vicksburg and Natchez,
   Savannah, 1899                        1904
   Atlanta and Rome, 1900               San Antonio, 1904-1905
   Augusta, 1900-1903                   Richmond, 1904-1905
   Jacksonville, 1901                   Memphis, Chattanooga, and
   Montgomery, 1900-1902                 Knoxville, 1905
   Mobile, 1902                         Jacksonville and Pensacola,
   New Orleans and                       1905
    Shreveport, 1902-1903
   Little Rock, 1903                    Nashville, 1905-1906
   Columbia, 1903                       Danville, Lynchburg,
                                          Petersburg, and Norfolk,
   Slide from presentation by Elsa
    Brown, 2002                          Newport News, 1906-1907
                                         Savannah, 1906-1907
Who are these Women?
 March 2, 1955   December
  1, 1955
Montgomery Bus Boycott
  Mary Louis Smith, Claudette Colvin – Who were
    Montgomery Bus Boycott—Organizing
     Strategies and Challenges Activity at
  Jo Ann Robinson – Who was she?
    Women's Political Council (WPC) of
     Montgomery, Alabama
    May 21, 1954 letter to Mayor
Slide from

              Slide from presentation
              by Elsa Brown, 2002
Flyer announcing boycott

                    Slide from
                    by Elsa Brown, 2002
Teaching the Bus Boycott
 Toni Morrisson‘s Remember
   Teaching With Documents:
    An Act of Courage, The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks
Student Activism and the Emergence of a
Mass Movement, 1960-1965

 Focus: College students developed new
  strategies and revitalized old ones that help
  to escalate the civil rights struggle and
  broaden its base. Their tactics included sit-
  ins, freedom rides, jail-ins, boycotts, voter
  registration drives, and marches.

 Goal: To help students understand how/why
  the involvement of college students brought
  transformed the movement.
Freedom Songs of the Civil Rights
Sweet Chariot: The Story of the Spirituals


Eyes on the Prize Lesson

Smithsonian Folkways Recordings

Search for “Sing For Freedom: The Story of the Civil Rights Movement Through Its Songs”
     and “Voices of the Civil Rights Movement: Black American Freedom Songs 1960-1966.”
     There are audio clips for both CDs available online.

   Paul and Silas bound in jail      Hold on, hold on
    Had no money for to go their       Keep your eyes on the prize,
    bail                               hold on
    Keep your eyes on the prize,
    hold on                            Soozie!
    Paul and Silas thought they        Only chain that a man can
    was lost                           stand
    Dungeon shook and the chains       Is that chain o' hand on hand
    come off                           Keep your eyes on the prize,
    Keep your eyes on the prize,       hold on
    hold on
                                       I'm gonna board that big
    Freedom's name is mighty           greyhound
    sweet                              Carry the love from town to
    And soon we're gonna meet          town
    Keep your eyes on the prize,       Keep your eyes on the prize,
    hold on                            hold on
    I got my hand on the gospel        Hold on, hold on
    plow                               Keep your eyes on the prize,
    Won't take nothing for my          hold on
    journey now
    Keep your eyes on the prize,
    hold on

 Greensboro Lunch Counter Sit-in (1960)
 ―Bigger Than a Hamburger‖ and ―A Conference on the
  Sit-ins‖ [see handout]
 Consider the following statement by journalist Louis
  Lomax, "They [the sit-ins] were proof that the Negro
  leadership class, epitomized by the NAACP, was no
  longer the prime mover in the Negro's social revolt.
  The demonstrations have shifted the desegregation
  battles from the courtroom to the marketplace.―
 See ―Greensboro Sit-ins: Launch of a Civil Rights
  Movement‖ at
  Site contains photographs, documents, and audio
  clips from Greensboro participants and civil rights
Ella J. Baker (June, 1960)
“Bigger than a Hamburger”
   The Student Leadership          By and large, this feeling
    Conference made it crystal       that they have a
    clear that current sit-ins
    and other demonstrations         destined date with
    are concerned with               freedom, was not limited
    something much bigger            to a drive for personal
    than a hamburger or even a       freedom, or even
    giant-sized Coke.
   Whatever may be the
                                     freedom for the Negro in
    difference in approach to        the South. Repeatedly it
    their goal, the Negro and        was emphasized that the
    white students, North and        movement was
    South, are seeking to rid        concerned with the moral
    America of the scourge of
    racial segregation and           implications of racial
    discrimination - not only at     discrimination for the
    lunch counters, but in every     "whole world" and the
    aspect of life….                 "Human Race."
Ella Baker
 Ella Baker
     1940s (NAACP);1950s (SCLC); 1960s (SNCC)
     ―Baker left the SCLC after the Greensboro sit-
      ins. She wanted to help the new student
      activists and organized a meeting at Shaw
      University for the student leaders of the sit-ins
      in April 1960. From that meeting SNCC was
       Different leadership style than MLK
       Baker believed in ―group centered leadership‖
        vs ―leadership-centered group‖
A Movement in Transition:
 SNCC went through three stages.
 First: 1960 to 1963 (Sit-ins and Freedom Rides)
 Second: 1963 to 1964 (Freedom Summer) A time of
  transition which sparked a reconsideration of
 Nearly 1,000 volunteers worked in Mississippi that
  summer. During those months, 6 people, were killed,
  80 beaten, 35 churches burned, and 30 other
  buildings bombed.
 Third: 1965 to 1967. A trip to Africa by several SNCC
  leaders, discussions with and about Malcolm X, and
  growing alienation between blacks and whites inside
  SNCC was capped by the Watts riot in August, 1965.
  The following June, "Black Power" became SNCC's
  battle cry in a march led by James Meredith in
Freedom Rides
Define: The Freedom Riders left Washington DC on May
   4, 1961. They were scheduled to arrive in New
   Orleans on May 17, the seventh anniversary of the
   Brown decision. The Freedom Riders never made it to
   New Orleans.
Outcome: led to the end of segregation in interstate bus
   travel in a ruling, -- took effect in September 1961.
African American Odyssey-Library of Congress
especially the ―Civil Rights Era‖ section.

 ―Project C‖ ('Confrontation Birmingham' )
      New campaign in Birmingham.
      Goal: to activate the black community and to force complete
      desegregation of all the city's facilities.
 ――Letter from Birmingham City Jail‖
      Written in response to a letter in the local paper, the Birmingham
      News by eight white Alabama clergymen. The clergymen stated
      that the demonstrations by "impatient" "outsiders" was "unwise
      and untimely". They thought that the civil rights movement should
      wait and give Birmingham citizens a chance to reform their city on
      their own.

     MLK ―Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging
     darts of segregation to say, ―Wait.‖ …comes a time when the cup
     of endurance runs over, and men are no longer willing to be
     plunged into the abyss of despair. I hope sirs, you can understand
     our legitimate and unavoidable impatience

 For more information about the letter, listen to the following NPR radio

                                                And I walked the streets of
   They said, "Wait." Well, I waited.           Montgomery
    For a hundred years I waited                 Until a link in the chain of patient
    In cotton fields, kitchens, balconies,       acquiescence broke.
    In bread lines, at back doors, on           Then again: Sit down!
    chain gangs,                                 And I sat down at the counters of
    In stinking "colored" toilets                Greensboro.
    And crowded ghettos,                         Ride! And I rode the bus for
    Outside of schools and voting                freedom.
    booths.                                      Kneel! And I went down on my
    And some said, "Later."                      knees in prayer and faith.
    And some said, "Never!" Then a               March! And I'll march until the last
    new wind blew, and a new voice               chain falls
    Rode its wings with quiet urgency,           Singing, "We shall overcome."
    Strong, determined, sure.
                                                Not all the dogs and hoses in
   "No," it said. "Not 'never,' not             Birmingham
    'later."                                     Nor all the clubs and guns in Selma
    Not even 'soon.'                             Can turn this tide.
    Now.                                         Not all the jails can hold these
    Walk!"                                       young black faces
   And other voices echoed the                  From their destiny of manhood,
    freedom words,                               Of equality, of dignity,
    "Walk together, children, don't get          Of the American Dream
    weary,"                                      A hundred years past due.
    Whispered them, sang them,                   Now!
    prayed them, shouted them.
Birmingham: cont…

On Sept. 15, 1963, the all-Black Sixteenth
  Street Baptist Church was bombed. Sunday
  school was in session.
 See
   ―Ballad of Birmingham‖
 Websites:
    Includes Lesson Plan
Ballad of Birmingham
   "Mother dear, may I go                   She has combed and brushed her
    downtown                                  night-dark hair,
    Instead of out to play,                   And bathed rose petal sweet,
     And march the streets of                 And drawn white gloves on her
    Birmingham                                small brown hands,
    In a Freedom March today?"                And white shoes on her feet.
   "No, baby, no, you may not go,           The mother smiled to know that her
    For the dogs are fierce and wild,         child
    And clubs and hoses, guns and jails       Was in the sacred place,
    Aren't good for a little child."          But that smile was the last smile
   "But, mother, I won't be alone.           To come upon her face.
    Other children will go with me,          For when she heard the explosion,
    And march the streets of                  Her eyes grew wet and wild.
    Birmingham                                She raced through the streets of
    To make our country free."                Birmingham
   "No, baby, no, you may not                Calling for her child.
    go,                                      She clawed through bits of glass
    For I fear those guns will fire.          and brick,
                                              Then lifted out a shoe.
   But you may go to church instead          "O, here's the shoe my baby wore,
    And sing in the children's choir."        But, baby, where are you?"
The Militant Years, 1966-68
 Focus: The changing face of the civil
  rights movement.
 Goal: Help students understand why
  the expectations created by the civil
  rights movement met with frustration
  in the mid-1960s and how their
  disappointment and frustration
  aroused a new urgency among black
  civil rights activist.
 Have students identify the ways in which
  Martin Luther King, Jr. is portrayed in the mass
  media, and specifically, which of his ideas are
  communicated to the public.
 Have students read and discuss a range of
  King‘s ideas almost completely unknown to
  most of the public today.
 Homework: Read excerpts of King‘s speeches
  and writings. Identify lines that stand out as
  interesting, deep, meaningful, moving or
   Martin Luther King, Jr., kept getting up morning after morning,
    knowing they [the FBI and other government agencies] were after him,
    knowing they were possessed of this zealous intensity that was illegal
    and immoral! And so he was a danger to America. Why? Because he
    loved democracy so much he wanted to see it become real. He wanted
    to march democracy from parchment to pavement. He wanted to see
    it become a reality in this nation. That‘s why he had a dream.
   But America has frozen him. Now they freeze King in this posture of
    dreaming before the sunlit summit of expectation at the height of his
    national fame in Washington, D.C., where he said, ―I have a
    dream.‖ He said more than that. We ought to have a moratorium on
    that speech for the next ten years. I don‘t want to hear it no
    more! And if you‘re gonna play the speech, play the other parts of the
    speech: ―We have come to the nation‘s capital to cash a check marked
    ‗insufficient funds.‘ ‖ [In other words,] ―Where‘s my money?!‖ That‘s
    the part we ought to play. Right? We ought to play the part where
    King says, ―The foundations of this nation will continue to shake.‖ He
    said, ―The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of
    this nation until the Negro is granted his full citizenship rights.‖ Play
    that part, too!

 Letter from Birmingham Jail, April 16, 1963:
  The purpose of our direct-action program is to create
  a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open
  the door to negotiation…
  …My friends, I must say to you that we have not
  made a single gain in civil rights without determined
  legal and nonviolent pressure. Lamentably, it is an
  historical fact that privileged groups seldom give up
  their privileges voluntarily…We know through painful
  experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by
  the oppressor; it must be demanded by the
 Speech to the March on Washington
  for Jobs and Justice, August 28,
  …There will be neither rest nor
  tranquility in America until the
  colored citizen is granted his
  citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of
  revolt will continue to shake the
  foundations of our nation until the
  bright day of justice emerges.
MLK on Poverty
 Speech to Teamsters and Allied Trade Councils, New
  York City, May 2, 1967:
  Today Negroes want above all else to abolish poverty
  in their lives, and in the lives of the white poor. This is
  the heart of their program. To end humiliation was a
  start, but to end poverty is a bigger task. It is natural
  for Negroes to turn to the Labor movement because it
  was the first and pioneer anti-poverty program…
  ... I am now convinced that the simplest approach will
  prove to be the most revolutionary. The solution to
  poverty is to abolish it directly by a now widely
  discussed measure: the guaranteed annual income.
  We are likely to find that the problems of housing and
  education, instead of preceding the elimination of
  poverty, will themselves be affected if poverty is first

 From Inconvenient Hero (1997), by Vincent Harding:
  He was planning to bring the poor of every color, to
  stand and sit with the poor where they could not be
 MLK said, ―We‘ve got to camp in – put our tents in
  front of the White House… We‘ve got to make it
  known that until our problem is solved, America may
  have many, many days, but they will be full of
  trouble. There will be no rest, there will be no
  tranquility in this country until the nation comes to
  terms with our problem.‖

   "Beyond Vietnam," Address,” Riverside Church, New York,
    April 4, 1967:
    … I am convinced that if we are to get on the right side of
    the world revolution, we as a nation must undergo a radical
    revolution of values. We must rapidly begin the shift from a
    thing-oriented society to a person-oriented society. …
   …A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the
    glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. …
   A true revolution of values will lay hands on the world order
    and say of war: "This way of settling differences is not
    just." …
   Our only hope today lies in our ability to recapture the
    revolutionary spirit and go out into a sometimes hostile
    world declaring eternal hostility to poverty, racism, and
 For more on MLK see
Lessons Learned: The Walk Away
 1. African Americans have suffered
  great challenges to realizing full
  freedom and equality.
 2. They have a long history of
  resisting oppression and racism
 3. Individuals can make a
  difference/students can make a
Please note this presentation is for
workshop purposes only.
Please address all source inquiries to the
presenter: Wendi N. Manuel-Scott

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